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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Skeletal formula of colchicine


CAS Registry Number: 64-86-8CAS Name:N-[(7S)-5,6,7,9-Tetrahydro-1,2,3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamideMolecular Formula: C22H25NO6Molecular Weight: 399.44

CSIR-Laxai Life Sciences get DCGI nod for clinical trials Colchicine on Covid patients


It is an important therapeutic intervention for Covid-19 patients with cardiac co-morbidities and also for reducing proinflammatory cytokines

The Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), and Laxai Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad, have obtained approval from the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) to undertake a two-arm phase-II clinical trial of the drug Colchicine for Covid-19 treatment.

The partner CSIR institutes in this important clinical trial are the CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad and CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (IIIM), Jammu.

According to Ram Vishwakarma, advisor to DG-CSIR, colchicine, in combination with standard of care, will be an important therapeutic intervention for Covid-19 patients with cardiac co-morbidities and also for reducing proinflammatory cytokines, leading to faster recovery.

A number of global studies have confirmed now that cardiac complications during the course of Covid-19 infections and post-covid syndrome are leading to the loss of many lives, and it is essential to look for new or repurposed drugs.




A visionary & an entrepreneur with 17 years of experience in technology and bio-pharma industries. Founder and ex-CEO of LAXAI Pharma Ltd – a clinical data services company based in NJ, USA. Past employment: Pfizer, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson and Deloitte.

Vamsi provides a unique blend of operational and financial experience – along with a strong and expansive network of key influencers, industry experts and financial partners. He delivers a visionary understanding of client challenges and opportunities, and the instinctive ability to facilitate collaboration between the right people to turn strategic concepts into actionable plans – and, ultimately, into business results.

Dr S Chandrasekhar (Director CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad) and Dr. DS Reddy (Director, CSIR-IIIM, Jammu), the two partner institutes from CSIR said that they were looking forward to the outcome of this Phase II clinical efficacy trial on Colchicine, which may lead to life-saving intervention in the management of hospitalised patients.


Dr S Chandrasekhar (Director CSIR-IICT, Hyderabad)


Dr. DS Reddy (Director, CSIR-IIIM, Jammu)

India is one of the largest producers of this key drug and if successful, it will be made available to the patients at an affordable cost.

According to Ram Upadhayay, CEO, Laxai the enrollment of patients has already begun at multiple sites across India and the trial is likely to be completed in the next 8-10 weeks.

The drug can be made available to the large population of India based on the results of this trial and regulatory approval, he added.

Recent clinical studies have reported in leading medical journals about colchicine being associated with a significant reduction in the rates of recurrent pericarditis, post-pericardiotomy syndrome, and peri-procedural atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery and atrial fibrillation ablation, according to a release.


Ram Upadhayaya, PhD

Chief Executive Officer, LAXAI

Ram Upadhayaya, CEO of Laxai Life Sciences, brings with him more than two decades of R&D experience spanning both academia and industry. A Ph. D in synthetic organic Chemistry, Ram has held key positions with leading international drug discovery organizations such as Bioimics AB Sweden, and Lupin India. Apart from his industrial background, Ram has been deeply associated with academic research. He was associated with Institute of Molecular Medicine, India as Principal Scientist as well as Uppsala University, Sweden in the capacity of Assistant Professor (Forskare). During these stints he significantly contributed to the development of novel therapeutics against infectious diseases such as AIDS and TB.

Ram has 10 international patents to his credit and has authored 25 peer reviewed publications. He is concurrently a consultant to the scientific advisory committee of the Principal Scientific Advisor, Government of India.

Raghava Reddy Kethiri, PhD, LAXAI
Chief Scientific Officer

25+ years of experience at various leadership positions in Biotech, CRO and Universities; Ex Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Technical University of Dresden (TUD), JADO Technologies , Dresden, Germany, Jubilant Biosys, India

Delivered several leads, optimised leads and PCCs/DCs across Oncology, Pain, CNS, MD and Antibacterial therapeutics areas for global pharmaceutical companies. Co-Inventor of two clinical candidates ASN-001 ( NCT 02349139) for Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostrate Cancer & ASN-007 (NCT 03415126) for metastatic KRAS, NRAS & HRAS mutated solid tumors. Co-authored over 60 publications/patents (US/EU/Indian)


CAS Registry Number: 64-86-8

CAS Name:N-[(7S)-5,6,7,9-Tetrahydro-1,2,3,10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo[a]heptalen-7-yl]acetamideMolecular Formula: C22H25NO6Molecular Weight: 399.44Percent Composition: C 66.15%, H 6.31%, N 3.51%, O 24.03%

Literature References: A major alkaloid of Colchicum autumnale L., Liliaceae. Extraction procedure: Chemnitius, J. Prakt. Chem. [II] 118, 29 (1928); F. E. Hamerslag, Technology and Chemistry of Alkaloids (New York, 1950) pp 66-80. Structure: Dewar, Nature155, 141 (1945); King et al.,Acta Crystallogr.5, 437 (1952); Horowitz, Ullyot, J. Am. Chem. Soc.74, 487 (1952). Crystal structure: L. Lessinger, T. N. Margulis, Acta Crystallogr.B34, 578 (1978). 
Total synthesis: Schreiber et al.,Helv. Chim. Acta44, 540 (1961); Van Tamelen et al.,Tetrahedron14, 8 (1961); Nakamura, Chem. Pharm. Bull.8, 843 (1960); Sunagawa et al.,ibid.9, 81 (1961); 10, 281 (1962); Scott et al.,Tetrahedron21, 3605 (1965); Woodward, Harvey Lectures, Ser. 59 (Academic Press, New York, 1965) p 31; Kotani et al.,Chem. Commun.1974, 300; D. A. Evans et al.,J. Am. Chem. Soc.103, 5813 (1981). 
Biosynthesis: Leete, Tetrahedron Lett.1965, 333; Battersby et al.,J. Chem. Soc.1964, 4257; Hill, Unrau, Can. J. Chem.43, 709 (1965). Tubulin-binding activity: J. M. Andreu, S. N. Timasheff, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA79, 6753 (1982). Toxicity: S. J. Rosenbloom, F. C. Ferguson, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.13, 50 (1968); R. P. Beliles, ibid.23, 537 (1972). Clinical evaluations in cirrhosis of the liver: M. M. Kaplan et al.,N. Engl. J. Med.315, 1448 (1986); D. Kershenobich et al.,ibid.318, 1709 (1988). Bibliography of early literature: Eigsti, Lloydia10, 65 (1947). 
Monograph: O. J. Eigsti, P. Dustin, Jr., Colchicine in Agriculture, Medicine, Biology and Chemistry (Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1955). Reviews: Fleming, Selected Organic Syntheses (John Wiley, London, 1973) pp 183-207; G. Lagrue et al.,Ann. Med. Interne132, 496-500 (1981); F. D. Malkinson, Arch. Dermatol.118, 453-457 (1982). Comprehensive description: D. K. Wyatt et al.,Anal. Profiles Drug Subs.10, 139-182 (1981). 
Properties: Pale yellow scales or powder, mp 142-150°. Darkens on exposure to light. Has been crystallized from ethyl acetate, pale yellow needles, mp 157°. [a]D17 -429° (c = 1.72). [a]D17 -121° (c = 0.9 in chloroform). pK at 20°: 12.35; pH of 0.5% soln: 5.9. uv max (95% ethanol): 350.5, 243 nm (log e 4.22; 4.47). One gram dissolves in 22 ml water, 220 ml ether, 100 ml benzene; freely sol in alcohol or chloroform. Practically insol in petr ether. Forms two cryst compds with chloroform, B.CHCl3 or B.2CHCl3, which do not give up their chloroform unless heated between 60 and 70° for considerable time. LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1.6 i.v. (Rosenbloom, Ferguson); in mice (mg/kg): 4.13 i.v. (Beliles).

Melting point: mp 142-150°; mp 157°pKa: pK at 20°: 12.35; pH of 0.5% soln: 5.9Optical Rotation: [a]D17 -429° (c = 1.72); [a]D17 -121° (c = 0.9 in chloroform)Absorption maximum: uv max (95% ethanol): 350.5, 243 nm (log e 4.22; 4.47)

Toxicity data: LD50 in rats (mg/kg): 1.6 i.v. (Rosenbloom, Ferguson); in mice (mg/kg): 4.13 i.v. (Beliles)Use: In research in plant genetics (for doubling chromosomes).Therap-Cat: Gout suppressant. Treatment of Familial Mediterranean Fever.Therap-Cat-Vet: Has been used as an antineoplastic.Keywords: Antigout.


DOI: 10.1039/C39740000300

DOI: 10.1002/hlca.19610440225 DOI: 10.1021/ja00409a032

File:Colchicine synthesis.svg


Here, we describe a concise, enantioselective, and scalable synthesis of (−)-colchicine (9.2% overall yield, >99% ee). Moreover, we have also achieved the first syntheses of (+)-demecolcinone and metacolchicine, and determined their absolute configurations. The challenging tricyclic 6-7-7 core of colchicinoids was efficiently introduced using an intramolecular oxidopyrylium-mediated [5 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. Notably, the synthesized colchicinoid 23 exhibited potent inhibitory activity toward the cell growth of human cancer cell lines (IC50 = ∼3.0 nM), and greater inhibitory activity towards microtubule assembly than colchicine, making it a promising lead in the search for novel anticancer agents.

Graphical abstract: Enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-colchicine, (+)-demecolcinone and metacolchicine: determination of the absolute configurations of the latter two alkaloids

Enantioselective total synthesis of (−)- and (+)-colchicine

The synthesis began with the transition-metal-catalyzed C–H bond functionalization of 7 with 14 (Scheme 1). Inspired by Li’s seminal work,18 we applied the strategy to compound 7. Pleasingly, after optimization, we successfully generated the N-sulfonyl imine in situ by reaction of 7 with TsNH2 (15) in the presence of anhydrous CuSO4 in THF. Furthermore, subsequent treatment of this imine with [RhCp*Cl2]2 (1 mol%), AgSbF6 (4 mol%), NaOAc (2.0 equiv.), and 14 (2.0 equiv.) at 80 °C afforded ortho-olefinated benzaldehyde 16 in good yield (90% on a 0.5 g scale; 70% on a 5.0 g scale). This modified catalytic C–H bond activation involved a transient directing group.19

Scheme 1 Enantioselective synthesis of (−)-colchicine and (+)-colchicine.


Recently one of my relatives have fallen ill and was prescribed with some colchicine. Looking at the structure of the molecule, and with nothing much to do, I decided to put my retrosynthetic skills to the test. Here is a picture of my thought process: 

Is there a better way to design a synthesis for this compound using the disconnection method.

From 11b, a Birch reduction is carried out to give the qunione 10b. A rearrangement of the ketone with methanediazonium gives 9b. A dihydroxylation with a peroxy acid and subsequent addition of water gives 8b. A double dehydration reaction with sulfuric acid, coupled with the protection of the ketone with propan-1,3-diol gives the seven-membered quinone 7b. A Heck reaction (or Ullmann reaction) with 7a with a palladium catalyst yields 6. (The protection group is thereafter labelled “PG”) Friedel-Crafts acylation with ethanoyl chloride yields 5 (although on second thoughts, I should have done the acylation from 7a from the start). A Michael addition is then carried out with BuLiBuLi to lithiate the ketone to give the terminal imine 4. Since this terminal imine is unstable, a mild reducing agent converts the imine to the amine 3. The ketone is then removed by addition of dithiol and subsequently reduced by Raney nickel to form 2. Finally, a simple condensation reaction between the amine and acetic anhydride, followed by deprotection of the ketone using an acid, yields the final product colchicine, 1.

Colchicine is a medication used to treat gout[1][2] and Behçet’s disease.[3] In gout, it is less preferred to NSAIDs or steroids.[1] Other uses for colchicine include the management of pericarditis and familial Mediterranean fever.[1][4] Colchicine is taken by mouth.[1]

Colchicine has a narrow therapeutic index and overdosing is therefore a significant risk. Common side effects of colchicine include gastrointestinal upset, particularly at high doses.[5] Severe side effects may include low blood cells and rhabdomyolysis, and the medication can be deadly in overdose.[1] It is not clear whether colchicine is safe for use during pregnancy, but its use during breastfeeding appears to be safe.[1][6] Colchicine works by decreasing inflammation via multiple mechanisms.[7]

Colchicine, in the form of the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), has been used as early as 1500 BC to treat joint swelling.[8] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1961.[9] It is available as a generic medication in the United Kingdom.[6] In 2017, it was the 201st-most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than two million prescriptions.[10][11]

Medical uses


Colchicine is an alternative for those unable to tolerate NSAIDs in gout.[12] At high doses, side effects (primarily gastrointestinal upset) limit its use.[13][14] At lower doses, it is well tolerated.[13][15][16][17] One review found low-quality evidence that low-dose colchicine (1.8 mg in one hour or 1.2 mg per day) reduced gout symptoms and pain, whereas high-dose colchicine (4.8 mg over 6 hours) was effective against pain, but caused more severe side effects, such as diarrhea, nausea or vomiting.[16]

For treating gout symptoms, colchicine is used orally with or without food, as symptoms first appear.[18] Subsequent doses may be needed if symptoms worsen.[18][16] There is preliminary evidence that daily colchicine (0.6 mg twice daily) was effective as a long-term prophylaxis when used with allopurinol to reduce the risk of increased uric acid levels and acute gout flares,[2] although adverse gastrointestinal effects may occur.[19]

Other conditions

Colchicine is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent for long-term treatment of Behçet’s disease.[20] It appears to have limited effect in relapsing polychondritis, as it may only be useful for the treatment of chondritis and mild skin symptoms.[21] It is a component of therapy for several other conditions, including pericarditis, pulmonary fibrosis, biliary cirrhosis, various vasculitides, pseudogout, spondyloarthropathies, calcinosis, scleroderma, and amyloidosis.[20][22][23] Research regarding the efficacy of colchicine in many of these diseases has not been performed.[23] It is also used in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever,[20] in which it reduces attacks and the long-term risk of amyloidosis.[24]

Colchicine is effective for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.[25] Potential applications for the anti-inflammatory effect of colchicine have been studied with regard to atherosclerosis and chronic coronary disease (e.g., stable ischemic heart disease).[26] In people with recent myocardial infarction (recent heart attack), it has been found to reduce risk of future cardiovascular events. Its clinical use may grow to include this indication.[27][28]

Colchicine is also being studied in clinical trials for possible effects on COVID-19.[29][30]


Long-term (prophylactic) regimens of oral colchicine are absolutely contraindicated in people with advanced kidney failure (including those on dialysis).[18] About 10-20 percent of a colchicine dose is excreted unchanged by the kidneys; it is not removed by hemodialysis. Cumulative toxicity is a high probability in this clinical setting, and a severe neuromyopathy may result. The presentation includes a progressive onset of proximal weakness, elevated creatine kinase, and sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Colchicine toxicity can be potentiated by the concomitant use of cholesterol-lowering drugs.[18]

Adverse effects

Deaths – both accidental and intentional – have resulted from overdose of colchicine.[18] Typical side effects of moderate doses may include gastrointestinal upset, diarrhea, and neutropenia.[13] High doses can also damage bone marrow, lead to anemia, and cause hair loss. All of these side effects can result from inhibition of mitosis,[31] which may include neuromuscular toxicity and rhabdomyolysis.[18]


According to one review, colchicine poisoning by overdose (range of acute doses of 7 to 26 mg) begins with a gastrointestinal phase occurring 10–24 hours after ingestion, followed by multiple organ dysfunction occurring 24 hours to 7 days after ingestion, after which the affected person either declines into multi-organ failure or recovers over several weeks.[32]

Colchicine can be toxic when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed in the eyes.[13] Colchicine can cause a temporary clouding of the cornea and be absorbed into the body, causing systemic toxicity. Symptoms of colchicine overdose start 2 to 24 hours after the toxic dose has been ingested and include burning in the mouth and throat, fevervomitingdiarrhea, and abdominal pain.[18] This can cause hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the gastrointestinal tract, which can be fatal.[32][33]

If the affected person survives the gastrointestinal phase of toxicity, they may experience multiple organ failure and critical illness. This includes kidney damage, which causes low urine output and bloody urinelow white blood cell counts that can last for several days; anemia; muscular weakness; liver failurehepatomegalybone marrow suppressionthrombocytopenia; and ascending paralysis leading to potentially fatal respiratory failure. Neurologic symptoms are also evident, including seizuresconfusion, and delirium; children may experience hallucinations. Recovery may begin within six to eight days and begins with rebound leukocytosis and alopecia as organ functions return to normal.[32][31]

Long-term exposure to colchicine can lead to toxicity, particularly of the bone marrowkidney, and nerves. Effects of long-term colchicine toxicity include agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low white blood cell counts, aplastic anemia, alopecia, rashpurpuravesicular dermatitiskidney damageanuriaperipheral neuropathy, and myopathy.[31]

No specific antidote for colchicine is known, but supportive care is used in cases of overdose. In the immediate period after an overdose, monitoring for gastrointestinal symptoms, cardiac dysrhythmias, and respiratory depression is appropriate,[31] and may require gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal or gastric lavage.[32][33]

Mechanism of toxicity

With overdoses, colchicine becomes toxic as an extension of its cellular mechanism of action via binding to tubulin.[32] Cells so affected undergo impaired protein assembly with reduced endocytosisexocytosiscellular motility, and interrupted function of heart cells, culminating in multi-organ failure.[7][32]


In the United States, there are several hundred recorded cases of colchicine toxicity annually; approximately 10% of which end with serious morbidity or mortality. Many of these cases are intentional overdoses, but others were accidental; for example, if the drug was not dosed appropriately for kidney function. Most cases of colchicine toxicity occur in adults. Many of these adverse events resulted from the use of intravenous colchicine.[23]

Drug interactions

Colchicine interacts with the P-glycoprotein transporter, and the CYP3A4 enzyme involved in drug and toxin metabolism.[18][32] Fatal drug interactions have occurred when colchicine was taken with other drugs that inhibit P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4, such as erythromycin or clarithromycin.[18]

People taking macrolide antibioticsketoconazole or cyclosporine, or those who have liver or kidney disease, should not take colchicine, as these drugs and conditions may interfere with colchicine metabolism and raise its blood levels, potentially increasing its toxicity abruptly.[18][32] Symptoms of toxicity include gastrointestinal upset, fever, muscle painlow blood cell counts, and organ failure.[13][18] People with HIV/AIDS taking atazanavirdarunavirfosamprenavirindinavirlopinavirnelfinavirritonavir, or saquinavir may experience colchicine toxicity.[18] Grapefruit juice and statins can also increase colchicine concentrations.[18]

In gout, inflammation in joints results from the precipitation of circulating uric acid, exceeding its solubility in blood and depositing as crystals of monosodium urate in and around synovial fluid and soft tissues of joints.[7] These crystal deposits cause inflammatory arthritis, which is initiated and sustained by mechanisms involving various proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines.[7] Colchicine accumulates in white blood cells and affects them in a variety of ways: decreasing motility, mobilization (especially chemotaxis) and adhesion.[23]

Under preliminary research are various mechanisms by which colchicine may interfere with gout inflammation:

Generally, colchicine appears to inhibit multiple proinflammatory mechanisms, while enabling increased levels of anti-inflammatory mediators.[7] Apart from inhibiting mitosis, colchicine inhibits neutrophil motility and activity, leading to a net anti-inflammatory effect, which has efficacy for inhibiting or preventing gout inflammation.[7][18]

The plant source of colchicine, the autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), was described for treatment of rheumatism and swelling in the Ebers Papyrus (circa 1500 BC), an Egyptian medical papyrus.[34] It is a toxic alkaloid and secondary metabolite.[13][35][18] Colchicum extract was first described as a treatment for gout in De Materia Medica by Pedanius Dioscorides, in the first century AD. Use of the bulb-like corms of Colchicum to treat gout probably dates to around 550 AD, as the “hermodactyl” recommended by Alexander of TrallesColchicum corms were used by the Persian physician Avicenna, and were recommended by Ambroise Paré in the 16th century, and appeared in the London Pharmacopoeia of 1618.[36][23] Colchicum use waned over time, likely due to the severe gastrointestinal side effects preparations caused. In 1763, Colchicum was recorded as a remedy for dropsy (now called edema) among other illnesses.[23] Colchicum plants were brought to North America by Benjamin Franklin, who had gout himself and had written humorous doggerel about the disease during his stint as United States Ambassador to France.[37]

Colchicine was first isolated in 1820 by the French chemists P. S. Pelletier and J. B.Caventou.[38] In 1833, P. L. Geiger purified an active ingredient, which he named colchicine.[39] It quickly became a popular remedy for gout.[23] The determination of colchicine’s structure required decades, although in 1945, Michael Dewar made an important contribution when he suggested that, among the molecule’s three rings, two were seven-member rings.[40] Its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects for gout were linked to its ability to bind with tubulin.

