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AMPRENAVIR For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.



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Amprenavir skeletal.svg


KVX-478, 141W94, VX-478,


(3S)-Tetrahydro-3-furanyl ((1S,2R)-3-(((4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl)(2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl)carbamate

(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulphonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl] carbamate

CAS NO. 161814-49-9, [(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate

Weight 505.224656557
Chemical Formula C25H35N3O6S
Amprenavir is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection.

Amprenavir (Agenerase, GlaxoSmithKline) is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration on April 15, 1999, for twice-a-day dosing instead of needing to be taken every eight hours. The convenient dosing came at a price, as the dose required is 1,200 mg, delivered in eight very large gel capsules.

Production of amprenavir was discontinued by the manufacturer December 31, 2004; a prodrug version (fosamprenavir) is available.

Amprenavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Amprenavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs.

HIV-1 Protease dimer with Amprenavir (sticks) bound in the active site. PDB entry 3nu3 [1]


Research aimed at development of renin inhibitors as potential antihypertensive agents had led to the discovery of compounds that blocked the action of this peptide cleaving enzyme. The amino acid sequence cleaved by renin was found to be fortuitously the same as that required to produce the HIV peptide coat. Structure–activity studies on renin inhibitors proved to be of great value for developing HIV protease inhibitors. Incorporation of an amino alcohol moiety proved crucial to inhibitory activity for many of these agents. This unit is closely related to the one found in the statine, an unusual amino acid that forms part of the pepstatin, a fermentation product that inhibits protease enzymes.



R.D. Tung, M.A. Murcko, G.R. Bhisetti, U.S. Patent 5,558,397 (1996). The scheme shown here is partly based on that used to prepare darunavir and fosamprenavir due to difficulty in deciphering the patent.

AGENERASE (amprenavir) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease. The chemical name of amprenavir is (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulfonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamate. Amprenavir is a single stereoisomer with the (3S)(1S,2R) configuration. It has a molecular formula of C25H35N3O6S and a molecular weight of 505.64. It has the following structural formula:

AGENERASE® (amprenavir)  Structural Formula Illustration

Amprenavir is a white to cream-colored solid with a solubility of approximately 0.04 mg/mL in water at 25°C.

AGENERASE Capsules (amprenavir capsules) are available for oral administration. Each 50- mg capsule contains the inactive ingredients d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) 246.7 mg, and propylene glycol 19 mg. The capsule shell contains the inactive ingredients d-sorbitol and sorbitans solution, gelatin, glycerin, and titanium dioxide. The soft gelatin capsules are printed with edible red ink. Each 50- mg AGENERASE Capsule contains 36.3 IU vitamin E in the form of TPGS. The total amount of vitamin E in the recommended daily adult dose of AGENERASE is 1,744 IU.



Org. Biomol. Chem., 2004,2, 2061-2070

DOI: 10.1039/B404071F!divAbstract

Efficient and industrially applicable synthetic processes for precursors of HIV protease inhibitors (Amprenavir, Fosamprenavir) are described. These involve a novel and economical method for the preparation of a key intermediate, (3S)-hydroxytetrahydrofuran, from L-malic acid. Three new approaches to the assembly of Amprenavir are also discussed. Of these, a synthetic route in which an (S)-tetrahydrofuranyloxy carbonyl is attached to L-phenylalanine appears to be the most promising manufacturing process, in that it offers satisfactory stereoselectivity in fewer steps.

Graphical abstract: New approaches to the industrial synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors

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The reaction of N,N-dibenzyl-L-alaninal (I) with nitromethane, catalyzed by the chiral ammonium salt (II) and KF in THF gives the chiral nitroalcohol (III), which is reduced with NiCl2 and NaBH4 to yield the aminoalcohol (IV). The condensation of (IV) with isobutyraldehyde (V) affords the Schiff base (VI), which is reduced with NaBH4 to provide the secondary amine (VII). The reaction of (VII) with 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (VIII) and TEA in dichloromethane furnishes the sulfonamide (IX), which is deprotected by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in methanol, giving the diamino compound (X). Finally, this compound is condensed with 3(S)-tetrahydrofuryl (N-oxysuccinimidyl) carbonate (XI) by means of TEA in dichloromethane to afford the target carbamate.

