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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Novavax COVID-19 vaccine reports 89.3% efficacy; protection against UK/South Africa strains



SARS-CoV-2 rS Nanoparticle Vaccine

MCDC OTA agreement number W15QKN-16-9-1002

Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, Coronavirus disease 19 infection

SARS-CoV-2 rS,  TAK 019

Novavax, Inc. is an American vaccine development company headquartered in Gaithersburg, Maryland, with additional facilities in Rockville, Maryland and Uppsala, Sweden. As of 2020, it had an ongoing Phase III clinical trial in older adults for its candidate vaccine for seasonal influenzaNanoFlu and a candidate vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) for prevention of COVID-19.

NVX-CoV2373 is a SARS-CoV-2 rS vaccine candidate and was shown to have high immunogenicity in studies. The vaccine is created from the genetic sequence of COVID-19 and the antigen derived from the virus spike protein is generated using recombinant nanoparticle technology. The vaccine was developed and tested by Novavax. As of May 2020, the company is pursuing a Phase 1 clinical trial (NCT04368988) to test the vaccine.


Novavax was founded in 1987. It focused principally on experimental vaccine development, but did not achieve a successful launch up to 2021.[4]

In June 2013, Novavax acquired the Matrix-M adjuvant platform with the purchase of Swedish company Isconova AB and renamed its new subsidiary Novavax AB.[5]

In 2015, the company received an $89 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support the development of a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus for infants via maternal immunization.[6][7][8][9]

In March 2015 the company completed a Phase I trial for its Ebola vaccine candidate,[10] as well as a phase II study in adults for its RSV vaccine, which would become ResVax.[11] The ResVax trial was encouraging as it showed significant efficacy against RSV infection.[11]

2016 saw the company’s first phase III trial, the 12,000 adult Resolve trial,[11] for its respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, which would come to be known as ResVax, fail in September.[3] This triggered an eighty-five percent dive in the company’s stock price.[3] Phase II adult trial results also released in 2016 showed a stimulation of antigencity, but failure in efficacy.[11] Evaluation of these results suggested that an alternative dosing strategy might lead to success, leading to plans to run new phase II trials.[3] The company’s difficulties in 2016 led to a three part strategy for 2017: cost reduction through restructuring and the termination of 30% of their workforce; pouring more effort into getting ResVax to market; and beginning clinical trials on a Zika virus vaccine.[3]

Alongside the adult studies of ResVax, the vaccine was also in 2016 being tested against infant RSV infection through the route of maternal immunization.[11]

In 2019, late-stage clinical testing of ResVax, failed for a second time, which resulted in a major downturn in investor confidence and a seventy percent reduction in capital value for the firm.[12][13] As a secondary result, the company was forced to conduct a reverse stock split in order to maintain Nasdaq minimum qualification, meaning it was in risk of being delisted.[13]

The company positions NanoFlu for the unmet need for a more effective vaccine against influenza, particularly in the elderly who often experience serious and sometimes life-threatening complications. In January 2020, it was granted fast track status by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for NanoFlu.

External sponsorships

In 2018, Novavax received a US$89 million research grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for development of vaccines for maternal immunization.[14]

In May 2020, Novavax received US$384 million from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations to fund early-stage evaluation in healthy adults of the company’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate NVX-CoV2373 and to develop resources in preparation for large-scale manufacturing, if the vaccine proves successful.[15] CEPI had already invested $4 million in March.[15]

Drugs in development

ResVax is a nanoparticle-based treatment using a recombinant F lipoprotein or saponin, “extracted from the Quillaja saponaria [or?] Molina bark together with cholesterol and phospholipid.”[16] It is aimed at stimulating resistance to respiratory syncytial virus infection, targeting both adult and infant populations.[11]

In January 2020, Novavax was given Fast Track status by the FDA to expedite the review process for NanoFlu, a candidate influenze vaccine undergoing a Phase III clinical trial scheduled for completion by mid-2020.[17]

COVID-19 vaccine candidate

See also: NVX-CoV2373 and COVID-19 vaccine

In January 2020, Novavax announced development of a vaccine candidate, named NVX-CoV2373, to establish immunity to SARS-CoV-2.[18] NVX-CoV2373 is a protein subunit vaccine that contains the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.[19] Novavax’s work is in competition for vaccine development among dozens of other companies.

In January 2021, the company released phase 3 trials showing that it has 89% efficacy against Covid-19, and also provides strong immunity against new variants.[20] It has applied for emergency use in the US and UK but will be distributed in the UK first.Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates 89.3% Efficacy in UK Phase 3 TrialJan 28, 2021 at 4:05 PM ESTDownload PDF

First to Demonstrate Clinical Efficacy Against COVID-19 and Both UK and South Africa Variants

  • Strong efficacy in Phase 3 UK trial with over 50% of cases attributable to the now-predominant UK variant and the remainder attributable to COVID-19 virus
  • Clinical efficacy demonstrated in Phase 2b South Africa trial with over 90% of sequenced cases attributable to prevalent South Africa escape variant
  • Company to host investor conference call today at 4:30pm ET

GAITHERSBURG, Md., Jan. 28, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Novavax, Inc. (Nasdaq: NVAX), a biotechnology company developing next-generation vaccines for serious infectious diseases, today announced that NVX-CoV2373, its protein-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate, met the primary endpoint, with a vaccine efficacy of 89.3%, in its Phase 3 clinical trial conducted in the United Kingdom (UK). The study assessed efficacy during a period with high transmission and with a new UK variant strain of the virus emerging and circulating widely. It was conducted in partnership with the UK Government’s Vaccines Taskforce. Novavax also announced successful results of its Phase 2b study conducted in South Africa.

“With today’s results from our UK Phase 3 and South Africa Phase 2b clinical trials, we have now reported data on our COVID-19 vaccine from Phase 1, 2 and 3 trials involving over 20,000 participants. In addition, our PREVENT-19 US and Mexico clinical trial has randomized over 16,000 participants toward our enrollment goal of 30,000. NVX-CoV2373 is the first vaccine to demonstrate not only high clinical efficacy against COVID-19 but also significant clinical efficacy against both the rapidly emerging UK and South Africa variants,” said Stanley C. Erck, President and Chief Executive Officer, Novavax. “NVX-CoV2373 has the potential to play an important role in solving this global public health crisis. We look forward to continuing to work with our partners, collaborators, investigators and regulators around the world to make the vaccine available as quickly as possible.”

NVX-CoV2373 contains a full-length, prefusion spike protein made using Novavax’ recombinant nanoparticle technology and the company’s proprietary saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant. The purified protein is encoded by the genetic sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and is produced in insect cells. It can neither cause COVID-19 nor can it replicate, is stable at 2°C to 8°C (refrigerated) and is shipped in a ready-to-use liquid formulation that permits distribution using existing vaccine supply chain channels.

UK Phase 3 Results: 89.3% Efficacy

The study enrolled more than 15,000 participants between 18-84 years of age, including 27% over the age of 65. The primary endpoint of the UK Phase 3 clinical trial is based on the first occurrence of PCR-confirmed symptomatic (mild, moderate or severe) COVID-19 with onset at least 7 days after the second study vaccination in serologically negative (to SARS-CoV-2) adult participants at baseline.

The first interim analysis is based on 62 cases, of which 56 cases of COVID-19 were observed in the placebo group versus 6 cases observed in the NVX-CoV2373 group, resulting in a point estimate of vaccine efficacy of 89.3% (95% CI: 75.2 – 95.4). Of the 62 cases, 61 were mild or moderate, and 1 was severe (in placebo group).

Preliminary analysis indicates that the UK variant strain that was increasingly prevalent was detected in over 50% of the PCR-confirmed symptomatic cases (32 UK variant, 24 non-variant, 6 unknown). Based on PCR performed on strains from 56 of the 62 cases, efficacy by strain was calculated to be 95.6% against the original COVID-19 strain and 85.6% against the UK variant strain [post hoc].

The interim analysis included a preliminary review of the safety database, which showed that severe, serious, and medically attended adverse events occurred at low levels and were balanced between vaccine and placebo groups.

“These are spectacular results, and we are very pleased to have helped Novavax with the development of this vaccine. The efficacy shown against the emerging variants is also extremely encouraging. This is an incredible achievement that will ensure we can protect individuals in the UK and the rest of the world from this virus,” said Clive Dix, Chair, UK Vaccine Taskforce.

