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Daiichi Sankyo anticoagulant edoxaban succeeds in Phase III



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Edoxaban, DU-176b

Daiichi Sankyo, APPROVED IN JAPAN as tosylate monohydrate salt in 2011 for the prevention of venous embolism in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery

for synthesis see….  Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 21 (2013) 2795–2825,  see s[pecific page 2808 for description  ie 14/31 of pdf

WO 2010071121,

WO 2007032498


NOV20, 2013

Daiichi Sankyo will file edoxaban on both sides of the Atlantic shortly after the bloodthinner proved as effective and safer than warfarin in a Phase III trial of patients with atrial fibrillation.

The company has presented data on edoxaban, a once-daily oral factor Xa inhibitor, at the American Heart Association meeting in Dallas, from a study involving 21,105 patients across 46 countries. The drug, evaluated in 60mg and 30mg doses, met its primary endpoint of non-inferiority compared to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events in patients with non-valvular AF.

Edoxaban (INN, codenamed DU-176b, trade name Lixiana) is an anticoagulant drug which acts as a direct factor Xa inhibitor. It is being developed by Daiichi Sankyo. It was approved in July 2011 in Japan for prevention of venous thromboembolisms (VTE) following lower-limb orthopedic surgery.[1]

In animal studies, edoxaban is potent, selective for factor Xa and has good oral bioavailability.[2]

Daichi Sankyo’s edoxaban tosilate is an orally administered
coagulation factor Xa inhibitor that was approved and launched
in Japan for the preventive treatment of venous thromboembolic
events (VTE) in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, total
hip arthroplasty, or hip fracture surgery. Edoxaban has been
shown to have a rapid onset of anticoagulant effect due to short
Tmax (1–2 h) after dosing and sustained for up to 24 h post-dose.
Marketed under the brand name Lixiana, it is currently in phase
III studies in the US for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolic
events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous
thromboembolism (VTE).

Several Phase II clinical trials have been conducted, for example for thromboprophylaxis after total hip replacement[3] (phase III early results compare well to enoxaparin[4]), and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation[5][6].Those papers follow similar recent major trials showing similar results for the other new factor Xa inhibitorsrivaroxaban and apixaban.

A large phase III trial showed that edoxaban was non inferior to warfarin in preventing recurrent venous thromboembolic events with fewer episodes of major bleeding.[7]

  1.  “First market approval in Japan for LIXIANA (Edoxaban)”Press Release. Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. 2011-04-22.
  2.  Furugohri T, Isobe K, Honda Y, Kamisato-Matsumoto C, Sugiyama N, Nagahara T, Morishima Y, Shibano T (September 2008). “DU-176b, a potent and orally active factor Xa inhibitor: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles”. J. Thromb. Haemost. 6 (9): 1542–9. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2008.03064.xPMID 18624979.
  3.  Raskob, G.; Cohen, A. T.; Eriksson, B. I.; Puskas, D.; Shi, M.; Bocanegra, T.; Weitz, J. I. (2010). “Oral direct factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban for thromboprophylaxis after elective total hip replacement”. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 104 (3): 642–649. doi:10.1160/TH10-02-0142.PMID 20589317edit
  4.  “Phase III Trial Finds Edoxaban Outclasses Enoxaparin in Preventing Venous Thromboembolic Events”. 8 Dec 2010.
  5.  Weitz JI, Connolly SJ, Patel I, Salazar D, Rohatagi S, Mendell J, Kastrissios H, Jin J, Kunitada S (September 2010). “Randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, multinational phase 2 study comparing edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation”. Thromb. Haemost. 104 (3): 633–41. doi:10.1160/TH10-01-0066.
  6.  Edoxaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Robert P. Giugliano, M.D., Christian T. Ruff, M.D., M.P.H., Eugene Braunwald, M.D., Sabina A. Murphy, M.P.H., Stephen D. Wiviott, M.D., Jonathan L. Halperin, M.D., Albert L. Waldo, M.D., Michael D. Ezekowitz, M.D., D.Phil., Jeffrey I. Weitz, M.D., Jindřich Špinar, M.D., Witold Ruzyllo, M.D., Mikhail Ruda, M.D., Yukihiro Koretsune, M.D., Joshua Betcher, Ph.D., Minggao Shi, Ph.D., Laura T. Grip, A.B., Shirali P. Patel, B.S., Indravadan Patel, M.D., James J. Hanyok, Pharm.D., Michele Mercuri, M.D., and Elliott M. Antman, M.D. for the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 InvestigatorsDOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1310907
  7.  “Edoxaban versus Warfarin for the Treatment of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism”. N. Engl. J. Med. August 2013. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1306638PMID 23991658.
  8. WO 03/000657 pamphlet WO 03/000680 pamphlet WO 03/016302 pamphlet WO 04/058715 pamphlet WO 05/047296 pamphlet WO 07/032498 pamphlet WO 08/129846 pamphlet WO 08/156159 pamphlet
  9. J Am Chem Soc 1978, 100(16): 5199

