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Loncastuximab tesirine

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ZYNLONTA™ (loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl) Structural Formula - Illustration
Pharmaceuticals 14 00442 g047 550

Loncastuximab tesirine

ZYNLONTA FDA APPROVED 2021/4/23

FormulaC6544H10048N1718O2064S52
Exact mass147387.9585
CAS1879918-31-6
EfficacyAntineoplasitc, Anti-CD19 antibody
  DiseaseDiffuse large B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified [DS:H02434]
CommentAntibody-drug conjugate
Treatment of hematological cancers

ロンカスツキシマブテシリン; ADCT-402, ADCX 19

Immunoglobulin G1, anti-​(human CD19 antigen) (human-​Mus musculus monoclonal RB4v1.2 γ1-​chain)​, disulfide with human-​Mus musculus monoclonal RB4v1.2 κ-​chain, dimer, bis(thioether) with N-​[31-​(3-​mercapt-​2,​5-​dioxo-​1-​pyrrolidinyl)​-​1,​29-​dioxo-​4,​7,​10,​13,​16,​19,​22,​25-​octaoxa-​28-​azahentriacont-​1-​yl]​-​L-​valyl-​N-​[4-​[[[[(11S,​11aS)​-​8-​[[5-​[[(11aS)​-​5,​11a-​dihydro-​7-​methoxy-​2-​methyl-​5-​oxo-​1H-​pyrrolo[2,​1-​c]​[1,​4]​benzodiazepin-​8-​yl]​oxy]​pentyl]​oxy]​-​11,​11a-​dihydro-​11-​hydroxy-​7-​methoxy-​2-​methyl-​5-​oxo-​1H-​pyrrolo[2,​1-​c]​[1,​4]​benzodiazepin-​10(5H)​-​yl]​carbonyl]​oxy]​methyl]​phenyl]​-​L-​alaninamide

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Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
SourceHumanized
TargetCD19
Clinical data
Trade namesZynlonta
Other namesADCT-402, loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl
License dataUS DailyMedLoncastuximab_tesirine
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
CAS Number1879918-31-6
DrugBankDB16222
ChemSpidernone
UNII7K5O7P6QIU
KEGGD11338
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6544H10048N1718O2064S52
Molar mass147481.45 g·mol−1
NAMEDOSAGESTRENGTHROUTELABELLERMARKETING STARTMARKETING END  
ZynlontaInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution5 mg/1mLIntravenousADC Therapeutics America, Inc.2021-04-30Not applicableUS flag 

Loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl is a CD19-directed antibody and alkylating agent conjugate, consisting of a humanized IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody conjugated to SG3199, a pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer cytotoxic alkylating agent, through a protease-cleavable valinealanine linker. SG3199 attached to the linker is designated as SG3249, also known as tesirine.

ZYNLONTA™ (loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl) Structural Formula - Illustration

Loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl has an approximate molecular weight of 151 kDa. An average of 2.3 molecules of SG3249 are attached to each antibody molecule. Loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl is produced by chemical conjugation of the antibody and small molecule components. The antibody is produced by mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cells, and the small molecule components are produced by chemical synthesis.

ZYNLONTA (loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl) for injection is supplied as a sterile, white to off-white, preservative-free, lyophilized powder, which has a cake-like appearance, for intravenous infusion after reconstitution and dilution. Each single-dose vial delivers 10 mg of loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl, L-histidine (2.8 mg), L-histidine monohydrochloride (4.6 mg), polysorbate 20 (0.4 mg), and sucrose (119.8 mg). After reconstitution with 2.2 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP, the final concentration is 5 mg/mL with a pH of approximately 6.0.

Loncastuximab tesirine , sold under the brand name Zynlonta, is used for the treatment of large B-cell lymphoma. It is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a humanized antibody targeting the protein CD19, which is expressed in a wide range of B cell hematological tumors.[2] The experimental drug, developed by ADC Therapeutics is being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

On April 23, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl (Zynlonta, ADC Therapeutics SA), a CD19-directed antibody and alkylating agent conjugate, for adult patients with relapsed or refractory large B-cell lymphoma after two or more lines of systemic therapy, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) not otherwise specified, DLBCL arising from low grade lymphoma, and high-grade B-cell lymphoma.

