Search of complementary and alternative medicine has gained a thrust in the recent decade due to the pronounced side effects and health hazards of the chemically synthesized drugs. Hereby, a comprehensive knowledge about the traditionally used medicinal plants is indispensable for exploration of its novel bioactive components. One of such comparatively less explored medicinal plant is Gnidia glauca. Although, it has folkloric, traditional phytomedicinal and agrochemical applications in various parts of the world, still there are no available scientific validations or evidences to support the fact. In African medicine it is used for treatment of abdominal pain, cancers, wounds, snake bites, sore throat and burns. It is also well known for its piscicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal and even homicidal activity for its use as arrow poisons. Similarly, its antineoplastic activity is reported to be remarkably superior . However, till date there is no comprehensive information on the plant.
In view of the background, herein we present the first commentary on complete research carried out till date on G. glauca and its promises as complementary and alternative medicine (Figure 1).
Plant pathogenic fungi
are major cause of heavy losses in the crop yield as well as the economic turnover of the farmers. Hereby, development of eco-friendly herbal and cheap antifungal agents is of utmost importance. Aqueous extracts of various parts of G
exhibited variable mycelia inhibition against Phytophthora
parasitica, a plant pathogenic fungi causing heart rot in pineapple. At a concentration of 5% the G. glauca
seeds, leaves and barks showed an inhibition upto 19.16, 15.90 and 23.46%, respectively. Similarly, an enhanced activity was observed with a higher concentration at 10%, equivalent to 28.47, 34.59, 33.60% for seed, leaves and bark respectively [2
]. A significant anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans
by the methanolic extract of G. glauca
leaves was reported recently. The active extracts showed a high total phenolic (126.25 ± 0.20 μg GAE/ mg) and flavonoid (25.75 ± 0.10 μg CE/mg) content [3
]. G. glauca
bark extract is reported to have superior antibacterial activity against urinary tract infection causing pathogens likeEscherichia coli
, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus
and Enterococcus faecalisas
compared to leaf and flower [4
Back Ache and Joint Ache
According to ethnobotanical information, roots of G. glauca
are widely used as a traditional medicine in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya for treatment of back ache and joint ache [5
Insecticidal and Larvicidal Activity
Leaves of G. glauca
are used in Kenya as insecticidal agent [5
]. Sequentially extracted hexane and chloroform
extracts of dried bark ofG. glauca
exhibited moderate mosquito larvicidal activity, whereas hexane, choloroform and MeOH extracts of fresh bark of the plant showed superior larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti
. Maximum activity upto 100 % mortality was exhibited by the chloroform extract of fresh bark within a few minutes. Bioassay guided fractionation confirmed that compounds like bicoumarin and Pimelea factor P2 are mostly responsible for larvicidal activity [6
]. Aqueous extract of G. glauca
leaf and bark showed a notable ovicidal activity against the eggs of teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera
Cramer upto 44.4 and 45.7 %, respectively [7
]. In order to check the antileukemic and piscicidal activity of G. glauca
, dried ground roots were extracted at room temperature with 95% ethanol under stirring condition for 24 h. The extract was further partitioned in various proportion of chloroform – water mixture to yield the gold fish piscitoxic fraction identified as gnidiglaucin (C32
). However, the isolated compound failed to show inhibitory activity in in-vivo assay for antileukemic activity (P- 388) [8
A recent ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by people in Zegie, Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia revealed that the root powder of G. glauca
mixed with skimmed milk is taken orally for seven days for treatment of rabies [9
The methanolic extract of G. glauca
leaf with high antioxidant activity showed major phenolic content of 203.3 GAE/g. It could scavenge both ABTS (IC50
= 16.3 μg/mL) and nitric oxide (IC50
= 360.8 μg/mL) radicals. Further, FRAP value of 993.7 μm TE/mg was recorded at 30 min and 142.5 mg AAE/g of total antioxidant activity was evaluated [1
]. In our previous report as well, we observed similar trend where the alcoholic extracts of G. glauca
leaf showed high phenolic and flavonoid content. In case of pulse radiolysis generated hydroxyl radical scavenging second order rate constants of ethanolic extracts of G. glauca
) was found to be very high indicating superior activity, followed by its leaf (3.73×106
) and stem (3.66×106
). Methanol extract of leaf showed efficient scavenging activity against DPPH radical, super oxide and nitric oxide radicals [10
Metabolic enzymes, like α-amylase and α-glucosidase are considered as key targets for discovery of antidiabetic drugs. Ethanolic, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of G. glauca flowers showed an excellent inhibitory potential (~70 % and above) against α-amylase while only methanol extract of leaf showed high inhibition against α-glucosidase .
