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GALETERONE

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File:Galeterone.svg

Galeterone

SYNTHESIS SEE BELOW

A SARM potentially for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Research Code, TOK-001; VN; 124; 124-1; 1241

TOK-001; Galeterone; 851983-85-2; VN/124; UNII-WA33E149SW; VN/124-1;

CAS No. 851983-85-2(Galeterone)

(3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S)-17-(benzimidazol-1-yl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,11,12,14,15-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-ol

Fast track 2012 f

Molecular Formula: C26H32N2O
Molecular Weight: 388.54508 g/mol

 

Galeterone (TOK-001 or VN/124-1) is a novel steroidal antiandrogen under development by Tokai Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of prostate cancer. It possesses a unique dual mechanism of action, acting as both an androgen receptor antagonist and an inhibitor of CYP17A1, an enzyme required for the biosynthesis of the androgens.[1] It shows selectivity for 17,20-lyase over 17-hydroxylase.[2]

As of 2016, galeterone is being compared to enzalutamide in a phase III clinical trial (ARMOR3-SV) for AR-V7-expressing metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.[3][4]

Specific Androgen Receptor Modulator CYP17 Inhibitor TOK-001 is an orally bioavailable small-molecule androgen receptor modulator and CYP17 lyase inhibitor with potential antiandrogen activity. Galeterone exhibits three distinct mechanisms of action: 1) as an androgen receptor antagonist, 2) as a CYP17 lyase inhibitor and 3) by decreasing overall androgen receptor levels in prostate cancer tumors, all of which may result in a decrease in androgen-dependent growth signaling. Localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP17 (P450C17 or CYP17A1) exhibits both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities, and plays a key role in the steroidogenic pathway that produces progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens.

About Galeterone

Tokai’s lead product candidate is galeterone, a highly-selective, oral small molecule with the potential to transform the treatment of prostate cancer. We are focusing our late-stage development of galeterone on the treatment of men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, or CRPC, whose prostate tumor cells express the AR-V7 splice variant.


We are conducting ARMOR3-SV, a Phase 3 clinical trial of galeterone evaluating whether administration of galeterone results in a statistically significant increase in radiographic progression-free survival as compared to Xtandi® (enzalutamide), an oral therapy currently approved for the treatment of CRPC, in AR-V7 positive metastatic CRPC patients. ARMOR3-SV is the first pivotal trial in prostate cancer to employ a precision medicine approach for patient selection. For more information regarding ARMOR3-SV, click here.

Galeterone has been studied in over 250 subjects in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, including in CRPC patients with and without the AR-V7 splice variant. In these trials, galeterone demonstrated good tolerability and showed clinically meaningful reductions in levels of prostate specific antigen, or PSA, a biochemincal marker used to evaluate prostate cancer patients for signs of response to therapy.

We are currently focusing our late-stage development of galeterone on AR-V7 positive metastatic CRPC patients because it represents an unmet need in prostate cancer and our precision medicine approach provides an efficient development path. Based on the data we and our collaborators have produced to date, we also believe there is rationale for the broader clinical exploration of galeterone in the future.


Galeterone acts by disrupting the androgen receptor signaling pathway. This pathway is activated by the binding of male hormones (also known as androgens), such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to androgen receptors in prostate cancer cells.

Galeterone disrupts the activation of the androgen receptor pathway in three ways:

  • Androgen receptor degradation, which reduces the amount of androgen receptor protein in tumor cells. There are no currently marketed drugs whose mechanism of action entails degradation of the androgen receptor. Therefore, galeterone represents a potential first-in-class therapeutic opportunity.
  • CYP17 enzyme inhibition, which blocks the synthesis of testosterone. This mechanism has been validated clinically by Zytiga (abiraterone). Zytiga must be co-administered with the steroid prednisone in order to minimize the risk of a potentially fatal side effect called mineralocorticoid excess. Unlike Zytiga, galeterone has not been shown in clinical trials to cause mineralocorticoid excess and, as a result, does not require co-administration of steroids. As a result, we believe that galeterone may be easier to administer, provide convenience for patients and enhance patient compliance.
  • Androgen receptor inhibition, which blocks the binding of testosterone or DHT with the androgen receptor. This mechanism has been validated clinically by Xtandi® (enzalutamide), which is also currently approved for the treatment of CRPC. Xtandi™ has shown a risk of grand mal seizures in clinical trials. We have not had any reports of seizures in clinical trials of galeterone and, therefore, galeterone may have certain safety advantages over Xtandi.