Angew Chem. Int Ed Engl1999,38,(13-14):1931


The reaction of the chiral epoxide (I) with isobutylamine (II) in refluxing ethanol gives the secondary amine (III), which is protected with benzyl chloroformate (IV) and TEA, yielding the dicarbamate (V). Selective deprotection of (V) with dry HCl in ethyl acetate affords the primary amine (VI), which is treated with 3(S)-tetrahydrofuryl N-succinimidinyl carbonate (VII) (prepared by condensation of tetrahydrofuran-3(S)-ol (VIII) with phosgene and N-hydroxysuccinimide (IX)) and DIEA in acetonitrile to provide the corresponding carbamate (X). The deprotection of (X) by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in ethanol gives the secondary amine (XI), which is condensed with 4-nitrophenylsulfonyl chloride (XII) by means of NaHCO3 in dichloromethane/water to yield the sulfonamide (XIII). Finally, the nitro group of (XIII) is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in ethyl acetate to afford the target compound.

EP 0659181; EP 0885887; JP 1996501299; US 5585397; WO 9405639
Patent of (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulphonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamate, hereinafter referred to as the compound of formula (I), and to novel intermediates thereto.The compound of formula (I) has the following structure

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00001

and was first described in PCT patent publication number WO94/05639 at Example 168. Currently there is considerable interest in the compound of formula (I) as a new chemotherapeutic compound in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the associated conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS dementia.

There exists at the present time a need to produce large quantities of the compound of formula (I) for clinical investigation into the efficacy and safety of the compound as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of HIV infections.

An ideal route for the synthesis of the compound should produce the compound of formula (I) in high yields at a reasonable speed and at low cost with minimum waste materials and in a manner that is of minimum impact to the environment in terms of disposing of waste-materials and energy consumption.

We have found a new process for the synthesis of the compound of formula (I) with many advantages over previously known routes of synthesis. Such advantages include lower cost, less waste and more efficient use of materials. The new process enables advantageous preparation of the compound of formula (I) on a manufacturing scale.

The route of synthesis of the compound of formula (I) described in the specification of WO94/05639 is specifically described therein in examples 39A, 51A, 51B, 51C, 51D, 167 and 168. The overall yield from these examples is 33.2% of theory.

Generally the route described in WO94/05639 involves protecting the amino alcohol of formula (A) (Ex.39)

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00002

wherein P is a protecting group to form a compound of formula (B);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00003

wherein P and P′ are each independently a protecting group;

deprotecting the compound of formula (B) to form a compound of formula (C) (Ex 51A);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00004

wherein P′ is a protecting group;

forming a hydrochloride salt of compound (C) (Ex 51B) then reacting with N-imidazolyl-(S)-tetrahydrofuryl carbamate to form the compound of formula (D) (Ex 51C);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00005

wherein P′ is a protecting group;

deprotecting the compound of formula (D) (Ex 51D) wherein P′ is a protecting group to form the compound of formula (D) wherein P′ is H (Ex 51E); and coupling the resultant secondary amine on the compound of formula (D) to a p-nitrophenylsulphonyl group to form a compound of formula (E) (Ex 167);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00006

the resultant compound of formula (E) is then reduced to form the compound of formula (I) (Ex 168).

In summary, the process disclosed in WO94/05639 for producing the compound of formula (I) from the compound of formula (A) comprises 6 distinct stages:

1) protecting,

2) deprotecting,

3) reacting the resultant compound with an activated tetrahydrofuranol group,

4) deprotecting,

5) coupling with a p-nitrophenylsulfonyl group, and

6) reducing the resultant compound to form a compound of formula (I).

Applicants have now found a process by which the compound of formula (I) may be prepared on a manufacturing scale from the same starting intermediate, the compound of formula (A), in only 4 distinct stages instead of 6. In addition to the associated benefits of fewer stages, such as savings in time and cost, the improved process reduces the number of waste products formed. Furthermore, product may be obtained in a higher yield, of approximately 50% of theory

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00009.