Novavax expects to share further details of the UK trial results as additional data become available. Additional analysis on both trials is ongoing and will be shared via prepublication servers as well as submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. The company initiated a rolling submission to the United Kingdom’s regulatory agency, the MHRA, in mid-January.

South Africa Results:   Approximately 90% of COVID-19 cases attributed to South Africa escape variant

In the South Africa Phase 2b clinical trial, 60% efficacy (95% CI: 19.9 – 80.1) for the prevention of mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 disease was observed in the 94% of the study population that was HIV-negative. Twenty-nine cases were observed in the placebo group and 15 in the vaccine group. One severe case occurred in the placebo group and all other cases were mild or moderate. The clinical trial also achieved its primary efficacy endpoint in the overall trial population, including HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects (efficacy of 49.4%; 95% CI: 6.1 – 72.8).

This study enrolled over 4,400 patients beginning in August 2020, with COVID-19 cases counted from September through mid-January. During this time, the triple mutant variant, which contains three critical mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) and multiple mutations outside the RBD, was widely circulating in South Africa. Preliminary sequencing data is available for 27 of 44 COVID-19 events; of these, 92.6% (25 out of 27 cases) were the South Africa escape variant.

Importantly in this trial, approximately 1/3 of the patients enrolled (but not included in the primary analyses described above) were seropositive, demonstrating prior COVID-19 infection at baseline. Based on temporal epidemiology data in the region, the pre-trial infections are thought to have been caused by the original COVID-19 strain (i.e., non-variant), while the subsequent infections during the study were largely variant virus. These data suggest that prior infection with COVID-19 may not completely protect against subsequent infection by the South Africa escape variant, however, vaccination with NVX-CoV2373 provided significant protection.

“The 60% reduced risk against COVID-19 illness in vaccinated individuals in South Africans underscores the value of this vaccine to prevent illness from the highly worrisome variant currently circulating in South Africa, and which is spreading globally. This is the first COVID-19 vaccine for which we now have objective evidence that it protects against the variant dominating in South Africa,” says Professor Shabir Maddi, Executive Director of the Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Analytics Research Unit (VIDA) at Wits, and principal investigator in the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine trial in South Africa. “I am encouraged to see that Novavax plans to immediately begin clinical development on a vaccine specifically targeted to the variant, which together with the current vaccine is likely to form the cornerstone of the fight against COVID-19.”

Novavax initiated development of new constructs against the emerging strains in early January and expects to select ideal candidates for a booster and/or combination bivalent vaccine for the new strains in the coming days. The company plans to initiate clinical testing of these new vaccines in the second quarter of this year.

“A primary benefit of our adjuvanted platform is that it uses a very small amount of antigen, enabling the rapid creation and large-scale production of combination vaccine candidates that could potentially address multiple circulating strains of COVID-19,” said Gregory M. Glenn, M.D., President of Research and Development, Novavax. “Combined with the safety profile that has been observed in our studies to-date with our COVID-19 vaccine, as well as prior studies in influenza, we are optimistic about our ability to rapidly adapt to evolving conditions.”

The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) funded the manufacturing of doses of NVX-CoV2373 for this Phase 2b clinical trial, which was supported in part by a $15 million grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Significant progress on PREVENT-19 Clinical Trial in US and Mexico

To date, PREVENT-19 has randomized over 16,000 participants and expects to complete our targeted enrollment of 30,000 patients in the first half of February.  PREVENT-19 is being conducted with support from the U.S. government partnership formerly known as Operation Warp Speed, which includes the Department of Defense, the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) at HHS. BARDA is also providing up to $1.75 billion under a Department of Defense agreement.

PREVENT-19 (the PRE-fusion protein subunit Vaccine Efficacy Novavax Trial | COVID-19) is a Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study in the US and Mexico to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373 with Matrix-M in up to 30,000 subjects 18 years of age and older compared with placebo. The trial design has been harmonized to align with other Phase 3 trials conducted under the auspices of Operation Warp Speed, including the use of a single external independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board to evaluate safety and conduct an unblinded review when predetermined interim analysis events are reached.

The trial’s primary endpoint is the prevention of PCR-confirmed, symptomatic COVID-19. The key secondary endpoint is the prevention of PCR-confirmed, symptomatic moderate or severe COVID-19. Both endpoints will be assessed at least seven days after the second study vaccination in volunteers who have not been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Conference Call

Novavax will host a conference call today at 4:30pm ET. The dial-in numbers for the conference call are (877) 212-6076 (Domestic) or (707) 287-9331 (International), passcode 7470222. A replay of the conference call will be available starting at 7:30 p.m. ET on January 28, 2021 until 7:30 p.m. ET on February 4, 2021. To access the replay by telephone, dial (855) 859-2056 (Domestic) or (404) 537-3406 (International) and use passcode 7470222.

A webcast of the conference call can also be accessed on the Novavax website at A replay of the webcast will be available on the Novavax website until April 28, 2021.

About NVX-CoV2373

NVX-CoV2373 is a protein-based vaccine candidate engineered from the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease. NVX-CoV2373 was created using Novavax’ recombinant nanoparticle technology to generate antigen derived from the coronavirus spike (S) protein and is adjuvanted with Novavax’ patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ to enhance the immune response and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies. NVX-CoV2373 contains purified protein antigen and can neither replicate, nor can it cause COVID-19. Over 37,000 participants have participated to date across four different clinical studies in five countries. NVX-CoV2373 is currently being evaluated in two pivotal Phase 3 trials: a trial in the U.K that completed enrollment in November and the PREVENT-19 trial in the U.S. and Mexico that began in December.

About Matrix-M™

Novavax’ patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant has demonstrated a potent and well-tolerated effect by stimulating the entry of antigen presenting cells into the injection site and enhancing antigen presentation in local lymph nodes, boosting immune response.

About Novavax

Novavax, Inc. (Nasdaq: NVAX) is a biotechnology company that promotes improved health globally through the discovery, development and commercialization of innovative vaccines to prevent serious infectious diseases. The company’s proprietary recombinant technology platform combines the power and speed of genetic engineering to efficiently produce highly immunogenic nanoparticles designed to address urgent global health needs. Novavax is conducting late-stage clinical trials for NVX-CoV2373, its vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. NanoFlu™, its quadrivalent influenza nanoparticle vaccine, met all primary objectives in its pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial in older adults and will be advanced for regulatory submission. Both vaccine candidates incorporate Novavax’ proprietary saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant to enhance the immune response and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies.

For more information, visit and connect with us on Twitter and LinkedIn.

Candidate: NVX-CoV2373

Category: VAX

Type: Stable, prefusion protein made using Novavax’ proprietary nanoparticle technology, and incorporating its proprietary saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant.

2021 Status: Novavax on March 11 announced final efficacy of 96.4% against mild, moderate and severe disease caused by the original COVID-19 strain in a pivotal Phase III trial in the U.K. of NVX–CoV2373. The study enrolled more than 15,000 participants between 18-84 years of age, including 27% over the age of 65.

The company also announced the complete analysis of its Phase IIb trial in South Africa, showing the vaccine had an efficacy of 55.4% among a cohort of HIV-negative trial participants, and an overall efficacy of 48.6% against predominantly variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 among 147 PCR-positive cases (51 cases in the vaccine group and 96 in the placebo group). Across both trials, NVX-CoV2373 demonstrated 100% protection against severe disease, including all hospitalization and death.

Philippines officials said March 10 that they secured 30 million doses of NVX-CoV2373 through an agreement with the Serum Institute of India, the second vaccine deal signed by the national government, according to Agence France-Presse. The first was with AstraZeneca for 2.6 million doses of its vaccine, developed with Oxford University.

The Novavax vaccine will be available from the third quarter, at a price that has yet to be finalized. The government hopes to secure 148 million doses this year from seven companies—enough for around 70% of its population.

In announcing fourth quarter and full-year 2020 results on March 1, Novavax said it could file for an emergency use authorization with the FDA in the second quarter of 2021. Novavax hopes it can use data from its Phase III U.K. clinical trial in its FDA submission, and expects the FDA to examine data in May, a month after they are reviewed by regulators in the U.K., President and CEO Stanley C. Erck said on CNBC. Should the FDA insist on waiting for U.S. data, the agency may push the review timeline by one or two months, he added.

The company also said that NVX-CoV2373 showed 95.6% efficacy against the original strain of COVID-19 and 85.6% against the UK variant strain, and re-stated an earlier finding that its vaccine met the Phase III trial’s primary endpoint met with an efficacy rate of 89.3%.

