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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Gnidia glauca


Gnidia glauca

 Introduction

Search of complementary and alternative medicine has gained a thrust in the recent decade due to the pronounced side effects and health hazards of the chemically synthesized drugs. Hereby, a comprehensive knowledge about the traditionally used medicinal plants is indispensable for exploration of its novel bioactive components. One of such comparatively less explored medicinal plant is Gnidia glauca. Although, it has folkloric, traditional phytomedicinal and agrochemical applications in various parts of the world, still there are no available scientific validations or evidences to support the fact. In African medicine it is used for treatment of abdominal pain, cancers, wounds, snake bites, sore throat and burns. It is also well known for its piscicidal, insecticidal, molluscicidal and even homicidal activity for its use as arrow poisons. Similarly, its antineoplastic activity is reported to be remarkably superior [1]. However, till date there is no comprehensive information on the plant.

In view of the background, herein we present the first commentary on complete research carried out till date on G. glauca and its promises as complementary and alternative medicine (Figure 1).

Antimicrobial Activity
Plant pathogenic fungi are major cause of heavy losses in the crop yield as well as the economic turnover of the farmers. Hereby, development of eco-friendly herbal and cheap antifungal agents is of utmost importance. Aqueous extracts of various parts of G. glaucaexhibited variable mycelia inhibition against Phytophthora parasitica, a plant pathogenic fungi causing heart rot in pineapple. At a concentration of 5% the G. glauca seeds, leaves and barks showed an inhibition upto 19.16, 15.90 and 23.46%, respectively. Similarly, an enhanced activity was observed with a higher concentration at 10%, equivalent to 28.47, 34.59, 33.60% for seed, leaves and bark respectively [2]. A significant anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans by the methanolic extract of G. glauca leaves was reported recently. The active extracts showed a high total phenolic (126.25 ± 0.20 μg GAE/ mg) and flavonoid (25.75 ± 0.10 μg CE/mg) content [3]. G. glauca bark extract is reported to have superior antibacterial activity against urinary tract infection causing pathogens likeEscherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalisas compared to leaf and flower [4].
Back Ache and Joint Ache
According to ethnobotanical information, roots of G. glauca are widely used as a traditional medicine in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya for treatment of back ache and joint ache [5].
Insecticidal and Larvicidal Activity
Leaves of G. glauca are used in Kenya as insecticidal agent [5]. Sequentially extracted hexane and chloroform extracts of dried bark ofG. glauca exhibited moderate mosquito larvicidal activity, whereas hexane, choloroform and MeOH extracts of fresh bark of the plant showed superior larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Maximum activity upto 100 % mortality was exhibited by the chloroform extract of fresh bark within a few minutes. Bioassay guided fractionation confirmed that compounds like bicoumarin and Pimelea factor P2 are mostly responsible for larvicidal activity [6]. Aqueous extract of G. glauca leaf and bark showed a notable ovicidal activity against the eggs of teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera Cramer upto 44.4 and 45.7 %, respectively [7]. In order to check the antileukemic and piscicidal activity of G. glauca, dried ground roots were extracted at room temperature with 95% ethanol under stirring condition for 24 h. The extract was further partitioned in various proportion of chloroform – water mixture to yield the gold fish piscitoxic fraction identified as gnidiglaucin (C32H46O10 ). However, the isolated compound failed to show inhibitory activity in in-vivo assay for antileukemic activity (P- 388) [8].
Antiviral
A recent ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by people in Zegie, Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia revealed that the root powder of G. glauca mixed with skimmed milk is taken orally for seven days for treatment of rabies [9].
Antioxidant Activity
The methanolic extract of G. glauca leaf with high antioxidant activity showed major phenolic content of 203.3 GAE/g. It could scavenge both ABTS (IC50 = 16.3 μg/mL) and nitric oxide (IC50 = 360.8 μg/mL) radicals. Further, FRAP value of 993.7 μm TE/mg was recorded at 30 min and 142.5 mg AAE/g of total antioxidant activity was evaluated [1]. In our previous report as well, we observed similar trend where the alcoholic extracts of G. glauca leaf showed high phenolic and flavonoid content. In case of pulse radiolysis generated hydroxyl radical scavenging second order rate constants of ethanolic extracts of G. glauca flower (4×106) was found to be very high indicating superior activity, followed by its leaf (3.73×106) and stem (3.66×106). Methanol extract of leaf showed efficient scavenging activity against DPPH radical, super oxide and nitric oxide radicals [10].
Antidiabetic Activity

Metabolic enzymes, like α-amylase and α-glucosidase are considered as key targets for discovery of antidiabetic drugs. Ethanolic, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of G. glauca flowers showed an excellent inhibitory potential (~70 % and above) against α-amylase while only methanol extract of leaf showed high inhibition against α-glucosidase [11].

see….http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2012/929051/

Nanobiotechnology
The higher content of phenolics and flavonoids is responsible for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by G. glauca flower extract. It showed one of the most rapid routes for synthesis to be completed entirely within just 20 min. The resulting AuNPs were small spheres with a diameter of 10 nm in majority. Exotic shapes like nanotriangles were also observed employing high resolution transmission electron microscopy along with other characterization tools. These AuNPs exhibited excellent catalytic properties in a reaction where 4-nitrophenol is reduced to 4-aminophenol by NaBH4 [12].
Toxicology Study
Toxicology studies to establish the safety of methanolic extract of G. glauca barks and roots involved the evaluation of acute oral toxicity in female rats. Neither mortality, nor morbidity was observed at administered dosages of 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg body wt., which reveal the safety of these extracts in the doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. This study establishing that an LD50 value of G. glauca bark and root extracts, higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight is definitely advantageous for its clinical studies [13]. Thus it provided the scientific rationale supporting the wide usage of G. glauca for diverse therapeutic purposes [14].
Conclusion
G. glauca being one of the very important ethnomedicinal plant, will continue to be explored by researchers from various disciplines. In near future scientific discoveries, adding newer attributes to its therapeutic spectrum will surely enable it to emerge as one of the very vital model system, pivotal to many field of research like, pharmacognosy, pharmacy, phytochemistry, drug discovery and nanobiotechnology.
References

Professor B.A. Chopade

  M.Sc., Ph.D. Nottingham University, England
Fogarty Fellow Illinois University, Chicago, USAVice- Chancellor
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University
Aurangabad-431004
Maharashtra State, India

Ph.No. :  (office)  (0240)-2403111   Fax No.   (0240)-2403113/335
E-mail :   vc@bamu.ac.in
 

Balu A Chopade

Professor B.A. Chopade has been working as a Vice-Chancellor of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra from 04/06/2014. He has been working as Professor of Microbiology and Coordinator of University of Potential Excellence Programme (UPE Phase I & II) of UGC in Biotechnology at University of Pune. He was Director of Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology (IBB), University of Pune from 2006 to 2012. He has established and developed IBB as a unique national institute and as a centre of excellence in research, innovation and teaching in biotechnology in India. He has successfully established an innovative benchmarking of publications in peer reviewed international journals of repute by undergraduate students at IBB. He was Head of the Department of Microbiology, University of Pune from 1994, 1996-2000 and 2003-2006. He has 35 years of experience in research, innovation, teaching and administration at the University of Pune.

Professor Chopade has several national and international academic honors and professional distinctions to his credits. He was the Government of India Scholar at the University of Nottingham, England and obtained a Ph.D. degree in microbiology and molecular genetics (1983-1986). He was also the recipient of the most prestigious Fogarty International NIH Research Fellowship Award from Govt. of USA for Post-Doctoral Research at the University of Illinois at Chicago (1994-1996) in genetic engineering. He is also recipient of International Award in Microbiology from International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) in 1986. He has had very distinguished academic career and has carved his career entirely on the basis of merit and academic excellence.He was also coordinator of ALIS link programme between British Council London and Department of Microbiology, University of Pune (1994-1997).

He has published more than 100 research papers in peer reviewed international and national journals with high impact factor. The total impact factor of his research is more than 260, with h-index 26 and i10-index 52. His work is cited more than 2002 times (www.scholar.google.com). He has obtained 2 USA and 8 Indian patents. His research work has been cited by Nobel Laureate Professor Arthur Kornberg from University of Stanford, California, USA. His pioneering work on e-DNA and Acinetobacter vesicles is also cited by “Nature” journal from England. His work also has been cited in 3 textbooks of microbiology published from USA and Europe. He has presented more than 150 papers in International and National Conferences and has given large number of plenary lectures. He has successfully supervised 27 Ph.D., 4 M.Phil. and 10 Post Doctoral scholars for their research. Currently 2 Post-Doctoral Fellows and 4 Ph.D. students are working with him. His 3 students had obtained Young Scientist Awards in 1993 at Stockholm, from International Congress of Chemotherapy (ICC), Europe. His research area includes microbial and molecular genetics, biotechnology and nanomedicine. He is on editorial board of Wealth of India Publication series, from CSIR New Delhi, as well as number of research journals. He has obtained research grants and funding of more than rupees 10 crores from national and international funding agencies. He has successfully completed 32 major research projects from various National and International funding agencies. He has developed a new herbal medicine “Infex” which is manufactured by Shrushti Herbal Pharma Ltd., Bangalore. He is a pioneer in the area of Industry-Academia interactions and entrepreneurship in biotechnology and microbiology at IBB, University of Pune.

He was a visiting scientist at the Pasteur Institute, Paris, France and King’s College, University of London in 1990. He has received number of awards and most notable are: Pradnya Bhushan Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Award(2014) Aurangabad. Bronze Medal, International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA (2009), Pradnyavant Award (2011) by Undalkar Foundation, Karad. Maharashtra, Best teacher award by Pune Municipal Corporation (1993); Best research paper awards in microbial and molecular genetics (1988 & 2002) by Association of Microbiologist of India; He was recipient of Wadia Oration award (2008) by Institution of Engineers, India. Best research paper award in Bioinformatics (2009) by SBC, India. Summer Fellowship of Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore (2001). His biography is published by American Biographical Institute, USA (2000) and International Biographical Centre Cambridge (1991). He is member of American Society for Microbiology, USA and Society for General Microbiology, England since 1984. He is also a life member of number of national organizations like Association of Microbiologist of India (AMI) and Biotechnology Society of India (BSI), Society of Biological Chemists of India (SBC) Indian Science Congress (ISC). He is recipient of Marcus’s Who’s Who in Science and Engineering U.S.A. (2001), Marcus’s Who’s Who of the World, U.S.A. (2000), Marcus’s Who’s Who in Medicine, U.S.A. (2002), Marcus’s Who’s Who in Education, U.S.A. (2002).

He has been working on various authorities of University of Pune, as well as many State and Central Universities in India. Such as, Chairman, Board of Studies in Microbiology from 1997-2000 & 2005-2007. Member, BOS in Biotechnology (2005-2006, 2012-2017), Member of Academic Council (1997-2000 & 2000-2005) and Board of College and University Development (BCUD) of University of Pune from 1997-2000 & 2000-2005. Member, Faculty of Science, University of Pune (1997-2000, 2003-2005) and Member, Board of Teaching and Research (BUTR), (1997-2002). Member, Board of studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Central University Pondichery (2001-2003). Member, Board of Studies in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shivaji University Kolhapur (2009-2014). Member, Board of Studies in Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (1994-1999). Member, Faculty of Science, Bharti Vidyapeeth Pune (2013-2018). Member, Faculty of Science, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (1990-1999).

He was chairman of large number of committees of UGC, New Delhi such as 11th Plan Research Committee, Research Projects and Deemed University Status since 2008. Chairman, International Travel Grants, (2008-2013). He was Chairman of State Eligibility Test (SET) in Microbiology for Govt. of Maharashtra and Goa from (1997-2000). He has active an involvement in the national and international scientific organizations. He has been involved in University administration in the various capacities for more than 33 years, as a chairman and member of large number of development, finance, examination and administration committees of University of Pune.

He is member of research and recognition committees of numerous state and central universities in India. He also worked as a coordinator of DBT Potential Excellence Programme at the Department of Microbiology, University of Pune (1994-1998). He is nominee of Department of Biotechnology, Government of India for Reliance Industries limited Mumbai, Biorefinery of Somaiya Group of Industries in Karnataka and Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) Pune.

His vision for Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University (BAMU), Aurangabad is to transform it as one of the best research and innovation Universities in India and subsequently develop as a world class University.

///////Gnidia glauca Phytochemistry Ethnomedicine, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, india,  Balu A Chopade

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BMS 564929, Androgen receptor (AR) modulator


BMS-564,929.svg

 

BMS-564929.png

BMS-564929; BMS564929; 627530-84-1; 2-Chloro-4-[(7r,7as)-7-Hydroxy-1,3-Dioxotetrahydro-1h-Pyrrolo[1,2-C]imidazol-2(3h)-Yl]-3-Methylbenzonitrile; hydantoin,

CAS 627530-84-1Squibb Bristol Myers Co

Molecular Formula: C14H12ClN3O3
Molecular Weight: 305.71638 g/mol

4-[(7R,7aS)-7-Hydroxy-1,3-dioxoperhydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-2-yl]-2-chloro-3-methylbenzonitrile

7-K,7aS)-2-Chloro-4-(7-hydroxy-l,3-dioxotetrahydropyrrolo[l,2- c]imidazol-2-yl)-3-methylbenzonitrile

4-[(7R,7aS)-7-hydroxy-1,3-dioxo-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-2-yl]-2-chloro-3-methylbenzonitrile

BMS-564929 is a highly potent, orally active and nonsteroidal tissue selective modulator of androgen receptor (AR) with Ki value of 2.11 nM.