(1S,2R)-tert-butyl N-[1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(isobutylamino)propyl]carbamate (127.77 g, 379.7 mmol) was heated in toluene (888 ml) to 80° C. and triethylamine (42.6 g, 417.8 mmol) added. The mixture was heated to 90° C. and a solution of p-nitrobenzene sulphonyl chloride (94.3 g, 425.4 mmol) in toluene (250 ml) was added over 30 minutes then stirred for a further 2 hours. The resultant solution of the nosylated intermediate {(1S,2R)-tert-butyl N-[1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(N-isobutyl- 4-nitrobenzenesulphonamido)propyl]carbamate } was then cooled to 80° C. The solution was maintained at approximately 80° C., and concentrated hydrochloric acid (31.4 ml, 376.8 mmol) was added over 20 minutes. The mixture was heated to reflux (approx 86° C.) and maintained at this temperature for an hour then a further quantity of concentrated hydrochloric acid (26.4 ml, 316.8 mmol) was added. Solvent (water and toluene mixture) was removed from the reaction mixture by azeotropic distillation (total volume of solvent removed approx 600 ml), and the resultant suspension was cooled to 70-75° C. Denatured ethanol (600 ml) was added, and the solution was cooled to 20° C. The mixture was further cooled to approximately −10° C. and the precipitate formed was isolated by filtration, washed with denatured ethanol (50 ml) and dried at approximately 50° C., under vacuum, for approximately 12 hours, to give (2R,3S)-N-(3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyl)-N-isobutyl-4-nitrobenzene sulphonamide hydrochloride (160 g; 73% of theory yield corrected for assay). NMR: 1H NMR (300Mhz, dmso-d6): 8.37(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 8.16(NH3 +s), 8.06(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 7.31(5H, m), 5.65(1H, d, J=5 Hz), 3.95(1H, m), 3.39(2H, m), 2.95(5H, m), 1.90(1H, m), 0.77(6H, dd, J=21 Hz and 6 Hz).

1,1′-carbonyidiimidazole (27.66 kg, 170.58 mol) was added to ethyl acetate (314.3 kg) with stirring to give 3-(S)-tetrahydrofuryl imidazole-1-carboxylate. (S)-3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (157 kg, 178.19 mol) was added over 30 minutes, washed in with ethyl acetate (9.95 kg), then the mixture was stirred for a further hour. (2R,3S)-N-(3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyl)-N-isobutyl-4-nitrobenzene sulphonamide hydrochloride (65.08 kg, 142.10 mol) was added and the mixture heated to reflux for approximately 22 hours. The solution was cooled slightly, and denatured ethanol (98 l) was added. The solution was stirred at 60° C. for 10 minutes then cooled and the product allowed to crystallise. The mixture was cooled to <10° C. and stirred for 2 hours. The product was isolated by filtration, washed with denatured ethanol (33 l) and dried at approximately 50° C., under vacuum to give (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(N-isobutyl-4-nitrobenzene sulphonamido)propyl]carbamate in a yield of 82% of theory.

NMR: 1H NMR (500 Mhz, dmso-d6): 8.38(2H, d, J=9Hz), 8.06(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 7.20(6H, m), 5.02(1H, d, J=5 Hz), 4.94(1H, m), 4.35(EtOH, broad s), 3.71(EtOH, q), 3.65(1H, m), 3.60(1H, m), 3.51(2H, broad m), 3.40(2H, m), 3.15(1H, dd, J=8 Hz and 14 Hz), 3.07(1H, dd, J=8 Hz and 15 Hz), 2.94(2H, m), 2.48(1H, m), 2.06(1H, m), 1.97(1H, m), 1.78(1H, m), 1.05(EtOH, t), 0.83(6H, dd, J=7 Hz and 16 Hz).

Product from the above stage (80.0 g, 149.4 mmol) was hydrogenated in isopropanol (880 ml) with 5% palladium on carbon (16 g, of a wet paste) and hydrogen pressure (approx 0.5 to 1.5 bar) at 25-50° C. for approximately 5 hours. The mixture was cooled and the catalyst removed by filtration. The solution was distilled to a volume of approximately 320 ml and water (80 ml) was added. This solution was divided into two for the crystallisation step.

