New Drug Approvals

Home » UNANI MEDICINE » Unani medicine

Unani medicine

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Categories

Blog Stats

  • 2,770,566 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,455 other followers

add to any

Share

Unani-tibb or Unani Medicine also spelled Yunani Medicine (/juːˈnɑːni/Yūnānī in ArabicHindustanipashto and Persian) is a form oftraditional medicine widely practiced by Muslims. It refers to a tradition of Graeco-Arabic medicine, which is based on the teachings of Greek physician Hippocrates, and Roman physician Galen, and developed into an elaborate medical System by Arab and Persian physicians, such asRhazes (al-Razi), Avicenna (Ibn Sena), Al-Zahrawi, and Ibn Nafis.

Unani medicine is based on the concept of the four humoursPhlegm (Balgham), Blood (Dam), Yellow bile (Ṣafrā’) and Black bile (Saudā’).

The word Unani or Yunani has its origins in the Greek word Ἰωνία (Iōnía) or Ἰωνίη (Iōníe), a place name given to a Greek populated coastal region of Ionian Sea.

History of Unani Medicine  


The Origin of  Unani system of medicine Is from Greece. The term ‘UNANI’ is derived from the word ‘UNAN’ or “YUNAN” which means Greece in Arabic Its also know as Greco-Arab medicine. the treatment of Unani is based on teachings of Hippocrates It was the work of the Greek philosopher-physician Hippocrates {Buqrat In Arabic} (460-377 B.C.), who freed medicine from the realm of superstition and magic and gave it the status of science. He considered illness to be natural rather than a supernatural phenomenon, and he felt that medicine should be administered without ritual ceremonies or magic.By his method of careful study and comparison of symptoms, he laid the foundation for clinical medicine.
 Hippocrates

After Hippocrates Many scholars enriched the system of Unani Medicine. Of them Galen {Jalinus in Arabic} (131-200 A.D.) stands out as the one who established its foundation on which Arab physicians like Rhazes {Al-Razi in Arabic} (850-932 A.D.) and Avicenna {Ibn-Sena in Arabic} (980-1037 A.D.) constructed an imposing edifice. Galen introduced and practiced the Unani system of medicine in pre-Islamic Egypt, researched, experimented and developed hundreds of new medicines and cures for almost all types of diseases.

Unani medicine was the first to establish that disease was a natural process and that symptoms were the reactions of the body to the disease. It believes in the humeral theory which presupposes the presence of the four humors – Dam (blood), Balgham(phlegm), Safra (yellow bile) and Sauda (black bile) in the body. Each humor has its own temperament – blood is hot and moist, phlegm cold and moist, yellow bile hot and dry and black bile cold and dry. Every person attains a temperament according to the preponderance in them of the humors which represent the person’s healthy state, which are expressed as sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic.

 It was further enriched by imbibing the best of contemporary systems of medicine in the middle eastern and far eastern countries like  Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Persia, India, China and other Middle East and Far East countries enriched the Unani system. That is why this system is known, in different parts of the world, with different names such as Greco-Arab Medicine, Ionian Medicine, Arab Medicine, Islamic Medicine, Traditional Medicine, Oriental Medicine, etc.

A Unani physician does not prescribe the strongest drug at the beginning of the treatment. He selects the drug according to the degree of variation from the normal healthy condition and observes the effect produced by the treatment. At the same time, he instructs the patient to observe some restrictions in diet and lifestyle.Besides the use of herbs for treatment, Unani medicine employs a variety of other techniques intended to cleanse the body and restore humor balance. These techniques include: mushil (purging), taareeq (sweating), hammam (bath therapy), munzij (ripening), mahajim (cupping) and riyazat (exercise).

Though the threads which comprise Unani healing can be traced all the way back to Ancient Iranian Medicine, the basic knowledge of Unani medicine as a healing system was developed by Muslim scholar Hakim Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in the west) in his medical encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine. The time of origin is thus dated at circa 1025 AD, when Avicenna wrote The Canon of Medicine in Persia. While he was primarily influenced by Greek and Islamic medicine, he was also influenced by the Indian medical teachings of Sushruta and Charaka.

