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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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AMPRENAVIR For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.


Amprenavir skeletal.svg

Amprenavir

KVX-478, 141W94, VX-478,

DrugSyn.org

US5585397

(3S)-Tetrahydro-3-furanyl ((1S,2R)-3-(((4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl)(2-methylpropyl)amino)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl)carbamate

(3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulphonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl] carbamate

CAS NO. 161814-49-9, [(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate

161814-49-9
Weight 505.224656557
Chemical Formula C25H35N3O6S
Amprenavir is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection.

Amprenavir (Agenerase, GlaxoSmithKline) is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration on April 15, 1999, for twice-a-day dosing instead of needing to be taken every eight hours. The convenient dosing came at a price, as the dose required is 1,200 mg, delivered in eight very large gel capsules.

Production of amprenavir was discontinued by the manufacturer December 31, 2004; a prodrug version (fosamprenavir) is available.

Amprenavir is a protease inhibitor with activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1). Protease inhibitors block the part of HIV called protease. HIV-1 protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of the viral polyprotein precursors into the individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV-1. Amprenavir binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. This inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature non-infectious viral particles. Protease inhibitors are almost always used in combination with at least two other anti-HIV drugs.

HIV-1 Protease dimer with Amprenavir (sticks) bound in the active site. PDB entry 3nu3 [1]

Background

Research aimed at development of renin inhibitors as potential antihypertensive agents had led to the discovery of compounds that blocked the action of this peptide cleaving enzyme. The amino acid sequence cleaved by renin was found to be fortuitously the same as that required to produce the HIV peptide coat. Structure–activity studies on renin inhibitors proved to be of great value for developing HIV protease inhibitors. Incorporation of an amino alcohol moiety proved crucial to inhibitory activity for many of these agents. This unit is closely related to the one found in the statine, an unusual amino acid that forms part of the pepstatin, a fermentation product that inhibits protease enzymes.

Synthesis

[2]

R.D. Tung, M.A. Murcko, G.R. Bhisetti, U.S. Patent 5,558,397 (1996). The scheme shown here is partly based on that used to prepare darunavir and fosamprenavir due to difficulty in deciphering the patent.

AGENERASE (amprenavir) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease. The chemical name of amprenavir is (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulfonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamate. Amprenavir is a single stereoisomer with the (3S)(1S,2R) configuration. It has a molecular formula of C25H35N3O6S and a molecular weight of 505.64. It has the following structural formula:

AGENERASE® (amprenavir)  Structural Formula Illustration

Amprenavir is a white to cream-colored solid with a solubility of approximately 0.04 mg/mL in water at 25°C.

AGENERASE Capsules (amprenavir capsules) are available for oral administration. Each 50- mg capsule contains the inactive ingredients d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) 246.7 mg, and propylene glycol 19 mg. The capsule shell contains the inactive ingredients d-sorbitol and sorbitans solution, gelatin, glycerin, and titanium dioxide. The soft gelatin capsules are printed with edible red ink. Each 50- mg AGENERASE Capsule contains 36.3 IU vitamin E in the form of TPGS. The total amount of vitamin E in the recommended daily adult dose of AGENERASE is 1,744 IU.

………………………………

paper

Org. Biomol. Chem., 2004,2, 2061-2070

DOI: 10.1039/B404071F

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2004/ob/b404071f#!divAbstract

Efficient and industrially applicable synthetic processes for precursors of HIV protease inhibitors (Amprenavir, Fosamprenavir) are described. These involve a novel and economical method for the preparation of a key intermediate, (3S)-hydroxytetrahydrofuran, from L-malic acid. Three new approaches to the assembly of Amprenavir are also discussed. Of these, a synthetic route in which an (S)-tetrahydrofuranyloxy carbonyl is attached to L-phenylalanine appears to be the most promising manufacturing process, in that it offers satisfactory stereoselectivity in fewer steps.

Graphical abstract: New approaches to the industrial synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors

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……………

The reaction of N,N-dibenzyl-L-alaninal (I) with nitromethane, catalyzed by the chiral ammonium salt (II) and KF in THF gives the chiral nitroalcohol (III), which is reduced with NiCl2 and NaBH4 to yield the aminoalcohol (IV). The condensation of (IV) with isobutyraldehyde (V) affords the Schiff base (VI), which is reduced with NaBH4 to provide the secondary amine (VII). The reaction of (VII) with 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride (VIII) and TEA in dichloromethane furnishes the sulfonamide (IX), which is deprotected by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in methanol, giving the diamino compound (X). Finally, this compound is condensed with 3(S)-tetrahydrofuryl (N-oxysuccinimidyl) carbonate (XI) by means of TEA in dichloromethane to afford the target carbamate.

Angew Chem. Int Ed Engl1999,38,(13-14):1931

……………………………………………………….

The reaction of the chiral epoxide (I) with isobutylamine (II) in refluxing ethanol gives the secondary amine (III), which is protected with benzyl chloroformate (IV) and TEA, yielding the dicarbamate (V). Selective deprotection of (V) with dry HCl in ethyl acetate affords the primary amine (VI), which is treated with 3(S)-tetrahydrofuryl N-succinimidinyl carbonate (VII) (prepared by condensation of tetrahydrofuran-3(S)-ol (VIII) with phosgene and N-hydroxysuccinimide (IX)) and DIEA in acetonitrile to provide the corresponding carbamate (X). The deprotection of (X) by hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in ethanol gives the secondary amine (XI), which is condensed with 4-nitrophenylsulfonyl chloride (XII) by means of NaHCO3 in dichloromethane/water to yield the sulfonamide (XIII). Finally, the nitro group of (XIII) is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in ethyl acetate to afford the target compound.

EP 0659181; EP 0885887; JP 1996501299; US 5585397; WO 9405639
……………………………………………………………
Patent

 https://www.google.com/patents/WO1999048885A1?cl=ensynthesis of (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulphonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamate, hereinafter referred to as the compound of formula (I), and to novel intermediates thereto.The compound of formula (I) has the following structure

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00001

and was first described in PCT patent publication number WO94/05639 at Example 168. Currently there is considerable interest in the compound of formula (I) as a new chemotherapeutic compound in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the associated conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS dementia.

There exists at the present time a need to produce large quantities of the compound of formula (I) for clinical investigation into the efficacy and safety of the compound as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of HIV infections.

An ideal route for the synthesis of the compound should produce the compound of formula (I) in high yields at a reasonable speed and at low cost with minimum waste materials and in a manner that is of minimum impact to the environment in terms of disposing of waste-materials and energy consumption.

We have found a new process for the synthesis of the compound of formula (I) with many advantages over previously known routes of synthesis. Such advantages include lower cost, less waste and more efficient use of materials. The new process enables advantageous preparation of the compound of formula (I) on a manufacturing scale.

The route of synthesis of the compound of formula (I) described in the specification of WO94/05639 is specifically described therein in examples 39A, 51A, 51B, 51C, 51D, 167 and 168. The overall yield from these examples is 33.2% of theory.

Generally the route described in WO94/05639 involves protecting the amino alcohol of formula (A) (Ex.39)

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00002

wherein P is a protecting group to form a compound of formula (B);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00003

wherein P and P′ are each independently a protecting group;

deprotecting the compound of formula (B) to form a compound of formula (C) (Ex 51A);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00004

wherein P′ is a protecting group;

forming a hydrochloride salt of compound (C) (Ex 51B) then reacting with N-imidazolyl-(S)-tetrahydrofuryl carbamate to form the compound of formula (D) (Ex 51C);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00005

wherein P′ is a protecting group;

deprotecting the compound of formula (D) (Ex 51D) wherein P′ is a protecting group to form the compound of formula (D) wherein P′ is H (Ex 51E); and coupling the resultant secondary amine on the compound of formula (D) to a p-nitrophenylsulphonyl group to form a compound of formula (E) (Ex 167);

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00006

the resultant compound of formula (E) is then reduced to form the compound of formula (I) (Ex 168).

In summary, the process disclosed in WO94/05639 for producing the compound of formula (I) from the compound of formula (A) comprises 6 distinct stages:

1) protecting,

2) deprotecting,

3) reacting the resultant compound with an activated tetrahydrofuranol group,

4) deprotecting,

5) coupling with a p-nitrophenylsulfonyl group, and

6) reducing the resultant compound to form a compound of formula (I).

Applicants have now found a process by which the compound of formula (I) may be prepared on a manufacturing scale from the same starting intermediate, the compound of formula (A), in only 4 distinct stages instead of 6. In addition to the associated benefits of fewer stages, such as savings in time and cost, the improved process reduces the number of waste products formed. Furthermore, product may be obtained in a higher yield, of approximately 50% of theory

Figure US06281367-20010828-C00009.

EXAMPLESExample 1

(1S,2R)-tert-butyl N-[1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(isobutylamino)propyl]carbamate (127.77 g, 379.7 mmol) was heated in toluene (888 ml) to 80° C. and triethylamine (42.6 g, 417.8 mmol) added. The mixture was heated to 90° C. and a solution of p-nitrobenzene sulphonyl chloride (94.3 g, 425.4 mmol) in toluene (250 ml) was added over 30 minutes then stirred for a further 2 hours. The resultant solution of the nosylated intermediate {(1S,2R)-tert-butyl N-[1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(N-isobutyl- 4-nitrobenzenesulphonamido)propyl]carbamate } was then cooled to 80° C. The solution was maintained at approximately 80° C., and concentrated hydrochloric acid (31.4 ml, 376.8 mmol) was added over 20 minutes. The mixture was heated to reflux (approx 86° C.) and maintained at this temperature for an hour then a further quantity of concentrated hydrochloric acid (26.4 ml, 316.8 mmol) was added. Solvent (water and toluene mixture) was removed from the reaction mixture by azeotropic distillation (total volume of solvent removed approx 600 ml), and the resultant suspension was cooled to 70-75° C. Denatured ethanol (600 ml) was added, and the solution was cooled to 20° C. The mixture was further cooled to approximately −10° C. and the precipitate formed was isolated by filtration, washed with denatured ethanol (50 ml) and dried at approximately 50° C., under vacuum, for approximately 12 hours, to give (2R,3S)-N-(3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyl)-N-isobutyl-4-nitrobenzene sulphonamide hydrochloride (160 g; 73% of theory yield corrected for assay). NMR: 1H NMR (300Mhz, dmso-d6): 8.37(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 8.16(NH3 +s), 8.06(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 7.31(5H, m), 5.65(1H, d, J=5 Hz), 3.95(1H, m), 3.39(2H, m), 2.95(5H, m), 1.90(1H, m), 0.77(6H, dd, J=21 Hz and 6 Hz).

1,1′-carbonyidiimidazole (27.66 kg, 170.58 mol) was added to ethyl acetate (314.3 kg) with stirring to give 3-(S)-tetrahydrofuryl imidazole-1-carboxylate. (S)-3-hydroxytetrahydrofuran (157 kg, 178.19 mol) was added over 30 minutes, washed in with ethyl acetate (9.95 kg), then the mixture was stirred for a further hour. (2R,3S)-N-(3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyl)-N-isobutyl-4-nitrobenzene sulphonamide hydrochloride (65.08 kg, 142.10 mol) was added and the mixture heated to reflux for approximately 22 hours. The solution was cooled slightly, and denatured ethanol (98 l) was added. The solution was stirred at 60° C. for 10 minutes then cooled and the product allowed to crystallise. The mixture was cooled to <10° C. and stirred for 2 hours. The product was isolated by filtration, washed with denatured ethanol (33 l) and dried at approximately 50° C., under vacuum to give (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxy-3-(N-isobutyl-4-nitrobenzene sulphonamido)propyl]carbamate in a yield of 82% of theory.

NMR: 1H NMR (500 Mhz, dmso-d6): 8.38(2H, d, J=9Hz), 8.06(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 7.20(6H, m), 5.02(1H, d, J=5 Hz), 4.94(1H, m), 4.35(EtOH, broad s), 3.71(EtOH, q), 3.65(1H, m), 3.60(1H, m), 3.51(2H, broad m), 3.40(2H, m), 3.15(1H, dd, J=8 Hz and 14 Hz), 3.07(1H, dd, J=8 Hz and 15 Hz), 2.94(2H, m), 2.48(1H, m), 2.06(1H, m), 1.97(1H, m), 1.78(1H, m), 1.05(EtOH, t), 0.83(6H, dd, J=7 Hz and 16 Hz).

Product from the above stage (80.0 g, 149.4 mmol) was hydrogenated in isopropanol (880 ml) with 5% palladium on carbon (16 g, of a wet paste) and hydrogen pressure (approx 0.5 to 1.5 bar) at 25-50° C. for approximately 5 hours. The mixture was cooled and the catalyst removed by filtration. The solution was distilled to a volume of approximately 320 ml and water (80 ml) was added. This solution was divided into two for the crystallisation step.

To half of the above solution, decolourising charcoal (2 g) was added, the mixture stirred at approximately 32° C. for 4 hours, then filtered. The filtercake was washed with isopropanol (20 ml) then further water (40 ml) was added to the filtrate. The solution was seeded to induce crystallisation and stirred for 5 hours. Water (130 ml) was added slowly over 1 hour then the mixture was stirred for 4 hours. The resultant slurry was cooled to approximately 20° C. and the product was isolated by filtration and washed with a 1:4 mixture of isopropano/water (120 ml). The product was dried at approximately 50° C., under vacuum, for approximately 12 hours to give (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulphonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl] carbamate (30.3 g; 80% of theory yield).

NMR: 1H NMR (300 Mhz, dmso-d6): 7.39(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 7.18(6H, m), 6.60(2H, d, J=9 Hz), 6.00(2H, s), 4.99(1H, d, J=6 Hz), 4.93(1H, ddt), 3.64(5H, m), 3.34(1H, m), 3.28(1H, dd, J=14 Hz and 3 Hz), 3.01(1H, m, J=14 Hz and 3 Hz), 2.91(1H, m), 2.66(2H, m), 2.50(1H, m), 2.05(1H, m), 1.94(1H, m), 1.78(1H, m), 0.81(6H, dd, J=16 Hz and 7 Hz). m/z: 506.2(M+H+)

…………………………
PATENT

Example 11Synthesis of Amprenavir (1)To a solution of carbamate nitro derivative 15 (0.05 g, 0.09 mmol) in 2 mL of EtOAc was added SnCl2.2H2O (0.1 g, 0.5 mmol) at 70° C. The reaction mixture was heated for 1 h until starting material disappeared and the solution cooled to room temperature. It was then poured into saturated aq. NaHCO3 solution and extracted with EtOAc. The organic extract was dried over anhyd. Na2SO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure. It was purified over chromatography using petroleum ether:EtOAc (3:2) to give amprenavir 1 (0.04 g, 90%).IR: (CHCl3, cm−1): υmax 757, 1090, 1149, 1316, 1504, 1597, 1633, 1705, 2960, 3371; 1H NMR (200 MHz, CDC3): δ 0.86 (d, J=5.7 Hz, 3H), 0.90 (d, J=6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.78-2.21 (m, 3H), 235-3.11 (m, 6H), 3.58-4.11 (m, 7H), 4.25 (s, 2H), 5.01 (br s, 1H), 5.07 (br s, 1H), 6.65 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.20-7.28 (m, 5H), 7.51 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 2H); 13C NMR (50 MHz, CDC3): δ 19.9, 20.2, 27.3, 32.8, 35.4, 35.7, 53.8, 55.0, 58.6, 66.8, 72.6, 73.2, 75.3, 114.0, 125.9, 126.5, 1280.4, 129.5, 137.7, 150.9, 155.9;

Anal. Calcd for C25H35N3O6S: C, 59.39; H, 6.98; N, 8.31; S, 6.34. Found: C, 59.36; H, 6.81; N, 8.25; S, 6.29%.

……………………..
NMR PREDICTIONS
1H NMR
[(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 161814-49-9 NMR spectral analysis, [(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate H-NMR spectrum
13 C NMR
[(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 161814-49-9 NMR spectral analysis, [(3S)-oxolan-3-yl] N-[(2S,3R)-4-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl-(2-methylpropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate C-NMR spectrum

COSY PREDICTION

COSY NMR prediction (2)

See also

External links

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Amprenavir
Amprenavir skeletal.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3S)-oxolan-3-yl N-[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[N-(2-methylpropyl)(4-aminobenzene)sulfonamido]-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate
Clinical data
Trade names Agenerase
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a699051
Licence data EMA:Link, US FDA:link
Legal status
?
Routes oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 90%
Metabolism hepatic
Half-life 7.1-10.6 hours
Excretion <3% renal
Identifiers
CAS number 161814-49-9 Yes
ATC code J05AE05
PubChem CID 65016
DrugBank DB00701
ChemSpider 58532 Yes
UNII 5S0W860XNR Yes
KEGG D00894 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:40050 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL116 Yes
NIAID ChemDB 006080
Chemical data
Formula C25H35N3O6S 
Molecular mass 505.628 g/mol

FDA Approves Vitekta (elvitegravir) for HIV-1 Infection


FDA Approves Vitekta (elvitegravir) for HIV-1 Infection

September 24, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Vitekta (elvitegravir), an integrase strand transfer inhibitor for the combination treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in treatment-experienced adults.

 http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-vitekta-elvitegravir-hiv-1-infection-4089.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Today%27s+news+summary+-+September+25%2C+2014

Elvitegravir

697761-98-1 CAS

Elvitegravir (EVG, formerly GS-9137) is a drug used for the treatment of HIV infection. It acts as an integrase inhibitor. It was developed[1] by the pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences, which licensed EVG from Japan Tobacco in March 2008.[2][3][4] The drug gained approval by U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 27, 2012 for use in adult patients starting HIV treatment for the first time as part of the fixed dose combination known as Stribild.[5]

According to the results of the phase II clinical trial, patients taking once-daily elvitegravir boosted by ritonavir had greater reductions in viral load after 24 weeks compared to individuals randomized to receive a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor.[6]


 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS).  After over 26 years of efforts, there is still not a therapeutic cure or an effective vaccine against HIV/AIDS.  The clinical management of HIV-1 infected people largely relies on antiretroviral therapy (ART).  Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has provided an effective way to treat AIDS patients, the huge burden of ART in developing countries, together with the increasing incidence of drug resistant viruses among treated people, calls for continuous efforts for the development of anti-HIV-1 drugs.  Currently, four classes of over 30 licensed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and combination regimens of these ARVs are in use clinically including: reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) (e.g. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs; and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase inhibitors and entry inhibitors (e.g. fusion inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists).

  1.  Gilead Press Release Phase III Clinical Trial of Elvitegravir July 22, 2008
  2.  Gilead Press Release Gilead and Japan Tobacco Sign Licensing Agreement for Novel HIV Integrase Inhibitor March 22, 2008
  3.  Shimura K, Kodama E, Sakagami Y, et al. (2007). “Broad Anti-Retroviral Activity and Resistance Profile of a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integrase Inhibitor, Elvitegravir (JTK-303/GS-9137)”J Virol 82 (2): 764. doi:10.1128/JVI.01534-07PMC 2224569PMID 17977962.
  4.  Stellbrink HJ (2007). “Antiviral drugs in the treatment of AIDS: what is in the pipeline ?”. Eur. J. Med. Res. 12 (9): 483–95. PMID 17933730.
  5.  Sax, P. E.; Dejesus, E.; Mills, A.; Zolopa, A.; Cohen, C.; Wohl, D.; Gallant, J. E.; Liu, H. C.; Zhong, L.; Yale, K.; White, K.; Kearney, B. P.; Szwarcberg, J.; Quirk, E.; Cheng, A. K.; Gs-Us-236-0102 Study, T. (2012). “Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir versus co-formulated efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: A randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial, analysis of results after 48 weeks”.The Lancet 379 (9835): 2439–2448. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60917-9PMID 22748591edit
  6.  Thaczuk, Derek and Carter, Michael. ICAAC: Best response to elvitegravir seen when used with T-20 and other active agents Aidsmap.com. 19 Sept. 2007.

 

 The life cycle of HIV-1.  1. HIV-1 gp120 binds to CD4 and co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4 on target cell; 2. HIV-1 gp41 mediates fusion with target cell; 3. Nucleocapsid containing viral genome and enzymes enters cells; 4. Viral genome and enzymes are released; 5. Viral reverse transcriptase catalyzes reverse transcription of ssRNA, forming RNA-DNA hybrids; 6. RNA template is degraded by ribonuclease H followed by the synthesis of HIV dsDNA; 7. Viral dsDNA is transported into the nucleus and integrated into the host chromosomal DNA by the viral integrase enzyme; 8. Transcription of proviral DNA into genomic ssRNA and mRNAs formation after processing; 9. Viral RNA is exported to cytoplasm; 10. Synthesis of viral precursor proteins under the catalysis of host-cell ribosomes; 11. Viral protease cleaves the precursors into viral proteins; 12. HIV ssRNA and proteins assemble under host cell membrane, into which gp120 and gp41 are inserted; 13. Membrane of host-cell buds out, forming the viral envelope; 14. Matured viral particle is released

Elvitegravir, also known as GS 9137 or JTK 303, is an investigational new drug and a novel oral integrase inhibitor that is being evaluated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. After HIVs genetic material is deposited inside a cell, its RNA must be converted (reverse transcribed) into DNA. A viral enzyme called integrase then helps to hide HIVs DNA inside the cell’s DNA. Once this happens, the cell can begin producing genetic material for new viruses. Integrase inhibitors, such as elvitegravir, are designed to block the activity of the integrase enzyme and to prevent HIV DNA from entering healthy cell DNA. Elvitegravir has the chemical name: 6-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-1-[(S)-1 -hydroxy -methyl-2- methylpropyl]-7-methoxy-4-oxo-1, 4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid and has the following structural formula:

Figure imgf000002_0001

WO 2000040561 , WO 2000040563 and WO 2001098275 disclose 4-oxo-1 , 4-dihydro-3- quinoline which is useful as antiviral agents. WO2004046115 provides certain 4- oxoquinoline compounds that are useful as HIV Integrase inhibitors.

US 7176220 patent discloses elvitegravir, solvate, stereoisomer, tautomer, pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or pharmaceutical composition containing them and their method of treatment. The chemistry involved in the above said patent is depicted below in the Scheme A. Scheme-A

Toluene, DIPEA

SOCl2 ,COCl (S)-(+)-Valinol

Toluene

Figure imgf000003_0001

,4-Difluoro-5-iodo- benzoic acid

Figure imgf000003_0003
Figure imgf000003_0002

THF

dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)

palladium argon stream,

Figure imgf000003_0004

Elvitegravir Form ] Elvitegravir (residue) US 7635704 patent discloses certain specific crystalline forms of elvitegravir. The specific crystalline forms are reported to have superior physical and chemical stability compared to other physical forms of the compound. Further, process for the preparation of elvitegravir also disclosed and is depicted below in the Scheme B. The given processes involve the isolation of the intermediates at almost all the stages.

Scheme B

2,

Figure imgf000004_0001

Zn THF,

CK Br THF CU “ZnBr dιchlorobis(trιphenylphos

phine)palladium

Figure imgf000004_0002

Elvitegravir WO 2007102499 discloses a compound which is useful as an intermediate for the synthesis of an anti-HIV agent having an integrase-inhibiting activity; a process for production of the compound; and a process for production of an anti-HIV agent using the intermediate.

WO 2009036161 also discloses synthetic processes and synthetic intermediates that can be used to prepare 4-oxoquinolone compounds having useful integrase inhibiting properties.

The said processes are tedious in making and the purity of the final compound is affected because of the number of steps, their isolation, purification etc., thus, there is a need for new synthetic methods for producing elvitegravir which process is cost effective, easy to practice, increase the yield and purity of the final compound, or that eliminate the use of toxic or costly reagents.

US Patent No 7176220 discloses Elvitegravir, solvate, stereoisomer, tautomer, pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or pharmaceutical composition containing them and ■ their method of treatment. US Patent No 7635704 discloses Elvitegravir Form II, Form III and processes for their preparation. The process for the preparation of Form Il disclosed in the said patent is mainly by three methods – a) dissolution of Elvitegravir followed by seeding with Form II, b) recrystallisation of Elvitegravir, and c) anti-solvent method.

The process for the preparation of Form III in the said patent is mainly by three methods – a) dissolution of Form Il in isobutyl acetate by heating followed by cooling the reaction mass, b) dissolution of Form Il in isobutyl acetate by heating followed by seeding with Form III, and c) dissolving Form Il in 2-propanol followed by seeding with Form III.

Amorphous materials are becoming more prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to overcome the solubility and potential bioavailability issues, amorphous solid forms are becoming front-runners. Of special importance is the distinction between amorphous and crystalline forms, as they have differing implications on drug substance stability, as well as drug product stability and efficacy.

An estimated 50% of all drug molecules used in medicinal therapy are administered as salts. A drug substance often has certain suboptimal physicochemical or biopharmaceutical properties that can be overcome by pairing a basic or acidic drug molecule with a counter- ion to create a salt version of the drug. The process is a simple way to modify the properties of a drug with ionizable functional groups to overcome undesirable features of the parent drug. Salt forms of drugs have a large effect on the drugs’ quality, safety, and performance. The properties of salt-forming species significantly affect the pharmaceutical properties of a drug and can greatly benefit chemists and formulators in various facets of drug discovery and development.

Figure imgf000020_0003

chemical synthesis from a carboxylic acid 1 starts after conversion to the acid chloride iodide NIS 2 , and with three condensation 4 . 4 and the amino alcohol 5 addition-elimination reaction occurs 6 , 6 off under alkaline conditions with TBS protected hydroxy get the ring 7 , 7 and zinc reagent 8 Negishi coupling occurs to get 9 , the last 9 hydrolysis and methoxylated

Egypt for Raltegravir (Elvitegravir) -2012 August of anti-AIDS drugs approved by the FDA

Elvitegravir dimer impurity, WO2011004389A2

Isolation of 1-[(2S)-1-({3-carboxy-6-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-1 -[(2S)-I- hydroxy-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-4-oxo-1 , 4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl}oxy)-3- methylbutan-2-yl 6-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-oxo-1 , 4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (elvitegravir dimer impurity, 13)

After isolation of the elvitegravir from the mixture of ethyl acetate-hexane, solvent from the filtrate was removed under reduced pressure. The resultant residue purified by column chromatography using a mixture of ethyl acetate-hexane (gradient, 20-80% EtOAc in hexane) as an eluent. Upon concentration of the required fractions, a thick solid was obtained which was further purified on slurry washing with ethyl acetate to get pure elvitegravir dimer impurity (13). The 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral data complies with proposed structure.

Figure imgf000041_0001

1H-NMR (DMSO-Cf6, 300 MHz, ppm) – δ 0.79 (m, d=6.3 Hz, 6H, 20 & 2O’)\ 1.18 & 1.20 (d, J=6.3 Hz & J=6.2 Hz, 6H, 21 & 21′)1, 2.42-2.49 (m, 2H, 19 & 19′), 3.81-3.89 (m, 3H, T & 17’Ha), 3.94-4.01 (m, 1 H, 17’Hb), 4.01 (s, 3H, 23), 4.11 (s, 2H, 7), 4.83-4.85 (m, 3H, 17 & 18′), 5.22 (t, J=4.7 Hz, 1H, OH), 5.41-5.44 (m, 1 H, 18), 6.73-6.78 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 1 H, 11)1‘ 2, 6.92-6.98 (t, J=8.0 Hz, 1H, 3′) 12, 7.12-7.22 (m, 2H, 1 & 3), 7.34-7.39 (m, 1H, 2′),

7.45-7.48 (m, 1 H, 2), 7.49, 7.56 (s, 2H, 15 & 15′), 7.99, 8.02 (s, 2H, 9 & 9′), 8.89, 9.01 (s, 2H, 13 & 13′), 15.30, 15.33 (s, 2H, COOH’ & COOH”).

13C-NMR (DMSO-Cf6, 75 MHz, ppm)- δ 18.87, 19.03 (2OC, 20’C), 19.11 , 19.24 (21 C, 21 ‘C), 27.94 (7’C), 28.40 (7C), 28.91 , 30.08 (19C, 19’C), 56.80(23C), 60.11 (171C), 63.59 (18C), 66.52 (18’C), 68.53 (17C), 97.86, 98.97 (15, 15′), 107.43, 108.16 (12C, 12’C),

118.77, 119.38 (1OC, 10’C), 119.57 (d, J=17.6 Hz, 41C), 119.61 (d, J=17.9 Hz, 4C),

124.88 (d, J=4.3 Hz, 31C), 125.18 (d, J=4.2 Hz, 3C), 126.59, 126.96 (9C1 9’C), 127.14 (8’C), 127.62 (d, J=15.9 Hz, 61C), 127.73 (8C), 127.99 (d, J=15.2 Hz, 6C), 128.66 (2’C),

128.84 (11C), 128.84 (2C), 130.03 (d, J=3.4 Hz, 1C), 142.14, 142.44 (14C, 14’C), 144.37, 145.56 (13C, 131C), 155.24 (d, J=245.1 Hz, 5’C)1 155.61 (d, J=245.1 Hz, 5C),

160.17 (16’C), 162.04 (16C), 166.00, 166.14 (22C, 22’C), 176.17, 176.22 (11C, 111C).

DIP MS: m/z (%)- 863 [M+H]+, 885 [M+Na]+.

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FDA Approves Tybost (cobicistat) for use in the treatment of HIV-1 Infection


 

Cobicistat, GS-9350

1004316-88-4

40 H 53 N 7 O 5 S 2

N-[1(R)-Benzyl-4(R)-[2(S)-[3-(2-isopropylthiazol-4-ylmethyl)-3-methyl]ureido]-4-(4-morpholinyl)butyramido]-5-phenylpentyl]carbamic acid thiazol-5-ylmethyl ester

(1,3-thiazol-5-yl) methyl (5S, 8R, 11R) -8,11-dibenzyl-2-methyl-5-[2 – (morpholin-4-yl) ethyl] -1 – [2 – (propan-2-yl) -1,3-thiazol-4-yl] -3,6-dioxo-2 ,4,7,12-tetraazatridecan-13-oate

cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor

Gilead Sciences, Inc.

FDA Approves Tybost (cobicistat) for use in the treatment of HIV-1 Infection
September 24, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tybost (cobicistat), a CYP3A inhibitor used in combination with atazanavir or darunavir for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection

Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic enhancer that works by inhibiting the enzyme (CYP3A) that metabolizes atazanavir and darunavir. It increases the systemic exposure of these drugs and prolongs their effect. Cobicistat is also one of the ingredients in the combination HIV drug Stribild, which was approved by the FDA in August, 2012.

Tybost comes in 150 mg tablets and is administered once daily in combination with the protease inhibitors atazanavir (Reyataz), or darunavir (Prezista).

Because Tybost inhibits CYP3A, other medications metabolized by CYP3A may result in increased plasma concentrations and potentially severe side effects, which may be life-threatening or even fatal. Extra care should be exercised by healthcare professionals to ensure than other medications are reviewed and their concentrations monitored, especially when initiating new medicines or changing doses.

The approval of Tybost was based on the following clinical trials:
•The data to support the use of atazanavir and Tybost were from a phase 2 and 3 trial in treatment-naïve adults comparing atazanavir/cobicistat 300/150 mg and atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily each in combination with Truvada. The atazanavir/cobicistat based regimen was non-inferior to the atazanavir/ritonavir based regimen.
•The data to support the use of cobicistat with darunavir is from a multiple dose trial in healthy subjects comparing the relative bioavailability of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg to darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg.


The most common adverse drug reactions observed with Tybost (in combination with atazanavir) in clinical trials were jaundice, ocular icterus, and nausea.

Tybost is a product of Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA.

Cobicistat (formerly GS-9350) is a licensed drug for use in the treatment of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Like ritonavir (Norvir), cobicistat is of interest not for its anti-HIV properties, but rather its ability to inhibit liver enzymes that metabolize other medications used to treat HIV, notablyelvitegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor currently under investigation itself. By combining cobicistat with elvitegravir, higher concentrations of elvitgravir are achieved in the body with lower dosing, theoretically enhancing elvitgravir’s viral suppression while diminishing its adverse side-effects. In contrast with ritonavir, the only currently approved booster, cobicistat has no anti-HIV activity of its own.[1]

Cobicistat, a cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 inhibitor, was approved in the E.U. in 2013 as a pharmacokinetic enhancer of the HIV-1 protease inhibitors atazanavir and darunavir in adults. First launch took place in 2014 in United Kingdom. In 2012, Gilead filed a New Drug Application in the U.S. for the same indication. In April 2013, the FDA issued a Complete Response Letter from the FDA. In 2014 the FDA accepted Gilead’s resubmission.

Cobicistat is a component of the four-drug, fixed-dose combination HIV treatmentelvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (known as the “Quad Pill” or Stribild).[1][2] The Quad Pill/Stribild was approved by the FDA in August 2012 for use in the United States and is owned by Gilead Sciences.
Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, including the importantCYP3A4 subtype. It also inhibits intestinal transport proteins, increasing the overall absorption of several HIV medications, including atazanavirdarunavir and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate.[3]

The drug candidate acts as a pharmaco-enhancer to boost exposure of HIV protease inhibitors. In 2011, cobicistat was licensed to Japan Tobacco by Gilead for development and commercialization in Japan as a stand-alone product for the treatment of HIV infection. In 2012, orphan drug designation was assigned in Japan for the pharmacokinetic enhancement of anti-HIV agent.

Oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes is one of the primary mechanisms of drug metabolism.. It can be difficult to maintain therapeutically effective blood plasma levels of drugs which are rapidly metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Accordingly, the blood plasma levels of drugs which are susceptible to cytochrome P450 enzyme degradation can be maintained or enhanced by co-administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors, thereby improving the pharmacokinetics of the drug.

While certain drugs are known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, more and/or improved inhibitors for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase are desirable. Particularly, it would be desirable to have cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors which do not have appreciable biological activity other than cytochrome P450 inhibition. Such inhibitors can be useful for minimizing undesirable biological activity, e.g., side effects. In addition, it would be desirable to have P450 monooxygenase inhibitors that lack significant or have a reduced level of protease inhibitor activity. Such inhibitors could be useful for enhancing the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs, while minimizing the possibility of eliciting viral resistance, especially against protease inhibitors.

…………………………….

Cobicistat (GS-9350): A potent and selective inhibitor of human CYP3A as a novel pharmacoenhancer
ACS Med Chem Lett 2010, 1(5): 209

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml1000257

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ml1000257/suppl_file/ml1000257_si_001.pdf

Abstract Image

Cobicistat (3, GS-9350) is a newly discovered, potent, and selective inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. In contrast to ritonavir, 3 is devoid of anti-HIV activity and is thus more suitable for use in boosting anti-HIV drugs without risking selection of potential drug-resistant HIV variants. Compound 3 shows reduced liability for drug interactions and may have potential improvements in tolerability over ritonavir. In addition, 3 has high aqueous solubility and can be readily coformulated with other agents.

1-Benzyl-4-{2-[3-(2-isopropyl-thiazol-4-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-ureido]-4-morpholin-4-yl-butyrylamino}-5-phenyl-pentyl)-carbamic acid thiazol-5-ylmethyl ester (GS-9350)
HPLC (Chiral CelROD-H, Chiral Technologies Inc;heptane/iPrOH = 70/30).
1H NMR (CD3OD)
δ8.98 (1 H, s), 7.82 (1 H, s), 7.25-7.05
(11 H, m), 5.25-5.10 (2 H, m), 4.60-4.50 (2 H, m), 4.21-4.03 (2 H, m), 3.82-3.72 (1
H, m), 3.65-3.65 (4 H, m), 3.35-3.25 (1 H, m), 2.98 (3 H, s), 2.8-2.6 (4 H, m), 2.4-2.2
(6 H, m), 1.95-1.8 (1 H, m), 1.8-1.6 (1 H, m), 1.6-1.4 (4 H, m), 1.42-1.32 (6 H, m).
MS (ESI) m/z: 776.2 (M+H)+.
HRMS calc. for C40H53N7O5S2: 775.355, found: 775.353.

…………………………………

http://www.google.com/patents/CN103694196A?cl=en

 CN 103694196

oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes is one of the main mechanisms of drug metabolism, generally by administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors to maintain or increase the degradation of cytochrome P450 enzymes are sensitive to the drug plasma levels, in order to improve the pharmacokinetics of drugs dynamics, can be used to enhance the effectiveness of anti-retroviral drugs. For example W02008010921 discloses compounds of formula I as a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase specific compounds (Cobicistat):

 

Figure CN103694196AD00051

  W02008010921 discloses the synthesis of compounds of formula I with a variety of, as one of the methods of the following routes

Shows:

 

Figure CN103694196AD00061

The reagents used in the method is expensive, and more difficult to remove by-products, long reaction time, high cost, is not conducive to industrial

Production.

W02010115000 on these routes has been improved:

 

Figure CN103694196AD00062

The first step in the route used for the ring-opening reaction reagent trimethylsilyl iodide, trimethylsilyl iodide expensive. W02010115000 reports this step and the subsequent ring-opening reaction of morpholine substitution reaction yield of two steps is not high, only 71%, so that only iodotrimethylsilane a high cost of raw material is not suitable for industrial production.

 

Figure CN103694196AC00023

 

Figure CN103694196AC00031

Figure CN103694196AC00041

Preparation of compounds of formula I

Example [0126] Implementation

[0127] I1-a (20g) was dissolved in dichloromethane, was added 50% K0H (5.5g) solution, control the internal temperature does not exceed 25 ° C, TLC analysis ΙΙ-a disappears. Was cooled to O ~ 10 ° C, was added (2R, 5R) -5 – amino-1 ,6 – diphenyl-2 – hexyl-carbamic acid 5 – methyl-thiazole ester hydrochloride (14.8g), stirred for I ~ 2 h, 1 – hydroxybenzotriazole triazole (5.5g), stirred for I h, 1 – ethyl – (3 – dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (15g), and incubated for 5 ~ 10 hours, TLC analysis of the starting material disappeared, the reaction was completed. The reaction was quenched with aqueous acetic acid, methylene chloride layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, washed with water, dried and concentrated. By HPLC purity of 99.1%. Adding ethanol, the ethanol was evaporated to give the product compound of part I of a solution in ethanol. Molar yield 88%, LC-MS: M +1 = 777.1 [0128] All publications mentioned in the present invention are incorporated by reference as if each reference was individually incorporated by reference, as cited in the present application. It should also be understood that, after reading the foregoing teachings of the present invention, those skilled in the art that various modifications of the present invention or modifications, and these equivalents falling as defined by the appended claims scope of claims of the present application.

 

…………………………

US 2014088304

http://www.google.com/patents/US20140088304

International Patent Application Publication Number WO 2008/010921 and International Patent Application Publication Number WO 2008/103949 disclose certain compounds that are reported to be useful to modify the pharmacokinetics of a co-administered drug, e.g. by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. One specific compound identified therein is a compound of the following formula I:

There is currently a need for improved synthetic methods and intermediates that can be used to prepare the compound of formula I and its salts

Schemes 1-4 below.

Preparation of a Compound of Formula IV

Scheme V.

 

Example 14Preparation of Compound I

To the solution of L-thiazole morpholine ethyl ester oxalate salt XIVa (35.6 kg) in water (66.0 kg) was charged dichloromethane (264 kg), followed by a slow addition of 15 wt % KHCO3 solution (184.8 kg). The resulting mixture was agitated for about 1 hour. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water (132 kg). The organic layer was concentrated under vacuum to dryness. Water (26.5 kg) was charged and the content temperature was adjusted to about 10° C., followed by slow addition of 45% KOH solution (9.8 kg) while maintaining the content temperature at less than or equal to 20° C. The mixture was agitated at less than or equal to 20° C. until the reaction was judged complete by HPLC. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum to dryness and co-evaporated five times with dichloromethane (132 kg each time) under reduced pressure to dryness. Co-evaporation with dichloromethane (132 kg) was continued until the water content was <4% by Karl Fischer titration. Additional dichloromethane (264 kg) was charged and the content temperature was adjusted to −18° C. to −20° C., followed by addition of monocarbamate.HCl salt IXa (26.4 kg). The resulting mixture was agitated at −18° C. to −20° C. for about 1 hour. HOBt (11.4 kg) was charged and the reaction mixture was again agitated at −18° C. to −20° C. for about 1 hour. A pre-cooled solution (−20° C.) of EDC.HCl (21.4 kg) in dichloromethane (396 kg) was added to the reaction mixture while the content temperature was maintained at less than or equal to −20° C. The reaction mixture was agitated at −18° C. to −20° C. until the reaction was judged complete. The content temperature was adjusted to about 3° C. and the reaction mixture quenched with a 10 wt % aqueous citric acid solution (290 kg). The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed once with 15 wt % potassium bicarbonate solution (467 kg) and water (132 kg). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and then co-evaporated with absolute ethanol.

The product I was isolated as the stock solution in ethanol (35.0 kg product, 76.1% yield).

1H NMR (dDMSO) δ□ 9.05 (s, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.52 (d, 1H), 7.25-7.02 (m, 12H), 6.60 (d, 1H), 5.16 (s, 2H), 4.45 (s, 2H), 4.12-4.05 (m, 1H), 3.97-3.85 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.59 (m, 1H), 3.57-3.45 (m, 4H), 3.22 (septets, 1H), 2.88 (s, 3H), 2.70-2.55 (m, 4H), 2.35-2.10 (m, 6H), 1.75 (m, 1H), 1.62 (m, 1H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 4H), 1.32 (d, 6H).

13C NMR (CD3OD) δ 180.54, 174., 160.1, 157.7, 156.9, 153.8, 143.8, 140.1, 140.0, 136.0, 130.53, 130.49, 129.4, 127.4, 127.3, 115.5, 67.7, 58.8, 56.9, 55.9, 54.9, 53.9, 51.6, 49.8, 42.7, 42.0, 35.4, 34.5, 32.4, 32.1, 29.1, 23.7.

Example 13Preparation of L-Thiazole Morpholine Ethyl Ester Oxalate Salt XIVa

To a solution of (L)-thiazole amino lactone XII (33.4 kg) in dichloromethane (89.5 kg) was charged dichloromethane (150 kg) and absolute ethanol (33.4 kg). The content temperature was then adjusted to about 10° C., followed by slow addition of TMSI (78.8 kg) while the content temperature was maintained at less than or equal to 22° C. and agitated until the reaction was judged complete. The content temperature was adjusted to about 10° C., followed by a slow addition of morpholine (49.1 kg) while the content temperature was maintained at less than or equal to 22° C. Once complete, the reaction mixture was filtered to remove morpholine.HI salt and the filter cake was rinsed with two portions of dichloromethane (33.4 kg). The filtrate was washed twice with water (100 kg). The organic layer was concentrated under vacuum to dryness. Acetone (100 kg) was then charged to the concentrate and the solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. Acetone (233.8 kg) was charged to the concentrate, followed by a slow addition of the solution of oxalic acid (10 kg) in acetone (100 kg). The resulting slurry was refluxed for about 1 hour before cooling down to about 3° C. for isolation. The product XIVa was filtered and rinsed with acetone (66.8 kg) and dried under vacuum at 40° C. to afford a white to off-white solid (40 kg, 71% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ □7.00 (s, 1H), 6.35 (broad s, 1H), 4.60-4.40 (m, 3H), 4.19 (quartets, 2H), 4.00-3.90 (m, 4H), 3.35-3.10 (m, 7H), 3.00 (s, 3H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.05 (m, 1H), 1.38 (d, 6H), 1.25 (triplets, 3H).

……………………………………..

W02008010921

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2008010921A2?cl=en

Preparation of Example A

Scheme 1

Example A Compound 2

To a solution of Compound 1 (ritonavir) (1.8 g, 2.5 mmol) in 1,2- dichloroethane (15 mL) was added l,l’-thiocarbonyldiimidazole (890 mg, 5.0 mmol). The mixture was heated at 75 SC for 6 hours and cooled to 25 SC. Evaporation under reduced pressure gave a white solid. Purification by flash column chromatography (stationary phase: silica gel; eluent: EtOAc) gave Compound 2 (1.6 g). m/z: 831.1 (M+H)+. Example A

To the refluxing solution of tributyltin hydride (0.78 mL, 2.9 mmol) in toluene (130 mL) was added a solution of Compound 2 (1.6 g, 1.9 mmol) and 2,2′- azobisisobutyronitrile (31 mg, 0.19 mmol) in toluene (30 mL) over 30 minutes. The mixture was heated at 1152C for 6 hours and cooled to 25 BC. Toluene was removed under reduced pressure. Purification by flash column chromatography (stationary phase: silica gel; eluent: hexane/EtOAc = 1/10) gave Example A (560 mg). m/z: 705.2 (M+H)+. 1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ 8.79 (1 H, s), 7.82 (1 H, s), 7.26-7.05 (10 H, m), 6.98 (1 H, s), 6.28 (1 H, m), 6.03 (1 H, m), 5.27 (1 H7 m), 5.23 (2 H, s), 4.45-4.22 (2 H, m), 4.17 (1 H, m), 3.98 (1 H, m), 3.75 (1 H, m), 3.25 (1 H7 m), 2.91 (3 H, s), 2.67 (4 H, m), 2.36 (1 H, m), 1.6-1.2 (10 H, m), 0.85 (6 H, m).

 

EP1183026A2 * 25 May 2000 6 Mar 2002 Abbott Laboratories Improved pharmaceutical formulations
US20060199851 * 2 Mar 2006 7 Sep 2006 Kempf Dale J Novel compounds that are useful for improving pharmacokinetics

 

Thiazol-5-ylmethyl N-[1-benzyl-4-[[2-[[(2-isopropylthiazol-4-yl)methyl-methyl-carbamoyl]amino]-4-morpholino-butanoyl]amino]-5-phenyl-pentyl]carbamate
Clinical data
Legal status
fda approved sept 2014
Identifiers
CAS number 1004316-88-4 Yes
ATC code V03AX03
PubChem CID 25151504
ChemSpider 25084912 Yes
UNII LW2E03M5PG Yes
Chemical data
Formula C40H53N7O5S2 
Mol. mass 776.023 g/mol
US7939553 * Jul 6, 2007 May 10, 2011 Gilead Sciences, Inc. co-administered drug (as HIV protease inhibiting compound, an HIV (non)nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, capsid polymerization inhibitor, interferon, ribavirin analog) by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; ureido- or amido-amine derivatives; side effect reduction
       Highleyman, L.

Elvitegravir “Quad” Single-tablet Regimen Shows Continued HIV Suppression at 48 Weeks

  1.  R Elion, J Gathe, B Rashbaum, and others. The Single-Tablet Regimen of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; Quad) Maintains a High Rate of Virologic Suppression, and Cobicistat (COBI) is an Effective Pharmacoenhancer Through 48 Weeks. 50th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2010). Boston, September 12–15, 2010.
  2. Lepist, E. -I.; Phan, T. K.; Roy, A.; Tong, L.; MacLennan, K.; Murray, B.; Ray, A. S. (2012). “Cobicistat Boosts the Intestinal Absorption of Transport Substrates, Including HIV Protease Inhibitors and GS-7340, in Vitro”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56 (10): 5409–5413. doi:10.1128/AAC.01089-12PMC 3457391PMID 22850510.
  3. Patent No

    all US

    Expiry
    5814639 Sep 29, 2015
    5814639*PED Mar 29, 2016
    5914331 Jul 2, 2017
    5914331*PED Jan 2, 2018
    5922695 Jul 25, 2017
    5922695*PED Jan 25, 2018
    5935946 Jul 25, 2017
    5935946*PED Jan 25, 2018
    5977089 Jul 25, 2017
    5977089*PED Jan 25, 2018
    6043230 Jul 25, 2017
    6043230*PED Jan 25, 2018
    6642245 Nov 4, 2020
    6642245*PED May 4, 2021
    6703396 Mar 9, 2021
    6703396*PED Sep 9, 2021
    7176220 Nov 20, 2023
    7635704 Oct 26, 2026
    8148374 Sep 3, 2029

Amprenavir (Agenerase, GlaxoSmithKline) is a protease inhibitor…….


Amprenavir skeletal.svg

AMPRENAVIR

Amprenavir (Agenerase, GlaxoSmithKline) is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration on April 15, 1999, for twice-a-day dosing instead of needing to be taken every eight hours. The convenient dosing came at a price, as the dose required is 1,200 mg, delivered in eight very large gel capsules.

Production of amprenavir was discontinued by the manufacturer December 31, 2004; a prodrug version (fosamprenavir) is available.

HIV-1 Protease dimer with Amprenavir (sticks) bound in the active site. PDB entry 3nu3 [1]

 

 

Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3S)-oxolan-3-yl N-[(2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[N-(2-methylpropyl)(4-aminobenzene)sulfonamido]-1-phenylbutan-2-yl]carbamate
Clinical data
Trade names Agenerase
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a699051
Licence data EMA:Link, US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. C (US)
Routes oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 90%
Metabolism hepatic
Half-life 7.1-10.6 hours
Excretion <3% renal
Identifiers
CAS number 161814-49-9 Yes
ATC code J05AE05
PubChem CID 65016
DrugBank DB00701
ChemSpider 58532 Yes
UNII 5S0W860XNR Yes
KEGG D00894 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:40050 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL116 Yes
NIAID ChemDB 006080
Chemical data
Formula C25H35N3O6S 
Mol. mass 505.628 g/mol

Amprenavir (Agenerase, GlaxoSmithKline) is a protease inhibitor used to treat HIV infection. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration on April 15, 1999, for twice-a-day dosing instead of needing to be taken every eight hours. The convenient dosing came at a price, as the dose required is 1,200 mg, delivered in eight very large gel capsules.

Production of amprenavir was discontinued by the manufacturer December 31, 2004; a prodrug version (fosamprenavir) is available

………………….

New approaches to the industrial synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors

 

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2004/ob/b404071f/unauth#!divAbstract

Efficient and industrially applicable synthetic processes for precursors of HIV protease inhibitors (Amprenavir, Fosamprenavir) are described. These involve a novel and economical method for the preparation of a key intermediate, (3S)-hydroxytetrahydrofuran, from L-malic acid. Three new approaches to the assembly of Amprenavir are also discussed. Of these, a synthetic route in which an (S)-tetrahydrofuranyloxy carbonyl is attached to L-phenylalanine appears to be the most promising manufacturing process, in that it offers satisfactory stereoselectivity in fewer steps.

Graphical abstract: New approaches to the industrial synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors
…………………………………………………………………

 

AGENERASE (amprenavir) is an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease. The chemical name of amprenavir is (3S)-tetrahydro-3-furyl N-[(1S,2R)-3-(4-amino-N-isobutylbenzenesulfonamido)-1-benzyl-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamate. Amprenavir is a single stereoisomer with the (3S)(1S,2R) configuration. It has a molecular formula of C25H35N3O6S and a molecular weight of 505.64. It has the following structural formula:

 

AGENERASE® (amprenavir)  Structural Formula Illustration

 

Amprenavir is a white to cream-colored solid with a solubility of approximately 0.04 mg/mL in water at 25°C.

AGENERASE Capsules (amprenavir capsules) are

available for oral administration. Each 50- mg capsule contains the inactive ingredients d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) 246.7 mg, and propylene glycol 19 mg. The capsule shell contains the inactive ingredients d-sorbitol and sorbitans solution, gelatin, glycerin, and titanium dioxide. The soft gelatin capsules are printed with edible red ink. Each 50- mg AGENERASE Capsule contains 36.3 IU vitamin E in the form of TPGS. The total amount of vitamin E in the recommended daily adult dose of AGENERASE is 1,744 IU.

See also

External links

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