BMS-564929 is a selective androgen receptor (AR) modulator with Ki value of 2.11 ± 0.16 nM [1].
The AR is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by the androgenic hormones, testosterone, or dihydrotestosterone. The important function is regulating gene expression.
BMS-564929 is a muscle-tissue specific agonist for AR with a bicyclic hydantoin structure [2]. BMS-564929 is about 400-fold selective for AR vs. PR and more than 1000-fold selective for AR vs. GR, MR and ERα and β. In the C2C12 myoblast cell line, BMS-564929 shows a potency of 0.44 ± 0.03 nM compared with 2.81 ± 0.48 nM measured for testosterone
In castrated male rats, BMS-564929 is substantially more potent than testosterone (T) in promoting the growth of the levator ani muscle, and is highly selective for muscle vs. Prostate. Because of its potent oral activity and tissue selectivity, BMS-564929 is expected to yield beneficial clinical effects in muscle and other tissues with a more favorable safety way

BMS-564,929 is an investigational selective androgen receptor modulator, which is being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb for treatment of the symptoms of age-related decline in androgen levels in men (“andropause“). These symptoms may includedepression, loss of muscle mass and strength, reduction in libido and osteoporosis. Treatment with exogenous testosterone is effective in counteracting these symptoms but is associated with a range of side effects, the most serious of which is enlargement of the prostate gland, which can lead to benign prostatic hypertrophy and even prostate cancer. This means there is a clinical need for selective androgen receptor modulators, which produce anabolic effects in some tissues such as muscle and bone, but without stimulating androgen receptors in the prostate.[1]

BMS-564,929 is one such compound currently in early human clinical trials, which is an orally active, potent and selective agonist for androgen receptors (Ki 2.1nM, 20x functional selectivity for muscle tissue over prostate) and in studies on castrated rats it was shown to counteract decrease in muscle mass over time, and at higher doses even increased muscle mass, without significantly affecting prostate tissue.[2] It does however vastly reduce luteinizing hormone levels, it being an astonishing 33x more suppressive compound than testosterone,[3] which may be a problem in human clinical use.[4]

Selective androgen receptor modulators may also be used by athletes to assist in training and increase physical stamina and fitness, potentially producing effects similar to anabolic steroids but with significantly fewer side effects. For this reason, SARMs have already been banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency since January 2008 despite no drugs from this class yet being in clinical use, and blood tests for all known SARMs are currently being developed.[5][6]

Patent Submitted Granted
Bicyclic modulators of androgen receptor function [US2004019063] 2004-01-29
BICYCLIC MODULATORS OF ANDROGEN RECEPTOR FUNCTION [US7772267] 2008-05-08 2010-08-10
Bicyclic modulators of androgen receptor function [US7405234] 2004-09-16 2008-07-29

WO 2003096980

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2003096980A2?cl=en

Example 23

(7-K,7aS)-2-Chloro-4-(7-hydroxy-l,3-dioxotetrahydropyrrolo[l,2- c]imidazol-2-yl)-3-methylbenzonitrile

Figure imgf000111_0001

23 A. 3-Chloro-2-methylphenyIacetamide

Figure imgf000111_0002

To a solution of 3-chloro-2-methylaniline (3.00 g, 21.2 mmol) in 25 mL of EtOH at rt was added acetic anhydride (2.40 mL, 25.4 mmol), and the solution was stirred at rt for 2 h. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give 3.89 g (100%) of the desired acetamide. 1H NMR (DMSO- ) δ 2.05 (s, 3H), 2.20 (s, 3H), 7.16 (t, J = 1.1, 8.3, 1H), 7.25 (d, J = 8.3, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 8.3, 1H), 9.55 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO- ) δ 15.1, 23.1, 124.4, 125.8, 126.7, 130.3, 133.7, 138.0, 168.3; HPLC a) column: Phenominex ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA; 1 min hold, 4 mL/min UV detection at 220 nm, 2.32 min retention time; HPLC b) column: Shimadzu Shim-Pack VP-ODS CI 8 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold; 4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.20 min retention time (99%); MS (ES) m/z 184 [M+H]+.

no 23B. 4-Bromo-3-chloro-2-methylphenylacetamide

Figure imgf000112_0001

To a suspension of acetamide 23A (2.00 g, 10.9 mmol) in 15 mL of glacial AcOH cooled to approximately 15 °C was added bromine (1.67 mL, 32.7 mmol) over 20 min. The ice bath was removed and the solution was stirred for

2 h, poured into ice water with stirring, and the solid was then filtered and dried to give 2.75 g (96%) of the desired bromide. 1H NMR (DMSO-_i6) δ 2.05 (s,

3H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.3, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 8.8, 1H), 9.60 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO–i6) δ 16.7, 23.1, 118.1, 125.5, 130.4, 132.7, 133.4, 137.1, 168.4;

HPLC a) column: Phenominex ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10%

MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1 % TFA, 1 min hold,

4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.95 min retention time; HPLC b) column:

Shimadzu Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold,

4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.87 min retention time (98%); MS (ES) m/z 263 [M+H]+.

23C. 3-Chloro-4-cyano-2-methylphenylacetamide

Figure imgf000112_0002

A suspension of bromide 23B (2.70 g, 10.3 mmol) and copper cyanide (0.92 g,

10.3 mmol) in DMF (30 mL) was heated to 150 °C for 4 h. The suspension was cooled, poured into water with stirring, and the solid was filtered and dried to give 1.44 g (67%) of the desired nitrile. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 2.12 (s, 3H),

i n 2.29 (s, 3H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.8, 1H), 7.75 (d, J = 8.2, 1H), 9.73 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO- ) δ 15.3, 23.5, 107.7, 116.5, 123.0, 130.1, 131.5, 135.7, 142.3, 168.8; HPLC a) column: Phenominex ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold, 4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.23 min retention time; HPLC b) column: Shimadzu Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold, 4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.13 min retention time (95%); MS (ES) m/z 209 [M+H]+.

23D. 3-Chloro-4-cyano-2-methylphenylaniline

Figure imgf000113_0001

A solution of cyanoacetamide 23C (9.90 g, 47.4 mmol) in 100 mL of concentrated HCl EtOH (1 :1) was refluxed 30 min. The solution was then concentrated and dried under reduced pressure to give 9.41 g (98%) of the desired aniline as the hydrochloride salt. The free base of the aniline was obtained by suspending the salt in EtOAc and washing with saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution. The organic layer was then dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. Η NMR (OMSO-dβ) δ 2.12 (s, 3H), 6.30 (s, 2H), 6.61 (d, J = 8.23, 1H), 7.36 (d, J = 8.23, 1H); 13C NMR DMSO-d6) δ 13.8, 96.9, 112.1, 118.3, 118.85, 132.2, 135.6, 152.5; HPLC a) column: Phenominex ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold, 4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.43 min retention time; HPLC b):column: Shimadzu Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold, 4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 2.31 min retention time (99%); MS (ES) m/z 167 [M+H]+.

23E. 2-Chloro-4-isocyanato-3-methylbenzonitriIe

5

Figure imgf000114_0001

The title compound was prepared from compound 23D in a manner similar to that described in Experiments 2D to 2E.

l o 23F. (2S,3-R)-l-(3-Chloro-4-cyano-2-methylphenylcarbamoyl)-3-hydroxy- pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester

Figure imgf000114_0002

To a solution of hydroxyproline compound IF (493 mg, 3.40 mmol) in CH2C12

15 (15 mL) was added 4 A molecular sieves (~ 3.0 g), followed by isocyanate 23E (725 mg, 3.22 mmol), and the resulting mixture was stirred at rt overnight, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 0.5% MeOH in EtOAc/hexane, 1: 1) to afford the title compound (736 mg) as an off-white solid. HPLC column: YMC S-5 0 C18 (4.6 x 50 mm), 0% to 100% B, 4 min gradient, 1 min hold (A = 90% H20 – 10% CH3CN – 0.1% TFA and B = 10% H20 – 90% CH3CN – 0.1% TFA), flow rate at 4 mL/min, UV detection at 220 nm, 1.57 min retention time (100%); MS (ES) m/z 338 [M+H]+. 23G. (7-R,7a5)-2-Chloro-4-(7-hydroxy-l,3-dioxotetrahydropyrroIo[l,2- c]imidazoI-2-yl)-3-methyIbenzonitrile.

Figure imgf000115_0001

To a suspension of czs-3-hydroxyproline methyl ester, HCl salt (4.91 g, 27 mmol) in CH2C12 (100 mL) cooled to 0 °C was added -Pr2NEt (4.79 mL, 27.5 mmol). After stirring at rt for 15 min, isocyanate 23E was added as a solid in one portion through a powder addition funnel, rinsing with 50 mL CH2C12. The resulting light brown solution was stirred at rt until urea formation was complete (~ 2 h). To the mixture was then added DBU (4.6 mL, 30 mmol), and the resulting brown colored solution was stirred at rt until hydantoin formation was complete (~ 15 h). The product (4.72 g, 62%) was collected by filtration and washing with CH2C12 (2x). The mother liquor was then diluted with CH2C12 and washed with H20 (2x), 1 N HCl (2x) and brine. After removal of most of the solvent under reduced pressure, further product (1.2 g, 16%) was collected by filtration and washing with CH2C12 (2x). Recrystallization of the 4.72 g of crude product from hot THF and hexane gave 4.5 g of analytically pure product.

1H NMR (DMSO- ) δ 2.05-2.11 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.22 (m, 1H), 2.20, 2.24 (s, 3H), 3.29-3.33 (m, 1H), 3.59-3.68 (m, 1H), 4.42-4.50 (m, 2H), 5.64, 5.72 (d, J = 3.9, 3.3, 1H), 7.22, 7.51 (d, J = 8.3, 1H), 7.96 (d, I = 8.2,1H);

13C NMR (OMSO-d6) δ 15.4, 15.6, 35.5, 35.6, 43.3, 43.4, 68.8, 69.3, 69.8, 112.9, 113.1, 115.8, 128.1, 128.7, 132.1, 136.3, 136.4, 136.9, 137.1, 158.6, 169.1, 169.6;

BMS-564929

HPLC a) column: Phenominex ODS C18 4.6 x 50 mm, 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH 10% H2O/0.1% TFA; 1 min hold; 4 mL/min, UV detection at 254 nm, 2.07 and 2.32 min retention time; HPLC b) column: Shimadzu Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 (4.6 x 50 mm), 4 min gradient, 10% MeOH/90% H2O/0.1% TFA to 90% MeOH/10% H2O/0.1% TFA, 1 min hold, 4 mL/min, UV detection at 254 nm, 1.93 and 2.23 min retention time; Chiral HPLC column: Daicel Chiralcel OD 4.6 x 250 mm, isocratic, 30 min, 25% isopropanol/hexanes, 1 mL/min, UV detection at 254 nm; Shimadzu HPLC: 17.99 min retention time (>99%): Column: Hypercarb 5μ, 4.6 x 100 mm, 25 °C, isocratic, 30 min ACN/Η20 (35:65); 1 mL/min,

10.99 min retention time; MS (ES) m/z 306 [M+H]+. Alternatively, compound 23G can also be prepared by the following procedure: A solution of 22C (0.10 g, 0.28 mmol) and copper cyanide (0.03 g, 0.34 mmol) in DMF (1 mL) was refluxed for 3 h, cooled to rt, and diluted with water. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with water, dried and purified using preparative HPLC to afford the title compound (27 mg).

Alternatively, compound 23G can also be prepared by the following procedures: A solution of 22C (0.10 g, 0.278 mmol) and copper cyanide (0.03g, 0.334 mmol) in DMF (1 mL) was refluxed for 3 h, cooled to rt and diluted with water. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with water, dried and purified using preparative HPLC to afford the title compound (27 mg). HPLC: 99% at 2.06, 2.34 min (retention time) (Conditions: Phenom. Lura C18 (4.6 x 50 mm); Eluted with 0% to 100% B, 4 min gradient (A = 90% H20 – 10% MeOH – 0.1% TFA and B = 10% H20 – 90% MeOH – 0.1% TFA); Flow rate at 4.0 mL/min. UV detection at 220 nm). Chiral HPLC: retention time = 11.04 min (99%); Conditions: OD (4.6 x 250 mm); Eluted with 25% isopropanol in hexane for 30 min at 1 mL/min. MS (ES) m/z 306 [M+l]+.

References

  1.  Gao, W; Dalton, JT (2007). “Expanding the therapeutic use of androgens via selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs)”. Drug Discovery Today 12 (5–6): 241–8. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2007.01.003. PMC 2072879. PMID 17331889.
  2. Ostrowski, J; Kuhns, JE; Lupisella, JA; Manfredi, MC; Beehler, BC; Krystek Jr, SR; Bi, Y; Sun, C et al. (2007). “Pharmacological and x-ray structural characterization of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator: potent hyperanabolic stimulation of skeletal muscle with hypostimulation of prostate in rats”. Endocrinology 148 (1): 4–12. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0843. PMID 17008401.
  3.  http://antaeuslabs.blogspot.com/2011/01/hydantoin-derivative-sarms-bms-564929.html
  4.  Gao, W; Dalton, JT (2007). “Ockham’s Razor and Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs): Are We Overlooking the Role of 5α-Reductase?”. Molecular interventions 7 (1): 10–3.doi:10.1124/mi.7.1.3. PMC 2040232. PMID 17339601.
  5.  Thevis, M; Kohler, M; Schlörer, N; Kamber, M; Kühn, A; Linscheid, MW; Schänzer, W (2008). “Mass spectrometry of hydantoin-derived selective androgen receptor modulators”. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS 43 (5): 639–50. doi:10.1002/jms.1364. PMID 18095383.
  6.  Thevis, M; Kohler, M; Thomas, A; Maurer, J; Schlörer, N; Kamber, M; Schänzer, W (2008). “Determination of benzimidazole- and bicyclic hydantoin-derived selective androgen receptor antagonists and agonists in human urine using LC-MS/MS”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (1): 251–61. doi:10.1007/s00216-008-1882-6. PMID 18270691.

External links

BMS-564,929
BMS-564,929.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(7R,7aS)-2-Chloro-4-(7-hydroxy-1,3-dioxotetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-2-yl)-3-methylbenzonitrile
Clinical data
  • Investigational new drug
Identifiers
PubChem CID 9882972
DrugBank DB07286 
ChemSpider 8058647 
Chemical data
Formula C14H12ClN3O3
305.716 g/mol

//////////

 

TAKE A TOUR

 

 

TAKE A TOUR

 

 

TAKE A TOUR

 

Jejuri,  Pune district, Maharashtra, INDIA

  1. Jejuri – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jejuri

    Jejuri is a city and a municipal council in Pune district in the Western Indian state of Maharashtra. It is famous for the main temple of Lord Khandoba.

    Geography – ‎How to reach – ‎Demographics – ‎Temple

Map of jejuri

 

 

 

 

 

 

MaharashtraPune.png

Jejuri is situated 48 km from Pune in Maharashtra State. Jejuri can be reached is by Road or Rail from Pune. Number of State Transport buses ply from Pune. It can be reached by Express trains from Pune Railway Station. GKP LTT Express Train no.15018 departure 0450 hrs from Pune PN arrival Jejuri JJR 0548 hrs, Maharshtra Express Train no.11040 departure 0450 hrs from Pune PN arrival Jejuri JJR 0549 hrs Koyana Express Train no.11029 departure 0045 hrs from Pune PN arrival Jejuri JJR 0148 hrs Sahyadri Express Train no.11023 departure 2205 hrs from Pune PN arrival Jejuri JJR 2308 hrs.These trains runs all days.

Jejuri is one of the most famous religious places in Maharashtra. The Village Jejuri is popularly known as Khanderayachi Jejuri.

Jejuri’s Khandoba Temple is built on a hill, which is approximately 51 kilometers away from Pune Railway Station. As the Temple is on the hill, one has to ascend more than 200 steps. But the ascending is not so tough and the wonderful view of Jejuri village is superb. If weather permits, One can easily see the spectacular view of Dive and Saswad Ghat. One can enjoy number of `Deep Mala’ (lamp post) while climbing the hill. Jejuri is really popular for its old Deep Malas.

The Jejuri temple was constructed in 1608. The Sabhamandap (Audience Hall) and other parts of the structure were completed subsequently. In 1742, Holkars constructed pillars and completed battlements and tank. The devotees added gateways, stairways, lamp pillars, cloisters etc.

The Idol of Lord khandoba in the Temple is beautiful.

The shepherd community considers Khandoba as their family deity.

One must visit Jejuri to look the Crystal Stands. Jejuri is one of the important temples in Maharashtra with historical significance.

Khandobacha Yelkot, Yelkot Yelkot Jay Malhar, Sadanandacha Yelkot, Kadepathar Maharaj Ki Jay are some of the popular terms here.

One can find many idols in and nearby the Jejuri Temple.

Temple Festivals :-

Chaitra Pournima, Dussehra, Champa Shashthi, Paush Pournima, Magh Pournima, Mahashivratri, Somvati Amavasya, Guru Pournima

Pandit/Brahmin for Pooja in Jejuri :-

Upadhye Guruji-9850150797, 02115-253152

Accommodation :-

Shree Siddhi Lodge and Hotel # 02115-253090

Best time to visit Jejuri :-

Throughout the year

Nearest Railway Station :-

Jejuri Railway Station

Distance :-

Mumbai – Jejuri – 206 Kilometers (By Road) Via Mumbai Pune Express Way

Nearby Attractions / Holy Places :-

Shree Mayureshwar Temple, Morgaon (Ashta Vinayak)
Pandeshwar
Bhuleshwar
Saswad
Kanifnath Temple
Balaji Temple

 

A painting depicts Khandoba riding a white horse with Mhalsa, accompanied with a dog and attendants including a Waghya dancing before him.

Khandoba and Mhalsa killing demons Mani-Malla — a popularoleograph, c.1880.

Khandoba
Jejuri.Khandoba.jpg

Khandoba (center) in his four armed form, the two metal images depict him with his wives. The sanctum of the newer Jejuri temple.

(1S)-(-)-beta-Pinene


(1S)-(1)-beta-Pinene Structure

(1S)-(1)-beta-Pinene, (1S)-(-)-beta-Pinene

 

.

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene.

 

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene

 

 

13C NMR

.

 

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene.

 

APT

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene.

DEPT

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene.

COSY

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene.

HETCOR

image of (1s)-(-)-b-pinene

IR

 

MASS

.

 

.

 

 

 

RAMAN

 

 

CAS No. 18172-67-3
Chemical Name: (1S)-(1)-beta-Pinene
Synonyms: β-Pinen;FEMA 2903;PINENE BETA;(1S)-(-)-B-PINENE;LAEVO-BETA-PINENE;(1s)-(-)-á-pinene;ALPHA,BETA-PINENE;(1S)-(-)-SS-PINENE;PINENE, (1S)-(-)-B-;(1s)-(1)-beta-pinene
CBNumber: CB8270232
Molecular Formula: C10H16
Formula Weight: 136.23
MOL File: 18172-67-3.mol
(1S)-(1)-beta-Pinene Property
mp : −61 °C(lit.)
bp : 165-167 °C(lit.)
alpha : -18.5 º (c=neat 25 ºC)
density : 0.866 g/mL at 25 °C
vapor density : 4.7 (vs air)
vapor pressure : ~2 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
FEMA : 2903
refractive index : n20/D 1.478
Fp : 91 °F
storage temp. : 2-8°C
Water Solubility : insoluble
Merck : 14,7446
BRN : 2038282
CAS DataBase Reference: 18172-67-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference: Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-, (1S)-(18172-67-3)
EPA Substance Registry System: Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-, (1S,5S)-(18172-67-3)
Safety
Hazard Codes : Xn,N,Xi
Risk Statements : 10-20/21/22-36/37/38-43-51-65-51/53
Safety Statements : 16-26-36/37-46-61-62
RIDADR : UN 2319 3/PG 3
WGK Germany : 3
RTECS : DT5077000
HazardClass : 3
PackingGroup : III
HS Code : 29021910

take a tour

Amalner,  Jalgaon, Maharashtra, India

Amalner – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amalner

Amalner, India is a city and a municipal council in Jalgaon district in the state of Maharashtra, India, situated on the bank of the Bori River. Amalner is the …

History – ‎Geography – ‎Demographics – ‎Education

Map of amalner maharashtra

 

 

10000 devout Hindus were present for the Hindu Dharmajagruti Sabha at Amalner, Maharashtra

 

end of amalner…………

 

Daulatabad Fort Market

India / Maharashtra / Aurangabad /

Daulatabad, Maharashtra – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daulatabad,_Maharashtra

Daulatabad also known as Devagiri is a town which includes the Devagiri-Daulatabad fort It carries the distinction of remaining undefeated in battle.

Fort of Daulatabad – ‎The City – ‎Monuments – ‎Transport
 Marketplace
 Map of daulatabad

Market place and Hotel/Dhaba
Nearby cities: Aurangabad, New Aurangabad, CIDCO. , Gangapur
Coordinates:   19°56’36″N   75°13’17″E
 

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ANAGLIPTIN Spectral visit


N-[2-[[2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide

N-[2-[[2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide
CAS No.: 739366-20-2
Synonyms:
  • Anagliptin;
Formula: C19H25N7O2
Exact Mass: 383.20700

Anagliptin chemically known as N-[2-[2-[2(S)-cyanopyrrolidin-l-yl]-2-oxoethylamino]- 2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide is represented by the structural formula:

Figure imgf000003_0001

Anagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV- inhibitor. United States Patent No 7345 1 80- (IJS’ 180) discloses anagliptin.

N-[2-[[2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 739366-20-2 NMR spectral analysis, N-[2-[[2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide H-NMR spectrum

N-[2-[[2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 739366-20-2 NMR spectral analysis, N-[2-[[2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-methylpropyl]-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide C-NMR spectrum

Example 5: Synthesis of N-[2-2[2(S)-Cyano pyrrolidin-l-yl]-2-oxoethyIamino]-2- methyIpropyl]-2-methyaIpyrazoIo [1, 5-a] pyrimidine-6-carboxamide (I, anagliptin).

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13): δ 1.16 (s, 6H), 2.23(m, 4H), 2.54(s, 3H), 3.25-3.51 (m, 6H), 4.78 (m, 1H), 6.53 (s, 1H), 8.05 (s, 1H), 8.93 (s, 1H), 9.22(s, 1H)

HPLC Purity: 99.71%, Chiral purity: 100%………WO2014147640A2

Kato, M.; Oka, M.; Murase, T.; Yoshida, M.; Sakairi, M.; Yamashita, S.; Yasuda, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Hayashi, Y.; Makino, M.; Takeda, M.; Mirensha, Y.;
Kakigami, T. Discovery and pharmacological characterization of N-[2-({2-[(2S)-2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}amino)-2-methylpropyl]-
2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide hydrochloride (anagliptin hydrochloride salt) as a potent and selective
DPP-IV inhibitor. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2011, 19, 7221–7227.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968089611007784

Full-size image (4 K)

LATUR, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latur

Latur
लातूर
Lattalur, Ratnapur
City

Latur is located in Maharashtra

Latur
Latur

Location in Maharashtra, India

Coordinates: 18.40°N 76.56°ECoordinates18.40°N 76.56°E
Country  India
State Maharashtra
Region Aurangabad Division
District Latur
Settled Possibly 7th century AD
Government
 • Body Latur Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Akhtar Shaikh
Area[1]
 • Total 117.78 km2(45.48 sq mi)
Area rank 89
Elevation 515 m (1,690 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 382,754
 • Rank 89th
 • Density 3,200/km2(8,400/sq mi)
Demonym Laturkar
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN
  • 413 512
  • 413 531
Telephone code 91-2382
Vehicle registration MH-24
Sex ratio 923.54 /1000 
Literacy 89.67
Distance from Mumbai 497 kilometres (309 mi) E (land)
Distance fromHyderabad 337 kilometres (209 mi) NW (land)
Distance fromAurangabad, Maharashtra 294 kilometres (183 mi) SE (land)
Climate BSh (Köppen)
Precipitation 666 millimetres (26.2 in)
Avg. summer temperature 41 °C (106 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 13 °C (55 °F)
http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html

Map of latur city

his Is The Famous ‘Ganj-Golai’ As The Central Place Of The Latur City. There Are 16 Roads Connecting To This Place And Seperate Markets i.e. Jewellers …

लातूर जिल्हयातील चित्र संग्रह


LATUR AIRPORT

LATUR AIRPORT

2012 Navratri Mahotsav in Latur

SOS Children’s Village Latur

Latur, India: Carnival Resort

Ausa Near Latur

Chakur near Latur


Vilasrao Deshmukh’s ancestral home at Babhalgaon village in Latur. Machindra Amle

UDGIR: Udgir is one of the most important towns of Latur district. Udgir has a great historical significance. It has witnessed the war between the Marathas …

The city of Latur is located in India’s welathiest state, Maharashtra. Together with many of the surrounding villages, Latur was all but destroyed in the

Methyl (S)-aminobutyrate hydrochloride…..Levetiracetam intermediate


Methyl (S)-aminobutyrate hydrochloride…..Levetiracetam intermediate

(s)-2-aminobutyric Acid Methyl Ester
PATENT

http://www.google.im/patents/WO2003014080A2?cl=en

(S)-amino butyric acid
Step 1 – Synthesis of methyl (S)-aminobutyrate hydrochloride

……………………………(23) …………………………………………………….(24)
5.0g of (S)-amino butyric acid (23) was suspended in 50 ml of methanol and stirred at 0-5°C. 6.35g of thionyl chloride was added dropwise over 45 min to form a clear solution. After stirring for 20 hours at room temperature, the reaction was concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness and the almost colourless residue solidified to give the required product which was dried in an oven at 50°C under vacuum (7.6g; 102% crude yield). The same reaction was scaled-up from 200g of the amino acid and provided 296g (99.5% yield) of product (24). Analysis gave the following results:
1H NMR (DMSO-de) : d 0.94 (3H, t) 1.88 (2H, q) 3.75 (3H, s) 3,9 (1H, m) 8,8
(3H, m). m.p. : 107°C-110°C IR : 2876 cm 1, 1742 cm 1.
TLC : Si02, 20%MeOH/80%EtOAc/ l%NH OH, UV & IR. (TLC is an abbreviation for thin layer chromatography).
logo
1H NMR PREDICT
(S)-2-aminobutyric acid methyl ester NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 15399-22-1 NMR spectral analysis, (S)-2-aminobutyric acid methyl ester H-NMR spectrum
13C PREDICT
logo
(S)-2-aminobutyric acid methyl ester NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 15399-22-1 NMR spectral analysis, (S)-2-aminobutyric acid methyl ester C-NMR spectrum
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.




COCK WILL TEACH YOU NMR
COCK SAYS MOM CAN TEACH YOU NMR

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  JALGAON, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

.

 

 Image result for jalgaon railway station

 

 

 

 

 

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http://www.aai.aero/allAirports/jalgaon_airport.jpg

.

MANUDEVI

GSK 2269557 In Phase 1….Asthma , COPD, is it COMPD A OR B?


COMPD A

 

COMPD B

Compd A OR B IS GSK 2269557

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)
PHASE 1….asthma & COPD
ASHTHMA COPD

DATA FOR COMPD A

6-​(1H-​indol-​4-​yl)​-​4-​[5-​[[4-​(1-​methylethyl)​-​1-​piperazinyl]​methyl]​-​2-​oxazolyl]​-1H-​Indazole,

6-(1 H-lndol-4-yl)-4-(5-{[4-(1-methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1 H- indazole

CAS 1254036-77-5 hcl salt
base 1254036-71-9, 440.54, C26 H28 N6 O
Formula C26H28N6O.HCl

EMAIL ME amcrasto@gmail.com

DATA FOR COMPD B
Methanesulfonamide, N-​[5-​[4-​[5-​[[(2R,​6S)​-​2,​6-​dimethyl-​4-​morpholinyl]​methyl]​-​2-​oxazolyl]​-​1H-​indazol-​6-​yl]​-​2-​methoxy-​3-​pyridinyl]​-​,
N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide
1254036-66-2 CAS
C24 H28 N6 O5 S, 512.58
Compound B may be prepared according to known procedures, such as those disclosed in international patent application PCT/EP2010/055666 (publication number WO02010/125082)
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Phosphoinositide 3ΌΗ kinases (hereinafter PI3Ks) are a family of signal transducer enzymes which are involved in various cellular functions including cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. A wide variety of retroviruses and DNA-based viruses activate the PI3K pathway as a way of preventing host cell death during viral infection and ultimately exploiting the host cell synthesis machinery for its replication (Virology 344(1) p. 131-8 (2006) by Vogt et al.; and Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6(4) p. 265-75 (2008) by Buchkovich et al). It has therefore been postulated that PI3K inhibitors may have potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of viral infections such as influenza virus infection, in addition to the more established treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

The Influenza NS1 protein activates Class la PI3Ks by binding to their regulatory subunit p85beta but not to other Class la regulatory subunits such as p85alpha. The recent crystal structure of the NS1-p85beta complex (Hale et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 107(5) p.1954-1959 (2010)) is also suggestive of an interaction with the p110 kinase subunit providing a mechanism for catalytic activation of the kinase domain. This observation provides a rationale for isoform specificity not only with the p85 regulatory subunit but also potentially with the p110 catalytic subunit too. The function of PI3K during influenza virus infection has also been investigated by, for example, Ehrhardt et al. (Cell. Microbiol. 8(8) p. 1336-1348 (2006)), and the role of PI3K5 signalling in morbidity and lung pathology induced by influenza virus infection has been reported in WO 2010/083163.

There remains a need to provide compounds which are inhibitors of the activity or function of PI3K5 which may be useful in the treatment or prevention of influenza virus infection.

GSK 2269557 is an inhaled phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kdelta) inhibitor in early clinical trials at GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of patients with asthma and also for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients who smoke cigarettes.

  • 18 Nov 2014GlaxoSmithKline plans a phase II trial in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Russia (NCT02294734)
  • 01 Jun 2014Phase-II clinical trials in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Germany (Inhalation)
  • 01 May 2014GlaxoSmithKline plans a phase II trial for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Germany (NCT02130635)
Study ID Status Title Patient Level Data
115117 Completed A single-centre. double-blind, placebo controlled three part study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of single and repeat doses of nebulised GSK2269557 in healthy male subjects
115119 Active not recruiting A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Randomised, Parallel Group Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Multiple Doses of GSK2269557 Administered as a Dry Powder to COPD Patients
116617 Completed A Single-Centre, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Two Part Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Repeat Doses of GSK2269557 as a Dry Powder in Healthy Subjects who Smoke Cigarettes
116678 Not yet recruiting A Randomised, Double-blind (Sponsor Unblinded), Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multicentre Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of GSK2269557 Administered in Addition to Standard of Care in Adult Subjects Diagnosed With an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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CLICK ON IMAGES TO VIEW SIMILAR ROUTES FOR COMPD A AND B

EO2

EO1A

CLICK ON IMAGE TO VIEW

EO1B

…………………………………………………………………….

COMPD A

WO 2012032065

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2012032065A1?cl=en

Example 68

6-(1 H-lndol-4-yl)-4-(5-{[4-(1-methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1 H- indazole

Method A

6-Chloro-4-(5-{[4-(1-methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1/-/-indazole (97 mg, 0.194 mmol), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1 H- indole (61.3 mg, 0.252 mmol, available from Frontier Scientific Europe), chloro[2′- (dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-(1 ,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4 )- bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (10.87 mg, 0.019 mmol) and potassium phosphate tribasic (124 mg, 0.582 mmol) were dissolved in 1 ,4-dioxane (1 ml) and water (0.1 ml) and heated in a Biotage Initiator microwave at 100°C for 30 min. Additional 4-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxabotolan-2-yl)-1 H-indole (61.3 mg, 0.252 mmol) and chloro[2′- (dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-(1 ,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4 )- bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (5 mg) were added and the reaction heated at 1 10°C for 30 min, then 140°C for 30 min. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with 0-25% methanol in dichloromethane. The appropriate fractions were combined and concentrated to give a brown solid which was dissolved in MeOH:DMSO (1 ml, 1 : 1 , v/v) and purified by MDAP (method H). The appropriate fractions were concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a white solid (30 mg).

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.57 mins, MH+ 441.

Method B

6-Chloro-4-(5-{[4-(1-methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 H-indazole (75.17 g, 150 mmol), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1 H- indole (73.1 g, 301 mmol), sodium bicarbonate (37.9 g, 451 mmol), and chloro[2′- (dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-(1 ,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4 )- bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (8.43 g, 15.03 mmol) were suspended in nitrogen purged 1 ,4-dioxane (1200 ml_) and water (300 ml_). The reaction vessel was placed under alternating vacuum and nitrogen five times with overhead stirring, then finally placed under a nitrogen atmosphere and heated to 120°C for 2.5 h.

The reaction mixture was cooled to 45°C and then treated with 2M aqueous sodium hydroxide (376 ml_, 752 mmol). After stirring at 45°C overnight (~ 13h), the mixture was cooled to RT and DCM (600 ml) and water (400 ml) were added. The layers were separated and the aqueous re-extracted with DCM: 1 ,4-dioxane (1 : 1). Brine was added and the mixture filtered through Celite, washing with DCM: 1 ,4-dioxane (1 : 1). The layers were separated and 2M HCI (1000 ml) added to the organic. The mixture was again filtered through Celite washing with 500 ml 2M HCI keeping the washings separate. The filtrate layers were then separated and the organic layer was washed with the acid washings from the Celite. Layers were separated and the acidic aqueous combined. This was then back-washed with 2×500 ml of DCM; each wash requiring a Celite filtration. The acidic aqueous was then given a final filtration through Celite washing the Celite pad with 150 ml of 2M HCI.

The acidic aqueous was transfered to a beaker (5000 ml) and with vigorous stirring 2M NaOH was added to basify the mixture to pH 10-11. The mixture was then extracted using 1 ,4-dioxane: DCM (1 : 1) (5 x 500 ml). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulphate, filtered and evaporated to yield a brown foam that was dried in vacuo at 50°C overnight. This material was split into three batches and each was purified by reverse phase column chromatography (3x 1.9 kg C18 column), loading in DMF/TFA (1 : 1 , 30 ml) then eluting with 3-40% MeCN in Water + 0.25% TFA (Note: Columns 2 & 3 used a different gradient starting with 10% MeCN).

Appropriate fractions were combined, the acetotnitrile removed in vacuo and the acidic aqueous basified to pH10 by addition of saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution to the stirred solution. The resultant solid was collected by filtration, washed with water then dried in vacuo at 65°C overnight to give the title compound (28.82 g) as a pale brown foam.

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.68 mins, MH+ 441.

1 H NMR (400MHz ,DMSO-d6) d = 13.41 (br. s., 1 H), 11.35 (br. s., 1 H), 8.59 (br. s., 1 H), 8.07 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.90 (br. s., 1 H), 7.51 – 7.44 (m, 2 H), 7.32 (s, 1 H), 7.27 – 7.21 (m, 2 H), 6.61 – 6.58 (m, 1 H), 3.73 (br. s., 2 H), 2.64 – 2.36 (m, 9 H), 0.97 – 0.90 (m, 6 H)

Method C

Potassium hydroxide (145.6 g) was added to a suspension of 6-(1 H-indol-4-yl)-4-(5-{[4-(1- methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1 H-indazole (300.7 g) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (9.3 g) in tetrahydrofuran (6.0 L) and water (30 ml) stirring under nitrogen at ambient temperature. The mixture was heated at reflux for 17 hours and was then cooled to 20-25°C. Ethyl acetate (3.0 L) and water (3.0 L) were added, stirred for 10 minutes and then separated. The organic layer was extracted with hydrochloric acid (1 M, 1 x 3.0 L, 2 x 1.5L) and the acidic extracts combined and basified to ~pH 8 by the addition of saturated sodium carbonate solution (2.1 L). After ageing for 30 minutes the resultant suspension was filtered, washed with water (300 ml) and the solid dried under vacuum at 65°C to give the title compound as a pale yellow solid (127.9 g).

LCMS (Method B): Rt 2.44 min, MH+ 441.

…………………………………………………………………………

WO 2010125082

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2010125082A1?cl=en

Example 6

6-(1 H-lndol-4-yl)-4-(5-{[4-(1 -methylethyl)-1 -piperazinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1 H- indazole

Method A

6-Chloro-4-(5-{[4-(1-methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1H-indazole (97 mg, 0.194 mmol), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1 H- indole (61.3 mg, 0.252 mmol, available from Frontier Scientific Europe), chloro[2′- (dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-(1 R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4R)- bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (10.87 mg, 0.019 mmol) and potassium phosphate tribasic (124 mg, 0.582 mmol) were dissolved in 1 ,4-dioxane (1 ml) and water (0.1 ml) and heated in a Biotage Initiator microwave at 1000C for 30 min. Additional 4-(4, 4,5,5- tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxabotolan-2-yl)-1 H-indole (61.3 mg, 0.252 mmol) and chloro[2′- (dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-(1 R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4R)- bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (5 mg) were added and the reaction heated at 1 1O0C for 30 min, then 14O0C for 30 min. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography, eluting with 0-25% methanol in dichloromethane. The appropriate fractions were combined and concentrated to give a brown solid which was dissolved in MeOH:DMSO (1 ml, 1 :1 , v/v) and purified by MDAP (method A). The appropriate fractions were concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a white solid (30 mg).

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.57 mins, MH+ 441.

Method B

6-Chloro-4-(5-{[4-(1-methylethyl)-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 H-indazole (75.17 g, 150 mmol), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1 H- indole (73.1 g, 301 mmol), sodium bicarbonate (37.9 g, 451 mmol), and chloro[2′- (dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-(1 R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4R)- bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (8.43 g, 15.03 mmol) were suspended in nitrogen purged 1 ,4-dioxane (1200 ml.) and water (300 ml_). The reaction vessel was placed under alternating vacuum and nitrogen five times with overhead stirring, then finally placed under a nitrogen atmosphere and heated to 1200C for 2.5 h.

The reaction mixture was cooled to 45°C and then treated with 2M aqueous sodium hydroxide (376 ml_, 752 mmol). After stirring at 450C overnight (~ 13h), the mixture was cooled to RT and DCM (600 ml) and water (400 ml) were added. The layers were separated and the aqueous re-extracted with DCM: 1 ,4-dioxane (1 :1 ). Brine was added and the mixture filtered through Celite, washing with DCM: 1 ,4-dioxane (1 :1 ). The layers were separated and 2M HCI (1000 ml) added to the organic. The mixture was again filtered through Celite washing with 500 ml 2M HCI keeping the washings separate. The filtrate layers were then separated and the organic layer was washed with the acid washings from the Celite. Layers were separated and the acidic aqueous combined. This was then back-washed with 2×500 ml of DCM; each wash requiring a Celite filtration. The acidic aqueous was then given a final filtration through Celite washing the Celite pad with 150 ml of 2M HCI.

The acidic aqueous was transfered to a beaker (5000 ml) and with vigorous stirring 2M NaOH was added to basify the mixture to pH 10-11. The mixture was then extracted using 1 ,4-dioxane:DCM (1 :1 ) (5 x 500 ml). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulphate, filtered and evaporated to yield a brown foam that was dried in vacuo at 500C overnight.

This material was split into three batches and each was purified by reverse phase column chromatography (3x 1.9 kg C18 column), loading in DMF/TFA (1 :1 , 30 ml) then eluting with 3-40% MeCN in Water + 0.25% TFA (Note: Columns 2 & 3 used a different gradient starting with 10% MeCN).

