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DAPAGLIFLOZIN, BMS-512148

(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-[4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol,

cas 461432-26-8

Molecular Formula: C21H25ClO6
Molecular Weight: 408.87

 

Bristol-Myers Squibb (Originator)
AstraZeneca

TYPE 2 DIABETES,SGLT-2 Inhibitors

launched 2012,  as forxiga in EU

Figure US20120282336A1-20121108-C00006

Dapagliflozin propanediol is a solvate containing 1:1:1 ratio of the dapagliflozin, (S)-(+)-1,2-propanediol, and water.

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/002322/WC500136024.pdf

US——-In 2011, the product was not recommended for approval by the FDA’s Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee. In 2011, the FDA assigned a complete response letter to the application. A new application was resubmitted in 2013 by Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca in the U.S

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/Drugs/EndocrinologicandMetabolicDrugsAdvisoryCommittee/UCM262996.pdf

WILMINGTON, Del. & PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--December 12, 2013--

AstraZeneca (NYSE:AZN) and Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY) today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Endocrinologic and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee (EMDAC) voted 13-1 that the benefits of dapagliflozin use outweigh identified risks and support marketing of dapagliflozin as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Advisory Committee also voted 10-4 that the data provided sufficient evidence that dapagliflozin, relative to comparators, has an acceptable cardiovascular risk profile.

The FDA is not bound by the Advisory Committee’s recommendation but takes its advice into consideration when reviewing the application for an investigational agent. The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) goal date for dapagliflozin is Jan. 11, 2014.

Figure imgf000002_0001

Dapagliflozin is being reviewed by the FDA for use as monotherapy, and in combination with other antidiabetic agents, as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. It is a selective and reversible inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) that works independently of insulin to help remove excess glucose from the body. Dapagliflozin, an investigational compound in the U.S., was the first SGLT2 inhibitor to be approved anywhere in the world. Dapagliflozin is currently approved under the trade name [Forxiga](TM) for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes, along with diet and exercise, in 38 countries, including the European Union and Australia.

http://online.wsj.com/article/PR-CO-20131212-910828.html?dsk=y

………………………………………………………………..

PATENTS

WO 2010138535

WO 2011060256

WO 2012041898

WO 2012163990

WO 2013068850

WO 2012163546

WO 2013068850

WO 2013079501

Dapagliflozin (INN/USAN,[1] trade name Forxiga) is a drug used to treat type 2 diabetes. It was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in partnership with AstraZeneca. Although dapagliflozin’s method of action would operate on both types of diabetes[1] and other conditions resulting inhyperglycemia, the current clinical trials specifically exclude participants with type 1 diabetes.[2][3]

In July 2011 an US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) committee recommended against approval until more data was available.[4] The Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) date for dapagliflozin for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes was extended three months by the FDA to January 28, 2012.

In April 2012, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency issued a positive opinion on the drug. It is now marketed in a number of European countries including the UK and Germany.

Dapagliflozin inhibits subtype 2 of the sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLT2), which is responsible for at least 90% of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine.[5] The efficacy of the this medication class has yet to be determined, but in initial clinical trials, dapagliflozin lowers HbA1c by 0.90 percentage points when added to metformin.[6]