An unintended consequence of the 2006 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety program called the Unapproved Drugs Initiative—through which the FDA sought more rigorous testing of efficacy and safety of colchicine and other unapproved drugs[41]—was a price increase of 2000 percent [42] for “a gout remedy so old that the ancient Greeks knew about its effects.”[42] Under Unapproved Drugs Initiative small companies like URL Pharma, a Philadelphia drugmaker, were rewarded with licenses for testing of medicines like colchicine. In 2009, the FDA reviewed a New Drug Application for colchicine submitted by URL Pharma. URL Pharma did the testing, gained FDA formal approval, and was granted rights over colchicine. With this monopoly pricing power, the price of colchicine increased.

In 2012 Asia’s biggest drugmaker, Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., acquired URL Pharma for $800 million including the rights to colchicine (brand name Colcrys) earning $1.2 billion in revenue by raising the price even more.[42]

Oral colchicine had been used for many years as an unapproved drug with no FDA-approved prescribing information, dosage recommendations, or drug interaction warnings.[43] On July 30, 2009, the FDA approved colchicine as a monotherapy for the treatment of three different indications (familial Mediterranean fever, acute gout flares, and for the prophylaxis of gout flares[43]), and gave URL Pharma a three-year marketing exclusivity agreement[44] in exchange for URL Pharma doing 17 new studies and investing $100 million into the product, of which $45 million went to the FDA for the application fee. URL Pharma raised the price from $0.09 per tablet to $4.85, and the FDA removed the older unapproved colchicine from the market in October 2010, both in oral and intravenous forms, but allowed pharmacies to buy up the older unapproved colchicine.[45] Colchicine in combination with probenecid has been FDA-approved before 1982.[44]

July 29, 2009, colchicine won FDA approval in the United States as a stand-alone drug for the treatment of acute flares of gout and familial Mediterranean fever.[46][47] It had previously been approved as an ingredient in an FDA-approved combination product for gout. The approval was based on a study in which two doses (1.2 mg and 0.6 mg) an hour apart were as effective as higher doses in combating the acute flare of gout.[17]

As a drug antedating the FDA, colchicine was sold in the United States for many years without having been reviewed by the FDA for safety and efficacy. The FDA reviewed approved colchicine for gout flares, awarding Colcrys a three-year term of market exclusivity, prohibiting generic sales, and increasing the price of the drug from $0.09 to $4.85 per tablet.[48][49][50]

Numerous consensus guidelines, and previous randomized controlled trials, had concluded that colchicine is effective for acute flares of gouty arthritis. However, as of 2006, the drug was not formally approved by the FDA, owing to the lack of a conclusive randomized control trial (RCT). Through the Unapproved Drugs Initiative, the FDA sought more rigorous testing of the efficacy and safety of colchicine and other unapproved drugs.[41] In exchange for paying for the costly testing, the FDA gave URL Pharma three years of market exclusivity for its Colcrys brand,[51] under the Hatch-Waxman Act, based in part on URL-funded research in 2007, including pharmacokinetic studies and a randomized control trial with 185 patients with acute gout.

In April 2010, an editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine said that the rewards of this legislation are not calibrated to the quality or value of the information produced, that no evidence of meaningful improvement to public health was seen, and that it would be less expensive for the FDA, the National Institutes of Health or large insurers to pay for trials themselves. Furthermore, the cost burden of this subsidy falls primarily on patients or their insurers.[52] In September 2010, the FDA ordered a halt to marketing unapproved single-ingredient oral colchicine.[53]

Colchicine patents expire on February 10, 2029.[54]

URL Pharma also received seven years of market exclusivity for Colcrys in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever, under the Orphan Drug Law. URL Pharma then raised the price per tablet from $0.09 to $4.85 and sued to remove other versions from the market, increasing annual costs for the drug to U.S. state Medicaid programs from $1 million to $50 million. Medicare also paid significantly higher costs, making this a direct money-loser for the government. (In a similar case, thalidomide was approved in 1998 as an orphan drug for leprosy and in 2006 for multiple myeloma.)[52]


It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002) and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.[55]

Formulations and dosing

Trade names for colchicine are Colcrys or Mitigare which are manufactured as a dark– and light-blue capsule having a dose of 0.6 mg.[18][56] Colchicine is also prepared as a white, yellow, or purple pill (tablet) having a dose of 0.6 mg.[56]

Colchicine is typically prescribed to mitigate or prevent the onset of gout, or its continuing symptoms and pain, using a low-dose prescription of 0.6 to 1.2 mg per day, or a high-dose amount of up to 4.8 mg in the first 6 hours of a gout episode.[5][18][16] With an oral dose of 0.6 mg, peak blood levels occur within one to two hours.[35] For treating gout, the initial effects of colchicine occur in a window of 12 to 24 hours, with a peak within 48 to 72 hours.[18] It has a narrow therapeutic window, requiring monitoring of the subject for potential toxicity.[18] Colchicine is not a general pain relief drug, and is not used to treat pain in other disorders.[18]


According to laboratory research, the biosynthesis of colchicine involves the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine as precursors. Giving radioactive phenylalanine-2-14C to C. byzantinum, another plant of the family Colchicaceae, resulted in its incorporation into colchicine.[57] However, the tropolone ring of colchicine resulted from the expansion of the tyrosine ring. Radioactive feeding experiments of C. autumnale revealed that colchicine can be synthesized biosynthetically from (S)-autumnaline. That biosynthesic pathway occurs primarily through a phenolic coupling reaction involving the intermediate isoandrocymbine. The resulting molecule undergoes O-methylation directed by S-adenosylmethionine. Two oxidation steps followed by the cleavage of the cyclopropane ring leads to the formation of the tropolone ring contained by N-formyldemecolcine. N-formyldemecolcine hydrolyzes then to generate the molecule demecolcine, which also goes through an oxidative demethylation that generates deacetylcolchicine. The molecule of colchicine appears finally after addition of acetyl-coenzyme A to deacetylcolchicine.[58][59]



Colchicine may be purified from Colchicum autumnale (autumn crocus) or Gloriosa superba (glory lily). Concentrations of colchicine in C. autumnale peak in the summer, and range from 0.1% in the flower to 0.8% in the bulb and seeds.[23]

Colchicine is widely used in plant breeding by inducing polyploidy in plant cells to produce new or improved varieties, strains and cultivars.[60] When used to induce polyploidy in plants, colchicine cream is usually applied to a growth point of the plant, such as an apical tip, shoot, or sucker. Seeds can be presoaked in a colchicine solution before planting. Since chromosome segregation is driven by microtubules, colchicine alters cellular division by inhibiting chromosome segregation during meiosis; half the resulting gametes, therefore, contain no chromosomes, while the other half contains double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., diploid instead of haploid, as gametes usually are), and lead to embryos with double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., tetraploid instead of diploid).[60] While this would be fatal in most higher animal cells, in plant cells it is not only usually well-tolerated, but also frequently results in larger, hardier, faster-growing, and in general more desirable plants than the normally diploid parents. For this reason, this type of genetic manipulation is frequently used in breeding plants commercially.[60]

When such a tetraploid plant is crossed with a diploid plant, the triploid offspring are usually sterile (unable to produce fertile seeds or spores), although many triploids can be propagated vegetatively. Growers of annual triploid plants not readily propagated vegetatively cannot produce a second-generation crop from the seeds (if any) of the triploid crop and need to buy triploid seed from a supplier each year. Many sterile triploid plants, including some trees, and shrubs, are becoming increasingly valued in horticulture and landscaping because they do not become invasive species and will not drop undesirable fruit and seed litter. In certain species, colchicine-induced triploidy has been used to create “seedless” fruit, such as seedless watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Since most triploids do not produce pollen themselves, such plants usually require cross-pollination with a diploid parent to induce seedless fruit production.

The ability of colchicine to induce polyploidy can be also exploited to render infertile hybrids fertile, for example in breeding triticale (× Triticosecale) from wheat (Triticum spp.) and rye (Secale cereale). Wheat is typically tetraploid and rye diploid, with their triploid hybrid infertile; treatment of triploid triticale with colchicine gives fertile hexaploid triticale.[61]


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Further reading

  • Dowd, Matthew J. (April 30, 1998). “Colchicine”. Virginia Commonwealth University. Archived from the original on 2010-06-10.
Clinical data
Trade namesColcrys, Mitigare, others
License dataUS DailyMedColchicine
Routes of
By mouth
ATC codeM04AC01 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)CA℞-onlyUK: POM (Prescription only)US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding35-44%
MetabolismMetabolism, partly by CYP3A4
Elimination half-life26.6-31.2 hours
ExcretionFaeces (65%)
showIUPAC name
CAS Number64-86-8 
PubChem CID6167
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID5024845 DTXSID20274387, DTXSID5024845 
ECHA InfoCard100.000.544 
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass399.437 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image

///////////Colchicine, CSIR, Laxai Life Sciences, DCGI, clinical trials,  Covid patients, covid 19, corona virus 





Image result for TOZADENANT



  • Molecular Formula C19H26N4O4S
  • Average mass 406.499 Da

A2 (3); A2a-(3); RO4494351; RO4494351-000; RO4494351-002; SYN-115

Phase III clinical trials at Biotie Therapies for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease as an adjunctive therapy with levodopa

1-Piperidinecarboxamide, 4-hydroxy-N-[4-methoxy-7-(4-morpholinyl)-2-benzothiazolyl]-4-methyl-
4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid(4-methoxy-7-morpholin-4-yl-benzothiazol-2-yl)-amide
CAS 870070-55-6
  • Originator Roche
  • Developer Acorda Therapeutics
  • Class Amides; Antiparkinsonians; Benzothiazoles; Carboxylic acids; Morpholines; Piperidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase III Parkinson’s disease
  • Phase I Liver disorders

Most Recent Events

  • 30 Jun 2017 Biotie Therapies plans a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in Canada (NCT03200080)
  • 30 Jun 2017 Phase-I clinical trials in Liver disorders (In volunteers) in USA (PO) (NCT03212313)
  • 27 Apr 2017 Acorda Therapeutics initiates enrolment in a phase III trial for Parkinson’s disease in Germany (EudraCT2016-003961-25)(NCT03051607)

Biotie Therapies Holding , under license from Roche , is developing tozadenant (phase 3, as of August 2017) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

SYN-115, a potent and selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, is in phase III clinical trials at Biotie Therapeutics for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, as an adjunjunctive therapy with levodopa. Phase 0 trials were are underway at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) for the treatment of cocaine dependency, but no recent development has been reported.

The A2A receptor modulates the production of dopamine, glutamine and serotonin in several brain regions. In preclinical studies, antagonism of the A2A receptor resulted in increases in dopamine levels, which gave rise to the reversal of motor deficits.

Originally developed at Roche, SYN-115 was acquired by Synosia in 2007, in addition to four other drug candidates with potential for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Under the terms of the agreement, Synosia was responsible for clinical development and in some cases commercialization, while Roche retained the right to opt-in to two preselected programs.

In 2010, the compound was licensed to UCB by Synosia Therapeutics for development and commercialization worldwide.

In February 2011, Synosia (previously Synosis Therapeutics) was acquired by Biotie Therapeutics, and in 2014, Biotie regained global rights from UCB.

Image result for TOZADENANT


Image result for TOZADENANT


Representative examples of A2AAdoR antagonists.

Tozadenant, also known as 4-hydroxy-N-(4-methoxy-7-(4-morpholinyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-4-methylpiperidine-l-carboxamide or SYN115, is an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. The A2A receptor modulates the production of

dopamine, glutamine and serotonin in several brain regions. In preclinical studies, antagonism of the A2A receptor resulted in increases in dopamine levels, which gave rise to the reversal of motor deficits.

Tozadenant is currently phase III clinical trials for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease as an adjunctive therapy with levodopa. It has also been explored for the treatment of cocaine dependency.

Inventors Alexander FlohrJean-Luc MoreauSonia PoliClaus RiemerLucinda Steward
Original Assignee Alexander FlohrJean-Luc MoreauPoli Sonia MClaus RiemerLucinda Steward

(F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG)

Image result

Claus Riemer

Claus Riemer

Expert Scientist
Roche , Basel · Department of Medicinal Chemistry

Sonia Poli

Sonia Poli

Chief Scientific Officer – CSO
Addex Therapeutics , Genève · R&D
Principal Scientist


Fredriksson, KaiLottmann, PhilipHinz, SonjaOnila, IounutShymanets, AliakseiHarteneck, ChristianMüller, Christa E.Griesinger, ChristianExner, Thomas E. – Angewandte Chemie – International Edition, 2017, vol. 56, 21, pg. 5750 – 5754, Angew. Chem., 2017, vol. 129, pg. 5844 – 5848,5


Mancel, ValérieMathy, François-XavierBoulanger, PierreEnglish, StephenCroft, MarieKenney, ChristopherKnott, TarraStockis, ArmelBani, Massimo – Xenobiotica, 2017, vol. 47,  8, pg. 705 – 718


Design, Synthesis of Novel, Potent, Selective, Orally Bioavailable Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists and Their Biological Evaluation

Drug Discovery Facility, Advinus Therapeutics Ltd., Quantum Towers, Plot-9, Phase-I, Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park, Hinjawadi, Pune 411 057, India
J. Med. Chem.201760 (2), pp 681–694
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01584
* Phone: +91 20 66539600. Fax: +91 20 66539620. E-mail:
Abstract Image