Approval was based on LOTIS-2 (NCT03589469), an open-label, single-arm trial in 145 adult patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL or high-grade B-cell lymphoma after at least two prior systemic regimens. Patients received loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl 0.15 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 2 cycles, then 0.075 mg/kg every 3 weeks for subsequent cycles. Patients received treatment until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity.

The main efficacy outcome measure was overall response rate (ORR), as assessed by an independent review committee using Lugano 2014 criteria. The ORR was 48.3% (95% CI: 39.9, 56.7) with a complete response rate of 24.1% (95% CI: 17.4, 31.9). After a median follow-up of 7.3 months, median response duration  was 10.3 months (95% CI: 6.9, NE). Of the 70 patients who achieved objective responses, 36% were censored for response duration prior to 3 months.

Most common (≥20%) adverse reactions in patients receiving loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl, including laboratory abnormalities, are thrombocytopenia, increased gamma-glutamyltransferase, neutropenia, anemia, hyperglycemia, transaminase elevation, fatigue, hypoalbuminemia, rash, edema, nausea, and musculoskeletal pain.

The prescribing information provides warnings and precautions for adverse reactions including edema and effusions, myelosuppression, infections, and cutaneous reactions.

The recommended loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl dosage is 0.15 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 2 cycles, then 0.075 mg/kg every 3 weeks for subsequent cycles, by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes on day 1 of each cycle (every 3 weeks). Patients should be premedicated with dexamethasone 4 mg orally or intravenously twice daily for 3 days beginning the day before loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl.

Technology

The humanized monoclonal antibody is stochastically conjugated via a valine-alanine cleavable, maleimide linker to a cytotoxic (anticancer) pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer. The antibody binds to CD19, a protein which is highly expressed on the surface of B-cell hematological tumors[3] including certain forms of lymphomas and leukemias. After binding to the tumor cells the antibody is internalized, the cytotoxic drug PBD is released and the cancer cells are killed. PBD dimers are generated out of PBD monomers, a class of natural products produced by various actinomycetes. PBD dimers work by crosslinking specific sites of the DNA, blocking the cancer cells’ division that cause the cells to die. As a class of DNA-crosslinking agents they are significantly more potent than systemic chemotherapeutic drugs.[4]

Clinical trials

Two phase I trials are evaluating the drug in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.[5] At the 14th International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma interim results from a Phase I, open-label, dose-escalating study designed to evaluate the treatment of loncastuximab tesirine in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were presented.[6] Among the patients enrolled at the time of the data cutoff the overall response rate was 61% in the total patient population (42% complete response and 19% partial response) and in patients with relapsing or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) the overall response rate was 57% (43% complete response and 14% partial response).[7][8]

Orphan drug designation

Loncastuximab tesirine was granted Orphan Drug Designation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma.[9]

References

  1. ^ https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2021/761196s000lbl.pdf
  2. ^ WHO Drug Information: International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances
  3. ^ Wang K, Wei G, Liu D (November 2012). “CD19: a biomarker for B cell development, lymphoma diagnosis and therapy”Experimental Hematology & Oncology1 (1): 36. doi:10.1186/2162-3619-1-36PMC 3520838PMID 23210908.
  4. ^ “Pyrrolobenzodiazepine”ADC Review.
  5. ^ Clinical trial number NCT02669017 for “ADCT-402 in B-NHL” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  6. ^ Kahl B, Hamadani M, Caimi PF, Reid EG, Havenith K, He S, Feingold JM, O’Connor O (June 2017). “First clinical results of ADCT‐402, a novel pyrrolobenzodiazepine-based antibody drug conjugate (ADC), in relapsed/refractory B‐cell linage NHL” (PDF). Hematol Oncol35 (S2): 49–51. doi:10.1002/hon.2437_33.
  7. ^ “First clinical results of ADCT-402”ADC Review.
  8. ^ Bainbridge K. “Grandfather fighting deadly cancer reveals scans of tumors after testing new drug”Mirror.
  9. ^ “ADCT-402 Orphan Drug Designation” (PDF). ADC Therapeutics press release.

External links

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/fda-grants-accelerated-approval-loncastuximab-tesirine-lpyl-large-b-cell-lymphoma

/////////Loncastuximab tesirine, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021, ZYNLONTA, ロンカスツキシマブテシリン, ORPHAN DRUG, ADCT-402, priority review, ADCX 19


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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