Type II diabetes is the most common form of diabetes accounting for 90% of diabetes cases. Over 100 million people worldwide have type-2 diabetes (nearly 17 million in the U.S.) and the prevalence is increasing dramatically in both the developed and developing worlds. Type-II diabetes is a lifelong illness, which generally starts in middle age or later part of life, but can start at any age. Patients with type-2 diabetes do not respond properly to insulin, the hormone that normally allows the body to convert blood glucose into energy or store it in cells to be used later. The problem in type-2 diabetes is a condition called insulin resistance where the body produces insulin, in normal or even high amounts, but certain mechanisms prevent insulin from moving glucose into cells. Because the body does not use insulin properly, glucose rises to unsafe levels in the blood, the condition known as hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia, that is, elevated plasma glucose, is a hallmark of diabetes. Plasma glucose is normally filtered in the kidney in the glomerulus but is actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule (kidney). Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter SGLT2 appears to be the major transporter responsible for the reuptake of glucose at this site. The SGLT inhibitor phlorizin, and closely related analogs, inhibit this reuptake process in diabetic rodents and dogs, resulting in normalization of plasma glucose levels by promoting glucose excretion without hypoglycemic side effects. Long term (6 month) treatment of Zucker diabetic rats with an SGLT2 inhibitor has been reported to improve insulin response to glycemia, improve insulin sensitivity, and delay the onset of nephropathy and neuropathy in these animals, with no detectable pathology in the kidney and no electrolyte imbalance in plasma. Selective inhibition of SGLT2 in diabetic patients would be expected to normalize plasma glucose by enhancing the excretion of glucose in the urine, thereby improving insulin sensitivity and delaying the development of diabetic complications.

The treatment of diabetes is an important health concern and despite a wide range of available therapies, the epidemic continues. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive disease caused by insulin resistance and decreased pancreatic β-cell function. Insulin is produced by the pancreatic β-cell and mediates cellular glucose uptake and clearance. Insulin resistance is characterized by the lack of response to the actions of this hormone which results in decreased cellular clearance of glucose from the circulation and overproduction of glucose by the liver.

The currently available therapies to treat type 2 diabetes augment the action or delivery of insulin to lower blood glucose. However, despite therapy, many patients do not achieve control of their type 2 diabetes. According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, only 36% of type 2 diabetics achieve glycemic control defined as a A1C<7.0% with current therapies. In an effort to treat type 2 diabetes, aggressive therapy with multiple pharmacologic agents may be prescribed. The use of insulin plus oral agents has increased from approximately 3 to 11% from NHANES II to III.

Thus, treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remains a major challenge, particularly in patients who require insulin as the disease progresses. Various combinations of insulin with oral anti-diabetic agents (OADs) have been investigated in recent years, and an increasing number of patients have been placed on these regimens. Poulsen, M. K. et al., “The combined effect of triple therapy with rosiglitazone, metformin, and insulin in type 2 diabetic patients”,Diabetes Care, 26 (12):3273-3279 (2003); Buse, J., “Combining insulin and oral agents”, Am. J. Med., 108 (Supp. 6a):23S-32S (2000). Often, these combination therapies become less effective in controlling hyperglycemia over time, particularly as weight gain and worsening insulin resistance impair insulin response pathways.

Hypoglycemia, weight gain, and subsequent increased insulin resistance are significant factors that limit optimal titration and effectiveness of insulin. (Holman, R. R. et al., “Addition of biphasic, prandial, or basal insulin to oral therapy in type 2 diabetes”, N. Engl. J. Med., 357 (17):1716-1730 (2007)). Weight gain with insulin therapy is predominantly a consequence of the reduction of glucosuria, and is thought to be proportional to the correction of glycemia. (Makimattila, S. et al., “Causes of weight gain during insulin therapy with and without metformin in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus”, Diabetologia, 42 (4):406-412 (1999)). Insulin drives weight gain when used alone or with OADs. (Buse, J., supra). In some cases, intensive insulin therapy may worsen lipid overload and complicate progression of the disease through a spiral of caloric surplus, hyperinsulinemia, increased lipogenesis, increased adipocity, increased insulin resistance, beta-cell toxicity, and hyperglycemia. (Unger, R. H., “Reinventing type 2 diabetes: pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention”, JAMA, 299 (10):1185-1187 (2008)). Among commonly used OADs, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and sulfonylureas intrinsically contribute to weight gain as glucosuria dissipates with improved glycemic control. Weight gain is less prominent with metformin, acting through suppression of hepatic glucose output, or with incretin-based DPP-4 inhibitors. Overall, there is a pressing need for novel agents that can be safely added to insulin-dependent therapies to help achieve glycemic targets without increasing the risks of weight gain or hypoglycemia.