Unani medicine first arrived in India around 12th or 13th century with establishment of Delhi Sultanate (1206-1527) and Islamic rule over North India and subsequently flourished under Mughal EmpireAlauddin Khilji (r. 1296-1316) had several eminent Unani physicians (Hakims) in his royal courts In the coming year this royal patronage meant development of Unani practice in India, but also of Unani literature with the aid of Indian Ayurvedic physicians.

Diagnosis and treatment

Fortunately, Unani classical literature consists of thousands of books and contains vast knowledge and mention of experiences on all aspects of medicine. According to Unani medicine, management of any disease depends upon the diagnosis of disease. In the diagnosis, clinical features, i.e., signs, symptoms, laboratory features and mizaj (temperament) are important.

Any cause and or factor is countered by Quwwat-e-Mudabbira-e-Badan (the power of body responsible to maintain health), the failing of which may lead to quantitatively or qualitatively derangement of the normal equilibrium of akhlat (humors) of body which constitute the tissues and organs. This abnormal humor leads to pathological changes in the tissues anatomically and physiologically at the affected site and exhibits the clinical manifestations.

After diagnosing the disease, Usoole Ilaj (principle of management) of disease is determined on the basis of etiology in the following pattern:

  • Izalae Sabab (elimination of cause)
  • Tadeele Akhlat (normalization of humors)
  • Tadeele Aza (normalization of tissues/organs)

For fulfillment of requirements of principle of management, treatment is decided as per the Unani medicine which may be one or more of the following:

  • Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer wa Ilaj-Bil-Ghiza (Regimenal Therapy). The disease may be treated by the modification of six essential pre-requisites of health (Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya in Unani Tibbi terminology). Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya may be modified by the use of one or more regimens: i.e., Dalak, Riyazat, Hammam, Taleeq, Takmeed, Hijamat (Cupping Therapy), Fasd, Lakhlakha, Bakhur, Abzan, Shamoomat (Aromatherapy), Pashoya, Idrar, Ishal, Qai, Tareeq, Elam, Laza-e-Muqabil, Imalah and alteration of food. According to the norms of C.C.I.M. New Delhi, Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer has been established in almost all Unani Tibbi Colleges of India. In the State Unani Medical College, Allahabad, U.P. and State Takmeel-Ul-Tibb College, Lucknow, Department of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is known as Moalijat Khususi. Moaliajt Khususi is the old nomenclature of Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer, suggested by C.C.I.M. New Delhi. Ilaj-Bil-Tadbeer is synonym to Panchkarma in Ayurveda.
  • Ilaj-Bil-Advia (Pharmacotherapy). For this purpose Mamulate Matab Nuskha (prescription) is formulated which contain the single and or compound (murakkābāt) Unani drugs[12] having desired actions as per requirements.
  • Ilaj-Bil-Yad (Surgery)

As an alternative form of medicine, Unani has found favor in India where popular products like Roghan Baiza Murgh (Egg Oil) and Roghan Badaam Shirin (Almond Oil) are commonly used for hair care. Unani practitioners can practice as qualified doctors in India, as the government approve their practice. Unani medicine is very close to Ayurveda. Both are based on theory of the presence of the elements (in Unani, they are considered to be fire, water, earth and air) in the human body. (The elements, attributed to the philosopher Empedocles, determined the way of thinking in Medieval Europe.) According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in different fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.

The theory postulates the presence of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in the human body. Each person’s unique mixture of these substances determines his Mizaj(Temperament). a predominance of blood gives a sanguine temperament; a predominance of phlegm makes one phlegmatic; yellow bile, bilious (or choleric); and black bile, melancholic.

Education and recognition

In India, there are 40 Unani medical colleges where the Unani system of medicine is taught. After five and half year courses, the graduates are awarded BUMS (Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery). There are about eight Unani medical colleges where a postgraduate degree (Mahir-e-Tib and Mahir Jarahat) is being awarded to BUMS doctors. All these colleges are affiliated to reputed universities and recognized by the governments.