Appropriate fractions were combined, the acetotnitrile removed in vacuo and the acidic aqueous basified to pH10 by addition of saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution to the stirred solution. The resultant solid was collected by filtration, washed with water then dried in vacuo at 65°C overnight to give the title compound (28.82 g) as a pale brown foam.

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.68 mins, MH+ 441. 1H NMR (400MHz ,DMSOd6) d = 13.41 (br. s., 1 H), 11.35 (br. s., 1 H), 8.59 (br. s., 1 H), 8.07 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.90 (br. s., 1 H), 7.51 – 7.44 (m, 2 H), 7.32 (s, 1 H), 7.27 – 7.21 (m, 2 H), 6.61 – 6.58 (m, 1 H), 3.73 (br. s., 2 H), 2.64 – 2.36 (m, 9 H), 0.97 – 0.90 (m, 6 H)

EMAIL ME amcrasto@gmail.com

COMPD B

WO2010125082

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2010125082A1?cl=en

Example 1

Λ/-[5-[4-(5-{[(2/?,6S)-2,6-Dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1H-indazol-

6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide

Method A

To a solution of 6-chloro-4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2- yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1 H-indazole (0.20 g, 0.411 mmol) and N-[2-(methoxy)-5-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3-pyridyl]methanesulfonamide (0.175 g, 0.534 mmol) in 1 ,4-dioxane (2 ml) was added chloro[2′-(dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium- 1 (1 /?,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4/?)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (11.5 mg, 0.021 mmol), potassium phosphate tribasic (0.262 g, 1.23 mmol) and water (0.2 ml). The reaction mixture was heated and stirred at 12O0C under microwave irradiation for 1 h. Additional chloroP’^dimethylamino^-biphenylyOpalladium-^I R^S^bicycloP^.ilhept^- yl[(1 S,4/?)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (11.5 mg, 0.021 mmol) and potassium phosphate tribasic (80 mg) were added and the reaction heated to 12O0C under microwave irradiation for 1 h. Additional potassium phospate tribasic (80 mg) was added and the reaction heated under the same conditions for a further 1 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a silica SPE and eluted with methanol. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue partitioned between dichloromethane (5 ml) and water (5 ml). The layers were separated and the aqueous extracted with further dichloromethane (2x 2 ml). The combined organics were concentrated under a stream of nitrogen and the residue dissolved in MeOH:DMSO (3ml, 1 :1 , v/v) and purified by MDAP (method A) in 3 injections. The appropriate fractions were combined and concentrated to give a white solid which was dissolved in MeOH:DMSO (1 ml, 1 :1 , v/v) and further purified by MDAP (method B). The appropriate fractions were basified to pH 6 with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate (2x 25 ml). The combined organics were dried and evaporated in vacuo to give a white solid which was further dried under nitrogen at 4O0C for 3 h to give the title compound as a white solid (26 mg). LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.53 mins, MH+ 513.

Method B N-[2-(Methyloxy)-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3- pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (101 g, 308 mmol), 6-chloro-4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4- morpholinyl]methyl}-1 ,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1 H-indazole (83.3 g, 154 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (38.8 g, 462 mmol) were suspended in 1 ,4-dioxane (1840 ml) and water (460 ml) under nitrogen and heated to 800C. Chloro[2′-(dimethylamino)-2- biphenylyl]palladium-1 (1 R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1 S,4R)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2- yl]phosphane (8.63 g, 15.40 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred overnight at 800C.

The reaction mixture was cooled to 450C, sodium hydroxide 2M aq. (770 ml, 1540 mmol) added and the reaction heated to 45 0C for 4 hours. The mixture was cooled to RT and diluted with water (610 ml_). Dichloromethane (920 ml.) was added, and the mixture was filtered twice through Celite (washed with 200 ml. 1 ,4-dioxane/DCM 2:1 each time). The phases were separated, and aqueous washed with 1 ,4-dioxane/DCM 2:1 (500 ml_). The aqueous phase was neutralised with hydrochloric acid to pH -7 and extracted with 1 ,4- dioxane/DCM 2:1 (1 L), then 1 ,4 dioxane/DCM 1 :1 (2×500 ml_). The organics were washed with brine (500 ml_), and filtered through Celite (washed with 200 ml. 1 ,4 dioxane/DCM 2:1 ), and evaporated to yield a dark black solid, which was purified in 4 batches:

Batch 1 : 28g was dissolved in Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (100 ml.) and purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (14.78 g).

Batch 2: 3Og was dissolved in methanol and mixed with Fluorisil. The solvent was then removed by evaporation and the solid purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column, solid sample injection module), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (9.44 g).

Batch 3: 31 g was dissolved in Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (100 ml.) and purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (17 g).

Batch 4: 29g was dissolved in Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (100 ml.) and purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (21 g).

The mixed fractions from the 4 columns were combined and evaporated to yield 19 g which was dissolved in 200 ml. of Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (+ additional 4ml of 0.88 NH3 to help solubility) then purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (6.1 g).

All pure batches were combined (68 g) and recrystallised from ethanol (1200 ml_). The suspension was heated to reflux and a solution formed. The resulting solution was then cooled to room temperature overnight. The resulting solid was then collected by filtration, washed sparingly with ethanol and dried under vacuum to give the title compound as an off-white solid (56 g). This material was recrystallised again from ethanol (1 100 ml_). The suspension was heated to reflux and a solution formed. The resulting solution was then cooled to room temperature overnight with stirring. The resulting solid was collected by filtration and washed sparingly with ethanol. The solid was dried in vacuo at 600C for 5hrs to give the title compound as an off-white solid (45.51 g). LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.61 mins, MH+ 513.

The filtrate from the two recrystallisations was evaporated to yield -23 g of a solid residue that was dissolved in 200 ml. of Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (+ additional 4ml of 0.88 NH3 to help solubility) then purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give a further crop of the title compound as an off-white solid (18.5 g). This solid was then recrystallised from ethanol (370 ml_). The suspension was heated to reflux then the resulting solution stirred for 20 mins before being allowed to cool to room temperature naturally overnight. The solid was then dried in vacuo at 65°C overnight to give the title compound as an off-white solid (11.9O g). LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.62 mins, MH+ 513.

………………………………………..

 http://www.google.co.in/patents/US8735390

Example 1N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-Dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide

Method A

To a solution of 6-chloro-4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indazole (0.20 g, 0.411 mmol) and N-[2-(methoxy)-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3-pyridyl]methanesulfonamide (0.175 g, 0.534 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (2 ml) was added chloro[2′-(dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-1(1R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1S,4R)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (11.5 mg, 0.021 mmol), potassium phosphate tribasic (0.262 g, 1.23 mmol) and water (0.2 ml). The reaction mixture was heated and stirred at 120° C. under microwave irradiation for 1 h. Additional chloro[2′-(dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-1(1R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1S,4R)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (11.5 mg, 0.021 mmol) and potassium phosphate tribasic (80 mg) were added and the reaction heated to 120° C. under microwave irradiation for 1 h. Additional potassium phospate tribasic (80 mg) was added and the reaction heated under the same conditions for a further 1 h. The reaction mixture was filtered through a silica SPE and eluted with methanol. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue partitioned between dichloromethane (5 ml) and water (5 ml). The layers were separated and the aqueous extracted with further dichloromethane (2×2 ml). The combined organics were concentrated under a stream of nitrogen and the residue dissolved in MeOH:DMSO (3 ml, 1:1, v/v) and purified by MDAP (method A) in 3 injections. The appropriate fractions were combined and concentrated to give a white solid which was dissolved in MeOH:DMSO (1 ml, 1:1, v/v) and further purified by MDAP (method B). The appropriate fractions were basified to pH 6 with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and extracted with ethyl acetate (2×25 ml). The combined organics were dried and evaporated in vacuo to give a white solid which was further dried under nitrogen at 40° C. for 3 h to give the title compound as a white solid (26 mg).

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.53 mins, MH+ 513.

Method B

N-[2-(Methyloxy)-5-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (101 g, 308 mmol), 6-chloro-4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indazole (83.3 g, 154 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (38.8 g, 462 mmol) were suspended in 1,4-dioxane (1840 ml) and water (460 ml) under nitrogen and heated to 80° C. Chloro[2′-(dimethylamino)-2-biphenylyl]palladium-1(1R,4S)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl[(1S,4R)-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]phosphane (8.63 g, 15.40 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred overnight at 80° C.

The reaction mixture was cooled to 45° C., sodium hydroxide 2M aq. (770 ml, 1540 mmol) added and the reaction heated to 45° C. for 4 hours. The mixture was cooled to RT and diluted with water (610 mL). Dichloromethane (920 mL) was added, and the mixture was filtered twice through Celite (washed with 200 mL 1,4-dioxane/DCM 2:1 each time). The phases were separated, and aqueous washed with 1,4-dioxane/DCM 2:1 (500 mL). The aqueous phase was neutralised with hydrochloric acid to pH ˜7 and extracted with 1,4-dioxane/DCM 2:1 (1 L), then 1,4 dioxane/DCM 1:1 (2×500 mL). The organics were washed with brine (500 mL), and filtered through Celite (washed with 200 mL 1,4 dioxane/DCM 2:1), and evaporated to yield a dark black solid, which was purified in 4 batches:

  • Batch 1: 28 g was dissolved in Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (100 mL) and purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (14.78 g).
  • Batch 2: 30 g was dissolved in methanol and mixed with Fluorisil. The solvent was then removed by evaporation and the solid purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column, solid sample injection module), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (9.44 g).
  • Batch 3: 31 g was dissolved in Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (100 mL) and purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (17 g).
  • Batch 4: 29 g was dissolved in Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (100 mL) and purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (21 g).

The mixed fractions from the 4 columns were combined and evaporated to yield 19 g which was dissolved in 200 mL of Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (+additional 4 ml of 0.88 NH3 to help solubility) then purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give the title compound as an off-white solid (6.1 g).

All pure batches were combined (68 g) and recrystallised from ethanol (1200 mL). The suspension was heated to reflux and a solution formed. The resulting solution was then cooled to room temperature overnight. The resulting solid was then collected by filtration, washed sparingly with ethanol and dried under vacuum to give the title compound as an off-white solid (56 g). This material was recrystallised again from ethanol (1100 mL). The suspension was heated to reflux and a solution formed. The resulting solution was then cooled to room temperature overnight with stirring. The resulting solid was collected by filtration and washed sparingly with ethanol. The solid was dried in vacuo at 60° C. for 5 hrs to give the title compound as an off-white solid (45.51 g).

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.61 mins, MH+ 513.

The filtrate from the two recrystallisations was evaporated to yield ˜23 g of a solid residue that was dissolved in 200 mL of Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 (+additional 4 ml of 0.88 NH3 to help solubility) then purified by column chromatography (1.5 kg silica column), eluting with Toluene/Ethanol/Ammonia 80:20:2 to give a further crop of the title compound as an off-white solid (18.5 g). This solid was then recrystallised from ethanol (370 mL). The suspension was heated to reflux then the resulting solution stirred for 20 mins before being allowed to cool to room temperature naturally overnight. The solid was then dried in vacuo at 65° C. overnight to give the title compound as an off-white solid (11.90 g).

LCMS (Method A): Rt 0.62 mins, MH+ 513.

Method C

10M Sodium hydroxide solution (0.70 ml) was added to a stirred suspension of N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (1.17 g) in water (5.8 ml). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3.75 hours and was then washed with ethyl acetate (2×6 ml). The layers were separated and the aqueous phase was acidified to pH 6 with 2M hydrochloric acid (0.8 ml). The acidified aqueous layer was extracted twice with ethyl acetate (11 ml then 5 ml). The combined ethyl acetate extracts were dried by azeotropic distillation and diluted with further ethyl acetate (11 ml). The misture was stirred at room temperature for 112 hours. The slurry was seeded and then stirred at room temperature for 48 hours. The resultant suspension was filtered, washed with ethyl acetate (2×2 ml) and the solid dried under vacuum at 40° C. to give the title compound as a pale yellow solid (0.58 g).

LCMS (Method B): Rt 1.86 min, MH+ 513.

Method D

To a suspension of N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (596.5 g, 0.91 mol) in water (3.8 L) is added 5M sodium hydroxide (715 ml, 3.56 mol) over 20 mins at <25° C. The mixture is stirred at 20±3° C. for 2 h 45 min then washed with EtCN (3 L). The pH of the basic aqueous phase is adjusted to pH 6.6 using 2M hydrochloric acid (1.4 L), maintaining the temperature below 30° C. The mixture is then extracted with MeTHF (2×4.8 L), and the combined MeTHF extracts are washed with water (1.2 L). The mixture is concentrated to approx 2.4 L and EtOAc (3 L) is added. This put and take distillation is repeated a further 3 times. The mixture is adjusted to 60±3° C. and seeded twice (2×3 g) 35 mins apart. The resultant is aged for 1 h 10 mins then cooled over 2 h to 20-25° C., and aged for a further 15 h 50 min. The slurry is filtered, washed with EtOAc (2×1.2 L) and dried in vacuo at 45±5° C. for approx 3 day to give the title compound.