  • Adenosine modulates a wide range of physiological functions by interacting with specific cell surface receptors. The potential of adenosine receptors as drug targets was first reviewed in 1982. Adenosine is related both structurally and metabolically to the bioactive nucleotides adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP); to the biochemical methylating agent S-adenosyl-L-methione (SAM); and structurally to the coenzymes NAD, FAD and coenzyme A; and to RNA. Together adenosine and these related compounds are important in the regulation of many aspects of cellular metabolism and in the modulation of different central nervous system activities.
  • [0003]
    The adenosine receptors have been classified as A1, A2A, A2B and A3receptors, belonging to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Activation of aderosine receptors by adenosine initiates signal transduction mechanisms. These mechanisms are dependent on the receptor associated G protein. Each of the adenosine receptor subtypes has been classically characterized by the adenylate cyclase effector system, which utilises cAMP as a second messenger. The A1and Areceptors, coupled with Gproteins inhibit adenylate cyclase, leading to a decrease in cellular cAMP levels, while A2A and A2Breceptors couple to Gproteins and activate adenylate cyclase, leading to an increase in cellular cAMP levels. It is known that the A1receptor system activates phospholipase C and modulates both potassium and calcium ion channels. The Asubtype, in addition to its association with adenylate cyclase, also stimulates phospholipase C and activates calcium ion channels.
  • [0004]
    The Areceptor (326-328 amino acids) was cloned from various species (canine, human, rat, dog, chick, bovine, guinea-pig) with 90-95% sequence identify among the mammalian species. The A2Areceptor (409-412 amino acids) was cloned from canine, rat, human, guinea pig and mouse. The A2B receptor (332 amino acids) was cloned from human and mouse and shows 45% homology with the human Aand A2A receptors. The Areceptor (317-320 amino acids) was cloned from human, rat, dog, rabbit and sheep.
  • [0005]
    The Aand A2A receptor subtypes are proposed to play complementary roles in adenosine’s regulation of the energy supply. Adenosine, which is a metabolic product of ATP, diffuses from the cell and acts locally to activate adenosine receptors to decrease the oxygen demand (A1) or increase the oxygen supply (A2A) and so reinstate the balance of energy supply: demand within the tissue. The actions of both subtypes is to increase the amount of available oxygen to tissue and to protect cells against damage caused by a short term imbalance of oxygen. One of the important functions of endogenous adenosine is preventing damage during traumas such as hypoxia, ischemia, hypotension and seizure activity.
  • [0006]
    Furthermore, it is known that the binding of the adenosine receptor agonist to mast cells expressing the rat Areceptor resulted in increased inositol triphosphate and intracellular calcium concentrations, which potentiated antigen induced secretion of inflammatory mediators. Therefore, the Areceptor plays a role in mediating asthmatic attacks and other allergic responses.
  • [0007]
    Adenosine is a neurotransmitter able to modulate many aspects of physiological brain function. Endogenous adenosine, a central link between energy metabolism and neuronal activity, varies according to behavioral state and (patho)physiological conditions. Under conditions of increased demand and decreased availability of energy (such as hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and/or excessive neuronal activity), adenosine provides a powerful protective feedback mechanism. Interacting with adenosine receptors represents a promising target for therapeutic intervention in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases such as epilepsy, sleep, movement disorders (Parkinson or Huntington’s disease), Alzheimer’s disease, depression, schizophrenia, or addiction. An increase in neurotransmitter release follows traumas such as hypoxia, ischemia and seizures. These neurotransmitters are ultimately responsible for neural degeneration and neural death, which causes brain damage or death of the individual. The adenosine A1agonists mimic the central inhibitory effects of adenosine and may therefore be useful as neuroprotective agents. Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous anticonvulsant agent, inhibiting glutamate release from excitatory neurons and inhibiting neuronal firing. Adenosine agonists therefore may be used as antiepileptic agents. Furthermore, adenosine antagonists have proven to be effective as cognition enhancers. Selective A2A antagonists have therapeutic potential in the treatment of various forms of dementia, for example in Alzheimer’s disease, and of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g. stroke. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists modulate the activity of striatal GABAergic neurons and regulate smooth and well-coordinated movements, thus offering a potential therapy for Parkinsonian symptoms. Adenosine is also implicated in a number of physiological processes involved in sedation, hypnosis, schizophrenia, anxiety, pain, respiration, depression, and drug addiction (amphetamine, cocaine, opioids, ethanol, nicotine, and cannabinoids). Drugs acting at adenosine receptors therefore have therapeutic potential as sedatives, muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, analgesics, respiratory stimulants, antidepressants, and to treat drug abuse. They may also be used in the treatment of ADHD (attention deficit hyper-activity disorder).
  • [0008]
    An important role for adenosine in the cardiovascular system is as a cardioprotective agent. Levels of endogenous adenosine increase in response to ischemia and hypoxia, and protect cardiac tissue during and after trauma (preconditioning). By acting at the Areceptor, adenosine Aagonists may protect against the injury caused by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. The modulating influence of A2Areceptors on adrenergic function may have implications for a variety of disorders such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. A2Aantagonists may be of therapeutic benefit in situations in which an enhanced anti-adrenergic response is desirable, such as during acute myocardial ischemia. Selective antagonists at A2A Areceptors may also enhance the effectiveness of adenosine in terminating supraventricula arrhytmias.
  • [0009]
    Adenosine modulates many aspects of renal function, including renin release, glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow. Compounds which antagonize the renal affects of adenosine have potential as renal protective agents. Furthermore, adenosine Aand/or A2Bantagonists may be useful in the treatment of asthma and other allergic responses or and in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity.
  • [0010]

    Numerous documents describe the current knowledge on adenosine receptors, for example the following publications:

      • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 6, (1998), 619-641,
      • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 6, (1998), 707-719,
      • J. Med. Chem., (1998), 41, 2835-2845,
      • J. Med. Chem., (1998), 41, 3186-3201,
      • J. Med. Chem., (1998), 41, 2126-2133,
      • J. Med. Chem., (1999), 42, 706-721,
      • J. Med. Chem., (1996), 39, 1164-1171,
      • Arch. Pharm. Med. Chem., 332, 39-41, (1999),
      • Am. J. Physiol., 276, H1113-1116, (1999) or
      • Naunyn Schmied, Arch. Pharmacol. 362,375-381, (2000)
    EXAMPLE 14-Hydroxy-4-methyl-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid(4-methoxy-7-morpholin-4-yl-benzothiazol-2-yl)-amide (I)

  • [0065]
    To a solution of (4-methoxy-7-morpholin-4-yl-benzothiazol-2-yl)-carbamic acid phenyl ester (3.2 g, 8.3 mmol) and N-ethyl-diisopropyl-amine (4.4 ml, 25 mmol) in trichloromethane (50 ml) is added a solution of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-piperidine in trichloromethane (3 ml) and tetrahydrofurane (3 ml) and the resulting mixture heated to reflux for 1 h. The reaction mixture is then cooled to ambient temperature and extracted with saturated aqueous sodium carbonate (15 ml) and water (2×5 ml). Final drying with magnesium sulphate and evaporation of the solvent and recrystallization from ethanol afforded the title compound as white crystals (78% yield), mp 236° C. MS: m/e=407(M+H+).

Figure US20050261289A1-20051124-C00013

Figure US20050261289A1-20051124-C00012Figure US20050261289A1-20051124-C00011



Novel deuterated forms of tozadenant are claimed. Also claimed are compositions comprising them and method of modulating the activity of adenosine A2A receptor (ADORA2A), useful for treating Parkinson’s diseases. Represents new area of patenting to be seen from CoNCERT Pharmaceuticals on tozadenant. ISR draws attention towards WO2016204939 , claiming controlled-release tozadenant formulations.

This invention relates to deuterated forms of morpholinobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-4-methylpiperidine-1-carboxamide compounds, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. This invention also provides compositions comprising a compound of this invention and the use of such compositions in methods of treating diseases and conditions that are beneficially treated by administering an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

Many current medicines suffer from poor absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion (ADME) properties that prevent their wider use or limit their use in certain indications. Poor ADME properties are also a major reason for the failure of drug candidates in clinical trials. While formulation technologies and prodrug strategies can be employed in some cases to improve certain ADME properties, these approaches often fail to address the underlying ADME problems that exist for many drugs and drug candidates. One such problem is rapid metabolism that causes a number of drugs, which otherwise would be highly effective in treating a disease, to be cleared too rapidly from the body. A possible solution to rapid drug clearance is frequent or high dosing to attain a sufficiently high plasma level of drug. This, however, introduces a number of potential treatment problems such as poor patient compliance with the dosing regimen, side effects that become more acute with higher doses, and increased cost of treatment. A rapidly metabolized drug may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.

[3] Another ADME limitation that affects many medicines is the formation of toxic or biologically reactive metabolites. As a result, some patients receiving the drug may experience toxicities, or the safe dosing of such drugs may be limited such that patients receive a suboptimal amount of the active agent. In certain cases, modifying dosing intervals or formulation approaches can help to reduce clinical adverse effects, but often the formation of such undesirable metabolites is intrinsic to the metabolism of the compound.

[4] In some select cases, a metabolic inhibitor will be co- administered with a drug that is cleared too rapidly. Such is the case with the protease inhibitor class of drugs that are used to treat HIV infection. The FDA recommends that these drugs be co-dosed with ritonavir, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4), the enzyme typically responsible for their metabolism (see Kempf, D.J. et al., Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1997, 41(3): 654-60). Ritonavir, however, causes adverse effects and adds to the pill burden for HIV patients who must already take a combination of different drugs. Similarly, the

CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine has been added to dextromethorphan for the purpose of reducing rapid CYP2D6 metabolism of dextromethorphan in a treatment of pseudobulbar affect.

Quinidine, however, has unwanted side effects that greatly limit its use in potential combination therapy (see Wang, L et al., Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994, 56(6 Pt 1): 659-67; and FDA label for quinidine at

[5] In general, combining drugs with cytochrome P450 inhibitors is not a satisfactory strategy for decreasing drug clearance. The inhibition of a CYP enzyme’s activity can affect the metabolism and clearance of other drugs metabolized by that same enzyme. CYP inhibition can cause other drugs to accumulate in the body to toxic levels.

[6] A potentially attractive strategy for improving a drug’s metabolic properties is deuterium modification. In this approach, one attempts to slow the CYP-mediated metabolism of a drug or to reduce the formation of undesirable metabolites by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms. Deuterium is a safe, stable, non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium forms stronger bonds with carbon. In select cases, the increased bond strength imparted by deuterium can positively impact the ADME properties of a drug, creating the potential for improved drug efficacy, safety, and/or tolerability. At the same time, because the size and shape of deuterium are essentially identical to those of hydrogen, replacement of hydrogen by deuterium would not be expected to affect the biochemical potency and selectivity of the drug as compared to the original chemical entity that contains only hydrogen.

[7] Over the past 35 years, the effects of deuterium substitution on the rate of metabolism have been reported for a very small percentage of approved drugs (see, e.g., Blake, MI et al, J Pharm Sci, 1975, 64:367-91; Foster, AB, Adv Drug Res 1985, 14: 1-40 (“Foster”); Kushner, DJ et al, Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1999, 79-88; Fisher, MB et al, Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel, 2006, 9: 101-09 (“Fisher”)). The results have been variable and unpredictable. For some compounds deuteration caused decreased metabolic clearance in vivo. For others, there was no change in metabolism. Still others demonstrated increased metabolic clearance. The variability in deuterium effects has also led experts to question or dismiss deuterium modification as a viable drug design strategy for inhibiting adverse metabolism (see Foster at p. 35 and Fisher at p. 101).

[8] The effects of deuterium modification on a drug’s metabolic properties are not predictable even when deuterium atoms are incorporated at known sites of metabolism. Only by actually preparing and testing a deuterated drug can one determine if and how the rate of metabolism will differ from that of its non-deuterated counterpart. See, for example, Fukuto et al. (J. Med. Chem. 1991, 34, 2871-76). Many drugs have multiple sites where metabolism is possible. The site(s) where deuterium substitution is required and the extent of deuteration necessary to see an effect on metabolism, if any, will be different for each drug.

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2016367560 Methods for Treating Parkinson’s Disease 2016-06-17
US9534052 Reducing systemic regulatory T cell levels or activity for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease 2016-07-16 2017-01-03
US9512225 Reducing systemic regulatory T cell levels or activity for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease 2016-06-22 2016-12-06
US9512227 Reducing systemic regulatory T cell levels or activity for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease 2016-07-05 2016-12-06
Patent ID

Patent Title

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US2016108123 ANTIBODY MOLECULES TO PD-L1 AND USES THEREOF 2015-10-13 2016-04-21
US9394365 Reducing systemic regulatory T cell levels or activity for treatment of alzheimer’s disease 2015-12-02 2016-07-19
US2017029508 Reducing Systemic Regulatory T Cell Levels or Activity for Treatment of Disease and Injury of the CNS 2016-09-10
Patent ID

Patent Title

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US7368446 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid (4-methoxy-7-morpholin-4-yl-benzothiazol-2-yl)-amide 2005-11-24 2008-05-06
US8168785 BENZOTHIAZOLE DERIVATIVES 2010-12-23 2012-05-01
US2009082341 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid (4-methoxy-7-morpholin-4-yl-benzothiazol-2-yl)-amide FOR THE TREATMENT OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 2008-07-23 2009-03-26
US2013317019 A2A Antagonists as Cognition and Motor Function Enhancers 2011-11-04 2013-11-28
US9387212 Methods for Treating Parkinson’s Disease 2013-04-19 2015-06-11

///////////////TOZADENANT, phase III,  clinical trials,  Parkinson’s disease ,  adjunctive therapy,  levodopa, RO-449351, SYN-115




Phase III

A TGF-beta receptor type-1 inhibitor potentially for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and solid tumours.


CAS No.700874-72-2

6-Quinolinecarboxamide, 4-[5,6-dihydro-2-(6-methyl-2-pyridinyl)-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl]-
  • Molecular FormulaC22H19N5O
  • Average mass369.419 Da

Eli Lilly and Company


4-(2-(6-Methylpyridin-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl)quinolin-6-carboxamide monohydrate 

Anal. Calcd for C22H19N5O·H2O: C, 68.20; H, 5.46; N, 18.08. Found: C, 68.18; H, 5.34; N, 17.90.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6: δ) 1.74 (s, 3H), 2.63 (m, 2H), 2.82 (br s, 2H), 4.30 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (m, 1H), 7.37 (s, 1H), 7.41 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (m, 1H), 7.58 (m, 1H), 8.04, (s, 1H), 8.04 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 8.12 (dd, J = 8.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.87 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H).

13C NMR (DMSO-d6: δ) 22.56, 23.24, 25.58, 48.01, 109.36, 117.74, 121.26, 122.95, 126.73, 127.16 (2C), 129.01, 131.10, 136.68, 142.98, 147.20, 148.99, 151.08, 151.58, 152.13, 156.37, 167.47.

IR (KBr): 3349, 3162, 3067, 2988, 2851, 1679, 1323, 864, 825 cm–1.

HRMS (m/z M + 1): Calcd for C22H19N5O: 370.1653. Found: 370.1662.

GalunisertibAn orally available, small molecule antagonist of the tyrosine kinase transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) receptor type 1 (TGFBR1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, galunisertib specifically targets and binds to the kinase domain of TGFBR1, thereby preventing the activation of TGF-b-mediated signaling pathways. This may inhibit the proliferation of TGF-b-overexpressing tumor cells. Dysregulation of the TGF-b signaling pathway is seen in a number of cancers and is associated with increased cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor progression.


  • OriginatorEli Lilly
  • DeveloperEli Lilly; National Cancer Institute (USA); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center; Weill Cornell Medical College
  • ClassAntineoplastics; Pyrazoles; Pyridines; Pyrroles; Quinolines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionPhosphotransferase inhibitors; Transforming growth factor beta1 inhibitors
    • Phase II/IIIMyelodysplastic syndromes
    • Phase IIBreast cancer; Glioblastoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma
    • Phase I/IIGlioma; Non-small cell lung cancer; Pancreatic cancer
    • Phase ICancer; Solid tumours

    Most Recent Events

    • 26 Apr 2016Eli Lilly plans a pharmacokinetics phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in United Kingdom (PO) (NCT02752919)
    • 16 Apr 2016Pharmacodynamics data from a preclinical study in Cancer presented at the 107th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR-2016)
    • 06 Apr 2016Eli Lilly and AstraZeneca plan a phase Ib trial for Pancreatic cancer (Second-line therapy or greater, Metastatic disease, Recurrent, Combination therapy) in USA, France, Italy, South Korea and Spain (PO) (NCT02734160)

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle) of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab) in patients with cancer with high unmet medical needs such as glioblastoma, pancreatic cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present review summarizes the past and current experiences with different pharmacological treatments that enabled galunisertib to be investigated in patients.

Company Eli Lilly and Co.
Description Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1; ALK5) inhibitor
Molecular Target Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) (ALK5)
Mechanism of Action Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 inhibitor
Therapeutic Modality Small molecule

Bristol-Myers Squibb and Lilly Enter Clinical Collaboration Agreement to Evaluate Opdivo (nivolumab) in Combination with Galunisertib in Advanced Solid Tumors

Bristol-Myers Squibb and Lilly

NEW YORK & INDIANAPOLIS–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY) and Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE:LLY) announced today a clinical trial collaboration to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of Bristol-Myers Squibb’s immunotherapy Opdivo (nivolumab) in combination with Lilly’s galunisertib (LY2157299). The Phase 1/2 trial will evaluate the investigational combination of Opdivo and galunisertib as a potential treatment option for patients with advanced (metastatic and/or unresectable) glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer.

Opdivo is a human programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blocking antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor expressed on activated T-cells. Galunisertib (pronounced gal ue” ni ser’tib) is a TGF beta R1 kinase inhibitor that in vitro selectively blocks TGF beta signaling. TGF beta promotes tumor growth, suppresses the immune system and increases the ability of tumors to spread in the body. This collaboration will address the hypothesis that co-inhibition of PD-1 and TGF beta negative signals may lead to enhanced anti-tumor immune responses than inhibition of either pathway alone.

“Advanced solid tumors represent a serious unmet medical need among patients with cancer,” said Michael Giordano, senior vice president, Head of Development, Oncology, Bristol-Myers Squibb. “Our clinical collaboration with Lilly underscores Bristol-Myers Squibb’s continued commitment to explore combination regimens from our immuno-oncology portfolio with other mechanisms of action that may accelerate the development of new treatment options for patients.”

“Combination therapies will be key to addressing tumor heterogeneity and the inevitable resistance that is likely to develop to even the most promising new tailored therapies,” said Richard Gaynor, M.D., senior vice president, Product Development and Medical Affairs, Lilly Oncology. “To that end, having multiple cancer pathways and technology platforms will be critical in an era of combinations to ensure sustainability beyond any single asset.”

The study will be conducted by Lilly. Additional details of the collaboration were not disclosed.

About Galunisertib

Galunisertib (pronounced gal ue” ni ser’tib) is Lilly’s TGF beta R1 kinase inhibitor that in vitro selectively blocks TGF beta signaling. TGF beta promotes tumors growth, suppresses the immune system, and increases the ability of tumors to spread in the body.

Immune function is suppressed in cancer patients, and TGF beta worsens immunosuppression by enhancing the activity of immune cells called T regulatory cells. TGF beta also reduces immune proteins, further decreasing immune activity in patients

Galunisertib is currently under investigation as an oral treatment for advanced/metastatic malignancies, including Phase 2 evaluation in hepatocellular carcinoma, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), glioblastoma, and pancreatic cancer.



Sreenivasa Reddy Mundla
Original Assignee Eli Lilly And Company

EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H -pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate

Step 1: Preparation of 6-cyano-4-methyl-quinoline hydrochloride

Add 95% ethanol (EtOH) (270 L, 9 vol.), 4-aminobenzonitrile (30.0 kg, 1 equiv) and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione, (66.81 kg 1.07 equiv) to a 200 gallon reaction vessel equipped with nitrogen purge, condenser, thermocouple, and overhead agitation. Stir for 2-5 min, then add concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl) (62.56 L, 3.0 equiv), then heat to 75° C. Dilute methyl vinylketone (33.06 L, 1.5 equiv) in 95% EtOH (30 L, 1 vol.) then add slowly to reaction mixture over 30 min. Monitor for reaction completion by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Add tetrahydrofuran (THF) (11 vol., 330 L), at 75° C., then stir for 1 hour at 60° C. Cool to room temperature and stir for 1 additional hour. Filter on agitated filter/dryer, then rinse with THF (240 L, 8 volumes). Dry overnight under vacuum at 70° C. to give the title compound (42.9 kg, 82.55%).

1H NMR (DMSO d6): δ=9.047 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 8.865 ppm (d, 1.6 Hz, 1H); 8.262 ppm (d, 8.8 Hz, 1H); 8.170 ppm (dd, 2.2 Hz, 8.8 Hz, 1H); 7.716 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 2.824 ppm (s, 3H). MS ES+: 169.1; Exact: 168.07.