A novel approach to treating hyperglycemia involves targeting transporters for glucose reabsorption in the kidney. (Kanai, Y. et al., “The human kidney low affinity Na+/glucose cotransporter SGLT2. Delineation of the major renal reabsorptive mechanism for D-glucose”, J. Clin. Invest., 93 (1):397-404 (1994)). Agents that selectively block the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) located in the proximal tubule of the kidney can inhibit reabsorption of glucose and induce its elimination through urinary excretion. (Brown, G. K., “Glucose transporters: structure, function and consequences of deficiency”, J. Inherit. Metab. Dis., 23 (3):237-246 (2000)). SGLT2 inhibition has been shown in pre-clinical models to lower blood glucose independently of insulin. (Han, S. et al., “Dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, improves glucose homeostasis in normal and diabetic rats”, Diabetes, 57 (6):1723-1729 (2008); Katsuno, K. et al., “Sergliflozin, a novel selective inhibitor of low-affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2), validates the critical role of SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption and modulates plasma glucose level”, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 320 (1):323-330 (2007)).

Dapagliflozin(BMS-512148) is a potent sodium-glucose transport proteins inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1 nM and 1.4uM for SGLT2 and SGLT1, respectively. Dapagliflozin (BMS-512148) inhibits subtype 2 of the sodium-glucose transport proteins (SGLT2), which is responsible for at least 90% of the glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Blocking this transporter causes blood glucose to be eliminated through the urine. Symptoms of hypoglycaemia occurred in similar proportions of patients in the dapagliflozin (2~4%) and placebo groups (3%). Signs, symptoms, and other reports suggestive of genital infections were more frequent in the dapagliflozin groups (2•5 mg, [8%]; 5 mg, [13%]; 10 mg, [9%]) than in the placebo group ( [5%]).

Dapagliflozin (which is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,515,117) is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose reabsorption by the kidney, by inhibiting SGLT2, which results in an increased excretion of glucose in the urine. This effect lowers plasma glucose in an insulin-independent manner.

Dapagliflozin is currently undergoing clinical development for treatment of type 2 diabetes. (Han, S. et al., supra; Meng, W. et al., “Discovery of dapagliflozin: a potent, selective renal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes”, J. Med. Chem., 51 (5):1145-1149 (2008)). Phase 2a and 2b studies with dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy in reducing hyperglycemia either alone or in combination with metformin in patients with T2DM. (Komoroski, B. et al., “Dapagliflozin, a novel, selective SGLT2 inhibitor, improved glycemic control over 2 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus”, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 85 (5):513-519 (2009); List, J. F. et al., “Dapagliflozin-induced glucosuria is accompanied by weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients”, 68th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association, San Francisco, Calif., Jun. 6-10, 2008, Presentation No. 0461P).

It has been found that dapagliflozin does not act through insulin signaling pathways and is effective in controlling blood sugar in patients whose insulin signaling pathways do not work well. This applies to extremes of insulin resistance, in type 2 diabetes as well as in insulin resistance syndromes, caused by, for example, mutations in the insulin receptor.

Since dapagliflozin leads to heavy glycosuria (sometimes up to about 70 grams per day) it can lead to rapid weight loss and tiredness. The glucose acts as an osmotic diuretic (this effect is the cause of polyuria in diabetes) which can lead to dehydration. The increased amount of glucose in the urine can also worsen the infections already associated with diabetes, particularly urinary tract infections and thrush (candidiasis). Dapagliflozin is also associated with hypotensive reactions.

The IC50 for SGLT2 is less than one thousandth of the IC50 for SGLT1 (1.1 versus 1390 nmol/l), so that the drug does not interfere with the intestinal glucose absorption.[7]

