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FDA OKs Teva’s Injectable Treanda

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FDA OKs Teva’s Injectable Treanda

FDA Approves Teva’s Injectable Treanda

bendamustine

Sept. 17, 2013 (GLOBES)–Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. (NYSE: TEVA; TASE: TEVA) has announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a new injectable version Treanda for treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has progressed during or within six months of treatment with rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/fda-oks-tevas-injectable-treanda

Bendamustine (INN, trade names TreakisymRibomustinLevact and Treanda; also known as SDX-105) is a nitrogen mustard used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia[1] and lymphomas. It belongs to the family of drugs called alkylating agents. It is also being studied for the treatment of sarcoma.[2]

History

Bendamustine was first synthesized in 1963 by Ozegowski and Krebs in East Germany(the former German Democratic Republic). Until 1990 it was available only in East Germany. East German investigators found that it was useful for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemiaHodgkin’s diseasenon-Hodgkin’s lymphomamultiple myelomaand lung cancer.

Bendamustine received its first marketing approval in Germany, where it is marketed under the tradename Ribomustin, by Astellas Pharma GmbH’s licensee, Mundipharma International Corporation Limited. It is indicated as a single-agent or in combination with other anti-cancer agents for indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. SymBio Pharmaceuticals Ltd holds exclusive rights to develop and market bendamustine HCl in Japan and selected Asia Pacific Rim countries.

In March 2008, Cephalon received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration to market bendamustine in the US, where it is sold under the tradename Treanda, for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.[3]

In October 2008, the FDA granted further approval to market Treanda for the treatment of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that has progressed during or within six months of treatment with rituximab or a rituximab-containing regimen. [4]

Bendamustine, 4-{5-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl}butyric acid:

Figure US20120071532A1-20120322-C00001

was initially synthesized in 1963 in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and was available from 1971 to 1992 there under the tradename Cytostasan®. See, e.g., W. Ozegowski and D. Krebs, IMET 3393 γ-[1-methyl-5-bis-(β-chloroethyl)-aminobenzimidazolo-(2)]-butyryl chloride, a new cytostatic agent of the group of benzimidazole nitrogen mustards. Zbl. Pharm. 110, (1971) Heft 10, 1013-1019, describing the synthesis of bendamustine hydrochloride monohydrate. Since that time, it has been marketed in Germany under the tradename Ribomustin®. Bendamustine is an alkylating agent that has been shown to have therapeutic utility in treating diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer.

While bendamustine has been demonstrated as efficacious, it is known to be unstable, especially in aqueous solutions, leading to technical difficulties in its preparation and administration. Researchers, therefore, have investigated methods of improving the preparation and stability of bendamustine and its formulations. For example, German (GDR) Patent No. 159877 discloses a method for preparing bendamustine free base by reaction of the bis-hydroxyl precursor with thionyl chloride followed by recrystallization from water.

German (GDR) Patent No. 34727 discloses a method of preparing derivatives of bendamustine. The described derivatives differ from bendamustine in the substitution at the 1-position.

German (GDR) Patent No. 80967 discloses an injectable preparation of bendamustine hydrochloride monohydrate, ascorbic acid, and water. GDR 80967 describes that lyophilization of compounds such as bendamustine is only possible if the compound is of sufficient stability that it can withstand the processing conditions. The preparation described in GDR 80967 is not lyophilized.

German (GDR) Patent No. 159289 discloses a ready-to use, injectable solution of bendamustine hydrochloride that avoids lyophilization. GDR 159289 describes an anhydrous solution of bendamustine hydrochloride in 1,2-propylene glycol or ethanol.

U.S. application Ser. No. 11/330,868, filed Jan. 12, 2006, assigned to Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, P A, discloses methods of preparing lyophilized pharmaceutical compositions comprising bendamustine hydrochloride.

Chemotherapeutic uses

Bendamustine has been used both as sole therapy and in combination with other agents including etoposidefludarabinemitoxantrone,methotrexateprednisonerituximabvincristine and 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan.

One combination for stage III/IV relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), with or without prior rituximab-containing chemoimmunotherapy treatment, is bendamustine with mitoxantrone and rituximab.[5] In Germany in 2012 it has become the first line treatment of choice for indolent lymphoma.[6] after Trial results released in June 2012 showed that it more than doubled disease progression-free survival when given along with rituximab. The combination also left patients with fewer side effects than the older R-CHOP treatment.[7]

Common adverse reactions are typical for the class of nitrogen mustards, and include nausea, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, constipation, loss of appetite, cough, headache, unintentional weight loss, difficulty breathing, rashes, and stomatitis, as well as immunosuppression, anemia, and low platelet counts. Notably, this drug has a low incidence of hair loss (alopecia) unlike most other chemotherapy drugs.[8]