Novavax said February 26 that it signed an exclusive license agreement with Takeda Pharmaceutical for Takeda to develop, manufacture, and commercialize NVX-CoV2373 in Japan.

Novavax agreed to transfer the technology for manufacturing of the vaccine antigen and will supply its Matrix-M™ adjuvant to Takeda. Takeda anticipated the capacity to manufacture over 250 million doses of the COVID-19 vaccine per year. Takeda agreed in return to pay Novavax undisclosed payments tied to achieving development and commercial milestones, plus a portion of proceeds from the vaccine.

Takeda also disclosed that it dosed the first participants in a Phase II clinical trial to test the immunogenicity and safety of Novavax’ vaccine candidate in Japanese participants.

Novavax on February 18 announced a memorandum of understanding with Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), to provide 1.1 billion cumulative doses of NVX-CoV2373 for the COVAX Facility. Gavi leads the design and implementation of the COVAX Facility, created to supply vaccines globally, and has committed to working with Novavax to finalize an advance purchase agreement for vaccine supply and global distribution allocation via the COVAX Facility and its partners.

The doses will be manufactured and distributed globally by Novavax and Serum Institute of India (SII), the latter under an existing agreement between Gavi and SII.

Novavax and SK Bioscience said February 15 that they expanded their collaboration and license agreement, with SK finalizing an agreement to supply 40 million doses of NVX-CoV2373 to the government of South Korea beginning in 2021, for an undisclosed price. SK also obtained a license to manufacture and commercialize NVX-CoV2373 for sale to South Korea, as a result of which SK said it will add significant production capacity.

The agreement also calls on Novavax to facilitate technology transfer related to the manufacturing of its protein antigen, its Matrix M adjuvant, and support to SK Bioscience as needed to secure regulatory approval.

Rolling review begins—On February 4, Novavax announced it had begun a rolling review process for authorization of NVX-CoV2373 with several regulatory agencies worldwide, including the FDA, the European Medicines Agency, the U.K. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), and Health Canada. The reviews will continue while the company completes its pivotal Phase III trials in the U.S. and U.K., and through initial authorization for emergency use granted under country-specific regulations, and through initial authorization for emergency use.

A day earlier, Novavax executed a binding Heads of Terms agreement with the government of Switzerland to supply 6 million doses of NVX-CoV2373, to the country. Novavax and Switzerland plan to negotiate a final agreement, with initial delivery of vaccine doses slated to ship following successful clinical development and regulatory review.

On January 28, Novavax electrified investors by announcing that its COVID-19 vaccine NVX-CoV2373 showed efficacy of 89.3% in the company’s first analysis of data from a Phase III trial in the U.K., where a variant strain (B.1.1.7) accounted for about half of all positive cases.

However, NVX-CoV2373 achieved only 60% efficacy in a Phase IIb trial in South Africa, where that country’s escape variant of the virus (B.1.351, also known as 20H/501Y.V2) was seen in 90% of cases, Novavax said.

Novavax said January 7 it executed an Advance Purchase Agreement with the Commonwealth of Australia for 51 million doses of NVX-CoV2373 for an undisclosed price, with an option to purchase an additional 10 million doses—finalizing an agreement in principle announced in November 2020. Novavax said it will work with Australia’s Therapeutics Goods Administration (TGA), to obtain approvals upon showing efficacy in clinical studies. The company aims to deliver initial doses by mid-2021.

2020 Status: Phase III trial launched—Novavax said December 28 that it launched the pivotal Phase III PREVENT-19 trial (NCT04611802) in the U.S. and Mexico to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373. The randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study will assess the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373 in up to 30,000 participants 18 years of age and older compared with placebo. The trial’s primary endpoint is the prevention of PCR-confirmed, symptomatic COVID-19. The key secondary endpoint is the prevention of PCR-confirmed, symptomatic moderate or severe COVID-19. Both endpoints will be assessed at least seven days after the second study vaccination in volunteers who have not been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Two thirds of the participants will be assigned to randomly receive two intramuscular injections of the vaccine, administered 21 days apart, while one third of the trial participants will receive placebo. Trial sites were selected in locations where transmission rates are currently high, to accelerate the accumulation of positive cases that could show efficacy. Participants will be followed for 24 months following the second injection

PREVENT-19 is being conducted with support from federal agencies involved in Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration’s effort to promote development and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines and drugs. Those agencies include the Department of Defense (DoD), the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)—which has committed up to $1.6 billion to Novavax under a DoD agreement (identifier MCDC OTA agreement number W15QKN-16-9-1002).

Novavax is also conducting a pivotal Phase III study in the United Kingdom, a Phase IIb safety and efficacy study in South Africa, and an ongoing Phase I/II trial in the U.S. and Australia. Data from these trials are expected as soon as early first quarter 2021, though timing will depend on transmission rates in the regions, the company said.

Novavax said November 9 that the FDA granted its Fast Track designation for NVX-CoV2373. By the end of November, the company expected to finish enrollment in its Phase III U.K. trial, with interim data in that study expected as soon as early first quarter 2021.

Five days earlier, Novavax signed a non-binding Heads of Terms document with the Australian government to supply 40 million doses of NVX-CoV2373 to Australia starting as early as the first half of 2021, subject to the successful completion of Phase III clinical development and approval of the vaccine by Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). The vaccine regimen is expected to require two doses per individual, administered 21 days apart.

Australia joins the U.S., the U.K., and Canada in signing direct supply agreements with Novavax. The company is supplying doses in Japan, South Korea, and India through partnerships. Australian clinical researchers led the global Phase I clinical trial in August, which involved 131 Australians across two trial sites (Melbourne and Brisbane). Also, approximately 690 Australians have participated in the Phase II arm of the clinical trial, which has been conducted across up to 40 sites in Australia and the U.S.

Novavax joined officials in its headquarters city of Gaithersburg, MD, on November 2 to announce expansion plans. The company plans to take 122,000 square feet of space at 700 Quince Orchard Road, and has committed to adding at least 400 local jobs, nearly doubling its current workforce of 450 worldwide. Most of the new jobs are expected to be added b March 2021.

Maryland’s Department of Commerce—which has prioritized assistance to life sciences companies—approved a $2 million conditional loan tied to job creation and capital investment. The state has also approved a $200,000 Partnership for Workforce Quality training grant, and the company is eligible for several tax credits, including the Job Creation Tax Credit and More Jobs for Marylanders.

Additionally, Montgomery County has approved a $500,000 grant tied to job creation and capital investment, while the City of Gaithersburg said it will approve a grant of up to $50,000 from its Economic Development Opportunity Fund. The city accelerated its planning approval process to accommodate Novavax’ timeline, given the company’s role in fighting COVID-19 and resulting assistance from Operation Warp Speed, the Trump administration’s effort to accelerate development of COVID-19 vaccines.

On October 27, Novavax said that it had enrolled 5,500 volunteers in the Phase III U.K. trial, which has been expanded from 10,000 to 15,000 volunteers. The increased enrollment “is likely to facilitate assessment of safety and efficacy in a shorter time period,” according to the company.

The trial, which is being conducted with the U.K. Government’s Vaccines Taskforce, was launched in September and is expected to be fully enrolled by the end of November, with interim data expected by early first quarter 2021, depending on the overall COVID-19 attack rate. Novavax has posted the protocol for the Phase III U.K. trial online. The protocol calls for unblinding of data once 152 participants have achieved mild, moderate or severe endpoints. Two interim analyses are planned upon occurrence of 66 and 110 endpoints.

Novavax also said it expects to launch a second Phase III trial designed to enroll up to 30,000 participants in the U.S. and Mexico by the end of November—a study funded through the U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed program. The patient population will reflect proportional representation of diverse populations most vulnerable to COVID-19, across race/ethnicity, age, and co-morbidities.

The company cited progress toward large-scale manufacturing while acknowledging delays from original timeframe estimates. Novavax said it will use its contract manufacturing site at FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnologies’ Morrisville, NC facility to produce material for the U.S. trial.

On September 25, Novavax entered into a non-exclusive agreement with Endo International subsidiary Par Sterile Products to provide fill-finish manufacturing services at its plant in Rochester, MI, for NVX-CoV2373. Under the agreement, whose value was not disclosed, the Rochester facility has begun production of NVX-CoV2373 final drug product, with initial batches to be used in Novavax’ Phase III clinical trial in the U.S. Par Sterile will also fill-finish NVX-CoV2373 vaccine intended for commercial distribution in the U.S.