Step 2: Preparation of 2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-1-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethanone

Combine the 6-cyano-4-methyl-quinoline (28 kg) and THF (9.5 vol.) and cool to 5° C. Add sodium t-butoxide solid (3.3 equiv.) in portions to the cooled slurry to keep the batch temperature ≦25° C. Stir the resulting mixture at 20° C. for 30 min. To a separate vessel, charge with liquid 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester (1.5 equiv.) and dilute with THF (2.0 vols.). The 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid, methyl ester solution is slowly added (20-40 min) while maintaining a temperature of ≦25° C. Stir the reaction mixture for 2 hours at 20° C. and monitor by HPLC/TLC (thin layer chromatography on silica gel) to confirm reaction completion. In a separate vessel, dilute 1.03 kg conc. HCl per kg of 2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-1-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethanone with 7.7 vol water. Cool both the reaction mixture and the HCl solution to 5° C. Perform a pH adjustment on the reaction mixture by the slow addition of the acid solution, keeping the temperature <15° C. Acid solution is added until the pH of the mixture is 8.0-9.0. After the pH endpoint is obtained, extract the mixture with ethyl acetate (7 vol.). Wash the organic layer with an aqueous sodium chloride/sodium bicarbonate solution [0.78 kg sodium chloride per kg of 2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-1-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl) -ethanone, and 0.20 kg of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) per kg of 2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-1-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethanone in 6.6 vol.]. Distill the organic layer at one atmosphere to remove THF and ethylacetate (EA) until 5 vol. of concentrated solution remains. Using methanol (10 vol.) perform a solvent exchange to methanol using a constant add/distill operation while maintaining 5 vol. Add warm methanol (MeOH) (10 vol. @ 60° C.). Cool the solution to 50° C., then add seed crystals obtained by Preparation 2. Cool the mixture gradually to 5° C., stir for 1 hour, and filter. Wash the product cake with chilled methanol (5 vols. @ 5° C.) and dry under vacuum at 40° C. until a loss on drying (LOD) specification of <1% is satisfied. Gives the title compound (31.6 kg, 81%).

1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=8.978 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 8.627 ppm (d, 1.6 Hz, 1H); 8.199 ppm (d, 8.8 Hz, 1H); 7.874 ppm (d, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 7.837 ppm (dd, 2.2 Hz, 8.8 Hz, 1H); 7.759 ppm (t, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 7.546 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 7.416 ppm (d, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 5.036 ppm (s, 2H); 2.720 ppm (s, 3H). MS ES+: 288.1; Exact: 287.11.

Step 3a: Preparation of 1-(amino)-2-pyrrolidinone, p-toluene sulfonate

Combine 1-[(Diphenylmethylene)amino]-2-pyrrolidinone (35.36 g, 134 mmoles) with 15 volumes of toluene (530 mL) in a 1 L reaction flask, add 1 equiv of water (2.43 g, 134.9 mmoles) and heat to 40° C. Add 1 equiv of p-toluensulfonic acid monohydrate (25.978 g, 133.8 mmoles). Monitor reaction by TLC, then cool to 20-25° C. Filter the slurry and rinse the filter cake with 3 volumes of toluene (105 mL). Dry to a constant weight in a vacuum dryer at 50° C. to give the title compound (36.14 g, 99.2%).

1H NMR (DMSO): δ=7.472 ppm (dt, 8.2 Hz, 1.9Hz, 2H); 7.112 ppm (m, 2H); 3.472 ppm (t, 7.0 Hz, 2H); 2.303 ppm (m, 5H); 2.012 ppm (m, 2H). MS: ES+=179; 157. ES−=171. Exact: 272.08.

Step 3b and 3c: Preparation of Intermediates 1-[(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl) -ethylideneamino]-pyrrolidin-2-one and 3-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl) -5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole

Into a 3-neck, 1 L flask equipped with mechanical stirring, a Dean-Stark condenser, thermocouple and N2 purge charge 2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-1-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl) -ethanone (25 g, 1 equiv), 1-(amino)-2-pyrrolidinone, p-toluene sulfonate (27.3 g, 1 equiv), dimethylformamide (DMF) (150 mL, 6 vol), toluene (250 mL, 10 vol) and 2,6-lutidine (26 mL, 1 vol). Heat the mixture to reflux and periodically remove water from the trap. Monitor the reaction by HPLC or TLC analysis (5% MeOH/methylene chloride, silica). After 4 hours, most of the ketone is converted into 1-[(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-2-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-ethylideneamino]-pyrrolidin-2-one as indicated by TLC.

Cool the reaction mixture to 50 to 55° C. and charge potassium carbonate (K2CO3) (20.42 g, 1.66 equiv) into the reaction mixture over a couple of minutes and heat the reaction mixture back up to reflux. Continue to remove the water collected in the trap and monitor the reaction by HPLC for the disappearance of hydrazone. After completion of reaction distill off most of the toluene (total distillate is 350 mL) until the reaction mixture reaches a temperature of 145° C. Cool the reaction mixture to ˜30° C. and dilute with water (450 mL) and stir for 1.5 hours at room temperature (RT). Filter the formed product by filtration and rinse the cake with water 200 mL. After 1 hour under vacuum, and then dried in a vacuum oven at 70° C. to a consistent weight. The dried solid weighed 28.5 g, 93.2% yield and the purity by HPLC is 97%. The product is used as is in the next step.

1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=9.018 ppm (d, 4.5 Hz, 1H); 8.233 ppm (d, 8.7 Hz, 1H); 8.198 ppm (dd, 0.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, 1H); 7.808 ppm (dd, 1.8 Hz, 8.8 Hz, 1H); 7.483-7.444 ppm (m, 2H); 7.380 ppm (d, 7.9 Hz, 1H); 6.936 ppm (d, 7.6 Hz, 1H); 4.422 ppm (t, 7.2 Hz, 2H); 2.970-2897 ppm (m, 2H); 2.776 ppm (p, 7.2 Hz, 2H); 2.065 ppm (s, 3H). MS ES+: 352.4 Exact: 351.15.

Step 4: Preparation of 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-(6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole, monohydrate

Slurry 3-(6-cyano-quinolin-4-yl)-2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo [1,2-b]pyrazole (25.515 kg) and potassium carbonate (0.2 eq.) in 6 volumes of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Add dilute hydrogen peroxide solution [35% hydrogen peroxide (1.25 eq.) to 0.5 volumes of purified water] to the slurry over 2-3.3 hours while maintaining the temperature between 20-38° C. Monitor the reaction by HPLC (1 hour). Add sodium sulfite (0.6 eq.) to 9.1 volumes of purified water. Add the product slurry to dilute sodium sulfite solution [sodium sulfite (0.6 eq.) in 9.1 volumes of purified water] while maintaining a temperature of 20-39° C., stir this slurry for 1-2 hours to ensure all remaining hydrogen peroxide is completely neutralized. Check for peroxide. Add 1.08 vol. of 32.1% HCl Food Grade to this slurry and stir for 20-30 min. Add activated charcoal (10% by wt.) to the solution and stir for 20-40 minutes. Filter the crude product (mostly monohydrate), rinsing the cake with purified water. Add 1.05 vol. of methanol to the filtrate. Add 5.5 vol. of 2N sodium hydroxide to the filtrate while maintaining a temperature of 20-30° C. Stir the slurry for 20-30 min. Ensure pH is >8.

Filter the slurry, and rinse the cake with purified water. Suspend the wet cake in 28 vol. of a 75%/25% acetone/purified water solution. Heat this slurry to reflux (60° C.) and stir for 30-45 minutes after the product dissolves. Filter the product solution. Start the distillation, and add milled seed when the pot temperature reaches 63° C. Continue distilling until the distillate volume is 50% of the initial volume. Cool the slurry to 20-25° C. over 90 minutes. Then cool the slurry to 0-5° C. over 30-40 minutes. Stir for 2-3 hours at 0-5° C. Filter the slurry and rinse the product cake on the filter with purified water. Dry the product under vacuum at 45° C. to furnish the title compound (25.4 kg, 90%). Water content by Karl Fischer of 4.6% in monohydrate. Theory: 4.65%.

1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=9.0 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 8.23-8.19 ppm (m, 2H); 8.315 ppm (dd, 1.9 Hz, 8.9 Hz, 1H); 7.455 ppm (d, 4.4 Hz, 1H); 7.364 ppm (t, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 7.086 ppm (d, 8.0 Hz, 1H); 6.969 ppm (d, 7.7 Hz, 1H); 6.022 ppm (m, 1H); 5.497 ppm (m, 1H); 4.419 ppm (t, 7.3 Hz, 2H); 2.999 ppm (m, 2H); 2.770 ppm (p, 7.2 Hz, 7.4 Hz, 2H); 2.306 ppm (s, 3H); 1.817 ppm (m, 2H). MS ES+: 370.2; Exact: 369.16.

Alternatively, the monohydrate of the present invention can be prepared by recrystallization of 2-(6-Methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H -pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole.

EXAMPLE 2 2-(6-Methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo [1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate

Suspend 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo [1,2-b]pyrazole in 28 vol. of a 75%/25% acetone/purified water solution. Heat this slurry to reflux (60° C.) and stir for 30-45 minutes after the product dissolves. Filter the product solution. Start the distillation, and add milled seed when the pot temperature reaches 63° C. Continue distilling until the distillate volume is 50% of the initial volume. Cool the slurry to 20-25° C. over 90 minutes. Then cool the slurry to 0-5° C. over 30-40 minutes. Stir for 2-3 hours at 0-5° C. Filter the slurry and rinse the product cake on the filter with purified water. Dry the product under vacuum at 45° C. to furnish the title compound. The reaction yield is >80%. Product purity is >98% with low total related substances.

Alternatively, the monohydrate of the present invention can be prepared by reslurrying of 2-(6-Methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H -pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole.

EXAMPLE 3 2-(6-Methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo [1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate

Prepare 2-(6-Methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H -pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyrazole monohydrate by stirring the compound or active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in 10 volumes of water at room temperature for 1-2 hours, filtering, and drying at 45° C. under vacuum.


WO 2004048382

The disclosed invention also relates to the select compound of Formula II:

Figure imgf000005_0001

Formula II

2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yI)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2- bjpyrazole and the phannaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

The compound above is genetically disclosed and claimed in PCT patent application PCT/US02/11884, filed 13 May 2002, which claims priority from U.S. patent application U. S . S .N. 60/293 ,464, filed 24 May 2001 , and incorporated herein by reference. The above compound has been selected for having a surprisingly superior toxicology profile over the compounds specifically disclosed in application cited above.

The following scheme illustrates the preparation of the compound of Formula II.

Scheme II

Figure imgf000007_0001


Figure imgf000007_0002

The following examples further illustrate the preparation of the compounds of this invention as shown schematically in Schemes I and II. Example 1

Preparation of 7-(2-morpholin-4-yI-ethoxy)-4-(2-pyridin-2-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H- pyrroIo[l,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl)-q inoline

A. Preparation of 4-(2-pyridin-2-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl)- 7-[2-(tetrahydropyran-2-yIoxy)ethoxy]quinoIine

Heat 4-(2-pyridm-2-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl)-quinolin-7-ol (376 mg, 1.146 mmol), cesium carbonate (826 mg, 2.54 mmol), and 2-(2- bromoethoxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran (380 μL, 2.52 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) at 120 °C for 4 hours. Quench the reaction with saturated sodium chloride and then extract with chloroform. Dry the organic layer over sodium sulfate and concentrate in vacuo. Purify the reaction mixture on a silica gel column eluting with dichloromethane to 10% methanol in dichloromethane to give the desired subtitled intermediate as a yellow oil (424 mg, 81%). MS ES+m/e 457.0 (M+l).


Preparation of 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2- b]pyrazole

A. Preparation of 6-bromo-4-methyI-quinoline

Stir a solution of 4-bromo-phenylamine (1 eq), in 1,4-dioxane and cool to approximately 12 °C. Slowly add sulfuric acid (2 eq) and heat at reflux. Add methyl vinyl ketone (1.5 eq) drop wise into the refluxing solution. Heat the solution for 1 hour after addition is complete. Evaporate the reaction solution to dryness and dissolve in methylene chloride. Adjust the solution to pH 8 with 1 M sodium carbonate and extract three times with water. Chromatograph the residue on SiO (70/30 hexane/ethyl acetate) to obtain the desired subtitled inteπnediate. MS ES+ m e = 158.2 (M+l). B. Preparation of 6-methyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester

Suspend 6-methyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (10 g, 72.9 mmol) in methylene chloride (200 mL). Cool to 0 °C. Add methanol (10 mL), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (11.6 g, 94.8 mmol), and l-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)

(18.2 g, 94.8 mmol). Stir the mixture at room temperature for 6 hours, wash with water and brine, and dry over sodium sulfate. Filter the mixture and concentrate in vacuo.

Chromatograph the residue on SiO2 (50% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to obtain the desired subtitled intermediate, 9.66 g (92%), as a colorless liquid. 1H NMR (CDC13) 6 7.93-7.88 (m, IH), 7.75-7.7 (m, IH), 7.35-7.3 (m, IH), 4.00 (s, 3H), 2.60 (s, 3H).

C. Preparation of 2-(6-bromo-quinoIin-4-yl)-l-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethanone Dissolve 6-bromo-4-methyl-quinoline (38.5 g, 153 mmol) in 600 mL dry THF.

Cool to -70° C and treat with the dropwise addition of 0.5 M potassium hexamethyldisilazane (KN(SiMe )2 (400 mL, 200 mmol) over 2 hours while keeping the temperature below -65 °C. Stir the resultant solution at -70°C for 1 hour and add a solution of 6-methylpyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (27.2, 180 mmol) in 100 mL dry THF dropwise over 15 minutes. During the addition, the mixture will turn from dark red to pea-green and form a precipitate. Stir the mixture at -70°C over 2 hours then allow it to warm to ambient temperature with stirring for 5 hours. Cool the mixture then quench with 12 N HC1 to pH=l . Raise the pH to 9 with solid potassium carbonate. Decant the solution from the solids and extract twice with 200 mL ethyl acetate. Combine the organic extracts, wash with water and dry over potassium carbonate. Stir the solids in 200 mL water and 200 mL ethyl acetate and treat with additional potassium carbonate. Separate the organic portion and dry with the previous ethyl acetate extracts. Concentrate the solution in vacuo to a dark oil. Pass the oil through a 300 mL silica plug with methylene chloride then ethyl acetate. Combine the appropriate fractions and concentrate in vacuo to yield an amber oil. Rinse the oil down the sides of the flask with methylene chloride then dilute with hexane while swirling the flask to yield 38.5 g (73.8 %) of the desired subtitled intermediate as a yellow solid. MS ES+ = 341 (M+l)v D. Preparation of l-[2-(6-bromo-quinolin-4-yI)-l-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)- ethylideneamino]-pyrrolidin-2-one

Stir a mixture of 2-(6-bromo-quinolin-4-yl)-l-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethanone (38.5 g, 113 mmol) and 1-aminopyrrolidinone hydrochloride (20 g, 147 mmol) in 115 mL pyridine at ambient temperature for 10 hours. Add about 50 g 4 A unactivated sieves. Continue stirring an additional 13 h and add 10-15 g silica and filter the mixture through a 50 g silica plug. Elute the silica plug with 3 L ethyl acetate. Combine the filtrates and concentrate in vacuo. Collect the hydrazone precipitate by filtration and suction dry to yield 33.3 g (69.7%) of the desired subtitled intermediate as an off-white solid. MS ES+ = 423 (M+l).

E. Preparation of 6-bromo-4-[2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yι)-5,6-dihydro-4H- pyrrolo[l,2-b]pyrazol-3-yl]-quinoline

To a mixture of (1.2 eq.) cesium carbonate and l-[2-(6-bromo-qumolin-4-yl)-l- (6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-ethylideneamino]-pyrrolidin-2-one (33.3 g, 78.7 mmol) add 300 mL dry N,N-dimethylformamide. Stir the mixture 20 hours at 100°C. The mixture may turn dark during the reaction. Remove the N,N-dimethylformamide in vacuo. Partition the residue between water and methylene chloride. Extract the aqueous portion with additional methylene chloride. Filter the organic solutions through a 300 mL silica plug, eluting with 1.5 L methylene chloride, 1.5 L ethyl acetate and 1.5 L acetone. Combine the appropriate fractions and concentrate in vacuo. Collect the resulting precipitate by filtration to yield 22.7 g (71.2%) of the desired subtitled intermediate as an off-white solid. MS ES+ = 405 (M+l).

F. Preparation of 4-[2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2- b]pyrazol-3-yl]-quinoline-6-carboxylic acid methyl ester

Add 6-bromo-4-[2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2- b]pyrazol-3-yl]-quinoline (22.7 g, 45 mmol) to a mixture of sodium acetate (19 g, 230 mmol) and the palladium catalyst [1,1 ‘- bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II), complex with dichloromethane (1:1) (850 mg, 1.04 mmol) in 130 mL methanol. Place the mixture under 50 psi carbon monoxide atmosphere and stir while warming to 90° C over 1 hour and with constant charging with additional carbon monoxide. Allow the mixture to cool over 8 hours, recharge again with carbon monoxide and heat to 90 °C. The pressure may rise to about 75 PSI. The reaction is complete in about an hour when the pressure is stable and tic (1 : 1 toluene/acetone) shows no remaining bromide. Partition the mixture between methylene chloride (600 mL) and water (1 L). Extract the aqueous portion with an additional portion of methylene chloride (400 mL.) Filter the organic solution through a 300 mL silica plug and wash with 500 mL methylene chloride, 1200 mL ethyl acetate and 1500 mL acetone. Discard the acetone portion. Combine appropriate fractions and concentrate to yield 18.8 g (87.4%) of the desired subtitled intermediate as a pink powder. MS ES+ = 385 (M+l).

G. Preparation of 2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-3-[6-amido-quinolin-4-yι)-5,6- dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2-b]pyrazole

Figure imgf000012_0001

Warm a mixture of 4-[2-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrrolo[l,2- b]pyrazol-3-yl]-quinolme-6-carboxylic acid methyl ester in 60 mL 7 N ammonia in methanol to 90 °C in a stainless steel pressure vessel for 66 hours. The pressure will rise to about 80 PSI. Maintain the pressure for the duration of the reaction. Cool the vessel and concentrate the brown mixture in vacuo. Purify the residual solid on two 12 g Redi- Pak cartridges coupled in series eluting with acetone. Combine appropriate fractions and concentrate in vacuo. Suspend the resulting nearly white solid in methylene chloride, dilute with hexane, and filter. The collected off-white solid yields 1.104 g (63.8%) of the desired title product. MS ES+ = 370 (M+l).