 


Tokai retains global rights to galeterone. We intend to commercialize galeterone in the United States on our own, and to seek a partner to further develop and commercialize galeterone outside of the United States.

Galeterone has been granted Fast Track designation by U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of CRPC. Fast Track designation is designed to facilitate the development and expedite review of drugs intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs.

Androgen receptor degradation, which reduces the amount of androgen receptor protein in the tumor cells.

Androgen receptor antagonism, which blocks the binding of testosterone or DHT with the androgen receptor.

Inhibition of the enzyme CYP17, which blocks the synthesis of testosterone.

Figure 3: The structures of abiraterone, orteronel and galeterone.

From CYP17 inhibitors—abiraterone, C17,20-lyase inhibitors and multi-targeting agents

Nature Reviews Urology 11,32–42 (2014)
doi:10.1038/nrurol.2013.274

 SYNTHESIS

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CN 104098638

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

1J loss reaction.

  (1) raw material specifications to match.

acetate pregnancy dehydropregnenolone: ​​toluene + ethanol: Batch steep: hydrochloric acid amine light = 1: 3: 0 4: 0.213, which pregnenolone acetate pregnancy 160kg, toluene + ethanol 320kg + 160kg, approved Steep 64kg, hydrochloric acid amine light 34kg.

  (2) process operation.

  In the first input 1000L tank oximation with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in pyridine, and then pumped into a mixed solvent of toluene and ethanol, the reaction solution was stirred and heated to complete dissolution, pregnancy-dehydropregnenolone acetate was added and heated under reflux for 3 hours, cooling and crystallization, The Department conducted into the centrifuge centrifugal drying, apply a recovery from the mother liquor, rinse with warm water mixture to no foam, centrifugal drying, drying to a moisture at 0.2% or less, that acetic acid in pregnancy dehydropregnenolone oxime (oxime compounds) 163kg, content of 99%, a melting point of 202-204 ° C, a yield of about 102% (for pregnenolone acetate pregnancy weight ratio).

2, heavy drain hydrolysis reaction.

  (1) raw material specifications to match.

  acetate pregnancy dehydropregnenolone waning: Benzene: Batch steep: phosphorus oxychloride and toluene: HCl + water = 1: 6 5: 0 4: 1: 3.5, which acetate pregnancy alcohol one hand 163kg, benzene 1060kg, batch steep 64kg, phosphorus oxychloride and toluene 80kg + 80kg, hydrochloric acid + water 245kg + 325kg.

(2) process operation.

The first drying 2000L rearrangement reaction tank, then pumped to the reaction tank benzene, alcohol into acetate pregnancy oxime, pulls out into benzene, stirring heated to reflux until the reaction mixture is completely dissolved, cooling to 1 (TC When, pyridine, of the reaction liquid at temperatures down to 6 ° C, start dropping a mixed solution of previously prepared phosphorus oxychloride and toluene (1: 1 mass ratio), slowly dropping, dropping control, first After slow fast reaction when dropping liquid temperature control in 4-8 ° C, the addition was complete, the reaction solution at 9-12 ° C for 3 hours the first time under.

After incubation, a solution has been a mixed solution of hydrochloric acid and water, good preparation, while dropping the reaction liquid temperature is controlled at 15-25 ° C, the addition was complete, the reaction solution at 15-25 ° C under a second Insulation 1. 5-2 hours. After incubation, stand 40 minutes, then points to lower acidic water layer, the remaining upper layer was added 0.3 times the amount of 30-35 ° C in the brine and let stand 20 minutes, a second watershed, sub lower aqueous layer was then allowed to stand for 30 minutes, a third water diversion, to give the final weight of the upper layer reaction solution was drained.

  3, the red Dingding steam distillate process.