Preparation of Polymorphs of Compound A

Form (II)

Ethyl acetate (15 ml) was added to N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (2.1 g) and was stirred at ambient conditions overnight. The resultant slurry was filtered and dried under vacuum at 50° C. to give a new solid state form (91 ckw/w).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO d6) d=13.49 (br s, 1H), 9.39 (s, 1H), 8.58 (s, 1H), 8.42 (d, J=2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (d, J=2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.93 (d, J=1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 4.00 (s, 3H), 3.74 (s, 2H), 3.58 (m, 2H), 3.11 (s, 3H), 2.80 (d, J=10.3 Hz, 2H), 1.78 (t, J=10.3 Hz, 2H), 1.05 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 6H)

 SODIUM SALT OF COMPD B

http://www.google.com/patents/US20140256721

Method D

To a suspension of N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (596.5 g, 0.91 mol) in water (3.8 L) is added 5M sodium hydroxide (715 ml, 3.56 mol) over 20 mins at <25° C. The mixture is stirred at 20±3° C. for 2 h 45 min then washed with EtCN (3 L). The pH of the basic aqueous phase is adjusted to pH 6.6 using 2M hydrochloric acid (1.4 L), maintaining the temperature below 30° C. The mixture is then extracted with MeTHF (2×4.8 L), and the combined MeTHF extracts are washed with water (1.2 L). The mixture is concentrated to approx 2.4 L and EtOAc (3 L) is added. This put and take distillation is repeated a further 3 times. The mixture is adjusted to 60±3° C. and seeded twice (2×3 g) 35 mins apart. The resultant is aged for 1 h 10 mins then cooled over 2 h to 20-25° C., and aged for a further 15 h 50 min. The slurry is filtered, washed with EtOAc (2×1.2 L) and dried in vacuo at 45±5° C. for approx 3 day to give the title compound.

http://www.google.com/patents/US20140256721

Preparation of Salts of Compound ASodium Salt

Methanol (2 ml) was added to N-[5-[4-(5-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-4-morpholinyl]methyl}-1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1H-indazol-6-yl]-2-(methyloxy)-3-pyridinyl]methanesulfonamide (0.3 g) followed by aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.129 ml) to give a solution. Tert-butylmethylether (4 ml) was added to the solution followed by seed crystals of the sodium salt and this suspension was stirred overnight at ambient conditions. The suspension was filtered, washed with tert-butylmethylether (2 ml) and air dried to give the sodium salt (0.2312 g) as a hydrate.

NMR: Consistent with salt formation

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO d6) d=13.35 (br s, 1H), 8.53 (s, 1H), 7.90 (d, J=1.2 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.65 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.62 (d, J=2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (s, 1H), 4.00 (s, 3H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.59 (m, 2H). 2.83 (d, J=10.3, 2H), 2.61 (s, 3H), 1.78 (t, J=10.5 Hz, 2H), 1.05 (d, J=6.1 Hz, 6H)

EMAIL ME amcrasto@gmail.com

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US20100280029 * 28 Apr 2010 4 Nov 2010 Julie Nicole Hamblin Novel compounds
WO2010125082A1 28 Apr 2010 4 Nov 2010 Glaxo Group Limited Oxazole substituted indazoles as pi3-kinase inhibitors
US20140256721 * 14 Apr 2014 11 Sep 2014 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Novel Polymorphs and Salts
WO2012032065A1 6 Sep 2011 15 Mar 2012 Glaxo Group Limited Indazole derivatives for use in the treatment of influenza virus infection
WO2012032067A1 6 Sep 2011 15 Mar 2012 Glaxo Group Limited Polymorphs and salts of n- [5- [4- (5- { [(2r,6s) -2, 6 – dimethyl – 4 -morpholinyl] methyl} – 1, 3 – oxazol – 2 – yl) – 1h- inda zol-6-yl] -2- (methyloxy) – 3 – pyridinyl] methanesulfonamide
WO2012055846A1 25 Oct 2011 3 May 2012 Glaxo Group Limited Polymorphs and salts of 6-(1h-indol-4-yl)-4-(5- { [4-(1-methylethyl)-1-pi perazinyl] methyl} -1,3-oxazol-2-yl)-1h-indazole as pi3k inhibitors for use in the treatment of e.g. respiratory disorders
WO2012064744A2 * 8 Nov 2011 18 May 2012 Lycera Corporation Tetrahydroquinoline and related bicyclic compounds for inhibition of rorϒ activity and the treatment of disease
WO2013088404A1 14 Dec 2012 20 Jun 2013 Novartis Ag Use of inhibitors of the activity or function of PI3K
WO2014068070A1 31 Oct 2013 8 May 2014 INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale) Methods for preventing antiphospholipid syndrome (aps)
US8524751 5 Mar 2010 3 Sep 2013 GlaxoSmithKline Intellecutual Property Development 4-oxadiazol-2-YL-indazoles as inhibitors of P13 kinases
US8536169 3 Jun 2009 17 Sep 2013 Glaxo Group Limited Compounds
US8575162 28 Apr 2010 5 Nov 2013 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Compounds
US8580797 28 Apr 2010 12 Nov 2013 Glaxo Smith Kline Intellectual Property Development Limited Compounds
US8586583 2 Oct 2012 19 Nov 2013 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Compounds
US8586590 2 Oct 2012 19 Nov 2013 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Compounds
US8609657 2 Oct 2012 17 Dec 2013 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Compounds
US8658635 3 Jun 2009 25 Feb 2014 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Benzpyrazol derivatives as inhibitors of PI3 kinases
US8735390 6 Sep 2011 27 May 2014 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Polymorphs and salts
US8765743 3 Jun 2009 1 Jul 2014 Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited Compounds

…..

P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.




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FDA expands approved use of Opdivo to treat lung cancer


03/04/2015 01:28 PM EST
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today expanded the approved use of Opdivo (nivolumab) to treat patients with advanced (metastatic) squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.

March 4, 2015

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today expanded the approved use of Opdivo (nivolumab) to treat patients with advanced (metastatic) squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with an estimated 224,210 new diagnoses and 159,260 deaths in 2014. The most common type of lung cancer, NSCLC affects seven out of eight lung cancer patients, occurring when cancer forms in the cells of the lung.

Opdivo works by inhibiting the cellular pathway known as PD-1 protein on cells that blocks the body’s immune system from attacking cancerous cells. Opdivo is intended for patients who have previously been treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

“The FDA worked proactively with the company to facilitate the early submission and review of this important clinical trial when results first became available in late December 2014,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval will provide patients and health care providers knowledge of the survival advantage associated with Opdivo and will help guide patient care and future lung cancer trials.”

Opdivo’s efficacy to treat squamous NSCLC was established in a randomized trial of 272 participants, of whom 135 received Opdivo and 137 received docetaxel. The trial was designed to measure the amount of time participants lived after starting treatment (overall survival). On average, participants who received Opdivo lived 3.2 months longer than those participants who received docetaxel.

The safety and efficacy of Opdivo to treat squamous NSCLC was supported by a single-arm trial of 117 participants who had progressed after receiving a platinum-based therapy and at least one additional systemic regimen. The study was designed to measure objective response rate (ORR), or the percentage of participants who experienced partial shrinkage or complete disappearance of the tumor. Results showed 15 percent of participants experienced ORR, of whom 59 percent had response durations of six months or longer.

The most common side effects of Opdivo are fatigue, shortness of breath, musculoskeletal pain, decreased appetite, cough, nausea and constipation. The most serious side effects are severe immune-mediated side effects involving healthy organs, including the lung, colon, liver, kidneys and hormone-producing glands.

Opdivo for squamous NSCLC was reviewed under the FDA’s priority review program, which provides for an expedited review of drugs that treat serious conditions and, if approved, would provide significant improvement in safety or effectiveness in the treatment of a serious condition. Opdivo is being approved more than three months ahead of the prescription drug user fee goal date of June 22, 2015, the date when the agency was scheduled to complete its review of the application.

The FDA previously approved Opdivo to treat patients with unresectable (cannot be removed by surgery) or metastatic melanoma who no longer respond to other drugs.

Opdivo is marketed by Princeton, New Jersey-based Bristol-Myers Squibb.

see
 SHIRDI, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

Shirdi – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shirdi

pronunciation (help·info) (Marathi: शिर्डी) is a town and falls under the jurisdiction of municipal council popularly known as Shirdi Nagar Panchayat, located …

Map of shirdi maharashtra.


Shraddha Inn,Shirdi


SHIRDI PRASADALAYA BOJAN

 

 Solar Kitchen Feeds Many at Shirdi, India Shrine

 

Rajdhani Restaurant: Rajdhani at Shirdi

The well equipped kitchen provides food two times a day, daily. Around 27, 000 of people are distributed food at cheap rate. The food comprises of dal, 

 

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Bremelanotide, Female Libido Enhancer


Bremelanotide chemical structure.png

Female Libido Enhancer  – Bremelanotide

Bremelanotide is a compound that is currently under investigation for its potential uses in managing reperfusion injury, female sexual dysfunction or hemorrhagic shock. The chemical may also see success in managing modulate inflammation or limiting the effects of ischemia.

N-Acetyl-L-norleucyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-histidyl-D-phenylalanyl-L-arginyl-L-tryptophyl-L-lysine (2-7)-lactam

Bremelanotide,  PT 141, CAS NO.: 189691-06-3

Synonym…..N-Acetyl-L-norleucyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-histidyl-D-phenylalanyl-L-arginyl-L-tryptophyl-L-lysine (2-7)-lactam, Bremelanotide PT 141
Molecular FormulaC50H68N14O10
Molecular Weight1025.16
Gedeon Richter….licensee
In May 2014, the company planned to file an NDA in the first half of 2016, and at that time, approval was expected in the first half of 2017

Bremelanotide Listeni/ˌbrɛmɨˈlænətd/ (formerly PT-141) is a compound under drug development by Palatin Technologies as a treatment for female sexual dysfunction, hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion injury. It functions by activating the melanocortin receptors MC1R and MC4R, to modulate inflammation and limiting ischemia.[2] It was originally tested for intranasal administration in treating female sexual dysfunction but this application was temporarily discontinued in 2008 after concerns were raised over adverse side effects of increased blood pressure. As of December 2014, Palatin is conducting a human Phase 3 study[3] using a subcutaneous drug delivery system that appears to have little effect on blood pressure.

Palatin, in collaboration with European licensee Gedeon Richter, is developing an sc formulation of the synthetic peptide bremelanotide (PT-141; BMT), a melanocortin MCR-4 agonist and a synthetically modified analog of PT-14, also analogous to alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), for the potential treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD)

The Bremelanotide or PT-141 is a mean that explains the revolution caused by the medical world in a silent but attractive manner in the human health related study. Bremelanotide is the latest arrival from the company called Palatin Technologies which forms the basic treatment for the hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion injury.( In short about the company, the Palatin Technologies is the owner of this research and is located in New Jersey. Hence this medicine is a Jersey based Product. And regarding the product under research, is waiting for the approval from the Food and Drug Association. Once this is done, the company has targeted to reach those customers, whom the Viagra has approached. This has the effect of helping the male patients suffering with an erectile dysfunction syndrome. Also if it gets the approval as a treatment measure for the female sexual dysfunction, then this medicine is expected to bring a relief to the post-menopausal and also supports or provides their sexual happiness and also they are checking regarding thehyposexual desire disorder. This is expected to be a blockbuster, if released. So this medicine is waiting for a confirmation as well as an approval.

In February 2015, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, open-label extension, phase III trial (NCT02338960; BMT-302, Reconnect Study) was initiated in the US in premenopausal women (expected n = 550) with hypoactive sexual desire disorder to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bremelanotide. At that time, the trial was expected to complete in July 2017

Study – Potential Use Erectile Dysfunction

One study has explored the potential use of bremelanotide as a replacement for natural peptide melanocyte stimulating hormones for the sake of treating erectile dysfunction.

  • The goal of this study was to determine if the effects of bremelanotide stimulating sexual desire that was shown in male rats could be replicated in the brains of female rats. To do this, hormone primed female rats in a control group and a test group that were treated with bremelanotide and known to have consummatory sexual disorders was introduced to a group of male rats and the reactions were measured.
  • Heart racing, hops and darts, pacing and customary sexual behaviors were assessed while the brain was stimulated. The stimulation of specific molecular markers within the brain was examined to determine arousal in the female subjects.
  • Results indicated that the females saw an increase in sexual behavior when bremelanotide was applied to the limbic and hypothalamic regions of their brains. It is suggested that this was because the chemical that stimulated the mPOA terminals, leading to activated dopamine in the brain.

Additional study is necessary to determine the extent of the effects bremelanotide has on the brain and natural stimulating chemicals.

Bremelanotide and Ongoing Research

This is an advanced research involved even now. This functions by activating the Melanocortin, which is a group of peptide hormones which includes the adrenocorticotropic hormone and also the different forms of the melanocyte stimulating hormones. These melanocortins are produced or prepared from the proopiomelanocortin in the pituitary glands. The melanocortin releases or exert their effects by making a bind with the melanocortin and thereby activating it).The Bremelanotide functions by activating the melanocortin receptors and thereby makes a modulation in the inflammation. This is actually produced for making use in treating the sexual dysfunction. Due to certain reasons; the process of researching was kept under hold in recently, since it created some adverse side effects of increased blood pressure. In the chemistry of the preparation of the bremelanotide, the Peptide Melanaton II forms the basic compound. This compound is tested using a sunless tanning agent.

The actual information about the peptide melanaton has the effect of making sexual arousal and speed as well as sudden erections and some other side effects. However, there are several other measures taken to test the property of the same under several other health situations to make a detailed study about the chemical compound structure to make a change in the combination of the chemical structure. This medicine has made a revolution in the field of science of the human structure. When made a deep verification of the compound structure of the chemical study showed the following information. The structural design has an appearance of white colored powder like material, which has an accurate purity of nearly 98%. The actual molecular weight of the compound formed is around 1025.2. This compound has the collective share of Amino acids in the composition, peptide and acetate contents also.

The study of the compound structure PT-141 has an enhanced support of making a recombination that produces a different profile of the same medicine but in a different standard with different properties that may support the human requirement.

Bremelanotide PT-141 is known for its aphrodisiac properties

Development

Bremelanotide was developed from the peptide hormone Melanotan II which underwent testing as a sunless tanningagent. In initial testing, Melanotan II did induce tanning but additionally caused sexual arousal and spontaneous erections as unexpected side effects in nine out of the ten original male volunteer test subjects.[4]

In studies, bremelanotide was shown to induce lordosis in an animal model[5] and was also effective in treating sexual dysfunction in both men (erectile dysfunction or impotence) and women (sexual arousal disorder). Unlike Viagra and other related medications, it does not act upon the vascular system, but directly increases sexual desire via the nervous system.[6]

A Phase III clinical trial was scheduled to begin in the first half of 2007, but was delayed until August 2007. On August 30, Palatin announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had expressed serious concerns regarding therisk/benefit ratio of bremelanotide with regards to the side effect of increased blood pressure. The FDA stated that it would consider alternate uses for bremelanotide, including as a treatment for individuals who do not respond to more established ED treatments. However, On May 13, 2008, Palatin Technologies announced it had “discontinued development of Bremelanotide for the treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction” while concurrently announcing plans to develop it as a treatment for hemorrhagic shock instead.[7] The company additionally announced intentions to focus its attention on another compound, PL-6983, that causes lower blood pressure in animal models.[8]Palatin has since re-initiated Bremelanotide studies for ED and FSD using a subcutaneous delivery method. On August 12, 2009, the company announced that in a double-blind study of 54 volunteers bremelanotide failed to evoke the hypertensive side effects seen with the nasal delivery system used in prior studies, concluding that “variability of uptake” inherent in intranasal administration of the drug resulted in “increases in blood pressure and gastrointestinal events…primarily related to high plasma levels in [only] a subset of patients” and that subcutaneous administration of the drug circumvented the potential for this side effect.[8] Palatin has completed a human Phase 2B study utilizing subcutaneous administration and reported positive results.[9]

Structure

Bremelanotide is a cyclic hepta-peptide lactam analog of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) that activates the melanocortin receptors MC3-R and MC4-R in thecentral nervous system. It has the amino acid sequence Ac-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-OH or cyclo-[Nle4, Asp5, D-Phe7, Lys10]alpha-MSH-(4-10). It is a metabolite of Melanotan II that lacks the C-terminal amide function.

Bremelanotide
Bremelanotide chemical structure.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(3S,6S,9R,12S,15S,23S)-15-[(N-acetyl-L-norleucyl)amino]-9-benzyl-6-{3-[(diaminomethylidene)amino]propyl}-12-(1H-imidazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-2,5,8,11,14,17-hexaoxo-1,4,7,10,13,18-hexaa zacyclotricosane-23-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
  • US: Unscheduled
Pharmacokinetic data
Half-life 120 minutes[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 189691-06-3 Yes
ATC code None
PubChem CID 9941379
ChemSpider 8116997 Yes
UNII 6Y24O4F92S Yes
KEGG D06569 
ChEMBL CHEMBL2070241 
Chemical data
Formula C50H68N14O10 
Molecular mass 1025.2 g/mol

Sexual dysfunction, including both penile erectile dysfunction or impotence and female sexual dysfunction, are common medical problems. Significant effort has been devoted over the last twenty or more years to develop methods, devices and compounds for treatment of sexual dysfunction. While more effort has been undertaken for treatment of penile erectile dysfunction, female sexual dysfunction is also an area to which significant research and effort has been devoted.

At present, one commonly used orally administered drug for treatment of sexual dysfunction in the male is Viagra®, a brand of sildenafil, which is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, increasing the persistence of cyclic guanosine monophosphate and thereby enhancing erectile response. There are several other medical treatment alternatives currently available depending on the nature and cause of the impotence problem. Some men have abnormally low levels of the male hormone testosterone, and treatment with testosterone injections or pills may be beneficial. However, comparatively few impotent men have low testosterone levels. For many forms of erectile dysfunction, treatment may be undertaken with drugs injected directly into the penis, including drugs such as papaverin, prostaglandin E1, phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine. These all work primarily by dilating the arterial blood vessels and decreasing the venous drainage. Urethral inserts, such as with suppositories containing prostaglandin, may also be employed. In addition, a variety of mechanical aids are employed, including constriction devices and penile implants.

A variety of treatments have also been explored for female sexual dysfunction, including use of sildenafil, although the Food and Drug Administration has not specifically approved such use. Testosterone propionate has also been employed to increase or augment female libido.

Melanocortin receptor-specific compounds have been explored for use of treatment of sexual dysfunction. In one report, a cyclic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (“α-MSH”) analog, called Melanotan-II, was evaluated for erectogenic properties for treatment of men with psychogenic erectile dysfunction. Wessells H. et al., J Urology 160:389-393 (1998); see also U.S. Pat. No. 5,576,290, issued Nov. 19, 1996 to M. E. Hadley, entitled Compositions and Methods for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction and U.S. Pat. No. 6,051,555, issued Apr. 18, 2000, also to M. E. Hadley, entitled Stimulating Sexual Response in Females. The peptides used in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,576,290 and 6,051,555 are also described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,674,839, issued Oct. 7, 1997, to V. J. Hruby, M. E. Hadley and F. Al-Obeidi, entitled Cyclic Analogs of AlphaMSH Fragments, and in U.S. Pat. No. 5,714,576, issued Feb. 3, 1998, to V. J. Hruby, M. E. Hadley and F. Al-Obeidi, entitled Linear Analogs of AlphaMSH Fragments. Melanotan-II is a peptide of the following formula:

Figure US06794489-20040921-C00001

Additional related peptides are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,576,290, 5,674,839, 5,714,576 and 6,051,555. These peptides are described as being useful for both the diagnosis and treatment of psychogenic sexual dysfunction in males and females. These peptides are related to the structure of melanocortins.

In use of Melanotan-II, significant erectile responses were observed, with 8 of 10 treated men developing clinically apparent erections, and with a mean duration of tip rigidity greater than 80% for 38 minutes with Melanotan-II compared to 3.0 minutes with a placebo (p=0.0045). The drug was administered by subcutaneous abdominal wall injection, at doses ranging from 0.025 to 0.157 mg/kg body weight. Transient side effects were observed, including nausea, stretching and yawning, and decreased appetite.

The minimum peptide fragment of native α-MSH needed for erectile response is the central tetrapeptide sequence, His6-Phe7-Arg8-Trp9 (SEQ ID NO:1). In general, all melanocortin peptides share the same active core sequence, His-Phe-Arg-Trp (SEQ ID NO:1), including melanotropin neuropeptides and adrenocorticotropin. Five distinct melanocortin receptor subtypes have been identified, called MC1-R through MC5-R, and of these MC3-R and MC4-R are believed to be expressed in the human brain. MC3-R has the highest expression in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, while MC4-R is more widely expressed in the thalamus, hypothalamus and hippocampus. A central nervous system mechanism for melanocortins in the induction of penile erection has been suggested by experiments demonstrating penile erection resulting from central intracerebroventricular administration of melanocortins in rats. While the mechanism of His-Phe-Arg-Trp (SEQ ID NO:1) induction of erectile response has not been fully elucidated, it has been hypothesized that it involves the central nervous system, and probably binding to MC3-R and/or MC4-R.

Other peptides and constructs have been proposed which are ligands that alter or regulate the activity of one or more melanocortin receptors. For example, International Patent Application No. PCT/US99/09216, entitled Isoquinoline Compound Melanocortin Receptor Ligands and Methods of Using Same, discloses two compounds that induce penile erections in rats. However, these compounds were administered by injection at doses of 1.8 mg/kg and 3.6 mg/kg, respectively, and at least one compound resulted in observable side effects, including yawning and stretching. Other melanocortin receptor-specific compounds with claimed application for treatment of sexual dysfunction are disclosed in International Patent Application No. PCT/US99/13252, entitled Spiropiperidine Derivatives as Melanocortin Receptor Agonists.

Both cyclic and linear α-MSH peptides have been studied; however, the peptides heretofore evaluated have had an amide or —NH2 group at the carboxyl terminus. See, for example, Wessells H. et al., J Urology, cited above; Haskell-Luevano C. et al., J Med Chem 40:2133-39 (1997); Schiöth H. B. et al., Brit J Pharmacol 124:75-82 (1998); Schiöth H. B. et al., Eur J Pharmacol 349:359-66 (1998); Hadley M. E. et al., Pigment Cell Res 9:213-34 (1996); Bednarek M. A. et al., Peptides20:401-09 (1999); U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,054,556, 6,051,555 and 5,576,290; and, International Patent Applications PCT/US99/04111 and PCT/US98/03298. While significant research has been conducted in an effort to determine the optimal structure of α-MSH peptides, including a variety of structure-function, agonist-antagonist, molecular modeling and pharmacophore studies, such studies have relied upon peptides with an art conventional —NH2 group at the carboxyl terminus. Further, it has long been believed that biologically active neuropeptides, including α-MSH peptides, are amidated, with an —NH2 group at the carboxyl terminus, and that such amidation is required both for biological activity and stability. See, for example, Metabolism of Brain Peptides, Ed. G. O’Cuinn, CRC Press, New York, 1995, pp. 1-9 and 99-101.

…………………………………………….

Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2005 ,  vol. 15,  4  pg. 1065 – 1068

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X04014842

Full-size image (23 K)

Figure 2.

NMR structural analysis on compound 3.

Full-size image (24 K)

Figure 4.

NMR structural analysis of compound 1.

……………………………………………….

US6794489

In a preferred embodiment, the invention provides the peptide

Ac-Nle-cyclo(-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys)-OH  Compound 1

The peptide of Compound 1 has a formula of C50H68N14O10, and a net molecular weight of 1025.18. This peptide may be synthesized by solid-phase means and purified to greater than 96% purity by HPLC, yielding a white powder that is a clear, colorless solution in water. The structure of Compound 1 is:

Figure US06794489-20040921-C00002

In general, the peptide compounds of this invention may be synthesized by solid-phase synthesis and purified according to methods known in the art. Any of a number of well-known procedures utilizing a variety of resins and reagents may be used to prepare the compounds of this invention.

The peptides of this invention may be in the form of any pharmaceutically acceptable salt. Acid addition salts of the compounds of this invention are prepared in a suitable solvent from the peptide and an excess of an acid, such as hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, phosphoric, acetic, trifluoroacetic, maleic, succinic or methanesulfonic. The acetate salt form is especially useful. Where the compounds of this invention include an acidic moiety, suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts may include alkali metal salts, such as sodium or potassium salts, or alkaline earth metal salts, such as calcium or magnesium salts.

The invention provides a pharmaceutical composition that includes a peptide of this invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier may be a liquid formulation, and is preferably a buffered, isotonic, aqueous solution. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers also include excipients, such as diluents, carriers and the like, and additives, such as stabilizing agents, preservatives, solubilizing agents, buffers and the like, as hereafter described.

EXAMPLE 1

Peptide Synthesis

The peptide Ac-Nle-cyclo(-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys)-OH was synthesized by standard solid phase peptide synthesis methods, and is a cyclic heptapeptide melanocortin peptide analog with a free acid at the carboxyl terminus and an acetylated amino group at the amino terminus, with the structure:

Figure US06794489-20040921-C00003

The peptide has a net molecular weight of 1025.18, and is supplied in an acetate salt form. The peptide is a white, odorless amorphous hygroscopic powder, soluble in 0.9% saline, composed of C50H68N14O10. For synthesis, an Fmoc-Lys(R3)-p-alkoxybenzyl alcohol resin was transferred to a solid phase peptide synthesizer reactor with a mechanical stirrer. The R3group, such as 1-(1′-adamantyl)-1-methyl-ethoxycarbonyl (Adpoc), allyloxycarbonyl (Aloc) or 4-methyltrityl (Mtt), was removed and the next Fmoc-protected amino acid (Fmoc-Trp(Boc)-OH) was added to the resin through standard coupling procedures. The Fmoc protective group was removed and the remaining amino acids added individually in the correct sequence, by repeating coupling and deprotection procedures until the amino acid sequence was completed. After completion of coupling with the last Fmoc-amino acid derivative, Fmoc-Nle-OH, and cleavage of the Fmoc protective group, the exposed terminal amino group was acetylated with acetic anhydride and pyridine in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The peptide-resin was dried and the Lys and Asp protective groups cleaved. The Lys and Asp deprotected peptide resin was suspended in a suitable solvent, such as DMF, dichloromethane (DCM) or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a suitable cyclic coupling reagent, such as 2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TBTU), 2-(7-aza-1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TATU), 2-(2-oxo-1(2H)-pyridyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (TBTU) or N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/1-hydroxybenzotriazole (DCCl/HOBt) was added, and coupling initiated by use of a suitable base, such as N,N-diispropylethylamine (DIPEA), sym-collidine or N-methylmorpholine (NMM). After cyclization, the peptide-resin was washed and the peptide cleaved from the resin and any remaining protective groups using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the presence of water and 1,2-ethanedithiol (EDT). The final product was precipitated by adding cold ether and collected by filtration. Final purification was by reversed phase HPLC using a C18 column. The purified peptide was converted to acetate salt by passage through an ion-exchange column.