A day earlier, Novavax launched the U.K. trial. The randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of NVX-CoV2373 with Matrix-M in up to 10,000 subjects 18-84 years of age, with and without “relevant” comorbidities, over the following four to six weeks, Novavax said. Half the participants will receive two intramuscular injections of vaccine comprising 5 µg of protein antigen with 50 µg Matrix‑M adjuvant, 21 days apart, while half of the trial participants will receive placebo. At least 25% of the study population will be over age 65.

The trial’s first primary endpoint is first occurrence of PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 with onset at least seven days after the second study vaccination in volunteers who have not been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. The second primary endpoint is first occurrence of PCR-confirmed symptomatic moderate or severe COVID-19 with onset at least seven days after the second study vaccination in volunteers who have not been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2

“The data from this trial is expected to support regulatory submissions for licensure in the UK, EU and other countries,” stated Gregory M. Glenn, M.D., President, Research and Development at Novavax.

Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan joined state Secretary of Commerce Kelly M. Schulz and local officials in marking the launch of Phase III studies with a tour of the company’s facilities in Gaithersburg: “The coronavirus vaccine candidate that’s been developed by Novavax is one of the most promising in the country, if not the world.”

On August 31, Novavax reached an agreement in principle with the government of Canada to supply up to 76 million doses of NVX-CoV2373. The value was not disclosed. Novavax and Canada did say that they expect to finalize an advance purchase agreement under which Novavax will agree to supply doses of NVX-CoV2373 to Canada beginning as early as the second quarter of 2021.

The purchase arrangement will be subject to licensure of the NVX-CoV2373 by Health Canada, Novavax said. The vaccine is in multiple Phase II clinical trials: On August 24, Novavax said the first volunteers had been enrolled in the Phase II portion of its ongoing Phase I/II clinical trial (NCT04368988), designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of of NVX-CoV2373 (5 and 25 µg) with and without 50 µg of Matrix‑M™ adjuvant in up to 1,500 volunteers ages 18-84.

The randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded study is designed to assess two dose sizes (5 and 25 µg) of NVX-CoV2373, each with 50 µg of Matrix‑M. Unlike the Phase I portion, the Phase II portion will include older adults 60-84 years of age as approximately half of the trial’s population. Secondary objectives include preliminary evaluation of efficacy. The trial will be conducted at up to 40 sites in the U.S. and Australia, Novovax said.

NVX-CoV2373 is in a pair of Phase II trials launched in August—including a Phase IIb study in South Africa to assess efficacy, and a Phase II safety and immunogenicity study in the U.S. and Australia.

On August 14, the U.K. government agreed to purchase 60 million doses of NVX-CoV2373 from the company, and support its planned Phase III clinical trial in the U.K., through an agreement whose value was not disclosed. The doses are set to be manufactured as early as the first quarter of 2021.

The trial will be designed to evaluate the ability of NVX-CoV2373 to protect against symptomatic COVID-19 disease as well as evaluate antibody and T-cell responses. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy study will enroll approximately 9,000 adults 18-85 years of age in the U.K., and is expected to start in the third quarter.

Novavax also said it will expand its collaboration with FUJIFILM Diosynth Biotechnologies (FDB), which will manufacture the antigen component of NVX-CoV2373 from its Billingham, Stockton-on-Tees site in the U.K., as well as at U.S. sites in Morrisville, NC, and College Station, TX. FDB’s U.K. sitevis expected to produce up to 180 million doses annually.

On August 13, Novavax said it signed a development and supply agreement for the antigen component of NVX-CoV2373 with Seoul-based SK bioscience, a vaccine business subsidiary of SK Group. The agreement calls for supply to global markets that include the COVAX Facility, co-led by Gavi, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and the World Health Organization.

Novavax and SK signed a letter of intent with South Korea’s Ministry of Health and Welfare to work toward broad and equitable access to NVX-CoV2373 worldwide, as well as to make the vaccine available in South Korea. SK bioscience agreed to manufacture the vaccine antigen component for use in the final drug product globally during the pandemic, at its vaccine facility in Andong L-house, South Korea, beginning in August. The value of the agreement was not disclosed.

On August 7, Novavax licensed its COVID-19 vaccine technology to Takeda Pharmaceutical through a partnership by which Takeda will develop, manufacture, and commercialize NVX‑CoV2373 in Japan, using Matrix-M adjuvant to be supplied by Novavax. Takeda will also be responsible for regulatory submission to Japan’s Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW).

MHLW agreed to provide funding to Takeda—the amount was not disclosed in the companies’ announcement—for technology transfer, establishment of infrastructure, and scale-up of manufacturing. Takeda said it anticipated the capacity to manufacture over 250 million doses of NVX‑CoV2373 per year.

Five days earlier, Serum Institute of India agreed to license rights from Novavax to NVX‑CoV2373 for development and commercialization in India as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), through an agreement whose value was not disclosed. Novavax retains rights to NVX-CoV2373 elsewhere in the world.

Novavax and Serum Institute of India agreed to partner on clinical development, co-formulation, filling and finishing and commercialization of NVX-CoV2373. Serum Institute will oversee regulatory submissions and marketing authorizations in regions covered by the collaboration. Novavax agreed to provide both vaccine antigen and Matrix‑M adjuvant, while the partners said they were in talks to have the Serum Institute manufacture vaccine antigen in India. Novavax and Seerum Institute plan to split the revenue from the sale of product, net of agreed costs.

A day earlier, Novavax announced positive results from the Phase I portion of its Phase I/II clinical trial (NCT04368988), designed to evaluate two doses of NVX-CoV2373 (5 and 25 µg) with and without Matrix‑M™ adjuvant in 131 healthy adults ages 18-59. NVX-CoV2373, adjuvanted with Matrix-M, elicited robust antibody responses numerically superior to human convalescent sera, according to data submitted for peer-review to a scientific journal.

All participants developed anti-spike IgG antibodies after a single dose of vaccine, Novavax said, many also developing wild-type virus neutralizing antibody responses. After the second dose, all participants developed wild-type virus neutralizing antibody responses. Both anti-spike IgG and viral neutralization responses compared favorably to responses from patients with clinically significant COVID‑19 disease, the company said—adding that IgG antibody response was highly correlated with neutralization titers, showing that a significant proportion of antibodies were functional.

For both dosages of NVX‑CoV2373 with adjuvant, the 5 µg dose performed “comparably” with the 25 µg dose, Novavax said. NVX‑CoV2373 also induced antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses with a strong bias toward the Th1 phenotype (IFN-g, IL-2, and TNF-a).

Based on an interim analysis of Phase I safety and immunogenicity data, the trial was expanded to Phase II clinical trials in multiple countries, including the U.S. The trial—which began in Australia in May—is being funded by up-to $388 million in funding from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). If the Phase I/II trial is successful, CEPI said, it anticipates supporting further clinical development that would advance NVX-CoV2373 through to licensure.

On July 23, Novavax joined FDB to announce that FDB will manufacture bulk drug substance for NVX-CoV2373, under an agreement whose value was not disclosed. FDB’s site in Morrisville, NC has begun production of the first batch of NVX-CoV2373. Batches produced at FDB’s Morrisville site will be used in Novavax’s planned pivotal Phase III clinical trial, designed to assess NVX-CoV2373 in up to 30,000 participants, and set to start this fall.

The Phase III trial is among R&D efforts to be funded through the $1.6 billion awarded in July to Novavax through President Donald Trump’s “Operation Warp Speed” program toward late-stage clinical trials and large-scale manufacturing to produce 100 million doses of its COVID-19 vaccine by year’s end. Novavax said the funding will enable it to complete late-stage clinical studies aimed at evaluating the safety and efficacy of NVX-CoV2373.

In June, Novavax said biotech investor and executive David Mott was joining its board as an independent director, after recently acquiring nearly 65,000 shares of the company’s common stock. Also, Novavax was awarded a $60 million contract by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for the manufacturing of NVX‑CoV2373. Through the Defense Health Program, the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense Enabling Biotechnologies (JPEO-CBRND-EB) agreed to support production of several vaccine components to be manufactured in the U.S.  Novavax plans to deliver this year for DoD 10 million doses of NVX‑CoV2373 that could be used in Phase II/III trials, or under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) if approved by the FDA.

Also in June, AGC Biologics said it will partner with Novavax on large-scale GMP production of Matrix-M– significantly increasing Novavax’ capacity to deliver doses in 2020 and 2021—through an agreement whose value was not disclosed. And Novavax joined The PolyPeptide Group to announce large-scale GMP production by the global CDMO of two unspecified key intermediate components used in the production of Matrix-M.