References

  1.  Kath R, Blumenstengel K, Fricke HJ, Höffken K (January 2001). “Bendamustine monotherapy in advanced and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia”J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 127 (1): 48–54. doi:10.1007/s004320000180PMID 11206271.
  2.  Bagchi S (August 2007). “Bendamustine for advanced sarcoma”. Lancet Oncol. 8 (8): 674. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(07)70225-5.PMID 17726779.
  3.  “Cephalon press release – Cephalon Receives FDA Approval for TREANDA, a Novel Chemotherapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia”. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  4.  “Cephalon press release -Cephalon Receives FDA Approval for TREANDA to Treat Patients with Relapsed Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma”. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  5.  Weide R, Hess G, Köppler H, et al. (2007). “High anti–lymphoma activity of bendamustine/mitoxantrone/rituximab in rituximab pretreated relapsed or refractory indolent lymphomas and mantle cell lymphomas. A muticenter phase II study of the German Low Grade Lymphoma Study Group (GLSG)”Leuk. Lymphoma. 48 (7): 1299–1306. doi:10.1080/10428190701361828PMID 17613757.
  6.  New Combo Replaces CHOP for Lymphoma. Dec 2012
  7. “‘Rediscovered’ Lymphoma Drug Helps Double Survival: Study”. June 3, 2012.
  8. Tageja, Nishant; Nagi, Jasdeepa; “Bendamustine: something old, something new”; Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 2010 Aug;66(3):413-23. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1317-x.

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Bendamustine hydrochloride, 4-{5-[Bis(2-chloroethyl) amino]- l-methyl-2- benzimidazolyl} butyric acid hydrochloride, of the formula (VI) :

 

Figure imgf000002_0001

was initially synthesized in 1963 in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and was available from 1971 to 1992 there, as the hydrochloride salt, under the trade name Cytostasan®. Since that time, it has been marketed in Germany under the trade name Ribomustin®. Bendamustine Hydrochloride as injection is available in the United States under the tradename Treanda®. Bendamustine hydrochloride is an alkylating agent that is approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Bendamustine hydrochloride is a benzimidazole analog. While bendamustine has been demonstrated as efficacious, it is known to be unstable, especially in aqueous solutions, leading to formation of non-bendamustine products (i.e. “degradation impurities”) which leads to technical difficulties in its preparation and administration. In light of its instability in aqueous solution, bendamustine is supplied as a lyophilized cake of bendamustine hydrochloride salt. US2006/159713, US 2006/128777 and WO2010/036702 disclose various impurities of Bendamustine hydrochloride which are as follows:

 

Figure imgf000003_0001

PC-1 PC-2

Jena et al. were the first to disclose the synthesis of Bendamustine hydrochloride in German (GDR) Patent No. 34727. Krueger et al. in German (GDR) Patent No. 159877 recite a method as summarized in scheme-1, for the synthesis of bendamustine hydrochloride comprising the reaction of the 4-[l-methyl-5-bis-(2- hydroxyethyl)-benzimidazolyl-2]butyric acid ethyl ester (4) (or the corresponding methyl, propyl or butyl ester) with thionyl chloride in chloroform at 0-5°C to form 4-[l- methyl-5-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-benzimidazolyl-2]butyric acid ethyl ester (5). Excess of thionyl chloride is destroyed by stirring the reaction mixture in aqueous HCl. Finally chloroform is distilled off and stirred at 95°C for 3 hours. The reaction mixture is partially concentrated and the residue is diluted with water and stirred upto crystallization. Further purification is done by recrystallization from water.

Scheme-1: Method disclosed by Krueger et al. in DD159877 for the synthesis of Bendamustine hydrochloride

Figure imgf000004_0001

Bendamustine hydrochloride (6)

Ozegowski et al in Zentralblatt fuer Pharmazie, Pharmakotherapie und Laboratoriumsdiagnostik 1 10 (10), 1013-1019 (1971) discloses a process for the preparation of bendamustine hydrochloride monohydrate. The Chinese journal “Chinese journal of New Drugs “, 2007, No. 23, Vol. 16, 1960-61 and J. Prakt. Chem. 20, 178-186 (1963) disclose another method for the synthesis of Bendamustine hydrochloride monohydrate starting from 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene as summarized in scheme-2.

 

Figure imgf000004_0002

The crucial conversions are reaction of l-methyl-2-(4′-ethyl butyrate)-5- amino]-lH-benzimidazole 6 with ethylene oxide in the presence of water, sodium acetate and acetic acid, by maintaining at 5°C for 5 hours and overnight at 20°C to give 4-{5-[bis-(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-amino]-l-methyl-lH-benzimidazol-2-yl}-butyric acid ethyl ester (dihydroxy ester) 7 as a jelly mass, which on chlorination using thionyl chloride in chloroform and subsequent in situ hydrolysis with concentrated HCI gave bendamustine hydrochloride. It also discloses a process for the recrystallization of bendamustine hydrochloride from water and the product obtained is a monohydrate with a melting point of 148-151°C.

IP.com Journal 2009, 9(7B), 21 discloses another process as shown below for the preparation of ethyl-4-[5-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino]- l-methylbenzimidazol-2- yl]butanoate (III) wherein ethyl-4-(5 -amino- 1 -methyl- lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) butanoate (II) is reacted with 2-halo ethanol in the presence of an inorganic base selected from the group consisting potassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, sodium

 

Figure imgf000005_0001

The PCT application WO 2010/042568 assigned to Cephalon discloses the synthesis of Bendamustine hydrochloride as summarized in schem-3 starting from 2,4- dintroaniline in six steps. The crucial step is reductive alkylation of Il-a, using borane- tetrahydrofuran and chloroacetic acid at ambient temperature, producing compound of formula I-a. Acid mediated hydrolysis of I-a using concentrated hydrochloric acid at reflux produced bendamustine hydrochloride which has a purity of 99.1%. The above PCT Patent application also discloses a method of purification of Bendamustine hydrochloride by agitating the Bendamustine hydrochloride in a mixture of DMF and THF at 75°C for about 30 minutes followed by cooling to ambient temperature and isolating the solid by filtration.

Scheme-3:

 

Figure imgf000006_0001

 

Figure imgf000006_0002

iil-a

 

Figure imgf000006_0003

 

Figure imgf000006_0004

Bemdamuatine hydrochloride

The PCT application WO 2011/079193 assigned to Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories discloses the synthesis of Bendamustine hydrochloride as summarized in schem-4 starting from compound of formula (II). The crucial step is alkylation of compound of formula II with 2-haloethanol in the presence of an organic base to give a compound of formula (III) which on chlorination with a chlorinating agent affords a compound of formula (IV). Compound of formula (IV) on hydrolysis in acidic medium gives bendamustine hydrochloride. It further discloses purification of bendamustine hydrochloride using aqueous hydrochloric acid and acetonitrile.

Scheme-4:

Figure imgf000007_0001

Bendamustine hydrochloride (Pure)

The most of the prior art processes described above involve

• The use of ethylene oxide for the preparation of bendamustine hydrochloride, which is often not suitable for industrial scale processes due to difficulty in handling ethylene oxide, since it is shipped as a refrigerated liquid.

• Further, the known processes involve the use of strongly acidic conditions and high temperatures for the hydrolysis of ethyl ester of bendamustine and subsequent in-situ formation of bendamustine hydrochloride, thereby resulting in increased levels of various process-related impurities IMP. -A (RRT-0.46), IMP. -B (RRT-1.27) and IMP. -C (RRT-1.31) whose removal is quite difficult and make the process less economically viable.

 

Figure imgf000008_0001

IMP.-B

International Application Publication No. WO 2009/120386 describes various solid forms of bendamustine hydrochloride designated as bendamustine hydrochloride Form 1, bendamustine hydrochloride Form 2, bendamustine hydrochloride Form 3, bendamustine hydrochloride Form 4, amorphous bendamustine hydrochloride or a mixture thereof, processes for their preparation and lyophilized composition comprising the solid forms. According to the disclosure, monohydrate of bendamustine hydrochloride has been prepared previously. The monohydrate has a reported melting point of 152-156°C which is similar to that of the observed melting point of bendamustine hydrochloride Form 2.

It is known that synthetic compounds can contain extraneous compounds or impurities resulting from their synthesis or degradation. The impurities can be unreacted starting materials, by-products of the reaction, products of side reactions, or degradation products. Generally, impurities in an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) may arise from degradation of the API itself, or during the preparation of the API. Impurities in Bendamustine hydrochloride or any active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are undesirable and might be harmful.

Regulatory authorities worldwide require that drug manufacturers isolate, identify and characterize the impurities in their products. Furthermore, it is required to control the levels of these impurities in the final drug compound obtained by the manufacturing process and to ensure that the impurity is present in the lowest possible levels, even if structural determination is not possible. The product mixture of a chemical reaction is rarely a single compound with sufficient purity to comply with pharmaceutical standards. Side products and byproducts of the reaction and adjunct reagents used in the reaction will, in most cases, also be present in the product mixture. At certain stages during processing of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, the product is analyzed for purity, typically, by HPLC, TLC. or GC analysis, to determine if it is suitable for continued processing and, ultimately, for use in a pharmaceutical product. Purity standards are set with the intention of ensuring that an API is as free of impurities as possible, and, thus, are as safe as possible for clinical use. The United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines recommend that the amounts of some impurities are limited to less than 0.1 percent.