The higher content of phenolics and flavonoids is responsible for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by G. glauca
flower extract. It showed one of the most rapid routes for synthesis to be completed entirely within just 20 min. The resulting AuNPs were small spheres with a diameter of 10 nm in majority. Exotic shapes like nanotriangles were also observed employing high resolution transmission electron microscopy along with other characterization tools. These AuNPs exhibited excellent catalytic properties in a reaction where 4-nitrophenol is reduced to 4-aminophenol by NaBH4
Toxicology studies to establish the safety of methanolic extract of G. glauca
barks and roots involved the evaluation of acute oral toxicity in female rats. Neither mortality, nor morbidity was observed at administered dosages of 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg body wt., which reveal the safety of these extracts in the doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. This study establishing that an LD50
value of G. glauca
bark and root extracts, higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight is definitely advantageous for its clinical studies [13
]. Thus it provided the scientific rationale supporting the wide usage of G. glauca
for diverse therapeutic purposes [14
G. glauca being one of the very important ethnomedicinal plant, will continue to be explored by researchers from various disciplines. In near future scientific discoveries, adding newer attributes to its therapeutic spectrum will surely enable it to emerge as one of the very vital model system, pivotal to many field of research like, pharmacognosy, pharmacy, phytochemistry, drug discovery and nanobiotechnology.
- Rao SB, Jayanthi M, Yogeetha R, Ramakrishnaiah H, Nataraj J (2013) Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of Gnidia glauca (Fresen.) Gilg. J App Pharm Sci 3: 203-207.
- Naik ST, Maheswarappa V (2007) Prospects of using plant extracts in management of pineapple heart rot. Karnataka J AgricSci 20: 180-182.
- Junaid S, Dileep N, Rakesh KN, Pavithra GM, Vinayaka KS, et al. (2013) Anticariogenic activity of Gnidia glauca (Fresen.) Gilg, Pothosscandens L. and ElaegnuskologaSchlecht. J App Pharm Sci 3: 020-023.
- Prashith KTR, Vivek MN, Junaid S, Rakesh KN, Dileep N, et al. (2014) Inhibitory activity of Polyalthialongifolia, Anaphalislawii andGnidia glauca against Colletotrichumcapsici and urinary tract pathogens. SciTechnol Arts Res J 3: 26-30.
- Kareru PG, Kenji GM, Gachanja AN, Keriko JM, Mungai G (2006) Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere peoples of Kenya. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 4: 75-86.
- Amarajeewa BWRC, Mudalige AP, Kumar V (2007) Chemistry and mosquito larvicidal activity of Gnidia glauca. Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, 12: 101-102.
- Javaregowda, Naik LK (2007) Ovicidal properties of plant extracts against the eggs of teak defoliator, Hyblaeapuera Cramer. Karnataka J AgricSci 20: 291-293.
- Kupchan SM, Shizuri Y, Sumner WC Jr, Haynes HR, Leighton AP, et al. (1976) Isolation and structural elucidation of new potent antileukemicditerpenoid esters from Gnidia species. J Org Chem 41: 3850-3853.
- Teklehaymanot T,Giday M (2007) Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia. J EthnobiolEthnomed 3: 12.
- Ghosh S,Derle A,Ahire M, More P,Jagtap S, et al. (2013) Phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging activity of medicinal plants Gnidia glauca andDioscoreabulbifera. PLoS One 8: e82529.
- Ghosh S,Ahire M, Patil S, Jabgunde A, BhatDusane M, et al. (2012) Antidiabetic Activity of Gnidia glauca and Dioscoreabulbifera: Potent Amylase and Glucosidase Inhibitors. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012: 929051.
- Ghosh S, Patil S, Ahire M, Kitture R, Gurav DD, et al. (2012) Gnidia glauca flower extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and evaluation of its chemocatalytic potential. J Nanobiotechnology 10: 17.
- Khadke SS, Pachauri DR, Mahajan SD.(2011) An acute oral toxicity study of Gnidia glauca (Fresen.) Gilg. in albino rats as per OECD guideline 425. Int J PharmTech Res 3: 787-791.
- Kharat SS, Kumkar PB, Rajpure SR, Sonawane KS (2013) Qualitative phytochemical screening of Gnidia glauca (Fresen) Gilg. plant extract. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 4: 144-148.
M.Sc., Ph.D. Nottingham University, England
Fogarty Fellow Illinois University, Chicago, USAVice- Chancellor
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University
Maharashtra State, India
Ph.No. : (office) (0240)-2403111 Fax No. (0240)-2403113/335
E-mail : email@example.com
Balu A Chopade
Professor B.A. Chopade has been working as a Vice-Chancellor of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra from 04/06/2014. He has been working as Professor of Microbiology and Coordinator of University of Potential Excellence Programme (UPE Phase I & II) of UGC in Biotechnology at University of Pune. He was Director of Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (IBB), University of Pune from 2006 to 2012. He has established and developed IBB as a unique national institute and as a centre of excellence in research, innovation and teaching in biotechnology in India. He has successfully established an innovative benchmarking of publications in peer reviewed international journals of repute by undergraduate students at IBB. He was Head of the Department of Microbiology, University of Pune from 1994, 1996-2000 and 2003-2006. He has 35 years of experience in research, innovation, teaching and administration at the University of Pune.