  1.  Statement on a nonproprietory name adopted by the USAN council
  2.  Efficacy and Safety of Dapagliflozin, Added to Therapy of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes With Inadequate Glycemic Control on Insulin, ClinicalTrials.gov, April 2009
  3.  Trial Details for Trial MB102-020, Bristol-Myers Squibb, May 2009
  4.  “FDA panel advises against approval of dapagliflozin”. 19 July 2011.
  5.  Prous Science: Molecule of the Month November 2007
  6.  UEndocrine: Internet Endocrinology Community
  7.  Schubert-Zsilavecz, M, Wurglics, M, Neue Arzneimittel 2008/2009
  8. more1) Pal, Manojit et al; Improved Process for the preparation of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin via glycosylation of 5-bromo-2-Chloro-4′-ethoxydiphenylmethane with Gluconolactone ;. Indian Pat Appl,. 2010CH03942 , 19 Oct 20122) Lemaire, Sebastien et al; Stereoselective C-Glycosylation Reactions with Arylzinc Reagents ;Organic Letters , 2012, 14 (6), 1480-1483;3) Zhuo, Biqin and Xing, Xijuan; Process for preparation of Dapagliflozin amino acid cocrystals ;Faming Zhuanli Shenqing , 102 167 715, 31 Aug 20114) Shao, Hua et al; Total synthesis of SGLT2 inhibitor Dapagliflozin ; Hecheng Huaxue , 18 (3), 389-392; 2010

    5) Liou, Jason et al; Processes for the preparation of C-Aryl glycoside amino acid complexes as potential SGLT2 Inhibitors ;. PCT Int Appl,. WO2010022313

    6) Seed, Brian et al; Preparation of Deuterated benzyl-benzene glycosides having an inhibitory Effect on sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter; . PCT Int Appl,. WO2010009243

    7) Song, Yanli et al; Preparation of benzylbenzene glycoside Derivatives as antidiabetic Agents ;. PCT Int Appl,. WO2009026537

    8) Meng, Wei et al; D iscovery of Dapagliflozin: A Potent, Selective Renal Sodium-Dependent Glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes ; Journal of Medicinal chemistr y, 2008, 51 (5), 1145 -1149;

    9) Gougoutas, Jack Z. et al; Solvates Crystalline complexes of amino acid with (1S)-1 ,5-anhydro-LC (3 – ((phenyl) methyl) phenyl)-D-glucitol were prepared as for SGLT2 Inhibitors the treatment of Diabetes ;. PCT Int Appl,. WO2008002824

    10) Deshpande, Prashant P. et al; Methods of producing C-Aryl glucoside SGLT2 Inhibitors ;.. U.S. Pat Appl Publ,. 20,040,138,439

     

dapagliflozin being an inhibitor of sodiumdependent glucose transporters found in the intestine and kidney (SGLT2) and to a method for treating diabetes, especially type II diabetes, as well as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, Syndrome X, diabetic

complications, atherosclerosis and related diseases, employing such C-aryl glucosides alone or in combination with one, two or more other type antidiabetic agent and/or one, two or more other type therapeutic agents such as hypolipidemic agents.

Approximately 100 million people worldwide suffer from type II diabetes (NIDDM – non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), which is characterized by hyperglycemia due to excessive hepatic glucose production and peripheral insulin resistance, the root causes for which are as yet unknown. Hyperglycemia is considered to be the major risk factor for the development of diabetic complications, and is likely to contribute directly to the impairment of insulin secretion seen in advanced NIDDM. Normalization of plasma glucose in NIDDM patients would be predicted to improve insulin action, and to offset the development of diabetic complications. An inhibitor of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT2 in the kidney would be expected to aid in the normalization of plasma glucose levels, and perhaps body weight, by enhancing glucose excretion.

Dapagliflozin can be prepared using similar procedures as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,515,117 or international published applications no. WO 03/099836 and WO 2008/116179

WO 03/099836 A1 refers to dapagliflozin having the structure according to formula 1 .