Generally, impurities are identified spectroscopically and by other physical methods, and then the impurities are associated with a peak position in a chromatogram (or a spot on a TLC plate). Thereafter, the impurity can be identified by its position in the chromatogram, which is conventionally measured in minutes between injection of the sample on the column and elution of the particular component through the detector, known as the “retention time” (“RT”). This time period varies daily based upon the condition of the instrumentation and many other factors. To mitigate the effect that such variations have upon accurate identification of an impurity, practitioners use “relative retention time” (“RRT”) to identify impurities. The RRT of an impurity is its retention time divided by the retention time of a reference marker.

It is known by those skilled in the art, the management of process impurities is greatly enhanced by understanding their chemical structures and synthetic pathways, and by identifying the parameters that influence the amount of impurities in the final product.

Therefore, there remains a need for improved process for the preparation of bendamustine hydrochloride, producing high yield and purity, and well-suited for use on an industrial scale. Despite the existence of various polymorphic forms of bendamustine hydrochloride, there exists a need for a simple process for the preparation of the stable form of bendamustine hydrochloride which is amenable to scale up and results in high yield and purity.

 

Bendamustine, (4-{5-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl}butyric

Figure US08344006-20130101-C00001

Bendamustine

is an atypical structure with a benzimidazole ring, which structure includes an active nitrogen mustard. Bendamustine was initially synthesized in 1963 in the German Democratic Republic and was available from 1971 to 1992 in that location under the name Cytostasan®. Since that time, it has been marketed in Germany under the tradename Ribomustin®. It is currently available for use in the United States under the tradename Treanda® (Cephalon, Inc., Frazer, Pa.). It has been widely used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer.

Like other nitrogen mustards, bendamustine hydrolyzes in aqueous solution, with the major degradant being the primary alcohol HP1 (See U.S. application Ser. No. 11/330,868, the entirety of which is incorporated herein):

Figure US08344006-20130101-C00002

In light of its instability in aqueous solution, bendamustine is currently supplied as a lyophilized powder for injection. Just prior to its infusion, the medical practitioner reconstitutes the powder with Sterile Water for Injection. Reconstitution should yield a clear, colorless to pale yellow solution and the powder should completely dissolve in about 5 minutes. If particulate matter is observed, the reconstituted product should not be used and should be discarded. The reconstituted product is then transferred to a 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection infusion bag within 30 minutes of reconstitution. This admixture should be a clear and colorless to slightly yellow solution. If the admixture comprises particulate matter or is discolored, it should be discarded and a fresh sample prepared.

The salt bendamustine hydrochloride is an alkylating agent, originally synthesized in 1963 at the Institute for Microbiology & Experimental Therapy in Jena, German Democratic Republic, with the intent to produce an agent with both alkylating and antimetabolite properties. Jenapharm (now Schering AG) formerly marketed it in Germany under the trade name Cytostasan from 1971 to 1992. Cytostasan was a lyophilised powder for solution for injection (vials) conatining 25 mg of Bendamustine HCI. It was widely used but never studied systematically in patients until the 1990s, then German investigators demonstrated its clinical activity in a number of malignancies. Since 1993, Ribosepharm was marketing bendamustine in Germany under the brand name Ribomustin RBO. Ribomustin is available as a lyophilized powder for injection, containing 100 mg of drug in each 50 ml_ vial, or 25 mg of drug in each 20 ml_ vial, also comprising mannitol, and indicated for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The lyophilized powder is reconstituted as close to the time of patient administration as possible with 40 ml_ (for a 100 mg product) or 10 mL (for a 25 mg product) of sterile water for injection. The reconstituted product then is further diluted to 500 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection. The route of administration is by intravenous infusion over 30 to 60 minutes.

Another bendamustine product is sold in the United States by Cephalon, Inc. as TREANDA® for Injection, a lyophilized powder in a single-use vial indicated for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A 25 mg dose vial contains 25 mg of bendamustine hydrochloride and 42.5 mg of mannitol, and a 100 mg dose vial contains 100 mg of bendamustine hydrochloride and 170 mg of mannitol.

TREANDA is intended for intravenous infusion only after reconstitution with Sterile Water for Injection USP, and then further dilution with either 0.9% Sodium

Chloride Inj.ection, USP, or 2.5% Dextrose/0.45% Sodium Chloride Inj.ection, USP. The pH of the reconstituted solution is 2.5-3.5. TREANDA is supplied as a sterile non-pyrogenic white to off-white lyophilized powder, in a single-use vial.

Bendamustine hydrochloride is very unstable in an aqueous solution. The bis-2-chlorethylamino bond is hydrolyzed in weak acid, neutral, or alkaline solution. Monohydroxybendamustine [HP-1 ] is formed rapidly in the presence of water. Bendamustine ethyl ester [BM1 EE] is formed when bendamustine reacts with ethyl alcohol. BM1 EE can be formed during drug substance manufacturing, e.g., during recrystalization and/or purification processes. BM1 EE is a more potent cytotoxic drug than bendamustine.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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