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Hydroxychloroquine, ヒドロキシクロロキン, гидроксихлорохин , هيدروكسيكلوروكين , 羟氯喹 ,

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ChemSpider 2D Image | hydroxychloroquine | C18H26ClN3O

 

Hydroxychloroquine
ヒドロキシクロロキン;
Formula
C18H26ClN3O
cas
118-42-3
sulphate 747-36-4
Mol weight
335.8715

 

гидроксихлорохин [Russian] [INN]
هيدروكسيكلوروكين [Arabic] [INN]
羟氯喹 [Chinese] [INN]
Oxychlorochin, Plaquenil Plaquenil®, 

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria.[2] Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria.[3] Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritislupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] It is also being used as an experimental treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[4]

Common side effects include vomitingheadache, changes in vision and muscle weakness.[2] Severe side effects may include allergic reactions.[2] Although all risk cannot be excluded it remains a treatment for rheumatic disease during pregnancy.[5] Hydroxychloroquine is in the antimalarial and 4-aminoquinoline families of medication.[2]

Hydroxychloroquine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955.[2] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$4.65 per month as of 2015, when used for rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.[7] In the United States the wholesale cost of a month of treatment is about US$25 as of 2020.[8] In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about £ 5.15.[9] In 2017, it was the 128th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than five million prescriptions.[10]

Medical use

Hydroxychloroquine treats malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic disorders like rheumatoid arthritisporphyria cutanea tarda, and Q fever.[2]

In 2014, its efficacy to treat Sjögren syndrome was questioned in a double-blind study involving 120 patients over a 48-week period.[11]

Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in the treatment of post-Lyme arthritis. It may have both an anti-spirochaete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.[12]

Contraindications

The drug label advises that hydroxychloroquine should not be prescribed to individuals with known hypersensitivity to 4-Aminoquinoline compounds.[13] There are a range of other contraindications[14] [15] and caution is required if patients have certain heart conditions, diabetes, psoriasis etc.

Side effects[

The most common adverse effects are a mild nausea and occasional stomach cramps with mild diarrhea. The most serious adverse effects affect the eye, with dose-related retinopathy as a concern even after hydroxychloroquine use is discontinued.[2] For short-term treatment of acute malaria, adverse effects can include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heart problems, reduced appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting.[2]

For prolonged treatment of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, adverse effects include the acute symptoms, plus altered eye pigmentation, acneanemia, bleaching of hair, blisters in mouth and eyes, blood disorders, convulsions, vision difficulties, diminished reflexes, emotional changes, excessive coloring of the skin, hearing loss, hives, itching, liver problems or liver failureloss of hair, muscle paralysis, weakness or atrophy, nightmares, psoriasis, reading difficulties, tinnitus, skin inflammation and scaling, skin rash, vertigoweight loss, and occasionally urinary incontinence.[2] Hydroxychloroquine can worsen existing cases of both psoriasis and porphyria.[2]

Children may be especially vulnerable to developing adverse effects from hydroxychloroquine.[2]

Eyes

One of the most serious side effects is retinopathy (generally with chronic use).[2][16] People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to go up when a person takes the medication over 5 years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be computed from one’s height and weight using this calculator. Cumulative doses can also be calculated from this calculator. Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. Regular eye screening, even in the absence of visual symptoms, is recommended to begin when either of these risk factors occurs.[17]

Toxicity from hydroxychloroquine may be seen in two distinct areas of the eye: the cornea and the macula. The cornea may become affected (relatively commonly) by an innocuous cornea verticillata or vortex keratopathy and is characterized by whorl-like corneal epithelial deposits. These changes bear no relationship to dosage and are usually reversible on cessation of hydroxychloroquine.

The macular changes are potentially serious. Advanced retinopathy is characterized by reduction of visual acuity and a “bull’s eye” macular lesion which is absent in early involvement.

Overdose

Due to rapid absorption, symptoms of overdose can occur within a half an hour after ingestion. Overdose symptoms include convulsions, drowsiness, headache, heart problems or heart failure, difficulty breathing and vision problems.