To half of the above solution, decolourising charcoal (2 g) was added, the mixture stirred at approximately 32° C. for 4 hours, then filtered. The filtercake was washed with isopropanol (20 ml) then further water (40 ml) was added to the filtrate. The solution was seeded to induce crystallisation and stirred for 5 hours. Water (130 ml) was added slowly over 1 hour then the mixture was stirred for 4 hours. The resultant slurry was cooled to approximately 20° C. and the product was isolated by filtration and washed with a 1:4 mixture of isopropano/water (120 ml). The product was dried at approximately 50° C., under vacuum, for approximately 12 hours to give (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulphonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl] carbamate (30.3 g; 80% of theory yield).

NMR: 1H NMR (300 Mhz, dmso-d6): 7.39(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 7.18(6H, m), 6.60(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 6.00(2H, s), 4.99(1H, d, J=6 Hz), 4.93(1H, ddt), 3.64(5H, m), 3.34(1H, m), 3.28(1H, dd, J=14 Hz and 3 Hz), 3.01(1H, m, J=14 Hz and 3 Hz), 2.91(1H, m), 2.66(2H, m), 2.50(1H, m), 2.05(1H, m), 1.94(1H, m), 1.78(1H, m), 0.81(6H, dd, J=16 Hz and 7 Hz). m/z: 506.2(M+H+)


Example 11Synthesis of Amprenavir (1)To a solution of carbamate nitro derivative 15 (0.05 g, 0.09 mmol) in 2 mL of EtOAc was added SnCl2.2H2O (0.1 g, 0.5 mmol) at 70° C. The reaction mixture was heated for 1 h until starting material disappeared and the solution cooled to room temperature. It was then poured into saturated aq. NaHCO3 solution and extracted with EtOAc. The organic extract was dried over anhyd. Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. It was purified over chromatography using petroleum ether:EtOAc (3:2) to give amprenavir 1 (0.04 g, 90%).IR: (CHCl3, cm−1): υmax 757, 1090, 1149, 1316, 1504, 1597, 1633, 1705, 2960, 3371; 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC3): δ 0.86 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.78-2.21 (m, 3H), 235-3.11 (m, 6H), 3.58-4.11 (m, 7H), 4.25 (s, 2H), 5.01 (br s, 1H), 5.07 (br s, 1H), 6.65 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.20-7.28 (m, 5H), 7.51 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H); 13C NMR (50 MHz, CDC3): δ 19.9, 20.2, 27.3, 32.8, 35.4, 35.7, 53.8, 55.0, 58.6, 66.8, 72.6, 73.2, 75.3, 114.0, 125.9, 126.5, 1280.4, 129.5, 137.7, 150.9, 155.9;

Anal. Calcd for C25H35N3O6S: C, 59.39; H, 6.98; N, 8.31; S, 6.34. Found: C, 59.36; H, 6.81; N, 8.25; S, 6.29%.

[(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 161814-49-9 NMR spectral analysis, [(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate H-NMR spectrum
13 C NMR
[(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 161814-49-9 NMR spectral analysis, [(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate C-NMR spectrum


COSY NMR prediction (2)

See also

External links

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Amprenavir skeletal.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3S)-oxolan-3-yl N-[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[N-(2-methylpropyl)(4-aminobenzene)sulfonamido]-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate
Clinical data
Trade names Agenerase
AHFS/ monograph
MedlinePlus a699051
Licence data EMA:Link, US FDA:link
Legal status
Routes oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 90%
Metabolism hepatic
Half-life 7.1-10.6 hours
Excretion <3% renal
CAS number 161814-49-9 Yes
ATC code J05AE05
PubChem CID 65016
DrugBank DB00701
ChemSpider 58532 Yes
KEGG D00894 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:40050 Yes
NIAID ChemDB 006080
Chemical data
Formula C25H35N3O6S 
Molecular mass 505.628 g/mol

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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