The rearrangement reaction liquid was pumped to punch distillate tank, conduct atmospheric distillate punch, has been rushed to the reaction mixture was distilled benzene mixed solvent only, at the start of the steam valve not to open too much, so as not to rush material, distillation after cooling discharge, centrifugal drying, washing with tap water to neutral, and then into the oven dried to a moisture in the square. 5% acetic acid in dehydroepiandrosterone (rearrangement thereof) The crude product is about 142kg, content of about 97.5%, a melting point of 160 ° C _165 ° C or so, yield about 88% (for acetate pregnancy dehydropregnenolone weight ratio).

  4, refining processes.

  The drying in acetic acid Dehydroepiandrosterone crude into refined tin, adding 8 times the weight of the crude methanol and 0.10 times the weight of activated carbon, heat, stirring to dissolve, reflux billion. 5 hours, filtered , concentrated, cooled to about 5 ° C, the discharge

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JMC 2005, 48, 2972-84
The most potent CYP17 inhibitors were 3β-hydroxy-17-(1H-benzimidazole-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (5, code named VN/124-1), 3β-hydroxy-17-(51-pyrimidyl)androsta-5,16-diene (15)
PAPER
JMC 1998 41, 902-12
The most potent compounds are 3β-hydroxy-17-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (17), 3β-hydroxy-17-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)androsta-5,16-diene (19), and 17-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)androsta-4,16-dien-3-one (28), with Ki values of 1.2, 1.4, and 1.9 nM, respectively,
Discovery and Development of Galeterone (TOK-001 or VN/124-1)
for the Treatment of All Stages of Prostate Cancer…….http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm501239f
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 CLICK ON PIC FOR CLEAR VIEW
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2011034428 2011-02-10 Treatment of Prostate Cancer
US7875599 2011-01-25 C-17-heteroaryl steroidal CYP17 inhibitors/antiandrogens, in vitro biological activities, pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity
US2010137269 2010-06-03 Novel C-17-Heteroaryl Steroidal Cyp17 Inhibitors/Antiandrogens: Synehesis, In Vitro Biological Activities, Pharmacokinetics and Antitumor Activity
US2010048914 2010-02-25 Novel C-17-Heteroaryl Steroidal Cyp17 Inhibitors/Antiandrogens, In Vitro Biological Activities, Pharmacokinetics and Antitumor Activity
US2010048913 2010-02-25 Novel C-17-Heteroaryl Steroidal CYP17 Inhibitors/Antiandrogens Synthesis In Vitro Biological Activities, Pharmacokinetics and Antitumor Activity
US2010048912 2010-02-25 Novel C-17-Heteroaryl Steroidal CYP17 Inhibitors/Antiandrogens, In Vitro Biological Activities, Pharmacokinetics and Antitumor Activity
US2010048524 2010-02-25 Novel C-17-Heteroaryl Steroidal CYP17 Inhibitors/Antiandrogens Synthesis In Vitro Biological Activities, Pharmacokinetics and Antitumor Activity
US2010047338 2010-02-25 Novel C-17-Heteroaryl Steroidal CYP17 Inhibitors/Antiandrogens, In Vitro Biological Activities, Pharmacokinetics and Antitumor Activity
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US8569393 2013-10-29 UV-LED curable compositions and inks
US2013203615 2013-08-08 ANTIANDROGEN THERAPY MONITORING METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS
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US2011312924 2011-12-22 NOVEL STEROIDAL CYP17 INHIBITORS/ANTIANDROGENS
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References

 

Silberstein, John L.; Taylor, Maritza N.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S. (2016-04-01). “Novel Insights into Molecular Indicators of Response and Resistance to Modern Androgen-Axis Therapies in Prostate Cancer”. Current Urology Reports 17 (4): 29. doi:10.1007/s11934-016-0584-4. ISSN 1534-6285. PMID 26902623.

 

Galeterone
Galeterone.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
17-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral
Identifiers
CAS Number 851983-85-2
PubChem CID 11188409
ChemSpider 9363493
KEGG D10125 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C26H32N2O
Molar mass 388.25

///////

C[C@]12CC[C@@H](CC1=CC[C@@H]3[C@@H]2CC[C@]4([C@H]3CC=C4N5C=NC6=CC=CC=C65)C)O

CC12CCC(CC1=CCC3C2CCC4(C3CC=C4N5C=NC6=CC=CC=C65)C)O


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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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