Application of Kinetic Modeling and Competitive Solvent Hydrolysis in the Development of a Highly Selective Hydrolysis of a Nitrile to an Amide

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2014, 18 (3), pp 410–416
DOI: 10.1021/op4003054
Publication Date (Web): February 11, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
*Telephone: (317) 276-2066. E-mail: (J.K.N.)., *Telephone: (317) 433-3769. E-mail:


Abstract Image

A combination of mechanism-guided experimentation and kinetic modeling was used to develop a mild, selective, and robust hydroxide-promoted process for conversion of a nitrile to an amide using a substoichiometric amount of aqueous sodium hydroxide in a mixed water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone solvent system. The new process eliminated a major reaction impurity, minimized overhydrolysis of the product amide by selection of a solvent that would be sacrificially hydrolyzed, eliminated genotoxic impurities, and improved the intrinsic safety of the process by eliminating the use of hydrogen peroxide. The process was demonstrated in duplicate on a 90 kg scale, with 89% isolated yield and greater than 99.8% purity.

WO2002094833A1 13 May 2002 28 Nov 2002 Eli Lilly And Company Novel pyrrole derivatives as pharmaceutical agents
WO2004048382A1 10 Nov 2003 10 Jun 2004 Eli Lilly And Company Quinolinyl-pyrrolopyrazoles
WO2004048383A1 12 Nov 2003 10 Jun 2004 Eli Lilly And Company Mixed lineage kinase modulators
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2014348889 2014-11-27 Compositions and Methods for Treating and Preventing Neointimal Stenosis
US7872020 2011-01-18 TGF-[beta] inhibitors
US7265225 2007-09-04 Quinolinyl-pyrrolopyrazoles


1: Rodón J, Carducci M, Sepulveda-Sánchez JM, Azaro A, Calvo E, Seoane J, Braña I, Sicart E, Gueorguieva I, Cleverly A, Pillay NS, Desaiah D, Estrem ST, Paz-Ares L, Holdhoff M, Blakeley J, Lahn MM, Baselga J. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and biomarker evaluation of transforming growth factor-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, galunisertib, in phase 1 study in patients with advanced cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2014 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25529192.

2: Kovacs RJ, Maldonado G, Azaro A, Fernández MS, Romero FL, Sepulveda-Sánchez JM, Corretti M, Carducci M, Dolan M, Gueorguieva I, Cleverly AL, Pillay NS, Baselga J, Lahn MM. Cardiac Safety of TGF-β Receptor I Kinase Inhibitor LY2157299 Monohydrate in Cancer Patients in a First-in-Human Dose Study. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2014 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25488804.

3: Rodon J, Carducci MA, Sepulveda-Sanchez JM, Azaro A, Calvo E, Seoane J, Brana I, Sicart E, Gueorguieva I, Cleverly AL, Sokalingum Pillay N, Desaiah D, Estrem ST, Paz-Ares L, Holdoff M, Blakeley J, Lahn MM, Baselga J. First-in-Human Dose Study of the Novel Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor I Kinase Inhibitor LY2157299 Monohydrate in Patients with Advanced Cancer and Glioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 25. pii: clincanres.1380.2014. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25424852.

4: Huang C, Wang H, Pan J, Zhou D, Chen W, Li W, Chen Y, Liu Z. Benzalkonium Chloride Induces Subconjunctival Fibrosis Through the COX-2-Modulated Activation of a TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Nov 18;55(12):8111-22. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14504. PubMed PMID: 25406285.

5: Cong L, Xia ZK, Yang RY. Targeting the TGF-β receptor with kinase inhibitors for scleroderma therapy. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2014 Sep;347(9):609-15. doi: 10.1002/ardp.201400116. Epub 2014 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 24917246.

6: Gueorguieva I, Cleverly AL, Stauber A, Sada Pillay N, Rodon JA, Miles CP, Yingling JM, Lahn MM. Defining a therapeutic window for the novel TGF-β inhibitor LY2157299 monohydrate based on a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 May;77(5):796-807. PubMed PMID: 24868575; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4004400.

7: Oyanagi J, Kojima N, Sato H, Higashi S, Kikuchi K, Sakai K, Matsumoto K, Miyazaki K. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-β signaling potentiates tumor cell invasion into collagen matrix induced by fibroblast-derived hepatocyte growth factor. Exp Cell Res. 2014 Aug 15;326(2):267-79. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.04.009. Epub 2014 Apr 26. PubMed PMID: 24780821.

8: Giannelli G, Villa E, Lahn M. Transforming growth factor-β as a therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2014 Apr 1;74(7):1890-4. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-0243. Epub 2014 Mar 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 24638984.

9: Dituri F, Mazzocca A, Peidrò FJ, Papappicco P, Fabregat I, De Santis F, Paradiso A, Sabbà C, Giannelli G. Differential Inhibition of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway in HCC Cells Using the Small Molecule Inhibitor LY2157299 and the D10 Monoclonal Antibody against TGF-β Receptor Type II. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 27;8(6):e67109. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23826206; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3694933.

10: Bhola NE, Balko JM, Dugger TC, Kuba MG, Sánchez V, Sanders M, Stanford J, Cook RS, Arteaga CL. TGF-β inhibition enhances chemotherapy action against triple-negative breast cancer. J Clin Invest. 2013 Mar 1;123(3):1348-58. doi: 10.1172/JCI65416. Epub 2013 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 23391723; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3582135.

11: Bhattachar SN, Perkins EJ, Tan JS, Burns LJ. Effect of gastric pH on the pharmacokinetics of a BCS class II compound in dogs: utilization of an artificial stomach and duodenum dissolution model and GastroPlus,™ simulations to predict absorption. J Pharm Sci. 2011 Nov;100(11):4756-65. doi: 10.1002/jps.22669. Epub 2011 Jun 16. PubMed PMID: 21681753.

12: Bueno L, de Alwis DP, Pitou C, Yingling J, Lahn M, Glatt S, Trocóniz IF. Semi-mechanistic modelling of the tumour growth inhibitory effects of LY2157299, a new type I receptor TGF-beta kinase antagonist, in mice. Eur J Cancer. 2008 Jan;44(1):142-50. Epub 2007 Nov 26. PubMed PMID: 18039567.


Bhattachar, Shobha N.; Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011, 100(11), 4756-4765 

Investigational new drugs (2015), 33(2), 357-70.

//////////TGF-β, TGF-βRI kinase inhibitor, ALK5, galunisertib, LY2157299, cancer, clinical trials, PHASE 3


European Medicines Agency …Clinical trials in human medicines


The European Medicines Agency relies on the results of clinical trials carried out by pharmaceutical companies to reach its opinions on the authorisation of medicines. Although the authorisation of clinical trials occurs at Member State level, the Agency plays a key role in ensuring that the standards of good clinical practice (GCP) are applied across the European Economic Area in cooperation with the Member States. It also manages a database of clinical trials carried out in the European Union.

Clinical trials are studies that are intended to discover or verify the effects of one or more investigational medicines. The regulation of clinical trials aims to ensure that the rights, safety and well-being of trial subjects are protected and the results of clinical trials are credible.

Regardless of where they are conducted, all clinical trials included in applications for marketing authorisation for human medicines in the European Economic Area (EEA) must have been carried out in accordance with the requirements set out in Annex 1 ofDirective 2001/83/ECExternal link icon. This means that:

In the EEA, approximately 4,000 clinical trials are authorised each year. This equals approximately 8,000 clinical-trial applications, with each trial involving two Member States on average. Approximately 61% of clinical trials are sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry and 39% by non-commercial sponsors, mainly academia.

Role of the Agency

Clinical-trial data is included in clinical-study reports that form a large part of the application dossiers submitted by pharmaceutical companies applying for a marketing authorisation via the Agency.

The Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) is responsible for conducting the assessment of a human medicine for which an EU-wide marketing authorisation is sought. As part of its scientific evaluation work, the CHMP reviews the clinical-trial data included in the application.

Assessments are based on purely scientific criteria and determine whether or not the medicines concerned meet the necessary quality, safety and efficacy requirements in accordance with EU legislation, particularly Directive 2001/83/ECExternal link icon.

Good clinical practice

The Agency plays a central role in ensuring application of good clinical practice (GCP). GCP is the international ethical and scientific quality standard for designing, recording and reporting clinical trials that involve the participation of human subjects.

The Agency works in cooperation with GCP inspectors from medicines regulatory authorities (‘national competent authorities’) in EEA Member States on the harmonisation and coordination of GCP-related activity at an EEA level.

The Agency does not have a role in the approval of clinical-trial applications in the EEA. The approval of clinical-trial applications is the responsibility of the national competent authorities.

EudraCT database and the EU Clinical Trials Register

The Agency is responsible for the development, maintenance and coordination of the EudraCT database. This is a database used by national competent authorities to enter clinical-trial data from clinical trial sponsors and paediatric-investigation-plan (PIP) addressees.

A subset of this data is made available through the European Union Clinical Trials Register, which the Agency manages on behalf of EU Member States and forms part ofEudraPharmExternal link icon, the EU database of medicines.

Users are able to view:

  • the description of phase-II to phase-IV adult clinical trials where the investigator sites are in the EEA;
  • the description of any clinical trials in children with investigator sites in the EU and any trials that form part of a PIP including those where the investigator sites are outside the EU.

As of 21 July 2014, it will be mandatory for sponsors to post clinical trial results in the EudraCT database. A subset of the data included in EudraCT is made available to the public in the European Union Clinical Trials Register. The content and level of detail of these summary results is set out in a European Commission guideline and in its technical guidance. A typical set of summary results provides information on the objectives of a given study, explains how it was designed and gives its main results and conclusions.

The Agency is also working towards the proactive publication of data from clinical trials carried out on the medicines that it authorises. For more information, see release of data from clinical trials.

Clinical trials conducted in countries outside the EU

Clinical trials conducted outside the EU but submitted in an application for marketing authorisation in the EU have to follow the principles which are equivalent to the provisions of the Directive 2001/20/ECExternal link icon.

In April 2012, the Agency published the final version of this paper:

This paper aims to strengthen existing processes to provide assurance that clinical trials meet the required ethical and GCP standards, no matter where in the world they have been conducted.

The number of clinical trials and clinical-trial subjects outside Western Europe and North America has been increasing for a number of years. More information is available in this document:

Revision of EU clinical trial legislation

In July 2012, the European Commission published a proposal on a regulation to revise the EU clinical trial legislation.

More information is available at: Revision of the clinical trials directiveExternal link icon.

Clinical Trials Facilitation Group

The Clinical Trials Facilitation GroupExternal link icon (CTFG) is a working group of the Heads of Medicines Agencies that:

  • acts as forum for discussion to agree on common principles and processes to be applied throughout the European medicines regulatory network;
  • promotes harmonisation of clinical-trial-assessment decisions and administrative processes by national competent authorities;
  • operates the voluntary harmonisation procedure for assessment of clinical-trial applications involving several Member States.

The Group is composed of representatives from the clinical-trial departments of the national competent authorities.


How To Apply QbD Principles In Clinical Trials





By Frederic L. “Rick” Sax, M.D., global head for the Center for Integrated Drug Development, Quintiles.

The biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry has used quality by design (QbD) principles for decades. The essence of QbD is designing with the end in mind (in this case, the efficient manufacture of a high-quality drug product). This approach emphasizes that the operative word in QbD is not quality, but design.

read all at




PARP Inhibitor.. Veliparib (ABT-888) 维利帕尼

Veliparib skeletal.svg


Abbott Laboratories


CAS number:  912444-00-9 (Veliparib),

912445-05-7 (Veliparib dihydrochloride)

Mechanism of Action:poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]–ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor
Indiction:cancer treatment

Development Status:Phase III

Drug Company: AbbVie

PARP Inhibitor Veliparib (ABT-888)

Also known as: ABT-888, 912444-00-9, ABT 888, carboxamide, CHEBI:62880, 2-[(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide, ABT888, Veliparib
Molecular Formula: C13H16N4O   Molecular Weight: 244.29234


Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Legal status experimental
ATC code None
PubChem CID 11960529
DrugBank DB07232
ChemSpider 10134775
UNII 01O4K0631N Yes
Chemical data
Formula C13H16N4O 
Mol. mass 244.29 g/mol



Veliparib (ABT-888)[1] is a potential anti-cancer drug acting as a PARP inhibitor. It kills cancer cells by blocking a protein called PARP, thereby preventing the repair of DNA or genetic damage in cancer cells and possibly making them more susceptible to anticancer treatments. Veliparib may make whole brain radiation treatment work more effectively against brain metastases from NSCLC.

It inhibits both PARP1 and PARP2.[2][3]

AbbVie’s Veliparib (ABT-888,), an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 and 2 (PARP 1 and PARP 2), is being investigated in multiple tumor types, including 3 phase III studies, all initiated this year, in neoadjuvant treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (clinical trial number:NCT02032277), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, clinical trial number:NCT02106546) and HER2-negative, BRCA1 and/or BRCA2-positive breast cancer (clinical trial number:NCT02163694).


AbbVie, which was spun off from Abbott Laboratories in early 2013, is currently looking to buy Irish drug maker Shire for $46 billion. The proposed deal follows Pfizer’s failed $120 billion attempt to buy AstraZeneca. Humira, AbbVie’s rheumatoid arthritis drug and the world’s top-selling drug last year, accounts for 60% of company revenue and is going off-patent in at the end of 2016.  The threat of growing competition for Humira may be a major motivation for AbbVie.

Synthesis of Veliparib_ABT-888_PARP inhibitor_cancer drug_ AbbVie 艾伯维抗肿瘤药物维利帕尼的化学合成


Chemical structure for Veliparib

Clinical trials

Numerous phase I clinical trials are in progress.[4]

A phase I/II clinical trial for use with/out doxorubicin (for Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma) started in 2008 and is due to complete in 2010.[5] Results (inc MTD) with topotecan.[6]

A phase II clinical trial for metastatic melanoma has started recruiting.[7] Due to end Dec 2011.

A phase II clinical trial for metastatic breast cancer has started recruiting.[8] Due to end Nov 2011.

A phase II clinical trial for add-on to Radiation Therapy for Patients with Brain Metastases from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

It was included in the I-SPY2 breast cancer trial,[9] and there are encouraging data from that study [10]

A phase I clinical trial for prostate cancer in men who carry the BRCA mutation is underway and is now recruiting (as of May 2013).[11]



2-(2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide EXAMPLE 1A 1-benzyl 2-methyl 2-methylpyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate

A solution of 1-benzyl 2-methyl pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxylate (15.0 g, 57 mmol) and iodomethane (7.11 ml, 114 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was treated with NaN(TMS)(1.0 M solution in THF, 114 mL, 114 mmol) at −75° C. under nitrogen. The temperature of the cooling bath was then slowly raised to −20° C. within 1 h and the mixture was stirred at the same temperature for another 3 h. After quenching with water, the mixture was acidified with 2 N HCl (˜100 mL) and was partitioned between water (400 mL) and EtOAc (400 mL). The organic phase was washed with brine and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (silica gel, EtOAc/hexane) to give Example 1A (15.15 g, Yield: 96%). MS (DCI/NH3) m/z 278 (M+H)+.


1-[(benzyloxy)carbonyl]-2-methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid

A solution of Example 1A (15.15 g, 54.63 mmol) in a mixture of THF (100 mL) and water (50 mL) was treated with LiOH.H2O (4.58 g, 109.26 mmol) in water (50 mL). Methanol was added until a transparent solution formed (60 mL). This solution was heated at 60° C. for overnight and the organic solvents were removed under vacuum. The residual aqueous solution was acidified with 2 N HCl to pH 2 and was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The organic phase was washed with water, dried (MgSO4), filtered and concentrated to give Example 1B as a white solid (13.72 g, 95.4% yield). MS (DCI/NH3) m/z 264 (M+H)+.


benzyl 2-({[2-amino-3-(aminocarbonyl)phenyl]amino}carbonyl)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate

A solution of Example 1B (13.7 g, 52 mmol) in a mixture of pyridine (60 mL) and DMF (60 mL) was treated with 1,1′-carbonyldiimidazole (9.27 g, 57.2 mmol) at 45° C. for 2 h. 2,3-Diamino-benzamide dihydrochloride (11.66 g, 52 mmol), which was synthesized as described in previous patent application WO0026192, was added and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. After concentration under vacuum, the residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate and diluted sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution. The slightly yellow solid material was collected by filtration, washed with water and ethyl acetate, and dried to give Example 1C (16.26 g). Extraction of the aqueous phase with ethyl acetate followed by concentration, filtration and water-EtOAc wash, provided additional 1.03 g of Example 1C. Combined yield: 84%. MS (APCI) m/z 397 (M+H)+.


benzyl 2-[4-(aminocarbonyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate

A suspension of Example 1C (17.28 g, 43.6 mmol) in acetic acid (180 mL) was heated under reflux for 2 h. After cooling, the solution was concentrated and the residual oil was partitioned between ethyl acetate and sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution. The organic phase was washed with water and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography (silica gel, 3-15% CH3OH in 2:1 EtOAc/hexane) to provide Example 1D (16.42 g, Yield: 99%).

MS (APCI) m/z 379 (M+H)+.

EXAMPLE 1E 2-(2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide

A solution of Example 1D (15.0 g, 40 mmol) in methanol (250 ml) was treated with 10% Pd/C (2.8 g) under 60 psi of hydrogen for overnight. Solid material was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated. The residual solid was recrystallized in methanol to give 7.768 g of Example 1E as free base. The bis-HCl salt was prepared by dissolving the free base in warm methanol and treating with 2 equivalents of HCl in ether (10.09 g). MS (APCI) m/z 245 (M+H)+1H NMR (500 MHz, D2O): δ 1.92 (s, 3 H), 2.00-2.09 (m, 1 H), 2.21-2.29 (m, 1 H), 2.35-2.41 (m, 1 H), 2.52-2.57 (m, 1 H), 3.54-3.65 (m, 2 H), 7.31 (t, J=7.93 Hz, 1 H), 7.68 (dd, J=8.24, 0.92 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (dd, J=7.63, 0.92 Hz, 1 H); Anal. Calcd for C13H16N4O.2 HCl: C, 49.22; H, 5.72N, 17.66. Found: C, 49.30; H, 5.60; N, 17.39.