…………………………………………..

WO2014071339

Compounds of the Invention.

in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, fie rneianocortin receptor agonist is;

Ac-Nie”Cyc/o{-Asp-His–D–Phe-Arg–Trp»Lys)–OH (bremeianotide)

The peptide of bremeianotide has a formula of CsaHesN< C½, and a net mofecufar weight of 1025.18, This peptide may be synthesized by conventional means, including either solid-phase or Squid-phase techniques, and purified to greater than 99% purity by HPLC, yielding a white powder that is a clear, colorless solution in water. The structure of bremeianotide is:

Figure imgf000017_0001

in one embodiment of the invention, bremeianotide is synthesized by solid-phase synthesis and purified according to methods known in the art. Any of a number of well-known procedures utilizing a variety of resins and reagents may be used to prepare bremeianotide.

Bremeianotide may be in the form of any pharmaceutically acceptable salt. Acid addition salts of the compounds of this invention are prepared in a suitable solvent from the peptide and an excess of an acid, such as hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, phosphoric, acetic, trifluoroacefie, maieic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, succinic or methanesu!fonic acid. The acetate salt form is especially useful.

in a preferred embodiment, bremelanotide is an acetate salt form, and is formulated in a buffered aqueous solution including giycerin, and prepackaged in a syringe and auto-injector device. In alternative embodiments, bremelanotide is any pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, and is formulated in any pharmaceutically acceptable aqueous solution, the aqueous solution optionally including one or more salts, such as sodium chloride, one or more acids, such as citric acid, and one or more additional ingredients, including cellulose or derivatives thereof, saccharides o

polysaccharides such as dextrose, and any of a wide variety of surfactants, chelating agents and preservatives.

………………………………………….

US20050222014

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the melanocortin receptor agonist is:
AcNle-cyclo(-AspHisDPheArgTrpLys)-OH PT-141

The peptide of PT-141 has a formula of C50H68N14O10, and a net molecular weight of 1025.18. This peptide may be synthesized by conventional means, including either solid-phase or liquid-phase techniques, and purified to greater than 99% purity by HPLC, yielding a white powder that is a clear, colorless solution in water. The structure of PT-141 is:

Figure US20050222014A1-20051006-C00001

In one embodiment of the invention, PT-141 is synthesized by solid-phase synthesis and purified according to methods known in the art. Any of a number of well-known procedures utilizing a variety of resins and reagents may be used to prepare PT-141.

PT-141 may be in the form of any pharmaceutically acceptable salt. Acid addition salts of the compounds of this invention are prepared in a suitable solvent from the peptide and an excess of an acid, such as hydrochloric, hydrobromic, sulfuric, phosphoric, acetic, trifluoroacetic, maleic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, succinic or methanesulfonic acid. The acetate salt form is especially useful. Where the compounds of this invention include an acidic moiety, suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts may include alkali metal salts, such as sodium or potassium salts, or alkaline earth metal salts, such as calcium or magnesium salts.

In a preferred embodiment, PT-141 is an acetate salt form, and is formulated in a buffered aqueous solution including glycerin, prepackaged in a metered unit dose intranasal delivery device. In alternative embodiments, PT-141 is any pharmaceutically acceptable salt form, and is formulated in any pharmaceutically acceptable aqueous solution, the aqueous solution optionally including one or more salts, such as sodium chloride, one or more acids, such as citric acid, and one or more additional ingredients, including cellulose or derivatives thereof, saccharides or polysaccharides such as dextrose, and any of a wide variety of surfactants, chelating agents and preservatives. In one preferred embodiment, PT-141 is administered to patients in volumes of 100 μL, with the quantity of PT-141 delivered determined by the concentration thereof. As described hereafter, in one preferred embodiment a metered unit dose contains 7.5 mg of PT-141.

While certain embodiments of the present invention are described primarily in the context of PT-141, it is to be understood that other melanocortin receptor agonists may be employed. For example, the metallopeptide melanocortin receptor agonists disclosed in WO 02/064091, filed on Feb. 13, 2001, and U.S. Ser. No. 10/640,755, filed on Aug. 13, 2003, both entitled Melanocortin Metallopeptides for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction; and WO 01/13112, filed on Jun. 14, 2000, entitled Melanocortin Metallopeptide Constructs, Combinatorial Libraries and Applications, may be employed. In addition, the peptidomimetic melanocortin receptor agonists disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 10/776,419, filed on Feb. 10, 2004, entitled Peptidomimetics of Biologically Active Metallopeptides; the pyrrolidine melanocortin receptor agonists disclosed in U.S. Ser. No. 10/766,657, filed on Feb. 10, 2004, entitled Pyrrolidine Melanocortin-Specific Compounds; and the bicyclic melanocortin receptor agonists disclosed in PCT/US04/01505, filed on Jan. 20, 2004, entitled Bicyclic Melanocortin-Specific Compounds, may also be employed. Also particular preferred are the piperazine melanocortin agonists disclosed in PCT/US04/01462, filed on Jan. 20, 2004 and U.S. Ser. No. 10/762,079, filed on Jan. 20, 2004, both entitled piperazine Melanocortin-Specific Compounds; the melanocortin agonists disclosed in WO 03/006620, filed on Jul. 11, 2002, entitled Linear and Cyclic Melanocortin Receptor-Specific Peptides; WO 04/005324, filed on Jul. 9, 2003, entitled Peptide Compositions for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction; PCT/US00/18217, filed on Jun. 29, 2000 and U.S. Ser. No. 10/040,547, filed on Jan. 4, 2002, entitled Compositions and Methods for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction; and U.S. Ser. No. 10/638,071, filed on Aug. 8, 2003, entitled Cyclic Peptide Compositions and Methods for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction. The entire disclosure of each of the foregoing are incorporated here by reference. It is to be understood that the foregoing listing of patent applications disclosing melanocortin receptor agonists is intended to only be exemplary, and that other melanocortin receptor agonists, whether heretofore known or hereafter developed, may similarly be used in the practice of this invention.

…………………….

NMR prediction

H-NMR spectral analysis
bremelanotide NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 189691-06-3 NMR spectral analysis, bremelanotide H-NMR spectrum
13 C NMR PREDICTION
bremelanotide NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 189691-06-3 NMR spectral analysis, bremelanotide C-NMR spectrum
References
  1.  King SH, Mayorov AV, Balse-Srinivasan P, Hruby VJ, Vanderah TW, Wessells H (2007).“Melanocortin receptors, melanotropic peptides and penile erection”. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 7 (11): 1098–1106. doi:10.2174/1568026610707011111.PMC 2694735. PMID 17584130.
  2.  Bremelanotide for Organ Protection and Related Indications, Palatin Technologies fact sheet. Retrieved on 2009-01-18.
  3.  “Palatin Announces Start of Bremelanotide Phase 3 Program For Female Sexual Dysfunction”. PR Newswire. Retrieved 2015-02-17.
  4.  “Tanning drug may find new life as Viagra alternative”. CNN. 1999. Retrieved2007-09-16.
  5. Pfaus JG, Shadiack A, Van Soest T, Tse M, Molinoff P (July 2004). “Selective facilitation of sexual solicitation in the female rat by a melanocortin receptor agonist”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (27): 10201–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400491101. PMC 454387.PMID 15226502.
  6. Vicki Mabrey (2006). “ABC News “The Business of Desire – Love Potion””. ABC News. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  7.  “Palatin Technologies announces new strategic objectives and reports third quarter 2008 financial results”. Palatin Technologies press release. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-21.
  8.  “Palatin Technologies Announces New Strategic Objectives”. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
  9.  http://www.palatin.com/news/news.asp?ud=306

External links

PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.: ‘Bremelanotide in Premenopausal Women With Female Sexual Arousal Disorder and/or Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder‘ CLINICALTRIALS.GOV (NCT01382719, [Online] 20 March 2012, page 1 Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:http://clinicaltrials.gov/archive/NCT0 1382719/ 2012-03 20> [retrieved on 2014-02-10]
2 * PALATIN TECHNOLOGIES, INC.: ‘Reports Positive Bremelanotide Study; Improved Safety Profile with Subcutaneous Administration‘ PR NEWSWIRE., [Online] 12 August 2009, Retrieved from the Internet: <URL:http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Palatin +Technolo9ies,+Inc.+Reports+Positive+Bremel anotide+Study%38…-a020561 3302> [retrieved on 2014-02-10]
3 * SAFARINEJAD, MR.: ‘Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Bremelanotide, a Melanocortin Receptor Agonist, in Female Subjects with Arousal Disorder: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled, Fixed Dose, Randomized Study”.‘ INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR SEXUAL MEDICINE. vol. 5, 2008, pages 887 – 897
US8455617 Jun 7, 2010 Jun 4, 2013 Astrazeneca Ab Melanocortin receptor-specific peptides
US8455618 Oct 26, 2011 Jun 4, 2013 Astrazeneca Ab Melanocortin receptor-specific peptides
US8487073 Nov 23, 2010 Jul 16, 2013 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Melanocortin receptor-specific peptides for treatment of sexual dysfunction
US8729224 Jun 5, 2013 May 20, 2014 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Melanocortin receptor-specific peptides for treatment of female sexual dysfunction
EP2266567A1 May 26, 2009 Dec 29, 2010 Æterna Zentaris GmbH Use of cetrorelix in combination with PDE V inhibitors for the treatment of sex hormone dependent disorders
EP2266568A1 May 26, 2009 Dec 29, 2010 Æterna Zentaris GmbH Use of LHRH antagonists in combination with PDE V inhibitors for the treatment of sex hormone dependent disorders
WO2013067309A1 Nov 2, 2012 May 10, 2013 Xion Pharmaceutical Corporation Methods and compositions for oral administration of melanocortin receptor agonist compounds
WO2014071339A2 * Nov 5, 2013 May 8, 2014 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Uses of bremelanotide in therapy for female sexual dysfunction
WO2009151714A2 * Mar 24, 2009 Dec 17, 2009 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Therapeutic for treatment of circulatory shock, ischemia, inflammatory disease and related conditions
US6794489 * Jan 4, 2002 Sep 21, 2004 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Peptide sequence ac-nle-cyclo(-asp-his-d-phe-arg-trp-lys)-oh derived from a melanocyte-stimulating hormone (? alpha -msh?) analog, called melanotan-ii
US20050222014 * May 26, 2005 Oct 6, 2005 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Administering phosphodiestarase inhibitors and melanocortin receptor antagonist: synergistic mixture
US20110065652 * Nov 23, 2010 Mar 17, 2011 Palatin Technologies, Inc. Melanocortin Receptor-Specific Peptides for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction

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KHAJURAHO INDIA

Khajuraho Group of Monuments is located in India

Khajuraho Group of Monuments
Location of Khajuraho Group of Monuments in India.

Location in Madhya PradeshLocation in Madhya Pradesh

  1. Khajuraho Group of Monuments – Wikipedia, the free …

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khajuraho_Group_of_Monuments

    The Khajuraho Group of Monuments are a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh, India. About 620 kilometres (385 mi) southeast of New Delhi, …

Hotel Chandela – A Taj Leisure Hotel

LATUR, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latur

Latur
लातूर
Lattalur, Ratnapur
City

Latur is located in Maharashtra

Latur
Latur

Location in Maharashtra, India

Coordinates: 18.40°N 76.56°ECoordinates18.40°N 76.56°E
Country  India
State Maharashtra
Region Aurangabad Division
District Latur
Settled Possibly 7th century AD
Government
 • Body Latur Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Akhtar Shaikh
Area[1]
 • Total 117.78 km2(45.48 sq mi)
Area rank 89
Elevation 515 m (1,690 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 382,754
 • Rank 89th
 • Density 3,200/km2(8,400/sq mi)
Demonym Laturkar
Languages
 • Official Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN
  • 413 512
  • 413 531
Telephone code 91-2382
Vehicle registration MH-24
Sex ratio 923.54 /1000 
Literacy 89.67
Distance from Mumbai 497 kilometres (309 mi) E (land)
Distance fromHyderabad 337 kilometres (209 mi) NW (land)
Distance fromAurangabad, Maharashtra 294 kilometres (183 mi) SE (land)
Climate BSh (Köppen)
Precipitation 666 millimetres (26.2 in)
Avg. summer temperature 41 °C (106 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 13 °C (55 °F)
http://www.citypopulation.de/world/Agglomerations.html

Map of latur city

his Is The Famous ‘Ganj-Golai’ As The Central Place Of The Latur City. There Are 16 Roads Connecting To This Place And Seperate Markets i.e. Jewellers …

लातूर जिल्हयातील चित्र संग्रह


LATUR AIRPORT

LATUR AIRPORT

2012 Navratri Mahotsav in Latur

SOS Children’s Village Latur

Latur, India: Carnival Resort

Ausa Near Latur

Chakur near Latur


Vilasrao Deshmukh’s ancestral home at Babhalgaon village in Latur. Machindra Amle

UDGIR: Udgir is one of the most important towns of Latur district. Udgir has a great historical significance. It has witnessed the war between the Marathas …

The city of Latur is located in India’s welathiest state, Maharashtra. Together with many of the surrounding villages, Latur was all but destroyed in the

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