Hydroxychloroquine overdoses are rarely reported, with 7 previous cases found in the English medical literature. In one such case, a 16-year-old girl who had ingested a handful of hydroxychloroquine 200mg presented with tachycardia (heart rate 110 beats/min), hypotension (systolic blood pressure 63 mm Hg), central nervous system depression, conduction defects (ORS = 0.14 msec), and hypokalemia (K = 2.1 meq/L). Treatment consisted of fluid boluses and dopamine, oxygen, and potassium supplementation. The presence of hydroxychloroquine was confirmed through toxicologic tests. The patient’s hypotension resolved within 4.5 hours, serum potassium stabilized in 24 hours, and tachycardia gradually decreased over 3 days.[18]

Interactions

The drug transfers into breast milk and should be used with care by pregnant or nursing mothers.[citation needed]

Care should be taken if combined with medication altering liver function as well as aurothioglucose (Solganal), cimetidine (Tagamet) or digoxin (Lanoxin). HCQ can increase plasma concentrations of penicillamine which may contribute to the development of severe side effects. It enhances hypoglycemic effects of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Dose altering is recommended to prevent profound hypoglycemiaAntacids may decrease the absorption of HCQ. Both neostigmine and pyridostigmine antagonize the action of hydroxychloroquine.[19]

While there may be a link between hydroxychloroquine and hemolytic anemia in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, this risk may be low in those of African descent.[20]

Specifically, the FDA drug label for hydroxychloroquine lists the following drug interactions [13]:

  • Digoxin (wherein it may result in increased serum digoxin levels)
  • Insulin or antidiabetic drugs (wherein it may enhance the effects of a hypoglycemic treatment)
  • Drugs that prolong QT interval and other arrhythmogenic drugs (as Hydroxychloroquine prolongs the QT interval and may increase the risk of inducing ventricular arrhythmias if used concurrently)
  • Mefloquine and other drugs known to lower the convulsive threshold (co-administration with other antimalarials known to lower the convulsion threshold may increase risk of convulsions)
  • Antiepileptics (concurrent use may impair the antiepileptic activity)
  • Methotrexate (combined use is unstudied and may increase the frequency of side effects)
  • Cyclosporin (wherein an increased plasma cylcosporin level was reported when used together).

Pharmacology[

Pharmacokinetics

Hydroxychloroquine has similar pharmacokinetics to chloroquine, with rapid gastrointestinal absorption and elimination by the kidneys. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2D62C83A4 and 3A5) metabolize hydroxychloroquine to N-desethylhydroxychloroquine.[21]

Pharmacodynamics

Antimalarials are lipophilic weak bases and easily pass plasma membranes. The free base form accumulates in lysosomes (acidic cytoplasmic vesicles) and is then protonated,[22] resulting in concentrations within lysosomes up to 1000 times higher than in culture media. This increases the pH of the lysosome from 4 to 6.[23] Alteration in pH causes inhibition of lysosomal acidic proteases causing a diminished proteolysis effect.[24] Higher pH within lysosomes causes decreased intracellular processing, glycosylation and secretion of proteins with many immunologic and nonimmunologic consequences.[25] These effects are believed to be the cause of a decreased immune cell functioning such as chemotaxisphagocytosis and superoxide production by neutrophils.[26] HCQ is a weak diprotic base that can pass through the lipid cell membrane and preferentially concentrate in acidic cytoplasmic vesicles. The higher pH of these vesicles in macrophages or other antigen-presenting cells limits the association of autoantigenic (any) peptides with class II MHC molecules in the compartment for peptide loading and/or the subsequent processing and transport of the peptide-MHC complex to the cell membrane.[27]

Mechanism of action

Hydroxychloroquine increases[28] lysosomal pH in antigen-presenting cells. In inflammatory conditions, it blocks toll-like receptors on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs).[citation needed] Hydroxychloroquine, by decreasing TLR signaling, reduces the activation of dendritic cells and the inflammatory process. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR 9) recognizes DNA-containing immune complexes and leads to the production of interferon and causes the dendritic cells to mature and present antigen to T cells, therefore reducing anti-DNA auto-inflammatory process.