EXAMPLE 3 2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide EXAMPLE 3A benzyl(2R)-2-[4-(aminocarbonyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate

Example 1D (1.05 g, 2.8 mmol) was resolved on chiral HPLC (Chiralcel OD, 80/10/10 hexane/EtOH/MeOH). The faster eluting peak was collected and concentrated to provide Example 3A (99.4% e.e., 500 mg). MS (APCI) m/z 379 (M+H)+.

EXAMPLE 3B 2-[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide

A solution of Example 3A (500 mg, 1.32 mmol) in methanol (10 ml) was treated with 10% Pd/C (150 mg) under hydrogen for overnight (balloon). Solid material was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated. The residual solid was further purified by HPLC (Zorbax C-18, CH3CN/H2O/0.1%TFA) and was converted to bis-HCl salt to provide Example 4 as white solid (254 mg). Co-crystallization of the free base with 1 equivalent of L-tartaric acid in methanol gave a single crystal that was suitable for X-ray study. The X-ray structure with L-tartaric acid was assigned the R-configuration. MS (APCI) m/z 245 (M+H)+1H NMR (500 MHz, D2O): δ 2.00 (s, 3 H), 2.10-2.19 (m, 1 H), 2.30-2.39 (m, 1 H), 2.45-2.51 (m, 1 H), 2.61-2.66 (m, 1 H), 3.64-3.73 (m, 2 H), 7.40 (t, J=7.95 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (d, J=8.11 Hz, 1 H), 7.80 (d, J=7.49 Hz, 1 H); Anal. Calcd for C13H16N4O.2 HCl: C, 49.22; H, 5.72; N, 17.66. Found: C, 49.10; H, 5.52; N, 17.61.



EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of ABT-888 Crystalline Form 1 A mixture of ABT-888 dihydrochloride (10 g) was stirred in saturated potassium bicarbonate (50 mL) and n-butanol (50 mL) until the ABT-888 dihydrochloride completely dissolved. The aqueous layer was extracted with a second portion of n-butanol then discarded. The extracts were combined, washed with 15% sodium chloride solution (50 mL) and concentrated. The concentrate was chase distilled three times with heptane (50 mL),dissolved in refluxing 2-propanol (45 mL) and filtered hot. The filtrate was cooled to ambient temperature with stirring over 18 hours, cooled to 0-50C, stirred for 1 hour, and filtered. The filtrant was washed with 2-propanol and dried in a vacuum oven at 45-500C with a slight nitrogen purge.


Preparation of ABT-888 Crystalline Form 2

A mixture of ABT-888 in methanol, in which the ABT-888 was completely dissolved, was concentrated at about 35 0C, and the concentrate was dried to a constant weight.

EXAMPLE 3 Preparation of ABT-888 Crystalline Form 1

Figure imgf000021_0001

15 16

Step 1 : 2-(2-methyl-2-pyrrolidino)-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide 2 HCl (15) is dissolved in water (3.5 kg / kg 15) at 20 + 5 0C. Dissolution of 15 in water results in a solution of pH 0 – 1.

Step 2: The reaction is run at 20 – 25 0C. One equivalent of sodium hydroxide is added, raising the pH to 2 – 3 with only a mild exotherm (100C observed with rapid addition of 1.0 equiv.). This generates a solution that remains clear for several days even when seeded with free base crystals. 3N NaOH (1.0 equiv., 1.25 kg / kg 15) is charged and the solution polish filtered into the crystallizer/ reactor.

Step 3: 5% Na2CO3 (1.5 equiv., 10.08 kg / kg 15) is then filtered into the crystallizer over 2 hours. Nucleation occurs after approximately l/6th of the Na2CO3 solution is added (-0.25 equiv.)

Step 4: The slurry is mixed for NLT 15 min before sampling (typically 1 to 4 hours (2.5 mg/mL product in the supernatant)). The slurry is filtered at 200C and washed with 6 portions of water (1.0 kg / kg 15 each). Each wash was applied to the top of the cake and then pressured through. No mixing of the wetcake was done.

Step 5 : The solids are then dried. Drying was performed at 500C keeping the Cogeim under vacuum while applying a slight nitrogen bleed. The agitator blade was left in the cake to improve heat transfer to the cake. It was rotated and lifted out of the cake once per hour of drying to speed the drying process while minimizing potential crystal attrition that occurs with continuous agitator use. In one embodiment of Step 1, the volume of water for dissolution of the Dihydrochloride (15) is about 1.3 g water/g 15. In another embodiment of Step 1,, the volume of water for dissolution is about 1.3 g to about 4 g water/g 15. In another embodiment of Step 1, the volume of water for dissolution is 1.3 g to 3.5 g water/g 15. In another embodiment of Step 1, the volume of water for dissolution is 3.5 g water/g 15.



J. Med. Chem.200952 (2), pp 514–523
DOI: 10.1021/jm801171j

Abstract Image





excellent PARP enzyme potency as well as single-digit nanomolar cellular potency. These efforts led to the identification of 3a (2-[(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide, ABT-888), currently in human phase I clinical trials. Compound 3a displayed excellent potency against both the PARP-1 and PARP-2 enzymes with a Ki of 5 nM and in a C41 whole cell assay with an EC50 of 2 nM. In addition, 3a is aqueous soluble, orally bioavailable across multiple species, and demonstrated good in vivo efficacy in a B16F10 subcutaneous murine melanoma model in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) and in an MX-1 breast cancer xenograft model in combination with either carboplatin or cyclophosphamide.


  1.  “ABT-888, an Orally Active Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor that Potentiates DNA-Damaging Agents in Preclinical Tumor Models” May 2007
  3.  “ABT-888, an Orally Active Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor that Potentiates DNA-Damaging Agents in Preclinical Tumor Models”, 2007
  5.  “ABT-888 and Cyclophosphamide With Versus Without Doxorubicin in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma”
  6.  Phase I Study of ABT-888, a PARP Inhibitor, in Combination with Topotecan Hydrochloride in Adults with Refractory Solid Tumors and Lymphomas.. July 2011. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1227.
  7.  “A Study Evaluating Efficacy of ABT-888 in Combination With Temozolomide in Metastatic Melanoma”
  8.  “ABT-888 and Temozolomide for Metastatic Breast Cancer”
  9.  “Breast cancer study aims to speed drugs, cooperation”, March 2010
  11.  “Veliparib in Treating Patients With Malignant Solid Tumors That Did Not Respond to Previous Therapy. Clinical Trial NCT00892736”
Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazo[4,5-c]pyridinecarboxamide derivatives as PARP-1 inhibitors.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
Discovery of novel benzo[b][1,4]oxazin-3(4H)-ones as poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitors.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
Identification of potent Yes1 kinase inhibitors using a library screening approach.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
A rapid and sensitive method for determination of veliparib (ABT-888), in human plasma, bone marrow cells and supernatant by using LC/MS/MS.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis
Discovery of the Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor 2-[(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide (ABT-888) for the treatment of cancer.
Journal of medicinal chemistry

External links

US8013168 Oct 10, 2008 Sep 6, 2011 Abbott Laboratories Veliparib crystal structure; an anticancer PARP inhibitor
US8372987 Oct 10, 2008 Feb 12, 2013 Abbvie Inc. Title compound is Veliparib, a Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase i.e. PARP inhibitor; anticancer agent
US20060229289 * Apr 11, 2006 Oct 12, 2006 Gui-Dong Zhu 2-(2-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide, aka veliparib, for example; poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitors; antiinflammatory, antitumor agents; Parkinson’s disease

Penning, Thomas D. et al. Discovery of the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitor 2-[(R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide (ABT-888) for the Treatment of Cancer. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 52(2), 514-523; 2009

Zhu, Guidong. 2-​((R)​-​2-​Methylpyrrolidin-​2-​yl)​-​1H-​benzimidazole-​4-​carboxamide crystalline form 2 compositions and preparation for treating cancer. PCT Int. Appl. (2009), WO2009049109 A1 20090416

Kolaczkowski, Lawrence . 2-​((R)​-​2-​Methylpyrrolidin-​2-​yl)​-​1H-​benzimidazole-​4-​carboxamide (ABT-​888) crystalline form I and its pharmaceutical composition for cancer treatment. PCT Int. Appl. (2009), WO2009049111 A1 20090416.
Zhu, Gui-Dong; Gong, Jianchun; Gandhi, Virajkumar B.; Penning, Thomas D.; Giranda, Vincent L. Preparation of 1H-​benzimidazole-​4-​carboxamides as poly(ADP-​ribose)​polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2006), US20060229289 A1 20061012.


FDA Guidance for Industry: Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations


FDA Guidance for Industry: Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations
The FDA published its new Guidance for Industry (GfI) – “Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations” in September 2013. The Guidance defines the expectations of the FDA concerning electronic source data generated in the context of clinical trials. Find out more about this Guidance.,8457,8366,8308,Z-COVM_n.html


FDA Guidance for Industry: Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations

After more than 5 years and two draft versions, the final version of the Guidance for Industry (GfI) – “Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations” was published in September 2013. This new FDA Guidance defines the FDA’s expectations for sponsors, CROs, investigators and other persons involved in the capture, review and retention of electronic source data generated in the context of FDA-regulated clinical trials.

In an effort to encourage the modernization and increased efficiency of processes in clinical trials, the FDA clearly supports the capture of electronic source data and emphasizes the agency’s intention to support activities aimed at ensuring the reliability, quality, integrity and traceability of this source data, from its electronic source to the electronic submission of the data in the context of an authorization procedure.

The Guidance addresses aspects as data capture, data review and record retention. When the computerized systems used in clinical trials are described, the FDA recommends that the description not only focus on the intended use of the system, but also on data protection measures and the flow of data across system components and interfaces. In practice, the pharmaceutical industry needs to meet significant requirements regarding organisation, planning, specification and verification of computerized systems in the field of clinical trials. The FDA also mentions in the Guidance that it does not intend to apply 21 CFR Part 11 to electronic health records (EHR).

Oliver Herrmann




Evacetrapib, LY2484595 for Treatment of high cholesterol and preventing cardiac events


Evacetrapib,  LY2484595

Evacetrapib  is an experimental drug being investigated to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) via inhibition of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)

Trans-4-({(5S)-5-[{[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl}(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5- yl)amino]-7,9-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzazepin-1-yl}methyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

trans-4-[[(5S)-5-[[[3 ,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl] (2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-2, 3,4,5- tetrahydro-7,9-dimethyl- IH- 1 -benzazepin- 1 -yl]methyl]-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

trans-4-[5(S)-[N-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-N-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-7,9-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-1-benzazepin-1-ylmethyl]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

1186486-62-3 is cas


  • C31-H36-F6-N6-O2
  • 638.6534
  • lily……….. .innovator

Evacetrapib is a drug under development by Eli Lilly & Company (investigational name LY2484595) that inhibits cholesterylester transfer protein, which transfers and thereby increases high-density lipoprotein and lowers low-density lipoprotein. It is thought that modifying lipoprotein levels modifies the risk of cardiovascular disease.[1]

The first CETP inhibitor, torcetrapib, was unsuccessful because it increased levels of the hormone aldosterone and increased blood pressure,[2] which led to excess cardiac events when it was studied.[2] Evacetrapib does not have the same effect.[1] When studied in a small clinical trial in people with elevated LDL and low HDL, significant improvements were noted in their lipid profile.[3]

LY-2484595 is in phase III clinical trials at Lilly for the treatment of high-risk vascular disease and in phase II for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

Evacetrapib is one of two CETP inhibitors currently being evaluated (the other being anacetrapib).[1] Two other CETP inhibitors (torcetrapib and dalcetrapib) were discontinued during trials due to increased deaths and little identifiable cardiovascular benefit (despite substantial increases in HDL). Some hypothesize that CETP inhibitors may still be useful in the treatment of dyslipidemia, though significant caution is warranted.[2]


Intermediate Preparation Scheme 1

Figure imgf000028_0001
Figure imgf000028_0002

Preparation Scheme 2


Figure imgf000029_0001

Intermediate Preparation Scheme 3


Figure imgf000029_0002
Scheme 5
Figure imgf000031_0001


Figure imgf000031_0002
Figure imgf000032_0001

Scheme 7

Figure imgf000033_0001

Scheme 8


Figure imgf000034_0001

 Scheme 11


Figure imgf000038_0001
Figure imgf000039_0001


trans-4-[[(5S)-5-[[[3 ,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl] (2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-2, 3,4,5- tetrahydro-7,9-dimethyl- IH- 1 -benzazepin- 1 -yl]methyl]-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, (identified according to its Chemical Abstracts Index Name (referred to herein as BCCA) having the structure of Formula I illustrated below, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of this compound.

Figure imgf000004_0001


The compound, BCCA, can be a free acid (referred to herein as BCCA free acid), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, as a solvate (referred herein as BCCA’solvate) and a hydrate (referred to herein as BCCA ‘hydrate). The solvate molecules include water (as the hydrate), methanol, ethanol, formic acid, acetic acid, and isopropanol.

Scheme 1

(MeO) SO

Figure imgf000011_0001


Figure imgf000011_0002

Scheme 2


Figure imgf000012_0001

Scheme 3 : Alternate method for preparing BCCA

Figure imgf000019_0001

Preparation 11 Preparation 12


Figure imgf000019_0002

Preparation 13 Preparation 14 Preparation 15


Figure imgf000019_0003

Preparation 16


Figure imgf000019_0004

Preparation 17

Example 16

Scheme 4


Figure imgf000019_0005


 formula III below

Figure US08299060-20121030-C00007


Figure US08299060-20121030-C00008

Preparation 10 (Trans)-methyl 4-(((S)-5-((3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino)-7,9-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[b]azepin-1-yl)methyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (12)

Charge a flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, temperature probe, nitrogen inlet with (S)—N-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-7,9-dimethyl-N-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[b]azepin-5-amine (5 g, 10.03 mmoles) and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (3.19 g, 15.05 mmoles) and acetonitrile (40 mL). Immerse the flask in an ice bath to cool the slurry to below about 5° C., then add (trans)-methyl 4-formylcyclohexanecarboxylate (2.99 g, 17.57 mmoles, prepared essentially according to the procedures in Houpis, I. N. et al, Tetrahedron Let. 1993, 34(16), 2593-2596 and JP49048639) dissolved in THF (10 mL) via a syringe while maintaining the reaction mixture at or below about 5° C. Allow the reaction to warm to RT and stir overnight. Add NH4Cl (25 mL, 50% saturated aqueous solution) and separate the aqueous layer from the organic layer. The pH of the organic layer should be about 5.5. Warm the organic layer to about 45° C. and add water (16 mL). Add a seed crystal of the titled compound and cool to about 35° C. Collect the resulting solid by filtration and rinse with ACN. Dry to provide 5.80 g of the title compound.





Development of a Hydrogenative Reductive Amination for the Synthesis of Evacetrapib: Unexpected Benefits of Water

pp 546–551
Publication Date (Web): March 18, 2014 (Communication)
DOI: 10.1021/op500025v
For the synthesis of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor evacetrapib, a hydrogenative reductive amination was chosen to join the substituted cyclohexyl subunit to the benzazepine core. The addition of water, which suppressed undesired epimerization without affecting the rate of product formation, was key to the reaction’s success. The process was scaled to produce more than 1100 kg of material.
Scheme 1. Synthesis of evacetrapib (5) via a STAB-mediated reductive amination.
aReagents and conditions: a) Na2CO3 (3.0 equiv), toluene, water, 25 °C, 3 h, 98% yield, 99.8:0.2 anti:syn; b) 3 (1.5 equiv), NaBH(OAc)3 (1.5 equiv), ACN, toluene, −10 °C, 2.5 h, 88% yield, 99.2:0.8 anti:syn; c) NaOH (3.0 equiv), water, IPA, 60 °C, 7 h, 92% yield, 99.5:0.5 anti:syn.


  1.  Cao G, Beyer TP, Zhang Y, et al. (December 2011). “Evacetrapib is a novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein that elevates HDL cholesterol without inducing aldosterone or increasing blood pressure”. J. Lipid Res. 52 (12): 2169–76.doi:10.1194/jlr.M018069PMID 21957197.
  2. Joy T, Hegele RA (July 2009). “The end of the road for CETP inhibitors after torcetrapib?”. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 24 (4): 364–71.doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e32832ac166PMID 19522058.
  3.  Nicholls SJ, Brewer HB, Kastelein JJ, Krueger KA, Wang MD, Shao M, Hu B, McErlean E, Nissen SE (2011). “Effects of the CETP inhibitor evacetrapib administered as monotherapy or in combination with statins on HDL and LDL cholesterol”. JAMA 306 (19): 2099–109.doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1649.





LY335979, RS-33295-198  (Zosuquidar)

Roche Palo Alto (Originator)

LY335979 (Zosuquidar) is a selective Pgp (P-glycoprotein) inhibitor with a Ki of 59 nM. LY335979 significantly enhanced the survival of mice implanted with Pgp-expressing murine leukemia (P388/ADR) when administered in combination with either daunorubicin, doxorubicin or etoposide.

LY335979 (Zosuquidar)

M.Wt: 636.99

Formula: C32H31F2N3O2.3HCl

Name: Zosuquidar trihydrochloride

 Elemental Analysis: C, 60.34; H, 5.38; Cl, 16.70; F, 5.97; N, 6.60; O, 5.02

CAS : 167465-36-3

167354-41-8 (free base)

Roche Bioscience (Originator), Eli Lilly and Company (Licensee).


Drug Des Discov 1992, 9(1): 69, Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1995, 5(21): 2473, Drugs Fut 2003, 28(2): 125

Zosuquidar is currently under development. It is now in “Phase 3” of clinical tests in the United States. Its action mechanism consists of the inhibition of P-glycoproteins; other drugs with this mechanism include tariquidar and laniquidar. P-glycoproteins are proteins which convert the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to structural changes in protein molecules, in order to perform coupling, thus discharging medicine from cells. If P-glycoprotein coded with the MDR1 gene manifests itself in cancer cells, it discharges much of the antineoplastic drugs from the cells, making cancer cells medicine tolerant, and rendering antineoplastic drugs ineffective. This protein also manifests itself in normal organs not affected by the cancer (such as the liver, small intestine, and skin cells in blood vessels of the brain), and participates in the transportation of medicine. The compound Zosuquidar inhibits this P-glycoprotein, causing the cancer cells to lose their medicine tolerance, and making antineoplastic drugs effective

Clinicial trials: Clinical report published in 2010 showed that  zosuquidar did not improve outcome in older acute myeloid leukemia, in part, because of the presence P-gp independent mechanisms of resistance. (Blood. 2010 Nov 18;116(20):4077-85.)