In May, Novavax acquired Praha Vaccines from the India-based Cyrus Poonawalla Group for $167 million cash, in a deal designed to ramp up Novavax’s manufacturing capacity for NVX-CoV2373. Praha Vaccines’ assets include a 150,000-square foot vaccine and biologics manufacturing facility and other support buildings in Bohumil, Czech Republic. Novavax said the Bohumil facility is expected to deliver an annual capacity of over 1 billion doses of antigen starting in 2021 for the COVID-19 vaccine.

The Bohumil facility is completing renovations that include the addition of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) capabilities. The site’s approximately 150 employees with “significant experience” in vaccine manufacturing and support have joined Novavax, the company said.

On May 11, Novavax joined CEPI in announcing up to $384 million in additional funding for the company toward clinical development and large-scale manufacturing of NVX-CoV2373. CEPI agreed to fund preclinical as well as Phase I and Phase II studies of NVX-CoV2373. The funding multiplied CEPI’s initial $4 million investment in the vaccine candidate, made two months earlier. Novavax’s total $388 million in CEPI funding accounted for 87% of the total $446 million awarded by the Coalition toward COVID-19 vaccine R&D as of that date.

Novavax identified its COVID-19 vaccine candidate in April. The company said NVX-CoV2373 was shown to be highly immunogenic in animal models measuring spike protein-specific antibodies, antibodies that block the binding of the spike protein to the receptor, and wild-type virus neutralizing antibodies. High levels of spike protein-specific antibodies with ACE-2 human receptor binding domain blocking activity and SARS-CoV-2 wild-type virus neutralizing antibodies were also seen after a single immunization.

In March, Emergent Biosolutions disclosed it retained an option to allocate manufacturing capacity for an expanded COVID-19 program under an agreement with Novavax to provide “molecule-to-market” contract development and manufacturing (CDMO) services to produce Novavax’s NanoFlu™, its recombinant quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine candidate.

Earlier in March, Emergent announced similar services to support clinical development of Novavax’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate, saying March 10 it agreed to produce the vaccine candidate and had initiated work, anticipating the vaccine candidate will be used in a Phase I study within the next four months. In February, Novavax said it had produced and was assessing multiple nanoparticle vaccine candidates in animal models prior to identifying an optimal candidate for human testing.


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Further reading

External links

General References

  1. Novavax Pipeline Page [Link]
  2. Novavex News Release [Link]
Traded asNasdaqNVAX
Russell 2000 Component
Founded1987; 34 years ago [1]
HeadquartersGaithersburg, Maryland,United States
Area servedWorldwide
Key peopleStanley Erck (CEO)
RevenueIncrease $475.2 Million (2020)[2]
Number of employees500+[3] 

The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, codenamed NVX-CoV2373, and also called SARS-CoV-2 rS (recombinant spike) protein nanoparticle with Matrix-M1 adjuvant, is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Novavax and Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). It requires two doses[1] and is stable at 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F) (refrigerated).[2]


NVX-CoV2373 has been described as both a protein subunit vaccine[3][4][5] and a virus-like particle vaccine,[6][7] though the producers call it a “recombinant nanoparticle vaccine”.[8]

The vaccine is produced by creating an engineered baculovirus containing a gene for a modified SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The baculovirus then infects a culture of Sf9 moth cells, which create the spike protein and display it on their cell membranes. The spike proteins are then harvested and assembled onto a synthetic lipid nanoparticle about 50 nanometers across, each displaying up to 14 spike proteins.[3][4][8]

The formulation includes a saponin-based adjuvant.[3][4][8]


In January 2020, Novavax announced development of a vaccine candidate, codenamed NVX-CoV2373, to establish immunity to SARS-CoV-2.[9] Novavax’s work is in competition for vaccine development among dozens of other companies.[10]

In March 2020, Novavax announced a collaboration with Emergent BioSolutions for preclinical and early-stage human research on the vaccine candidate.[11] Under the partnership, Emergent BioSolutions will manufacture the vaccine at large scale at their Baltimore facility.[12] Trials have also taken place in the United Kingdom, and subject to regulatory approval, at least 60 million doses will be manufactured by Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies in Billingham for purchase by the UK government.[13][14] They also signed an agreement with Serum Institute of India for mass scale production for developing and low-income countries.[15] It has also been reported, that the vaccine will be manufactured in Spain.[16] The first human safety studies of the candidate, codenamed NVX-CoV2373, started in May 2020 in Australia.[17][18]

In July, the company announced it might receive $1.6 billion from Operation Warp Speed to expedite development of its coronavirus vaccine candidate by 2021—if clinical trials show the vaccine to be effective.[19][20] A spokesperson for Novavax stated that the $1.6 billion was coming from a “collaboration” between the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Defense,[19][20] where Gen. Gustave F. Perna has been selected as COO for Warp Speed. In late September, Novavax entered the final stages of testing its coronavirus vaccine in the UK. Another large trial was announced to start by October in the US.[21]

In December 2020, Novavax started the PREVENT-19 (NCT04611802) Phase III trial in the US and Mexico.[22][full citation needed][23]

On 28 January 2021, Novavax reported that preliminary results from the United Kingdom trial showed that its vaccine candidate was more than 89% effective.[24][2] However, interim results from a trial in South Africa showed a lower effectiveness rate against the 501.V2 variant of the virus, at around 50-60%.[1][25]

On 12 March 2021, they announced their vaccine candidate was 96.4% effective in preventing the original strain of COVID-19 and 86% effective against the U.K variant. It proved 55% effective against the South African variant in people without HIV/AIDS. It was also 100% effective at preventing severe illness.[citation needed]


On 2 February 2021, the Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that Canada has signed a tentative agreement for Novavax to produce millions of doses of its COVID-19 vaccine in Montreal, Canada, once it’s approved for use by Health Canada, making it the first COVID-19 vaccine to be produced domestically.[26]


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  10. ^ “COVID-19 vaccine tracker (click on ‘Vaccines’ tab)”. Milken Institute. 11 May 2020. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020. Lay summary.
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  16. ^ “Spain, again chosen to produce the vaccine to combat COVID-19”This is the Real Spain. 18 September 2020.
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  21. ^ Thomas K, Zimmer C (24 September 2020). “Novavax Enters Final Stage of Coronavirus Vaccine Trials”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  22. ^ Clinical trial number NCT04611802 for “A Study Looking at the Efficacy, Immune Response, and Safety of a COVID-19 Vaccine in Adults at Risk for SARS-CoV-2” at
  23. ^ “Phase 3 trial of Novavax investigational COVID-19 vaccine opens”National Institutes of Health (NIH). 28 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  24. ^ Lovelace B (28 January 2020). “Novavax says Covid vaccine is more than 89% effective”CNBC.
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  26. ^ “Canada signs deal to produce Novavax COVID-19 vaccine at Montreal plant”CP24. 2 February 2021. Retrieved 2 February2021.
Vaccine description
Vaccine typeSubunit
Clinical data
Other namesNVX-CoV2373
Routes of
ATC codeNone
Part of a series on the
COVID-19 pandemic
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Tozinameran, Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine

Covid19 vaccine biontech pfizer 3.jpg


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Sequence Modifications

modified baseg-1m7g
modified baseg-13′-me
modified basea-2am
uncommon linkg-1 – a-25′->5′ triphosphate


Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

トジナメラン (JAN);

RNA (recombinant 5′-​[1,​2-​[(3′-​O-​methyl)​m7G-​(5’→5′)​-​ppp-​Am]​]​-​capped all uridine→N1-​methylpseudouridine-​substituted severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 secretory signal peptide contg. spike glycoprotein S1S2-​specifying plus 5′- and 3′-​untranslated flanking region-​contg. poly(A)​-​tailed messenger BNT162b2)​, inner salt

Nucleic Acid Sequence

Sequence Length: 42841106 a 1315 c 1062 g 801 umodified

APPROVED JAPAN Comirnaty, 2021/2/14

CAS 2417899-77-3





Active immunization (SARS-CoV-2)

Tozinameran is mRNA encoding full length of spike protein analog of SARS-CoV-2

Target Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike glycoprotein

Coronavirus disease – COVID-19

Injection, suspensionIntramuscular0.23 mg/1.8mL
SuspensionIntramuscular30 mcg
Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 VaccinePfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 Vaccine (0.23 mg/1.8mL)Injection, suspensionIntramuscularPfizer Manufacturing Belgium NV2020-12-12Not applicableUS flag 
Comirnaty 30 mcgIntramuscularBio N Tech Manufacturing Gmb H2021-01-06Not applicableEU flag 
Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 VaccineSuspension30 mcgIntramuscularBiontech Manufacturing Gmbh2020-12-14Not applicableCanada flag 
Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 VaccineInjection, suspension0.23 mg/1.8mLIntramuscularPfizer Manufacturing Belgium NV2020-12-12Not applicableUS flag 

The Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine (pINNtozinameran), sold under the brand name Comirnaty,[13] is a COVID-19 vaccine developed by the German company BioNTech in cooperation with Pfizer. It is both the first COVID-19 vaccine to be authorized by a stringent regulatory authority for emergency use[14][15] and the first cleared for regular use.[16]

It is given by intramuscular injection. It is an RNA vaccine composed of nucleoside-modified mRNA (modRNA) encoding a mutated form of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which is encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles.[17] The vaccination requires two doses given three weeks apart.[18][19][20] Its ability to prevent severe infection in children, pregnant women, or immunocompromised people is unknown, as is the duration of the immune effect it confers.[20][21][22] As of February 2021, it is one of two RNA vaccines being deployed against COVID‑19, the other being the Moderna COVID‑19 vaccine. A third mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine, CVnCoV, is in late-stage testing.[23]

Trials began in April 2020; by November, the vaccine had been tested on more than 40,000 people.[24] An interim analysis of study data showed a potential efficacy of over 90% in preventing infection within seven days of a second dose.[19][20] The most common side effects include mild to moderate pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache.[25][26] As of December 2020, reports of serious side effects, such as allergic reactions, have been very rare,[a] and no long-term complications have been reported.[28] Phase III clinical trials are ongoing: monitoring of the primary outcomes will continue until August 2021, while monitoring of the secondary outcomes will continue until January 2023.[18]

In December 2020, the United Kingdom was the first country to authorize the vaccine on an emergency basis,[28] soon followed by the United States, the European Union and several other countries globally.[29][30][6][31][32]

BioNTech is the initial developer of the vaccine, and partnered with Pfizer for development, clinical research, overseeing the clinical trials, logistics, finances and for manufacturing worldwide with the exception of China.[33] The license to distribute and manufacture in China was purchased by Fosun, alongside its investment in BioNTech.[34][35] Distribution in Germany and Turkey is by BioNTech itself.[36] Pfizer indicated in November 2020, that 50 million doses could be available globally by the end of 2020, with about 1.3 billion doses in 2021.[20]

Pfizer has advanced purchase agreements of about US$3 billion for providing a licensed vaccine in the United States, the European Union, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Peru, Singapore, and Mexico.[37][38] Distribution and storage of the vaccine is a logistics challenge because it needs to be stored at temperatures between −80 and −60 °C (−112 and −76 °F),[39] until five days before vaccination[38][39] when it can be stored at 2 to 8 °C (36 to 46 °F), and up to two hours at temperatures up to 25 °C (77 °F)[40][11] or 30 °C (86 °F).[41][42] In February 2021, Pfizer and BioNTech asked the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to update the emergency use authorization (EUA) to permit the vaccine to be stored at between −25 and −15 °C (−13 and 5 °F) for up to two weeks before use.[43]

Development and funding

Before COVID-19 vaccines, a vaccine for an infectious disease had never before been produced in less than several years, and no vaccine existed for preventing a coronavirus infection in humans.[44] After the COVID-19 virus was detected in December 2019,[45] the development of BNT162b2 was initiated on 10 January 2020, when the SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequences were released by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention via GISAID,[46][47][48] triggering an urgent international response to prepare for an outbreak and hasten development of preventive vaccines.[49][50]

In January 2020, German biotech-company BioNTech started its program ‘Project Lightspeed’ to develop a vaccine against the new COVID‑19 virus based on its already established mRNA-technology.[24] Several variants of the vaccine were created in their laboratories in Mainz, and 20 of those were presented to experts of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute in Langen.[51] Phase I / II Trials were started in Germany on 23 April 2020, and in the U.S. on 4 May 2020, with four vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The Initial Pivotal Phase II / III Trial with the lead vaccine candidate ‘BNT162b2’ began in July. The Phase III results indicating a 95% effectiveness of the developed vaccine were published on 18 November 2020.[24]

BioNTech received a US$135 million investment from Fosun in March 2020, in exchange for 1.58 million shares in BioNTech and the future development and marketing rights of BNT162b2 in China,[35] Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.[52]

In June 2020, BioNTech received €100 million (US$119 million) in financing from the European Commission and European Investment Bank.[53] In September 2020, the German government granted BioNTech €375 million (US$445 million) for its COVID‑19 vaccine development program.[54]

Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla stated that he decided against taking funding from the US government’s Operation Warp Speed for the development of the vaccine “because I wanted to liberate our scientists [from] any bureaucracy that comes with having to give reports and agree how we are going to spend the money in parallel or together, etc.” Pfizer did enter into an agreement with the US for the eventual distribution of the vaccine, as with other countries.[55]

Clinical trials

See also: COVID-19 vaccine § Clinical trials started in 2020

Preliminary results from Phase I–II clinical trials on BNT162b2, published in October 2020, indicated potential for its efficacy and safety.[17][56] During the same month, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) began a periodic review of BNT162b2.[57]

The study of BNT162b2 is a continuous-phase trial in Phase III as of November 2020.[18] It is a “randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind, dose-finding, vaccine candidate-selection, and efficacy study in healthy individuals”.[18] The early-stage research determined the safety and dose level for two vaccine candidates, with the trial expanding during mid-2020 to assess efficacy and safety of BNT162b2 in greater numbers of participants, reaching tens of thousands of people receiving test vaccinations in multiple countries in collaboration with Pfizer and Fosun.[20][35]

The Phase III trial assesses the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and immunogenicity of BNT162b2 at a mid-dose level (two injections separated by 21 days) in three age groups: 12–15 years, 16–55 years or above 55 years.[18] For approval in the EU, an overall vaccine efficacy of 95% was confirmed by the EMA.[58] The EMA clarified that the second dose should be administered three weeks after the first dose.[59]

Efficacy endpointVaccine efficacy (95% confidence interval) [%]
After dose 1 to before dose 252.4 (29.5, 68.4)
≥10 days after dose 1 to before dose 286.7 (68.6, 95.4)
Dose 2 to 7 days after dose 290.5 (61.0, 98.9)
≥7 days after dose 2 (subjects without evidence of infection prior to 7 days after dose 2)
Overall95.0 (90.0, 97.9)
16–55 years95.6 (89.4, 98.6)
≥55 years93.7 (80.6, 98.8)
≥65 years94.7 (66.7, 99.9)

The ongoing Phase III trial, which is scheduled to run from 2020 to 2022, is designed to assess the ability of BNT162b2 to prevent severe infection, as well as the duration of immune effect.[20][21][22]

Pfizer and BioNTech started a Phase II/III randomized control trial in healthy pregnant women 18 years of age and older (NCT04754594).[60] The study will evaluate 30 µg of BNT162b2 or placebo administered via intramuscular injection in 2 doses, 21 days apart. The Phase II portion of the study will include approximately 350 pregnant women randomized 1:1 to receive BNT162b2 or placebo at 27 to 34 weeks’ gestation. The Phase III portion of this study will assess the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of BNT162b2 or placebo among pregnant women enrolled at 24 to 34 weeks’ gestation. Pfizer and BioNTech announced on 18 February 2021 that the first participants received their first dose in this trial.[61]

Vaccine technology

See also: RNA vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine § Technology platforms

The BioNTech technology for the BNT162b2 vaccine is based on use of nucleoside-modified mRNA (modRNA) which encodes part of the spike protein found on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID‑19), triggering an immune response against infection by the virus protein.[62]

The vaccine candidate BNT162b2 was chosen as the most promising among three others with similar technology developed by BioNTech.[18][62][56] Prior to choosing BNT162b2, BioNTech and Pfizer had conducted Phase I trials on BNT162b1 in Germany and the United States, while Fosun performed a Phase I trial in China.[17][63] In these Phase I studies, BNT162b2 was shown to have a better safety profile than the other three BioNTech candidates.[63]


The modRNA sequence of the vaccine is 4,284 nucleotides long.[64] It consists of a five-prime cap; a five prime untranslated region derived from the sequence of human alpha globin; a signal peptide (bases 55–102) and two proline substitutions (K986P and V987P, designated “2P”) that cause the spike to adopt a prefusion-stabilized conformation reducing the membrane fusion ability, increasing expression and stimulating neutralizing antibodies;[17][65] a codon-optimized gene of the full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (bases 103–3879); followed by a three prime untranslated region (bases 3880–4174) combined from AES and mtRNR1 selected for increased protein expression and mRNA stability[66] and a poly(A) tail comprising 30 adenosine residues, a 10-nucleotide linker sequence, and 70 other adenosine residues (bases 4175–4284).[64] The sequence contains no uridine residues; they are replaced by 1-methyl-3′-pseudouridylyl.[64]


In addition to the mRNA molecule, the vaccine contains the following inactive ingredients (excipients):[67][68][8]

The first four of these are lipids. The lipids and modRNA together form nanoparticles. ALC-0159 is a polyethylene glycol conjugate (that is, a PEGylated lipid).[69]

The vaccine is supplied in a multidose vial as “a white to off-white, sterile, preservative-free, frozen suspension for intramuscular injection“.[11][12] It must be thawed to room temperature and diluted with normal saline before administration.[12]



The United Kingdom’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) gave the vaccine “rapid temporary regulatory approval to address significant public health issues such as a pandemic” on 2 December 2020, which it is permitted to do under the Medicines Act 1968.[70] It was the first COVID‑19 vaccine to be approved for national use after undergoing large scale trials,[71] and the first mRNA vaccine to be authorized for use in humans.[14][72] The United Kingdom thus became the first Western country to approve a COVID‑19 vaccine for national use,[73] although the decision to fast-track the vaccine was criticised by some experts.[74]

On 8 December 2020, Margaret “Maggie” Keenan, 90, from Fermanagh, became the first person to receive the vaccine.[75] In a notable example of museums documenting the pandemic, the vial and syringe used for that first dose were saved acquired by The Science Museum in London for its permanent collection.[76] By 20 December, 521,594 UK residents had received the vaccine as part of the national vaccination programme. 70% had been to people aged 80 or over.[77]

After the United Kingdom, the following countries expedited processes to approve the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine for use: Argentina,[78] Australia,[79] Bahrain,[80] Canada,[7][81] Chile,[82] Costa Rica,[83] Ecuador,[82] Hong Kong,[84] Iraq,[85] Israel,[86] Jordan,[87] Kuwait,[88] Mexico,[89] Oman,[90] Panama,[91] the Philippines,[92] Qatar,[93] Saudi Arabia,[32][94] Singapore,[95][96] the United Arab Emirates,[97] and the United States.[10]

The World Health Organization (WHO) authorized it for emergency use.[98]

In the United States, an emergency use authorization (EUA) is “a mechanism to facilitate the availability and use of medical countermeasures, including vaccines, during public health emergencies, such as the current COVID‑19 pandemic”, according to the FDA.[99] Following an EUA issuance, BioNTech and Pfizer are expected to continue the Phase III clinical trial to finalize safety and efficacy data, leading to application for licensure (approval) of the vaccine in the United States.[99][100][101] The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved recommendations for vaccination of those aged 16 years or older.[102][103]


On 19 December 2020, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic) approved the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine for regular use, two months after receiving the application, stating that the vaccine fully complied with the requirements of safety, efficacy and quality. This is the first authorization under a standard procedure.[1][104] On 23 December, a Lucerne resident, a 90-year-old woman, became the first person to receive the vaccine in Switzerland.[105] This marked the beginning of mass vaccination in continental Europe.[106]

On 21 December 2020, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended granting conditional marketing authorization for the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine under the brand name Comirnaty.[2][107][108] The recommendation was accepted by the European Commission the same day.[107][109]

On February 23, 2021, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency approved the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine under its standard marketing authorization procedure. It became the first COVID-19 vaccine to receive definitive registration rather than emergency use authorization in the country.[110]

Adverse effects

The adverse effect profile of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine is similar to that of other adult vaccines.[20] During clinical trials, the side effects deemed very common[a] are (in order of frequency): pain and swelling at the injection site, tiredness, headache, muscle aches, chills, joint pain, and fever.[68] Fever is more common after the second dose.[68] These effects are predictable and to be expected, and it is particularly important that people be aware of this to prevent vaccine hesitancy.[111]

Severe allergic reaction has been observed in approximately 11 cases per million doses of vaccine administered.[112][113] According to a report by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 71% of those allergic reactions happened within 15 minutes of vaccination and mostly (81%) among people with a documented history of allergies or allergic reactions.[112] The UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) advised on 9 December 2020, that people who have a history of “significant” allergic reaction should not receive the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine.[114][115][116] On 12 December, the Canadian regulator followed suit, noting that: “Both individuals in the U.K. had a history of severe allergic reactions and carried adrenaline auto injectors. They both were treated and have recovered.”[67]

On 28 January 2021, the European Union published a COVID-19 vaccine safety update which found that “the benefits of Comirnaty in preventing COVID‑19 continue to outweigh any risks, and there are no recommended changes regarding the use the vaccine.”[113][117] No new side effects were identified.[113]


A doctor holding the Pfizer vaccine

Pfizer and BioNTech are manufacturing the vaccine in their own facilities in the United States and in Europe in a three-stage process. The first stage involves the molecular cloning of DNA plasmids that code for the spike protein by infusing them into Escherichia coli bacteria. In the United States, this stage is conducted at a small pilot plant in Chesterfield, Missouri[118] (near St. Louis). After four days of growth, the bacteria are killed and broken open, and the contents of their cells are purified over a week and a half to recover the desired DNA product. The DNA is stored in tiny bottles and frozen for shipment. Safely and quickly transporting the DNA at this stage is so important that Pfizer has used its company jet and helicopter to assist.[119]

The second stage is being conducted at plants in Andover, Massachusetts[120] in the United States, and in Germany. The DNA is used as a template to build the desired mRNA strands. Once the mRNA has been created and purified, it is frozen in plastic bags about the size of a large shopping bag, of which each can hold up to 5 to 10 million doses. The bags are placed on special racks on trucks which take them to the next plant.[119]

The third stage is being conducted at plants in Portage, Michigan[121] (near Kalamazoo) in the United States, and Puurs in Belgium. This stage involves combining the mRNA with lipid nanoparticles, then filling vials, boxing vials, and freezing them.[119] Croda International subsidiary Avanti Polar Lipids is providing the requisite lipids.[122] As of November 2020, the major bottleneck in the manufacturing process was combining mRNA with lipid nanoparticles.[119]

In February 2021, Pfizer revealed this entire sequence initially took about 110 days on average from start to finish, and that the company was making progress on reducing that number to 60 days.[123] Vaccine manufacturers normally take several years to optimize the process of making a particular vaccine for speed and cost-effectiveness before attempting large-scale production.[123] Due to the urgency presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, Pfizer began production immediately with the process by which the vaccine had been originally formulated in the laboratory, then started to identify ways to safely speed up and scale up that process.[123]

BioNTech announced in September 2020 that it had signed an agreement to acquire from Novartis a manufacturing facility in Marburg, Germany, to expand their vaccine production capacity.[124] Once fully operational, the facility would produce up to 750 million doses per year, or over 60 million doses per month. The site will be the third BioNTech facility in Europe which currently produces the vaccine, while Pfizer operates at least four production sites in the United States and Europe.

Advance orders and logistics

Pfizer indicated in its 9 November press release that 50 million doses could be available by the end of 2020, with about 1.3 billion doses provided globally by 2021.[20] In February 2021, BioNTech announced it would increase production by more than 50% to manufacture two billion doses in 2021.[125]

In July 2020, the vaccine development program Operation Warp Speed placed an advance order of US$1.95 billion with Pfizer to manufacture 100 million doses of a COVID‑19 vaccine for use in the United States if the vaccine was shown to be safe and effective.[34][126][127][128] By mid-December 2020, Pfizer had agreements to supply 300 million doses to the European Union,[129] 120 million doses to Japan,[130] 40 million doses (10 million before 2021) to the United Kingdom,[22] 20 million doses to Canada,[131] an unspecified number of doses to Singapore,[132] and 34.4 million doses to Mexico.[133] Fosun also has agreements to supply 10 million doses to Hong Kong and Macau.[134] The Hong Kong government said it would receive its first batch of one million doses by the first quarter of 2021.[135]

BioNTech and Fosun agreed to supply Mainland China with a batch of 100 million doses in 2021, subject to regulatory approval. The initial supply will be delivered from BioNTech’s production facilities in Germany.[136]

