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TOXINS-Occurrence of ochratoxin A in herbal drugs of Indian origin – a report.



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ochratoxin A

Occurrence of ochratoxin A in Korean red paprika

Mycotoxin Res. 2010 Nov;26(4):279-86. doi: 10.1007/s12550-010-0067-2. Epub 2010 Aug 26.

National Agricultural Products Quality Management Service, Seoul, 150-804, Korea,

A large amount-260,000 tons-of red paprika is consumed annually in Korea, where the people prefer hot and pungent to sweet foods.


Mycotoxin Res. 1993 Sep;9(2):94-8. doi: 10.1007/BF03192240.

Occurrence of ochratoxin A in herbal drugs of Indian origin – a report.


Medicinal Plant Research Laboratory, University Department of Botany, Bhagalpur University, 812 007, Bhagalpur, India.


This paper contains a report of occurrence of ochratoxin A in some common herbal medicines collected from different store-houses and shop-keepers of Bihar, India. Of 129 samples of 9 plants, 55 were found to be contaminated with various levels of ochratoxin A. The level of ochratoxin A was found maximal in barks ofHolarrhena antidysenterica (1.14 – 2.34 μg/g) whereas it was minimal in rhizomes ofTacca aspera (0.3 – 0.74 μg/g).Aspergillus ochraceus, A sulphureus and Penicillium viridicatum isolates obtained from drug samples were also examined for their toxigenic potentials. 19 isolates ofA ochraceus, 13 ofA sulphureus and 37 isolates ofP viridicatum were found to be toxigenic out of 67, 33, and 107 isolates, respectively. The ochratoxin A produced by Aochraceus was in the range of 0.09 to 2.44 μg/mL, byA sulphureus 0.1 to 1.76 μg/mL, and byP viridicatum 0.14 to 2.78 μg/mL of the culture filtrate.

Ochratoxin A, a toxin produced by Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium verrucosum, is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins.It is also a frequent contaminant of water-damaged houses and of heating ducts.Human exposure can occur through consumption of contaminated food products, particularly contaminated grain and pork products, as well as coffee, wine grapes and dried grapes.[4][5][6] The toxin has been found in the tissues and organs of animals, including human blood and breast milk. Ochratoxin A, like most toxic substances, has large species- and sex-specific toxicological differences.


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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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