Zosuquidar  is a potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, which binds with high affinity to P-glycoprotein and inhibits P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR-1 gene, is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transmembrane transporters and prevents the intracellular accumulation of many natural product-derived cytotoxic agents


U.S. Patent No. 5,112,817 to Fukazawa et al. discloses certain quinoline derivatives useful as anticancer drug potentiators for the treatment of multidrug resistance. One of the initially promising active agents there-disclosed is MS-073, which has the following structure:

Figure imgf000004_0001


U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,643,909 and 5,654,304 disclose a series of 10,11- methanobenzosuberane derivatives useful in enhancing the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapeutics and for treating multidrug resistance. One such derivative having good activity, oral bioavailability, and stability, is zosuquidar, a compound of formula (2R)-anti-5-

3 – [4-( 10, 11 -difluoromethanodibenzosuber-5-yl)piperazin- 1 -yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy) quinoline.

Figure imgf000010_0001


Given the limitations of previous generations of MDR modulators, three preclinical critical success factors were identified and met for zosuquidar: 1) it is a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein; 2) it is selective for P-glycoprotein; and 3) no pharmacokinetic interaction with co-administered chemotherapy is observed.

Zosuquidar is extremely potent in vitro (Kj = 59 nM) and is among the most active modulators of P-gp-associated resistance described to date. Zosuquidar has also demonstrated good in vivo activity in preclinical animal studies. In addition, the compound does not appear to be a substrate for P-gp efflux, resulting in a relatively long duration of reversal activity in resistant cells even after the modulator has been withdrawn.

Another significant attribute of zosuquidar as an MDR modulator is the minimal pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions with several oncolytics tested in preclinical models. Such minimal PK interaction permits normal doses of oncolytics to be administered and also a more straightforward interpretation of the clinical results.

Zosuquidar is generally administered in the form of the trihydrochloride salt. Conventional zosuquidar trihydrochloride formulations include those containing zosuquidar (50 mg as free base), glycine (15 mg), and mannitol (200 mg) dissolved in enough water for injection, to yield a free base concentration of 5 mg/mL. The formulation is filled into vials and lyophilized to give a vial containing 50 mg of free base. For such formulations, a 30 mL vial size is necessary to contain 50 mg of thezosuquidar formulation. For a typical >200 mg dose of zosuquidar, multiple 50 mg vials are needed to contain the formulation, greatly increasing manufacturing costs and reducing convenience for the end user {e.g., a pharmacist). Modified Cyclodextrins

Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligomers of glucose; these compounds form inclusion complexes with any drug whose molecule can fit into the lipophile-seeking cavities of the cyclodextrin molecule. See U.S. Pat. No. 4,727,064 for a description of various cyclodextrin derivatives. Cyclodextrins of preferred embodiments can include α-, β-, and χ-cyclodextrins. The α-cyclodextrins include six glucopyranose units, the β- cyclodextrins include seven glucopyranose units, and the χ-cyclodextrins include eight glucopyranose units. The β -cyclodextrins are generally preferred as having a suitable cavity size for zosuquidar. Cyclodextrin can be in any suitable form, including amorphous and crystalline forms, with the amorphous form generally preferred. Cyclodextrins suitable for use in the formulations of preferred embodiments include the hydroxypropyl, hydroxyethyl, glucosyl, maltosyl, and maltotrosyl derivatives of β- cyclodextrin, carboxyamidomethyl-β-cyclodextrin, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin, and diethylamino-β-cyclodextrin.

Pharmaceutical complexes including various cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin derivatives are disclosed in the following United States patents: U.S. Pat. No. 4,024,223; U.S. Pat. No. 4,228,160; U.S. Pat. No. 4,232,009; U.S. Pat. No. 4,351,846; U.S. Pat. No. 4,352,793; U.S. Pat. No. 4,383,992; U.S. Pat. No. 4,407,795; U.S. Pat. No. 4,424,209; U.S. Pat. No. 4,425,336; U.S. Pat. No. 4,438,106; U.S. Pat. No. 4,474,881; U.S. Pat. No. 4,478,995; U.S. Pat. No. 4,479,944; U.S. Pat. No. 4,479,966; U.S. Pat. No. 4,497,803; U.S. Pat. No. 4,499,085; U.S. Pat. No. 4,524,068; U.S. Pat. No. 4,555,504; U.S. Pat. No. 4,565,807; U.S. Pat. No. 4,575,548; U.S. Pat. No. 4,598,070; U.S. Pat. No. 4,603,123; U.S. Pat. No. 4,608,366; U.S. Pat. No. 4,659,696; U.S. Pat. No. 4,623,641; U.S. Pat No. 4,663,316; U.S. Pat. No. 4,675,395; U.S. Pat. No. 4,728,509; U.S. Pat. No. 4,728,510; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,751,095.

Chemically modified and substituted α-, β-, and χ-cyclodextrins are generally preferred over unmodified α-, β-, and χ-cyclodextrins due to improved toxicity and solubility properties. The degree of substitution of the hydroxy 1 groups of the glucopyranose units of the cyclodextrin ring can affect solubility. In general, a higher average degree of substitution of substituent groups in the cyclodextrin molecule yields a cyclodextrin of higher solubility.

Examples for Pgp inhibitors are cyclosporine A, valpodar, elacridar, tariquidar, zosuquidar, laniquidar, biricodar, S-9788, MS-209, BIBW-22 (BIBW-22-BS) , toremifene, verapamil, dexverapamil , quinine, quinidine, trans- flupentixol, chinchonine and others (J. Roberts, C. Jarry (2003) : J. Med. Chem. 46, 4805 – 4817) . The list of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein is increasing (e.g. Wang et al . (2002) : Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 12, 571 – 574) .

Figure imgf000005_0001

Figure 2: Structures of BIBW-22, MS-209 and S-9788

10,11-methanodibenzosuberane derivatives
Salt and crystalline forms of (2R)-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethanodibenzosuber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinoline
Salt and crystalline forms of (2R)-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethanodibenzosuber-5-YL)piperazin-1-YL]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinoline



U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,643,909 and 5,654,304, incorporated herein by reference, disclose a series of 10,11-methanobenzosuberane derivatives useful in enhancing the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapeutics and for treating multidrug resistance. (2R)-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethanodibenzosuber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinoline trihydrochloride disclosed therein, is currently under development as a pharmaceutical agent.

U.S. pat. No. 5,654,304 (‘304), incorporated by reference herein, discloses a series of 10,11-(optionally substituted)methanodibenzosuberane derivatives useful in enhancing, the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapeutics and for treating multidrug resistance. (2R)-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-Difluoromethanodibenzosuber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinolone trihydrochloride is disclosed in ‘304 and is currently under development as a pharmaceutical agent. WO00/75121 discloses Form I, a crystalline form of (2R)-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethanodibenzosuber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinolone trihydrochloride.

The art disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,776,939, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,643,909 both incorporated herein by reference, and PCT Patent Applications (Publication numbers WO 94/24107 and 98/22112) teach the use of 1-formylpiperazine to introduce the piperazine group of the compound of formula II

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00002

Compound II is a mixture of syn isomer (III)

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00003

and anti isomer (IV)

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00004

The process as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,643,909 and 5,654,304 (represented by scheme A, below) involves (a) chromatographic separation(s) of the formyl piperazine compound; and (b) deformylation of the formyl piperazine compound to provide compound IV.

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00005

The process of the present invention uses piperazine to react with the (1aα,6α,10bα)-6-halo-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cycloheptene compound or derivative, instead of formylpiperazine.

The process of the present invention is advantageous because piperazine is readily available in commercial quantities whereas 1-formylpiperazine, which was utilized in the process disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,643,909 is often not readily available in commercial quantities. Additionally piperazine enjoys a significant cost advantage over 1-formylpiperazine.

The use of piperazine instead of 1-formylpiperazine is a significant advancement over the prior art because it obviates the need to deformylate or hydrolyze off the formyl group (step 6, scheme A), thereby providing fewer operational steps. U.S. Pat. No. 5,643,909 teaches the separation of the 1-formylpiperazine compounds by chromatography or repeated crystallization. The present invention obviates the need for chromatographic separations of the formylpiperazine diastereomeric addition compounds (see step 4, scheme A)

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00018

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00019


The following examples and preparations are illustrative only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention in any way.

Preparation 1 R-1-(5-Quinolinyloxy)-2,3-epoxypropane

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00022

A mixture of 5-hydroxyquinoline (5.60 g, 38.6 mmol), R-glycidyl nosylate (10.0 g, 38.6 mmol), powdered potassium carbonate (11.7 g, 84.9 mmol), and N,N-dimethylformamide (100 mL) was stirred at ambient temperature until HPLC analysis (40% acetonitrile/60% of a 0.5% aqueous ammonium acetate solution, 1 mL/min, wavelength=230 nm, Zorbax RX-C8 25 cm×4.6 mm column) indicated complete disappearance of glycidyl nosylate (approximately 6 hours). The reaction mixture was filtered through paper and the filter cake was washed with 200 mL of a 3:1 mixture of MTBE and methylene chloride. The filtrate was washed with 200 mL of water and the aqueous layer was extracted four times with 100 mL of 3:1 MTBE/methylene chloride. The combined organic layers were dried over 30 grams of magnesium sulfate and the dried solution was then stirred with 50 grams of basic alumina for 30 minutes. The alumina was removed by filtration and the filter cake was washed with 200 mL of 3:1 MTBE/methylene chloride. The filtrate was concentrated to a volume of 100 mL, 300 mL of MTBE were added, and the solution was again concentrated to 80 mL. After heating to 50° C., the solution was treated with 160 mL of heptane dropwise over 15 minutes, allowed to cool to 40° C., and seeded, causing the formation of a crystalline precipitate. The mixture was stirred for two hours at ambient temperature and then at 0-5° C. for an additional 2 hours. The crystals were filtered, washed with cold heptane, and dried to provide 5.68 g (73.2%) of (2R)-1-(5-quinolinyloxy)-2,3-epoxypropane as white needles.

mp 79-81° C.;

[α]25 D−36.4° (c 2.1, EtOH);

1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3)δ 2.83 (dd, J=4.8, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 2.97 (m, 1H), 3.48 (m, 1H), 4.10 (dd, J=11.0, 6.0 Hz, 1H), 4.43 (dd, J=11.0, 2.7 Hz, 1H), 6.85 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J=8.5 Hz, 4.1 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (m, 1H), 7.71 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 8.61 (m, 1H), 8.90 (m, 1H).

Example 1 (2R)-Anti-1-[4-(10,11-difluoromethano-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-3-qunolin-5-yloxy)-propan-2-ol Trihydrochloride

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00023

Preparation of the above compound is exemplified in the following preparative steps.

Step 1 1,1-Difluoro-1a,10b-dihydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6 (1H)-one

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00024

A solution of sodium chlorodifluoroacetate (350 g) in diglyme (1400 mL) was added dropwise over 4 to 8 hours, preferably over 6 hours, to a solution of 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5-one (25 g) in diglyme (500 mL), with stirring, and under nitrogen, maintaining the reaction temperature at 160°-165° C. The cooled reaction mixture was poured into water (1.8 L) and extracted with ether (1.8 L). The organic phase was washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was recrystallized from ethanol, then from acetone/hexane to give 14 g of 1,1-difluoro-1a,10b-dihydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6(1H)-one.

mp 149.6° C.

Flash chromatography of the combined mother liquors on silica gel, eluting with 20% acetone/hexane, gave an additional 6.5 g of the target compound.

Step 2 (1aα,6β,10bα)-1,1-Difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cyclohepten-6-ol

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00025

A solution of 1,1-difluoro-1a,10b-dihydro-dibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cyclohepten-6(1H)-one (20.4 g) in tetrahydrofuran/methanol (1:2, 900 mL) was cooled in an ice bath. Sodium borohydride (12 g) was added in portions. The cooling bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours, then poured into water. The product was filtered off, washed with water, and dried to give 20 g of (1aα,6β,10bα)-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cyclohepten-6-ol (ii).

mp 230.1°-230.6° C.

Step 2A Combined Steps 1 and 2 Procedure (1aα,6β,10bα)-1,1-Difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cyclohepten-6-ol

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00026

To a solution of 103.1 g (0.500 mol) of 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-one (2) in 515 mL of triethylene glycol dimethyl ether heated to between 180° C. and 210° C. was added over 7 hours, 293.3 g (2.15 mol) of chlorodifluoroacetic acid lithium salt (as a 53% by weight solution in ethylene glycol dimethyl ether). The ethylene glycol dimethyl ether was allowed to distill from the reaction as the salt addition proceeded. The GC analysis of an aliquot indicated that all of the 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-one had been consumed. The reaction was cooled to ambient temperature and then combined with 400 mL of ethyl acetate and 75 g of diatomaceous earth. The solids were removed by filtration and washed with 300 mL of ethyl acetate. The washes and filtrate were combined and the ethyl acetate was removed by concentration under vacuum leaving 635 g of dark liquid. The dark liquid was cooled to 18° C. and to this was added, over 15 minutes, 6.62 g (0.175 mol) of sodium borohydride (as a 12% by wt solution in 14 M NaOH). After stirring for 2 h the reaction was quenched by careful addition of 900 mL of a 1:3.5:4.5 solution of conc. HCl-methanol-water. The suspension was stirred for 30 min and the crude product was collected by filtration, washed with 600 mL of 1:1 methanol-water and dried to 126.4 g of dark brown solid. The crude product was slurried in 600 mL of methylene chloride, filtered, washed twice with 150 mL portions of methylene chloride, and dried to 91.6 g (71%) of (1aα,6β,10bα)-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6-ol. Gas Chromatography (GC) Conditions; Column: JW Scientific DB-1, Initial Temperature 150° C. for 5 min, 10° C./min ramp, Final temp 250° C. for 5 min. tR: intermediate, 11.5 min; reaction product (alcohol), 11.9 min; starting material, 12.3 minutes.

Step 3 Preparation of (1aα,6α,10b)-6-bromo-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa-[c]cycloheptene

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00027

A slurry of (1aα,6β,10bα)-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6-ol (3.0 g, 11.6 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in heptane (24 mL) was treated with 48% HBr (1.58 mL, 14.0 mmol, 1.2 equiv) and the reaction was heated at reflux with vigorous stirring for 2.5 hr. Solvent was then removed by atmospheric distillation (bp 95-98° C.) until approximately 9 mL of distillate was collected. The reaction was cooled and treated with EtOAc (15 mL), Na2SOand activated charcoal. The mixture was stirred at RT for 15 min and filtered through hyflo. The filter cake was washed with 50:50 EtOAc:heptane and the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide the title product as a crystalline solid.

mp 119° C. (3.46 g corr., 93%);

1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 7.20-7.41 (8H, m), 5.81 (1H, s), 3.41 (2H, d, J 12.5 Hz);

13CNMR (126 MHz CDCl3) δ 141.3, 141.2, 133.5, 130.1, 129.8, 128.3, 128.2, 112.9, 110.6, 110.5, 108.3, 53.6, 30.2, 30.1, 30.0.

Anal. Calcd. For C16H11BrF2: C, 59.84; H, 3.45. Found: C, 60.13; H, 3.50.

Step 3A Preparation of (1aα,6α,10bα)-6-Bromo-1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cycloheptene

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00028

To a stirred suspension of (1aα,6β,10bα)-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6-ol, (18.4 g, 71.2 mmol) in 151 mL of methylene chloride which had been cooled to 10-17° C. was added phosphorous tribromide (9.6 g, 35.6 mmol) dropwise over 15 minutes. The cooling bath was removed and the reaction was stirred for 2 hours at ambient temperature. Analysis by gas chromatography indicated complete consumption of starting material. Cold water (92 mL) and activated carbon (1.84 g) were added and the resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The activated carbon was removed by filtration through Hyflo brand filter aid and the two phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with water (184 mL×2), brine (184 ml), dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated to dryness under vacuum, affording 21.7 g (94.8%) of (1aα,6α,10bα)-6-bromo-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cycloheptene.

1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz) δ 3.36 (s, 1H), 3.40 (s, 1H), 5.77 (s, 1H), 7.16-7.38 (m, 8H).

Steps 4 and 5 (1aα,6α,10bα)-1-(1,1-Difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cyclohepten-6-yl)-piperazine, Hydrobromide Salt

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00029

To a solution of 237.5 g (0.739 mol) of (1aα,6α,10bα)-6-bromo-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]-cyclopropa[c]cycloheptene in 3.56 L of acetonitrile was added 207.7 g (2.41 mol) of piperazine and the mixture was heated to reflux for 2 hours, at which time analysis by gas chromatography showed complete consumption of (1aα,6α,10bα)-6-bromo-1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]cycloheptene (iii) and formation of a mixture of syn and anti piperazine compounds (III and IV) in an anti-syn ratio of 55:45. The reaction was cooled to about 7° C. and stirred for 30 minutes at that temperature. The reaction mixture was filtered to remove the precipitated syn-isomer (III) and the filter cake was washed with 250 mL of acetonitrile. The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated under vacuum to 262.4 grams of a foam which was dissolved in 450 mL of acetonitrile with heating. The solution was cooled to about 12° C. in an ice bath and stirred for 1 hour at that temperature. The precipitated syn-piperazine compound of formula (III) was filtered and washed with 125 ml of acetonitrile. The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated under vacuum to 194.1 g and dissolved in 1.19 L of ethyl acetate. The organic solution was washed sequentially with 500 mL portions of 1N sodium hydroxide, water, and saturated sodium chloride. The ethyl acetate solution was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 137.0 grams of residue which was dissolved in 1.37 L of methylene chloride and seeded with (1aα,6α,10bα)-1-(1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6-yl)-piperazine, hydrobromide salt, followed by the addition of 70.8 grams of 48% aqueous hydrobromic acid. The mixture was stirred for about 45 minutes, causing the anti-isomer to crystallize as its hydrobromide salt. The crystals were filtered, washed with methylene chloride, and dried to provide purified hydrobromide salt of compound (IVa), shown by HPLC to have an anti-syn ratio of 99.3:0.7. Treatment of the isolated hydrobromide salt of compound (IVa) with aqueous sodium hydroxide, extraction into methylene chloride, separation of the aqueous layer and concentration to dryness gave 80.1 grams (33.2% yield based on starting material) of (1aα,6α,10bα)-1-(1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6-yl)-piperazine as the free base. Acidification of a solution of the free base in 800 mL of methylene chloride by addition of 41.2 g of 48% hydrobromic acid as described above afforded 96.4 g of pure hydrobromide salt (title compound) with an anti-syn ratio of 99.8:0.2 (HPLC), mp 282-284° C. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 2.41 (m, 4H), 3.11 (m, 4H), 3.48 (d, J=12.4 Hz, 2H), 4.13 (s, 1H), 7.2 (m, 8H), 8.65 (bs, 2H). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 28.0, 42.9, 48.0, 75.1, 108.5, 112.9, 117.3, 127.5, 128.0, 128.6, 129.6, 132.4, 141.3. IR: (KBr) 3019, 2481, 1587, 1497, 1298 cm−1. Anal. Calcd for C20H21BrF2N2: C, 58.98; H, 5.20; N, 6.88. Found: C, 58.75; H, 5.29; N, 7.05.

Step 6 Preparation of (2R)-Anti-1-[4-(10,11-difluoromethano-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-3-quinolin-5-yloxy)propan-2-ol Trihydrochloride

A suspension of (1aα,6α,10bα)-1-(1,1-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,e]cyclopropa[c]-cyclohepten-6-yl)-piperazine, hydrochloride compound of formula IVa (5.41 g, 14.9 mmol) and powdered sodium carbonate (3.16 g, 29.8 mmol) in 54 mL of 3A ethanol was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour. R-1-(5-quinolinyloxy)-2,3-epoxypropane (3.00 g, 14.9 mmol) was added in one portion and the reaction mixture was heated to 65° C. for 19 hours. HPLC analysis (Gradient system with solvent A (acetonitrile) and solvent B (0.02M sodium monophosphate buffer containing 0.1% triethylamine adjusted to pH 3.5 with phosphoric acid) as follows: 0-12 min, 30% solvent A/70% solvent B; 12-30 min, linear gradient from 30% to 55% solvent A/70% to 45% solvent B; 30-35 min, 55% solvent A/45% solvent B, 1 mL/min, 1=240 nm, Synchropak SCD-100 25 cm×4.6 mm column) indicated the total consumption of the piperazinyl compound of formula (IV). The mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, filtered through a plug of silica gel, and eluted with an additional 90 mL of ethanol. The eluent was concentrated to a volume of approximately 60 mL and heated to 65° C. with stirring. A solution of HCl in ethanol (16.1 g at 0.135 g/g of solution, 59.6 mmol) was added dropwise over 10 minutes and the resultant product solution was seeded, causing the trihydrochloride salt to precipitate. The mixture was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and stirred slowly (less than 100 RPM) for 2 hours. The precipitate was filtered, washed with ethanol, and dried in vacuo at 50° C. to give the crude trihydrochloride salt which was further purified by recrystallization from methanol/ethyl acetate to provide 7.45 g (78.4%) of (2R)-anti-1-[4-(10,11-difluoromethano-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-3-quinolin-5-yloxy)-propan-2-ol trihydrochloride.

Step 6a

The syn isomer compound of formula (III) isolated as described supra (combined steps 4 and 5), can be utilized to produce the corresponding syn-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethano-dibenzosuber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinoline trihydrochloride (XII) essentially as shown below for the free base of the anti isomer (IVa)in step 6.



Figure imgf000012_0001

FormuIa 1

Formula 1

Figure imgf000012_0002

Formula 2 Formula 2

Figure imgf000013_0001

Formula 3

Formula 3

Figure imgf000013_0002

Formula 4

Figure imgf000013_0003

Formula I


Figure US06521755-20030218-C00028

1HNMR (500 MHz DMSO-d6) δ9.41 (2H, br. s), 7.17-7.31 (8H, m), 4.17 (1H, s), 3.52 (2H, d, J=12.4 Hz), 3.11 (4H, br. s), 2.48-2.51 (4H, m)

13CNMR (126 MHz DMSO-d6) δ142.3, 133.4, 130.5, 129.6, 129.0, 128.4, 115.9, 113.6, 111.3, 76.2, 49.0, 43.6, 29.2, 29.1, 29.0; FD MS: m/e 326 (M+).

Anal. Calcd. For C20H21ClF2N2: C, 66.20; H, 5.83; N, 7.72.

Found: C, 66.08; H, 5.90; N, 7.72.


Figure US06570016-20030527-C00019

Figure US06570016-20030527-C00023

(2R)-Anti-1-[4-(10,11-difluoromethano-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-3-qunolin-5-yloxy)-propan-2-ol Trihydrochloride


Chemical Shift Data and Peak Assignments for the Crystal Forms.

Figure US07282585-20071016-C00001

Form II has a solid-state 13C NMR spectrum comprised of isotropic peaks at the following chemical shifts: 29.9, 50.1, 55.3, 62.0, 66.5, 72.0, 75.8, 104.8, 107.5, 108.2, 109.1, 110.2, 112.0, 118.4, 119.5, 120.1, 123.1, 128.7, 131.1, 133.0, 134.8, 136.4, 136.9, 139.9, 140.0, 142.3, 144.5, 146.6, 149.0, 144.2, 153.0 and 153.6 ppm.

Form III has a solid-state 13C NMR spectrum comprised of isotropic peaks at the following chemical shifts: 30.3, 50.4, 59.1, 63.2, 72.8, 77.2, 109.1, 110.2, 112.2, 112.8, 118.7, 119.5, 119.9, 121.0, 122.2, 123.0, 128.9, 130.6, 132.7, 134.0, 136.4, 140.0, 141.0, 141.8, 142.5, 143.3, 146.1, 153.1, 153.8 and 154.7 ppm.

Europace Publishes Data Supporting Use Of BRINAVESS™ (Vernakalant) As A First Line Agent For Pharmacological Cardioversion Of Atrial Fibrillation

Vernakalant, MK-6621, RSD 1235


C20H31NO4 ,  349.47, Brinavess , Kynapid

cas no 794466-70-9 
748810-28-8 (HCl)

EMA:Link  click here

PATENT   WO 2004099137

VANCOUVER, Nov. 21, 2013 /PRNewswire/ – Cardiome Pharma Corp. (NASDAQ: CRME / TSX: COM) today announced that a publication titled, Pharmacological Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation with Vernakalant: Evidence in Support of the ESC Guidelines, was published in Europace, the official Journal of the European Heart Rhythm Association, and was made available in the advanced online article access section. The authors conclude that BRINAVESS is an efficacious and rapid acting pharmacological cardioversion agent, for recent-onset atrial fibrillation (AF,) that can be used first line in patients with little or no underlying cardiovascular disease and in patients with moderate disease, such as stable coronary and hypertensive heart disease.

Vernakalant (INN; codenamed RSD1235, proposed tradenames Kynapid and Brinavess) is an investigational drug under regulatory review for the acute conversion of atrial fibrillation. It was initially developed by Cardiome Pharma, and the intravenous formulation has been bought for further development by Merck in April 2009.[1] In September 2012, Merck terminated its agreements with Cardiom and has consequently returned all rights of the drug back to Cardiom.

On 11 December 2007, the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee of the USFood and Drug Administration (FDA) voted to recommend the approval of vernakalant,[2]but in August 2008 the FDA judged that additional information was necessary for approval.[1] The drug was approved in Europe on 1 September 2010.[3]

An oral formulation underwent Phase II clinical trials between 2005 and 2008.[4][5]

Like other class III antiarrhythmics, vernakalant blocks atrial potassium channels, thereby prolonging repolarization. It differs from typical class III agents by blocking a certain type of potassium channel, the cardiac transient outward potassium current, with increased potency as the heart rate increases. This means that it is more effective at high heart rates, while other class III agents tend to lose effectiveness under these circumstances. It also slightly blocks the hERG potassium channel, leading to a prolonged QT interval. This may theoretically increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia, though this does not seem to be clinically relevant.[6]

The drug also blocks atrial sodium channels.[6]

  1.  “Merck and Cardiome Pharma Sign License Agreement for Vernakalant, an Investigational Drug for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation”. FierceBiotech. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  2.  “FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Kynapid for Acute Atrial Fibrillation”. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  3.  “BRINAVESS (vernakalant) for Infusion Approved in the European Union for Rapid Conversion of Recent Onset Atrial Fibrillation” (Press release). Merck & Co., Inc. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  4. NCT00267930 Study of RSD1235-SR for the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation/Atrial Flutter Recurrence
  5. NCT00526136 Vernakalant (Oral) Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence Post-Conversion Study
  6.  Miki Finnin, Vernakalant: A Novel Agent for the Termination of Atrial Fibrillation: Pharmacology, Medscape Today, retrieved 12 October 2010
  • Arzneimittel-Fachinformation (EMA)
  • Cheng J.W. Vernakalant in the management of atrial fibrillation. Ann Pharmacother, 2008, 42(4), 533-42Pubmed 
  • Dobrev D., Nattel S. New antiarrhythmic drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Lancet, 2010, 375(9721), 1212-23 Pubmed 
  • Finnin M. Vernakalant: A novel agent for the termination of atrial fibrillation. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 2010, 67(14), 1157-64 Pubmed 
  • Mason P.K., DiMarco J.P. New pharmacological agents for arrhythmias. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol, 2009, 2(5), 588-97 Pubmed 
  • Naccarelli G.V., Wolbrette D.L., Samii S., Banchs J.E., Penny-Peterson E., Stevenson R., Gonzalez M.D. Vernakalant – a promising therapy for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 2008, 17(5), 805-10 Pubmed 
  • European Patent No. 1,560,812
  • WO 2006138673, WO 200653037
  • WO 200597203, WO 200688525
  • Vernakalant HydrochlorideDrugs Fut 2007, 32(3): 234


Nitrogen: dark blue, oxygen: red, hydrogen: light blue


1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) 5 6.75 (m, 3H), 4.22 (m, 1H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.85 (m, 3H), 3.74 (m, 1H), 3.57 (m, 1H), 3.32 (td, J =
7.7, 3.5, 1H), 2.96-2.75 (m, 5H), 2.64 (dd, J= 10.0, 5.0, 1H), 2.49-2.37 (m, 2H), 2.05-1.98 (m, 2H), 1.84 (m, 1H), 1.69-1.62 (m, 3H), 1.35-1.19 (m, 4H).


WO 201240846

Arrhythmias are abnormal rhythms of the heart. The term “arrhythmia” refers to a deviation from the normal sequence of initiation and conduction of electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. Arrhythmias may occur in the atria or the ventricles. Atrial arrhythmias are widespread and relatively benign, although they place the subject at a higher risk of stroke and heart failure. Ventricular arrhythmias are typically less common, but very often fatal.

Arrhythmia is a variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat and generally represents the end product of abnormal ion-channel structure, number or function. Both atrial arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias are known. The major cause of fatalities due to cardiac arrhythmias is the subtype of ventricular arrhythmias known as ventricular fibrillation (VF). Conservative estimates indicate that, in the U.S. alone, each year over one million Americans will have a new or recurrent coronary attack (defined as myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease). About 650,000 of these will be first heart attacks and 450,000 will be recurrent attacks. About one-third of the people experiencing these attacks will die of them. At least 250,000 people a year die of coronary heart disease within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms and before they reach a hospital. These are sudden deaths caused by cardiac arrest, usually resulting from ventricular fibrillation.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in clinical practice and is a cause of morbidity in many individuals (Pritchett E.L., N. Engl. J. Med. 327(14):1031 Oct. 1, 1992, discussion 1031-2; Kannel and Wolf, Am. Heart J. 123(l):264-7 Jan. 1992). Its prevalence is likely to increase as the population ages and it is estimated that 3-5% of patients over the age of 60 years have AF (Kannel W.B., Abbot R.D., Savage D.D., McNamara P.M., N. Engl. J. Med. 306(17): 1018-22, 1982; Wolf P.A., Abbot R.D., Kannel W.B. Stroke. 22(8):983-8, 1991). While AF is rarely fatal, it can impair cardiac function and is a major cause of stroke (Hinton R.C., Kistler J.P., Fallon J.T., Friedlich A.L., Fisher CM., American Journal of Cardiology 40(4):509-13, 1977; Wolf P.A., Abbot R.D., Kannel W.B., Archives of Internal Medicine 147(9): 1561 -4, 1987; Wolf P. A., Abbot R.D., Kannel W.B. Stroke. 22(8):983-8, 1991; Cabin H.S., Clubb K.S., Hall C, Perlmutter R.A., Feinstein A.R., American Journal of Cardiology 65(16): 1112-6, 1990).

WO95/08544 discloses a class of aminocyclohexylester compounds as useful in the treatment of arrhythmias.

WO93/ 19056 discloses a class of aminocyclohexylamides as useful in the treatment of arrhythmia and in the inducement of local anaesthesia.

WO99/50225 discloses a class of aminocyclohexylether compounds as useful in the treatment of arrhythmias.

Antiarrhythmic agents have been developed to prevent or alleviate cardiac arrhythmia. For example, Class I antiarrhythmic compounds have been used to treat supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias. Treatment of ventricular arrhythmia is very important since such an arrhythmia can be fatal. Serious ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation) occur most often in the presence of myocardial ischemia and/or infarction. Ventricular fibrillation often occurs in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia, before infarction fully develops. At present, there is no satisfactory pharmacotherapy for the treatment and/or prevention of ventricular fibrillation during acute ischemia. In fact, many Class I antiarrhythmic compounds may actually increase mortality in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.

Class la, Ic and HI antiarrhythmic drugs have been used to convert recent onset AF to sinus rhythm and prevent recurrence of the arrhythmia (Fuch and Podrid, 1992; Nattel S., Hadjis T., Talajic M., Drugs 48(3):345-7l, 1994). However, drug therapy is often limited by adverse effects, including the possibility of increased mortality, and inadequate efficacy (Feld G.K., Circulation. <°3(<5):2248-50, 1990; Coplen S.E., Antman E.M., Berlin J.A., Hewitt P., Chalmers T.C., Circulation 1991; S3(2):714 and Circulation 82(4):1106-16, 1990; Flaker G.C., Blackshear J.L., McBride R., Kronmal R.A., Halperin J.L., Hart R.G., Journal of the American College of Cardiology 20(3):527-32, 1992; CAST, N. Engl. J. Med. 321:406, 1989; Nattel S., Cardiovascular Research. 37(3):567 -77, 1998). Conversion rates for Class I antiarrhythmics range between 50-90% (Nattel S., Hadjis T., Talajic M., Drugs 48(3)345-71, 1994; Steinbeck G., Remp T., Hoffmann E., Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 9(8 Suppl):S 104-8, 1998). Class ILT antiarrhythmics appear to be more effective for terminating atrial flutter than for AF and are generally regarded as less effective than Class I drugs for terminating of AF (Nattel S., Hadjis T., Talajic M., Drugs. 48(3):345-71, 1994; Capucci A., Aschieri D., Villani G.Q., Drugs & Aging 13(l):5l- 70, 1998). Examples of such drugs include ibutilide, dofetilide and sotalol. Conversion rates for these drugs range between 30-50% for recent onset AF (Capucci A., Aschieri D., Nillani G.Q., Drugs & Aging J3(l):5l-70, 1998), and they are also associated with a risk of the induction of Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachyarrhythmias. For ibutilide, the risk of ventricular proarrhythmia is estimated at ~4.4%, with ~1.7% of patients requiring cardioversion for refractory ventricular arrhythmias (Kowey P.R., NanderLugt J.T., Luderer J.R., American Journal of Cardiology 78(8A):46-52, 1996). Such events are particularly tragic in the case of AF as this arrhythmia is rarely a fatal in and of itself.


Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. It has been estimated that 2.2 million individuals in the United States have paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is estimated at 0.4% of the general population, and increases with age. Atrial fibrillation is usually associated with age and general physical condition, rather than with a specific cardiac event, as is often the case with ventricular arrhythmia. While not directly life threatening, atrial arrhythmias can cause discomfort and can lead to stroke or congestive heart failure, and increase overall morbidity.

There are two general therapeutic strategies used in treating subjects with atrial fibrillation. One strategy is to allow the atrial fibrillation to continue and to control the ventricular response rate by slowing the conduction through the atrioventricular (AV) node with digoxin, calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers; this is referred to as rate control. The other strategy, known as rhythm control, seeks to convert the atrial fibrillation and then maintain normal sinus rhythm, thus attempting to avoid the morbidity associated with chronic atrial fibrillation. The main disadvantage of the rhythm control strategy is related to the toxicities and proarrhythmic potential of the anti-arrhythmic drugs used in this strategy. Most drugs currently used to prevent atrial or ventricular arrhythmias have effects on the entire heart muscle, including both healthy and damaged tissue. These drugs, which globally block ion channels in the heart, have long been associated with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia, leading to increased, rather than decreased, mortality in broad subject populations. There is therefore a long recognized need for antiarrhythmic drugs that are more selective for the tissue responsible for the arrhythmia, leaving the rest of the heart to function normally, less likely to cause ventricular arrhythmias.

One specific class of ion channel modulating compounds selective for the tissue responsible for arrhythmia has been described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,057,053, including the ion channel modulating compound known as vernakalant hydrochloride. Vernakalant hydrochloride is the non-proprietary name adopted by the United States Adopted Name (USAN) council for the ion channel modulating compound (1R,2R)-2-[(3R)-hydroxypyrrolidinyl]-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethoxy)-cyclohexane monohydrochloride, which compound has the following formula:

Figure US20080312309A1-20081218-C00001

Vernakalant hydrochloride may also be referred to as “vernakalant” herein.

Vernakalant hydrochloride modifies atrial electrical activity through a combination of concentration-, voltage- and frequency-dependent blockade of sodium channels and blockade of potassium channels, including, e.g., the ultra-rapidly activating (lKur) and transient outward (lto) channels. These combined effects prolong atrial refractoriness and rate-dependently slow atrial conduction. This unique profile provides an effective anti-fibrillatory approach suitable for conversion of atrial fibrillation and the prevention of atrial fibrillation.

C20H32ClNO4, Mr = 385.9 g/mol

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