In India, the Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) a statutory body established in 1971 under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family WelfareGovernment of India, monitors higher education in areas of Indian medicine including, Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. To fight biopiracy and unethical patents, the Government of India, in 2001, set up the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as repository of formulations of systems of Indian medicine, includes 98,700 Unani formulations.[14][15] Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) established in 1979, also under AYUSH, aids and co-ordinates scientific research in the Unani system of medicine through a network of 22 nationwide research institutes and units, including two Central Research Institutes of Unani Medicine, at Hyderabad and Lucknow, eight Regional Research Institutes at Chennai, Bhadrak, Patna, Aligarh, Mumbai, Srinagar, Kolkata and New Delhi, six Clinical Research Units at Allahabad, Bangalore, Karimganj, Meerut, Bhopal and Burhanpur, four Drug Standardisation Research Units at New Delhi, Bangalore, Chennai and Lucknow, a Chemical Research Unit at Aligarh, a Literary Research Institute at New Delhi.

Safety issues

According to WHO, “Pharmacovigilance activities are done to monitor detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of any obnoxious adverse reactions to drugs at therapeutic concentration that is used or is intended to be used to modify or explore physiological system or pathological states for the benefit of recipient.” These drugs may be any substance or product including herbs, minerals, etc. for animals and human beings and can even be that prescribed by practitioners of Unani or ayurvedic system of medicine. In recent days, awareness has been created related to safety and adverse drug reaction monitoring of herbal drugs including Unani drugs.

Notable Unani Organizations/institutions

  • GOVERNMENT UNANI MEDICAL COLLEGE,CHENNAI, TAMILNADU

JAMIA TIBBIYA DEOBAND (B.U.M.S. & M.D.)

  • SHAMIM AHMAD SAEEDI UNANI HOSPITAL FOR JOINTS PAIN
  • JAMIA REMEDIES (UNANI DRUGS MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INDIA)
  • Baqai Dawakhana pvt ltd,Delhi India
  • Awami Laboratories, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Farzana Dawakhana, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine,India.
  • Ajmal Khan Tibbia College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,U.P.India.
  • Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine and Sciences,India.
  • National Institute of Unani Medicine, (Government of India)
  • A&U Tibbia College, Karol Bagh, New Delhi, (Government of N.C.T. Delhi),India.
  • Faculty of Unani Medicine, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi,India.
  • Government Nizamia Tibbi College and Hospital, Hyderabad, A.P.India.
  • Anjuman-i- Islam’s Tibbia College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
  • ZVM Unani College and Hospital, Pune, M.S.India.
  • State Takmeel-ut-tib College and hospital, Lucknow, U.P.(Government of U.P.).India.
  • State Unani Medical College & H.A.H.R.D.M. Hospital, Himmatganj, Allahabad, U.P. (Government of U.P.).India.
  • Saifia Hamidia Unani Tibbia College & Saeeda Hospital, Ganpati Naka, Burhanpur,M.P.India.
  • Tipu Sultan Unani Medical College,Gulbarga, Karnataka.
  • Govt. Unani and Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Markaz Unani Medical College & Hospital, Calicut, India
  • The Institute of Indigenous Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
  • Government Unani Medical College, Bashaveshwara Nagar, Bangalore-560079
  • Mohsin-e-millat Unani Medical College and Hospital (Baijnathpara Raipur,chhattisgarh India)
  • HSZH Govt. Unani medical college Bhopal-462003
  • Ahmed Garib Unani Medical College Akkalkuwa Nandurbar M.S India
  • All India Unani Tibbi Conference, New Delhi.
  • Awami Dawakhana Unani,Hyderabad,India.
  • Govt.Nizamia Tibbi College, Hyderabad,India.


1 Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

DR ANTHONY CRASTO

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,455 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

View Full Profile →

TWITTER

bloglovin

Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: