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Acetylcholine Chloride

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Acetylcholine Chloride

2-acetyloxyethyl(trimethyl)azanium;chloride

60-31-1

Molecular Formula: C7H16ClNO2
Molecular Weight: 181.66 g/mol

Acetylcholine chloride is obtained as white or off-white hygroscopic crystals, or as a crystalline powder. The salt is odorless, or nearly odorless, and is a very deliquescent powder. Acetylcholine bromide is obtained as deliquescent crystals, or as a white crystalline powder. The substance is hydrolyzed by hot water and alkali

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Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. Its name is derived from its chemical structure: it is an ester of acetic acid and choline. Parts in the body that use or are affected by acetylcholine are referred to as cholinergic. Substances that interfere with acetylcholine activity are called anticholinergics.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction—in other words, it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles. This property means that drugs that affect cholinergic systems can have very dangerous effects ranging from paralysis to convulsions. Acetylcholine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, both as an internal transmitter for the sympathetic nervous system and as the final product released by the parasympathetic nervous system.

Inside the brain, acetylcholine functions as a neuromodulator—a chemical that alters the way other brain structures process information rather than a chemical used to transmit information from point to point. The brain contains a number of cholinergic areas, each with distinct functions. They play an important role in arousal, attention, and motivation.

Partly because of its muscle-activating function, but also because of its functions in the autonomic nervous system and brain, a large number of important drugs exert their effects by altering cholinergic transmission. Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause harm by inactivating or hyperactivating muscles via their influences on the neuromuscular junction. Drugs that act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, such as atropine, can be poisonous in large quantities, but in smaller doses they are commonly used to treat certain heart conditions and eye problems. Scopolamine, which acts mainly on muscarinic receptors in the brain, can cause delirium and amnesia. The addictive qualities of nicotine derive from its effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain.

Chemistry

Acetylcholine is a choline molecule that has been acetylated at the oxygen atom. Because of the presence of a highly polar, charged ammonium group, acetylcholine does not penetrate lipid membranes. Because of this, when the drug is introduced externally, it remains in the extracellular space and does not pass through the blood–brain barrier. A synonym of this drug is miochol.

History

Acetylcholine (ACh) was first identified in 1915 by Henry Hallett Dale for its actions on heart tissue. It was confirmed as a neurotransmitter by Otto Loewi, who initially gave it the name Vagusstoff because it was released from the vagus nerve. Both received the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work. Acetylcholine was also the first neurotransmitter to be identified.

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CLIP

Laboratory Synthesis Of Acetylcholine chloride

Acetylcholine chloride Chemical Name: 2- (acetyl oxy)- N ,N ,N- tri methyl ethan aminium chloride

Acetylcholine chloride Use: parasympathomimetic, miotic, vasodilator (peripheral)

Acetylcholine chloride MW: 181.66

Acetylcholine chloride MF: C7H16ClNO2

Acetylcholine chloride LD50: 10 mg/kg (M, i.v.); 3 g/kg (M, p.o.);

22 mg/kg (R, i.v.); 2500 mg/kg (R, p.o.)

Reference(s):

  1. Baeyer, A. v.: Justus Liebigs Ann. Chem. (JLACBF) 142, 235 (1867).
  2. Nothnagel: Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim, Ger.) (ARPMAS) 232, 265 (1894).
  3. Fourneau, E.; Page, H.J.: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. (BSCFAS) [4] 15, 544 (1914).
  4. DE 801 210 (BASF; appl. 1948).
  5. US 1 957 443 (Merck & Co.; 1934; appl. 1931).
  6. US 2 012 268 (Merck & Co.; 1935; appl. 1931).
  7. US 2 013 536 (Merck & Co.; 1935; appl. 1931).

Image result for acetylcholine chloride

Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine.svg
IUPAC name 2-Acetoxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
Abbreviation ACh
Sources motor neuronsparasympathetic nervous system, brain
Targets skeletal muscles, brain, many other organs
Receptors nicotinicmuscarinic
Agonists nicotinemuscarinecholinesterase inhibitors
Antagonists tubocurarineatropine
Precursor cholineacetyl-CoA
Synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase
Metabolizing enzyme acetylcholinesterase
Database links
CAS Number 51-84-3 Yes
PubChem CID: 187
IUPHAR/BPS 294
DrugBank EXPT00412 Yes
ChemSpider 182 Yes
KEGG C01996 

Image result for acetylcholine chloride

Image result for acetylcholine chloride

1H NMR PREDICT

 

13 C NMR PREDICT

 

/////////CC(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C.[Cl-]


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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