In 2003, a novel mechanism was described wherein hydroxychloroquine inhibits stimulation of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 family receptors. TLRs are cellular receptors for microbial products that induce inflammatory responses through activation of the innate immune system.[29]

As with other quinoline antimalarial drugs, the mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved. The most accepted model is based on hydrochloroquinine and involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization, which facilitates the aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Free cytotoxic heme accumulates in the parasites, causing their deaths.[citation needed]

Brand names

It is frequently sold as a sulfate salt known as hydroxychloroquine sulfate.[2] 200 mg of the sulfate salt is equal to 155 mg of the base.[2]

Brand names of hydroxychloroquine include Plaquenil, Hydroquin, Axemal (in India), Dolquine, Quensyl, Quinoric.[30]

Research

COVID-19

Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been recommended by Chinese and South Korean health authorities for the experimental treatment of COVID-19.[31][32] In vitro studies in cell cultures demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine was more potent than chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2.[33]

On 17 March 2020, the AIFA Scientific Technical Commission of the Italian Medicines Agency expressed a favorable opinion on including the off-label use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.[34]

 

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Image result for hydroxychloroquine

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https://d-nb.info/1166863441/34

white solid (0.263 g, 78%). 1H NMR
(600 MHz, CDCl3
) δ 8.48 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (dd, J = 8.8, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (sx,J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (m, 2H), 2.57 (m, 5H), 2.49 (m, 2H),
1.74–1.62 (m, 1H), 1.65–1.53 (m, 3H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H),
1.24 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H);

13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 152.2,
149.5, 149.2, 135.0, 129.0, 125.4, 121.2, 117.4, 99.4, 58.6, 54.9,
53.18, 48.5, 47.9, 34.5, 24.1, 20.6, 11.9. Spectra were obtained
in accordance with those previously reported [38,39].

38. Cornish, C. A.; Warren, S. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1985,
2585–2598. doi:10.1039/P19850002585
39. Münstedt, R.; Wannagat, U.; Wrobel, D. J. Organomet. Chem. 1984,
264, 135–148. doi:10.1016/0022-328X(84)85139-6

 

 