Figure imgf000004_0001

formula 1

WO 03/099836 A1 discloses a route of synthesis on pages 8-10, whereby one major step is the purification of a compound of formula 2

Figure imgf000004_0002

formula 2

The compound of formula 2 provides a means of purification for providing a compound of formula 1 since it crystallizes. Subsequently the crystalline form of the compound of formula 2 can be deprotected and converted to dapagliflozin. Using this process, dapagliflozin is obtained as an amorphous glassy off-white solid containing 0.1 1 mol% of EtOAc. Crystallization of a pharmaceutical drug is usually advantageous as it provides means for purification also suitable for industrial scale preparation. However, for providing an active pharmaceutical drug a very high purity is required. In particular, organic impurities such as EtOAc either need to be avoided or further purification steps are needed to provide the drug in a

pharmaceutically acceptable form, i.e. substantially free of organic solvents. Thus, there is the need in the art to obtain pure and crystalline dapagliflozinwhich is substantially free of organic solvents.

WO 2008/002824 A1 discloses several alternative solid forms of dapagliflozin, such as e.g. solvates containing organic alcohols or co-crystals with amino acids such as proline and phenylalanine. For instance, the document discloses crystalline

dapagliflozin solvates which additionally contain water molecules (see e.g.

Examples 3-6), but is silent about solid forms of dapagliflozin which do not contain impurities such as organic alcohols. As described above, it is desirable to provide the pharmaceutical active drug in a substantially pure form, otherwise triggering further expensive and time-consuming purification steps. In contrast, the document relates to dapagliflozin solvates where an alcohol and water are both incorporated into the crystal lattice. Hence, there is the need in the art to obtain pure and crystalline dapagliflozin suitable for pharmaceutical production.

WO 2008/1 16179 A1 refers to an immediate release pharmaceutical composition comprising dapagliflozin and propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is a chiral

substance and (S)-propylene glycol used is very expensive. Consequently, also the immediate release pharmaceutical composition is more expensive.

Crystalline forms (in comparision to the amorphous form) often show desired different physical and/or biological characteristics which may assist in the manufacture or formulation of the active compound, to the purity levels and uniformity required for regulatory approval. As described above, it is desirable to provide the pharmaceutical active drug in a substantially pure form, otherwise triggering further expensive and time-consuming purification steps.

…..

WO 2008/ 1 16179 Al seems to disclose an immediate release formulation comprising dapagliflozin and propylene glycol hydrate. WO 2008/ 116195 A2 refers to the use of an SLGT2 inhibitor in the treatment of obesity

http://www.google.com/patents/US20120282336

http://www.tga.gov.au/pdf/auspar/auspar-dapagliflozin-propanediol-monohydrate-130114.pdf

Example 2 Dapagliflozin (S) PGS—(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (S)-propane-1,2-diol hydrate (1:1:1)

Dapagliflozin (S) propylene glycol hydrate (1:1:1) can be prepared using similar procedures as described in published applications WO 08/002824 and WO 2008/116179, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for any purpose. SGLT2 EC50=1.1 nM.

Figure US20120282336A1-20121108-C00006

Example 3 Dapagliflozin (R) PGS—(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(4-chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (R)-propane-1,2-diol hydrate (1:1:1)

Dapagliflozin (R) propylene glycol hydrate (1:1:1) can be prepared using similar procedures as described in WO 08/002824 and WO 2008/116179, the disclosures of which are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety for any purpose. SGLT2 EC50=1.1 nM.

WO 2008/002824 A1 discloses several alternative solid forms of dapagliflozin, such as e.g. solvates containing organic alcohols or co-crystals with amino acids such as proline and phenylalanine. For instance, the document discloses crystalline

dapagliflozin solvates which additionally contain water molecules (see e.g.

Examples 3-6), but is silent about solid forms of dapagliflozin which do not contain impurities such as organic alcohols. As described above, it is desirable to provide the pharmaceutical active drug in a substantially pure form, otherwise triggering further expensive and time-consuming purification steps. In contrast, the document relates to dapagliflozin solvates where an alcohol and water are both incorporated into the crystal lattice. Hence, there is the need in the art to obtain pure and crystalline dapagliflozin suitable for pharmaceutical production.

WO 2008/1 16179 A1 refers to an immediate release pharmaceutical composition comprising dapagliflozin and propylene glycol. Propylene glycol is a chiral

substance and (S)-propylene glycol used is very expensive. Consequently, also the immediate release pharmaceutical composition is more expensive.

Surprisingly, amorphous dapagliflozin can be purified with the process of the present invention. For instance amorphous dapagliflozin having a purity of 99,0% can be converted to crystalline dapagliflozin hydrate having a purity of 100% (see examples of the present application). Moreover, said crystalline dapagliflozin hydrate does not contain any additional solvent which is desirable. Thus, the process of purifying dapagliflozin according to the present invention is superior compared with the process of WO 03/099836 A1 .

Additionally, the dapagliflozin hydrate obtained is crystalline which is advantageous with respect to the formulation of a pharmaceutical composition. The use of expensive diols such as (S)-propanediol for obtaining an immediate release pharmaceutical composition as disclosed in WO 2008/1 16179 A1 can be avoided

………………………………

In Vitro Characterization and Pharmacokinetics of Dapagliflozin 

dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/…/DMD29165_supplemental_data_.doc

Dapagliflozin (BMS-512148), (2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-2-(3-(4-Ethoxybenzyl)-4-chlorophenyl)

-6-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33

(d, J = 6.0, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 2.2, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J = 2.2, 6.0, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.8, 2H),

6.78 (d, J = 8.8, 2H), 4.07-3.90 (m, 7H), 3.85 (d, J = 10.6, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 5.3, 10.6,

1H), 3.42-3.25 (m, 4H), 1.34 (t, J = 7.0, 3H). 13C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD) δ 158.8,

140.0, 139.9, 134.4, 132.9, 131.9, 130.8, 130.1, 128.2, 115.5, 82.9, 82.2, 79.7, 76.4, 71.9,

64.5, 63.1, 39.2, 15.2.

HRMS calculated for C21H25ClNaO6 (M+Na)+

For C21H25ClO6: C, 61.68; H, 6.16. Found: C, 61.16; H, 6.58.

: 431.1237; found 431.1234. Anal. Calcd

SECOND SET

J. Med. Chem., 2008, 51 (5), pp 1145–1149
DOI: 10.1021/jm701272q

1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.33 (d, J = 6.0, 1H), 7.31 (d, J = 2.2, 1H), 7.31 (dd, J = 2.2, 6.0, 1H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.8, 2H), 6.78 (d, J = 8.8, 2H), 4.07–3.90 (m, 7H), 3.85 (d, J = 10.6, 1H), 3.69 (dd, J = 5.3, 10.6, 1H), 3.42–3.25 (m, 4H), 1.34 (t, J = 7.0, 3H);

13C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD) δ 158.8, 140.0, 139.9, 134.4, 132.9, 131.9, 130.8, 130.1, 128.2, 115.5, 82.9, 82.2, 79.7, 76.4, 71.9, 64.5, 63.1, 39.2, 15.2;

HRMS calcd for C21H25ClNaO6 (M + Na)+ 431.1237, found 431.1234. Anal. Calcd for C21H25ClO6: C, 61.68; H, 6.16. Found: C, 61.16; H, 6.58.

………………………

HPLC

  • HPLC measurements were performed with an Agilent 1100 series instrument equipped with a UV-vis detector set to 240 nm according to the following method:
    Column: Ascentis Express RP-Amide 4.6 x 150 mm, 2.7 mm;
    Column temperature: 25 °C
    – Eluent A: 0.1 % formic acid in water
    – Eluent B: 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile
    – Injection volume: 3 mL
    – Flow: 0.7 mL/min
    – Gradient:

    Time [min] [%] B
    0.0 25
    25.0 65
    26.0 70
    29.0 70
    29.5 25
    35.0 25

    ……………………..

    Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca type 2 diabetes drug dapagliflozin net Dag out chemical synthesis chemical synthesis of type 2 diabetes drug Farxiga_dapagliflozin_Forxiga from Bristol-Myers Sq

……..

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013068850A2?cl=en

EXAMPLE 24 – Synthesis of 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl-l-C-(4-chloro-3-(4- ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- -D-glucopyranoside 2,4-di-6>-TBDPS-dapagliflozin; (IVj”))

[0229] l-(5-Bromo-2-chlorobenzyl)-4-ethoxybenzene (1.5 g, 4.6 mmol) and magnesium powder (0.54 g, 22.2 mmol) were placed in a suitable reactor, followed by THF (12 mL) and 1,2- dibromoethane (0.16 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux. After the reaction had initiated, a solution of l-(5-bromo-2-chlorobenzyl)-4-ethoxybenzene (4.5 g, 13.8 mmol) in THF (28 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was allowed to stir for another hour under reflux, and was then cooled to ambient temperature, and then titrated to determine the concentration. The above prepared 4-chloro-3-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl magnesium bromide (31 mL, 10 mmol, 0.32 M in THF) and A1C13 (0.5 M in THF, 8.0 mL, 4.0 mmol) were mixed at ambient temperature to give a black solution, which was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. To a solution of

I, 6-anhydro-2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- -D-glucopyranose (0.64 g, 1.0 mmol) in PhOMe (3.0 mL) at ambient temperature was added phenylmagnesium bromide (0.38 mL, 1.0 mmol, 2.6 M solution in Et20). After stirring for about 5 min the solution was then added into the above prepared aluminum mixture via syringe, followed by additional PhOMe (1.0 mL) to rinse the flask. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure (50 torr) at 60 °C (external bath temperature) to remove low-boiling point ethereal solvents and then PhOMe (6mL) was added. The reaction mixture was heated at 130 °C (external bath temperature) for 8 hours at which time HPLC assay analysis indicated a 51% yield of 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl-l-C-(4-chloro-3- (4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- -D-glucopyranoside. After cooling to ambient temperature, the reaction was treated with 10% aqueous NaOH (1 mL), THF (10 mL) and diatomaceous earth at ambient temperature, then the mixture was filtered and the filter cake was washed with THF. The combined filtrates were concentrated and the crude product was purified by silica gel column chromatography (eluting with 1:30 EtOAc/77-heptane) affording the product 2,4-di-6>- ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- 1 – -(4-chloro-3 -(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- β-D-glucopyranoside (0.30 g, 34%) as a white powder.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.56-7.54 (m, 2H), 7.43-7.31 (m, 13H), 7.29-7.22 (m, 6H), 7.07- 7.04 (m, 2H), 7.00 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, IH), 6.87 (dd, J= 8.4, 2.0 Hz, IH), 6.83-6.81 (m, 2H), 4.18 (d, J= 9.6 Hz, IH), 4.02 (q, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H), 3.96 (d, J= 10.8 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (ddd, J= 11.3, 7.7, 1.1 Hz, IH), 3.76 (ddd, J= 8.4, 8.4, 4.8 Hz, IH), 3.56 (ddd, J= 9.0, 6.4, 2.4 Hz, IH), 3.50 (dd, J=

I I.4, 5.4 Hz, IH), 3.44 (dd, J= 9.4, 8.6 Hz, IH), 3.38 (dd, J= 8.8, 8.8 Hz, IH), 1.70 (dd, J= 7.8, 5.4 Hz, IH, OH), 1.42 (t, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.21 (d, J= 5.2 Hz, IH, OH), 1.00 (s, 9H), 0.64 (s, 9H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDC13) δ 157.4 (C), 138.8 (C), 137.4 (C), 136.3 (CH x2), 136.1 (CH x2), 135.2 (CH x2), 135.0 (C), 134.9 (CH x2), 134.8 (C), 134.2 (C), 132.8 (C), 132.0 (C), 131.6 (CH), 131.1 (C), 129.9 (CH x2), 129.7 (CH), 129.6 (CH), 129.5 (CH), 129.4 (CH), 129.2 (CH), 127.58 (CH x2), 127.57 (CH x2), 127.54 (CH x2), 127.31 (CH), 127.28 (CH x2), 114.4 (CH x2), 82.2 (CH), 80.5 (CH), 79.3 (CH), 76.3 (CH), 72.7 (CH), 63.4 (CH2), 62.7 (CH2), 38.2 (CH2), 27.2 (CH3 x3), 26.6 (CH3 x3), 19.6 (C), 19.2 (C), 14.9 (CH3). EXAMPLE 25 -Synthesis of dapagliflozin ((25,3R,4R,55,6/?)-2-[4-chloro-3-(4- ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol; (Ij))

IVj’ U

[0230] A solution of the 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl-l-C-(4-chloro-3-(4- ethoxybenzyl)phenyl)- -D-glucopyranoside (60 mg, 0.068 mmol) in THF (3.0 mL) and TBAF (3.0 mL, 3.0 mmol, 1.0 M in THF) was stirred at ambient temperature for 15 hours. CaC03 (0.62 g), Dowex^ 50WX8-400 ion exchange resin (1.86 g) and MeOH (5mL) were added to the product mixture and the suspension was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour and then the mixture was filtrated through a pad of diatomaceous earth. The filter cake was rinsed with MeOH and the combined filtrates was evaporated under vacuum and the resulting residue was purified by column chromatography (eluting with 1 : 10 MeOH/DCM) affording dapagliflozin (30 mg).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.37-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.29 (dd, J= 8.2, 2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.12-7.10 (m, 2H), 6.82-6.80 (m, 2H), 4.10 (d, J= 9.6 Hz, 2H), 4.04 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.00 (q, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.91-3.87 (m, 1H), 3.73-3.67(m, 1H), 3.47-3.40 (m, 3H), 3.31-3.23 (m, 2H), 1.37 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H);

13C NMR (100 MHz, CD3OD) δ 157.4 (C), 138.6 (C), 138.5 (C), 133.1 (C), 131.5 (C), 130.5 (CH), 129.4 (CH x2), 128.7 (CH), 126.8 (CH), 114.0 (CH x2), 80.5 (CH), 80.8 (CH), 78.3 (CH), 75.0 (CH), 70.4 (CH), 63.0 (CH2), 61.7 (CH2), 37.8 (CH2), 13.8 (CH3);

LCMS (ESI) m/z 426 (100, [M+NH4]+), 428 (36, [M+NH4+2]+), 447 (33, [M+K]+).

Example 1 – Synthesis of l,6-anhydro-2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- -D-glucopyranose (II”)

III II”

[0206] To a suspension solution of l,6-anhydro- -D-glucopyranose (1.83 g, 11.3 mmol) and imidazole (3.07 g, 45.2 mmol) in THF (10 mL) at 0 °C was added dropwise a solution of TBDPSC1 (11.6 mL, 45.2 mmol) in THF (10 mL). After the l,6-anhydro-P-D-gJucopyranose was consumed, water (10 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted twice with EtOAc (20 mL each), washed with brine (10 mL), dried (Na2S04) and concentrated. Column

chromatography (eluting with 1 :20 EtOAc/rc-heptane) afforded 2,4-di-6>-ieri-butyldiphenylsilyl- l,6-anhydro- “D-glucopyranose (5.89 g, 81%).

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.82-7.70 (m, 8H), 7.49-7.36 (m, 12H), 5.17 (s, IH), 4.22 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, IH), 3.88-3.85 (m, IH), 3.583-3.579 (m, IH), 3.492-3.486 (m, IH), 3.47-3.45 (m, IH), 3.30 (dd, J= 7.4, 5.4 Hz, IH), 1.71 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, IH), 1.142 (s, 9H), 1.139 (s, 9H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCI3) δ 135.89 (CH x2), 135.87 (CH x2), 135.85 (CH x2), 135.83 (CH x2), 133.8 (C), 133.5 (C), 133.3 (C), 133.2 (C), 129.94 (CH), 129.92 (CH), 129.90 (CH), 129.88 (CH), 127.84 (CH2 x2), 127.82 (CH2 x2), 127.77 (CH2 x4), 102.4 (CH), 76.9 (CH), 75.3 (CH), 73.9 (CH), 73.5 (CH), 65.4 (CH2), 27.0 (CH3 x6), 19.3 (C x2).


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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