Drug formulation , lixiana, edoxaban tosylate monohydrate, CAS 912273-65-5, C24 H30 Cl N7 O4 S . C7 H8 O3 S . H2 O, 738.274

    • N1-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-N2-((1S,2R,4S)-4-[(dimethylamino)carbonyl]-2-{[(5-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothiazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-2-yl)carbonyl]amino}cyclohexyl)ethanediamide p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate represented by the following formula (A) (hereinafter, also referred to as compound A) :
    • Figure imgb0001
      Figure imgb0002
    • is known as a compound that exhibits an inhibitory effect on activated blood coagulation factor X (FXa), and is useful as a preventive and/or therapeutic drug for thrombotic diseases (Patent Literature 1 to 8).
    • For example, a method comprising mixing the free form of compound A represented by the following formula (B) (hereinafter, also referred to as compound B):
    • Figure imgb0003
    • with p-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, followed by crystallization from aqueous ethanol, is known as a method for obtaining compound A (Patent Literature 1 to 8). These literature documents do not make any mention about adding p-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate in a stepwise manner in the step of obtaining compound A from compound B.

Citation ListPatent Literature

    • Patent Literature 1: International Publication No. WO 03/000657
    • Patent Literature 2: International Publication No. WO 03/000680
    • Patent Literature 3: International Publication No. WO 03/016302
    • Patent Literature 4: International Publication No. WO 04/058715
    • Patent Literature 5: International Publication No. WO 05/047296
    • Patent Literature 6: International Publication No. WO 07/032498
    • Patent Literature 7: International Publication No. WO 08/129846
    • Patent Literature 8: International Publication No. WO 08/156159



Edoxaban hydrochloride
CAS Number: 480448-29-1
Molecular Formula: C24H30ClN7O4S · HCl
Molecular Weight: 584.52 g.mol-1

Edoxaban is reported to be a member of the so-called “Xaban-group” and as such to be a low molecular inhibitor of the enzyme factor Xa, participating in the blood coagulation system. Therefore, edoxaban is classified as an antithrombotic drug and its possible medical indications are reported to be treatment of thrombosis and thrombosis prophylaxis after orthopaedic operations, such as total hip replacement, as well as for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, the prophylaxis of the acute coronary syndrome and the prophylaxis after thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

The IUPAC name for edoxaban is N’-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-N-[(15,2^,4S)-4- (dimethylcarbamoyl)-2-[(5-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-[l ,3]thiazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-2- carbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl]oxamide. The chemical structure of edoxaban is shown in the formula (1) below:

Figure imgf000002_0001

formula ( 1 ) While Edoxaban is reported to be soluble in strongly acidic aqueous solutions, its solubility is considered to be very low in neutral or alkaline aqueous media. EP 2 140 867 A 1 claims an edoxaban-containing pharmaceutical composition comprising a water-swelling additive and/or a sugar alcohol. Further, it is alleged that compositions comprising lactose or cornstarch do not have good dissolution properties. The claimed pharmaceutical compositions in EP 2 140 867 Al are considered to show good dissolution properties in a neutral aqueous medium as well. Tablets comprising said composition were produced by wet granulation. However, it turned out that prior art pharmaceutical formulations comprising edoxaban being suitable for oral administration are still improvable with regards to dissolution rate and bioavailability. Further, stability and content uniformity of the known formulations could be improved. Further, due to the intolerance of many people to sugar alcohol(s), such as sorbitol, the use of sugar alcohol(s) should be avoided.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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