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Hydroxychloroquine Use During Pregnancy”Drugs.com. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p “Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Monograph for Professionals”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  3. ^ Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 463. ISBN 9781284057560.
  4. ^ Cortegiani, Andrea; Ingoglia, Giulia; Ippolito, Mariachiara; Giarratano, Antonino; Einav, Sharon (10 March 2020). “A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of chloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19”Journal of Critical Caredoi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.03.005ISSN 0883-9441.
  5. ^ Flint, Julia; Panchal, Sonia; Hurrell, Alice; van de Venne, Maud; Gayed, Mary; Schreiber, Karen; Arthanari, Subha; Cunningham, Joel; Flanders, Lucy; Moore, Louise; Crossley, Amy (1 September 2016). “BSR and BHPR guideline on prescribing drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding – Part I: standard and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and corticosteroids”Rheumatology55 (9): 1693–1697. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kev404ISSN 1462-0324.
  6. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  7. ^ “Single Drug Information | International Medical Products Price Guide”. Retrieved 31 December 2019.[dead link]
  8. ^ “NADAC as of 2019-08-07”Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 19 March 2020Typical dose is 600mg per day. Costs 0.28157 per dose. Month has about 30 days.
  9. ^ British national formulary: BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 730. ISBN 9780857111562.
  10. ^ “The Top 300 of 2020”ClinCalc. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  11. ^ Effects of Hydroxychloroquine on Symptomatic Improvement in Primary Sjögren Syndrome, Gottenberg, et al. (2014) “Archived copy”Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  12. ^ Steere, AC; Angelis, SM (October 2006). “Therapy for Lyme Arthritis: Strategies for the Treatment of Antibiotic-refractory Arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism54 (10): 3079–86. doi:10.1002/art.22131PMID 17009226.
  13. Jump up to:a b “Plaquenil- hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet”DailyMed. 3 January 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  14. ^ “Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions”pdr.net. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  15. ^ “Drugs & Medications”webmd.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  16. ^ Flach, AJ (2007). “Improving the Risk-benefit Relationship and Informed Consent for Patients Treated with Hydroxychloroquine”Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society105: 191–94, discussion 195–97. PMC 2258132PMID 18427609.
  17. ^ Marmor, MF; Kellner, U; Lai, TYY; Lyons, JS; Mieler, WF (February 2011). “Revised Recommendations on Screening for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Retinopathy”. Ophthalmology118 (2): 415–22. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.11.017PMID 21292109.
  18. ^ Marquardt, Kathy; Albertson, Timothy E. (1 September 2001). “Treatment of hydroxychloroquine overdose”The American Journal of Emergency Medicine19 (5): 420–424. doi:10.1053/ajem.2001.25774ISSN 0735-6757PMID 11555803.
  19. ^ “Russian Register of Medicines: Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) Film-coated Tablets for Oral Use. Prescribing Information” (in Russian). Sanofi-Synthelabo. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  20. ^ Mohammad, Samya; Clowse, Megan E. B.; Eudy, Amanda M.; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G. (March 2018). “Examination of Hydroxychloroquine Use and Hemolytic Anemia in G6PDH-Deficient Patients”. Arthritis Care & Research70 (3): 481–485. doi:10.1002/acr.23296ISSN 2151-4658PMID 28556555.
  21. ^ Kalia, S; Dutz, JP (2007). “New Concepts in Antimalarial Use and Mode of Action in Dermatology”. Dermatologic Therapy20 (4): 160–74. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8019.2007.00131.xPMID 17970883.
  22. ^ Kaufmann, AM; Krise, JP (2007). “Lysosomal Sequestration of Amine-containing Drugs: Analysis and Therapeutic Implications”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences96 (4): 729–46. doi:10.1002/jps.20792PMID 17117426.
  23. ^ Ohkuma, S; Poole, B (1978). “Fluorescence Probe Measurement of the Intralysosomal pH in Living Cells and the Perturbation of pH by Various Agents”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America75 (7): 3327–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.75.7.3327PMC 392768PMID 28524.
  24. ^ Ohkuma, S; Chudzik, J; Poole, B (1986). “The Effects of Basic Substances and Acidic Ionophores on the Digestion of Exogenous and Endogenous Proteins in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages”The Journal of Cell Biology102 (3): 959–66. doi:10.1083/jcb.102.3.959PMC 2114118PMID 3949884.
  25. ^ Oda, K; Koriyama, Y; Yamada, E; Ikehara, Y (1986). “Effects of Weakly Basic Amines on Proteolytic Processing and Terminal Glycosylation of Secretory Proteins in Cultured Rat Hepatocytes”The Biochemical Journal240 (3): 739–45. doi:10.1042/bj2400739PMC 1147481PMID 3493770.
  26. ^ Hurst, NP; French, JK; Gorjatschko, L; Betts, WH (1988). “Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Inhibit Multiple Sites in Metabolic Pathways Leading to Neutrophil Superoxide Release”. The Journal of Rheumatology15 (1): 23–27. PMID 2832600.
  27. ^ Fox, R (1996). “Anti-malarial Drugs: Possible Mechanisms of Action in Autoimmune Disease and Prospects for Drug Development”. Lupus5: S4–10. doi:10.1177/096120339600500103PMID 8803903.
  28. ^ Waller; et al. Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (2nd ed.). p. 370.
  29. ^ Takeda, K; Kaisho, T; Akira, S (2003). “Toll-Like Receptors”. Annual Review of Immunology21: 335–76. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.21.120601.141126PMID 12524386.
  30. ^ “Hydroxychloroquine trade names”Drugs-About.com. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  31. ^ “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia”China Law Translate. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  32. ^ “Physicians work out treatment guidelines for coronavirus”Korea Biomedical Review. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 18 March2020.
  33. ^ Yao, Xueting; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Miao; Cui, Cheng; Huang, Baoying; Niu, Peihua; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Li; Dong, Erdan; Song, Chunli; Zhan, Siyan (9 March 2020). “In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Clinical Infectious Diseasesdoi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237ISSN 1537-6591PMID 32150618.
  34. ^ “Azioni intraprese per favorire la ricerca e l’accesso ai nuovi farmaci per il trattamento del COVID-19”Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA) (in Italian). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March2020.

External links

 

Hydroxychloroquine
Hydroxychloroquine.svg
Hydroxychloroquine.png

Hydroxychloroquine freebase molecule
Clinical data
Trade names Plaquenil, others
Other names Hydroxychloroquine sulfate
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a601240
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: D [1]
  • US: N (Not classified yet) [1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S4 (Prescription only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: ℞-only
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Variable (74% on average); Tmax = 2–4.5 hours
Protein binding 45%
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 32–50 days
Excretion Mostly Kidney (23–25% as unchanged drug), also biliary (<10%)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.864 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C18H26ClN3O
Molar mass 335.872 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

 

///////////Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxy chloroquine, HCQ, ヒドロキシクロロキン , covid 19, coronavirus, antimalarial, гидроксихлорохинهيدروكسيكلوروكين羟氯喹Oxychlorochin, Plaquenil Plaquenil®, 


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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