Professor Chopade has several national and international academic honors and professional distinctions to his credits. He was the Government of India Scholar at the University of Nottingham, England and obtained a Ph.D. degree in microbiology and molecular genetics (1983-1986). He was also the recipient of the most prestigious Fogarty International NIH Research Fellowship Award from Govt. of USA for Post-Doctoral Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago (1994-1996) in genetic engineering. He is also recipient of International Award in Microbiology from International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) in 1986. He has had very distinguished academic career and has carved his career entirely on the basis of merit and academic excellence.He was also coordinator of ALIS link programme between British Council London and Department of Microbiology, University of Pune (1994-1997).
He has published more than 100 research papers in peer reviewed international and national journals with high impact factor. The total impact factor of his research is more than 260, with h-index 26 and i10-index 52. His work is cited more than 2002 times (www.scholar.google.com). He has obtained 2 USA and 8 Indian patents. His research work has been cited by Nobel Laureate Professor Arthur Kornberg from University of Stanford, California, USA. His pioneering work on e-DNA and Acinetobacter vesicles is also cited by “Nature” journal from England. His work also has been cited in 3 textbooks of microbiology published from USA and Europe. He has presented more than 150 papers in International and National Conferences and has given large number of plenary lectures. He has successfully supervised 27 Ph.D., 4 M.Phil. and 10 Post Doctoral scholars for their research. Currently 2 Post-Doctoral Fellows and 4 Ph.D. students are working with him. His 3 students had obtained Young Scientist Awards in 1993 at Stockholm, from International Congress of Chemotherapy (ICC), Europe. His research area includes microbial and molecular genetics, biotechnology and nanomedicine. He is on editorial board of Wealth of India Publication series, from CSIR New Delhi, as well as number of research journals. He has obtained research grants and funding of more than rupees 10 crores from national and international funding agencies. He has successfully completed 32 major research projects from various National and International funding agencies. He has developed a new herbal medicine “Infex” which is manufactured by Shrushti Herbal Pharma Ltd., Bangalore. He is a pioneer in the area of Industry-Academia interactions and entrepreneurship in biotechnology and microbiology at IBB, University of Pune.
He was a visiting scientist at the Pasteur Institute, Paris, France and King’s College, University of London in 1990. He has received number of awards and most notable are: Pradnya Bhushan Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Award(2014) Aurangabad. Bronze Medal, International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA (2009), Pradnyavant Award (2011) by Undalkar Foundation, Karad. Maharashtra, Best teacher award by Pune Municipal Corporation (1993); Best research paper awards in microbial and molecular genetics (1988 & 2002) by Association of Microbiologist of India; He was recipient of Wadia Oration award (2008) by Institution of Engineers, India. Best research paper award in Bioinformatics (2009) by SBC, India. Summer Fellowship of Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore (2001). His biography is published by American Biographical Institute, USA (2000) and International Biographical Centre Cambridge (1991). He is member of American Society for Microbiology, USA and Society for General Microbiology, England since 1984. He is also a life member of number of national organizations like Association of Microbiologist of India (AMI) and Biotechnology Society of India (BSI), Society of Biological Chemists of India (SBC) Indian Science Congress (ISC). He is recipient of Marcus’s Who’s Who in Science and Engineering U.S.A. (2001), Marcus’s Who’s Who of the World, U.S.A. (2000), Marcus’s Who’s Who in Medicine, U.S.A. (2002), Marcus’s Who’s Who in Education, U.S.A. (2002).
He has been working on various authorities of University of Pune, as well as many State and Central Universities in India. Such as, Chairman, Board of Studies in Microbiology from 1997-2000 & 2005-2007. Member, BOS in Biotechnology (2005-2006, 2012-2017), Member of Academic Council (1997-2000 & 2000-2005) and Board of College and University Development (BCUD) of University of Pune from 1997-2000 & 2000-2005. Member, Faculty of Science, University of Pune (1997-2000, 2003-2005) and Member, Board of Teaching and Research (BUTR), (1997-2002). Member, Board of studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Central University Pondichery (2001-2003). Member, Board of Studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shivaji University Kolhapur (2009-2014). Member, Board of Studies in Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (1994-1999). Member, Faculty of Science, Bharti Vidyapeeth Pune (2013-2018). Member, Faculty of Science, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (1990-1999).
He was chairman of large number of committees of UGC, New Delhi such as 11th Plan Research Committee, Research Projects and Deemed University Status since 2008. Chairman, International Travel Grants, (2008-2013). He was Chairman of State Eligibility Test (SET) in Microbiology for Govt. of Maharashtra and Goa from (1997-2000). He has active an involvement in the national and international scientific organizations. He has been involved in University administration in the various capacities for more than 33 years, as a chairman and member of large number of development, finance, examination and administration committees of University of Pune.
He is member of research and recognition committees of numerous state and central universities in India. He also worked as a coordinator of DBT Potential Excellence Programme at the Department of Microbiology, University of Pune (1994-1998). He is nominee of Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for Reliance Industries limited Mumbai, Biorefinery of Somaiya Group of Industries in Karnataka and Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) Pune.
His vision for Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (BAMU), Aurangabad is to transform it as one of the best research and innovation Universities in India and subsequently develop as a world class University.
///////Gnidia glauca, Phytochemistry, Ethnomedicine, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, india, Balu A Chopade