The vaccine is being delivered in vials that, once diluted, contain 2.25 ml of vaccine (0.45 ml frozen plus 1.8ml diluent).[101] According to the vial labels, each vial contains five 0.3 ml doses, however excess vaccine may be used for one, or possibly two, additional doses.[101][137] The use of low dead space syringes to obtain the additional doses is preferable, and partial doses within a vial should be discarded.[101][138] The Italian Medicines Agency officially authorized the use of excess doses remaining within single vials.[139] As of 8 January 2021, each vial contains six doses.[68][140][141][138] In the United States, vials will be counted as five doses when accompanied by regular syringes and as six doses when accompanied by low dead space syringes.[142]

Temperature the Pfizer vaccine must be kept at to ensure effectiveness, roughly between −80 and −60 °C (−112 and −76 °F)

Logistics in developing countries which have preorder agreements with Pfizer—such as Ecuador and Peru—remain unclear.[38] Even high-income countries have limited cold chain capacity for ultracold transport and storage of a vaccine that degrades within five days when thawed, and requires two shots three weeks apart.[38] The vaccine needs to be stored and transported at ultracold temperatures between −80 and −60 °C (−112 and −76 °F),[39][22][38][143][144] much lower than for the similar Moderna vaccine. The head of Indonesia‘s Bio Farma Honesti Basyir stated that purchasing the vaccine is out of the question for the world’s fourth-most populous country, given that it did not have the necessary cold chain capability. Similarly, India’s existing cold chain network can only handle temperatures between 2 and 8 °C (36 and 46 °F), far above the requirements of the vaccine.[145][146]

In January 2021, Pfizer and BioNTech offered to supply 50 million doses of COVID‑19 vaccine for health workers across Africa between March and the end of 2021, at a discounted price of US$10 per dose.[147]


BNT162b2 was the code name during development and testing,[17][148] tozinameran is the proposed international nonproprietary name (pINN),[149] and Comirnaty is the brand name.[1][2] According to BioNTech, the name Comirnaty “represents a combination of the terms COVID‑19, mRNA, community, and immunity.”[150][151]

The vaccine also has the common name “COVID‑19 mRNA vaccine (nucleoside-modified)”[2] and may be distributed in packaging with the name Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 Vaccine.”[152]

How the Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Works

By Jonathan Corum and Carl ZimmerUpdated Jan. 21, 2021Leer en español

The German company BioNTech partnered with Pfizer to develop and test a coronavirus vaccine known as BNT162b2, the generic name tozinameran or the brand name Comirnaty. A clinical trial demonstrated that the vaccine has an efficacy rate of 95 percent in preventing Covid-19.

A Piece of the Coronavirus

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is studded with proteins that it uses to enter human cells. These so-called spike proteins make a tempting target for potential vaccines and treatments.






Like the Moderna vaccine, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is based on the virus’s genetic instructions for building the spike protein.

mRNA Inside an Oily Shell

The vaccine uses messenger RNA, genetic material that our cells read to make proteins. The molecule — called mRNA for short — is fragile and would be chopped to pieces by our natural enzymes if it were injected directly into the body. To protect their vaccine, Pfizer and BioNTech wrap the mRNA in oily bubbles made of lipid nanoparticles.

Lipid nanoparticles

surrounding mRNA

Because of their fragility, the mRNA molecules will quickly fall apart at room temperature. Pfizer is building special containers with dry ice, thermal sensors and GPS trackers to ensure the vaccines can be transported at –94°F (–70°C) to stay viable.

Entering a Cell

After injection, the vaccine particles bump into cells and fuse to them, releasing mRNA. The cell’s molecules read its sequence and build spike proteins. The mRNA from the vaccine is eventually destroyed by the cell, leaving no permanent trace.








Translating mRNA

Three spike

proteins combine





and protein



spike protein




Some of the spike proteins form spikes that migrate to the surface of the cell and stick out their tips. The vaccinated cells also break up some of the proteins into fragments, which they present on their surface. These protruding spikes and spike protein fragments can then be recognized by the immune system.

Spotting the Intruder

When a vaccinated cell dies, the debris will contain many spike proteins and protein fragments, which can then be taken up by a type of immune cell called an antigen-presenting cell.

Debris from

a dead cell


a spike





the proteins

Presenting a

spike protein




The cell presents fragments of the spike protein on its surface. When other cells called helper T cells detect these fragments, the helper T cells can raise the alarm and help marshal other immune cells to fight the infection.

Making Antibodies

Other immune cells, called B cells, may bump into the coronavirus spikes on the surface of vaccinated cells, or free-floating spike protein fragments. A few of the B cells may be able to lock onto the spike proteins. If these B cells are then activated by helper T cells, they will start to proliferate and pour out antibodies that target the spike protein.




the B cell


surface proteins






Stopping the Virus

The antibodies can latch onto coronavirus spikes, mark the virus for destruction and prevent infection by blocking the spikes from attaching to other cells.



Killing Infected Cells

The antigen-presenting cells can also activate another type of immune cell called a killer T cell to seek out and destroy any coronavirus-infected cells that display the spike protein fragments on their surfaces.

ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELL Presenting a spike protein fragment ACTIVATED KILLER T CELL INFECTED CELL Beginning to kill the infected cell

Remembering the Virus

The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine requires two injections, given 21 days apart, to prime the immune system well enough to fight off the coronavirus. But because the vaccine is so new, researchers don’t know how long its protection might last.

First dose, 0.3ml

Second dose, 21 days later

A preliminary study found that the vaccine seems to offer strong protection about 10 days after the first dose, compared with people taking a placebo:

Cumulative incidence of Covid-19 among clinical trial participants 2.5% 2.0 People taking a placebo

1.5 1.0 Second dose First dose People taking the

Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine










Weeks after the first dose

It’s possible that in the months after vaccination, the number of antibodies and killer T cells will drop. But the immune system also contains special cells called memory B cells and memory T cells that might retain information about the coronavirus for years or even decades.

For more about the vaccine, see Pfizer’s Covid Vaccine: 11 Things You Need to Know.

Preparation and Injection

Each vial of the vaccine contains 5 doses of 0.3 milliliters. The vaccine must be thawed before injection and diluted with saline. After dilution the vial must be used within six hours.

A diluted vial of the vaccine at Royal Free Hospital in London.Jack Hill/Agence France-Presse


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  112. Jump up to:a b CDC COVID-19 Response Team, Food and Drug Administration (January 2021). “Allergic Reactions Including Anaphylaxis After Receipt of the First Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine — United States, December 14–23, 2020” (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report70 (2): 46–51. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7002e1PMC 7808711PMID 33444297.
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  116. ^ Cabanillas B, Akdis C, Novak N (December 2020). “Allergic reactions to the first COVID-19 vaccine: a potential role of Polyethylene glycol?”Allergydoi:10.1111/all.14711PMID 33320974S2CID 229284320.
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External links

“Tozinameran”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

A vial of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine
Vaccine description
Target diseaseCOVID‑19
Clinical data
Trade namesComirnaty[1][2]
Other namesBNT162b2, COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (nucleoside-modified)
License dataEU EMAby INNUS DailyMedPfizer-BioNTech_COVID-19_Vaccine
AU: B1[3]
Routes of
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only) [4][5]CA: Authorized by interim order [6][7]UK: Conditional and temporary authorization to supply [8][9]US: Unapproved (Emergency Use Authorization)[10][11][12]EU: Conditional marketing authorization granted [2]CH: Rx-only[further explanation needed][1]
CAS Number2417899-77-3
PubChem SID434370509
Part of a series on the
COVID-19 pandemic
SARS-CoV-2 (virus)COVID-19 (disease)
showInternational response
showMedical response
 COVID-19 Portal


#Tozinameran, #APPROVALS 2021,   #JAPAN 2021,  Comirnaty, #Coronavirus disease, #COVID-19, #BNT162b2 , #BNT162b2, #SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, #RNA ingredient BNT-162B2, #corona

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (Tozinameran, INN), also known as BNT162b2, is one of four advanced mRNA-based vaccines developed through “Project Lightspeed,” a joint program between Pfizer and BioNTech.2,3 Tozinameran is a nucleoside modified mRNA (modRNA) vaccine encoding an optimized full-length version of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein. It is designed to induce immunity against SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for causing COVID-19.2 The modRNA is formulated in lipid nanoparticles for administration via intramuscular injection in two doses, three weeks apart.1,3

Tozinameran is undergoing evaluation in clinical trials in both the USA (NCT04368728) and Germany (NCT04380701).4,5 Tozinameran received fast track designation by the U.S. FDA on July 13, 2020.6 On December 11, 2020, the FDA issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) based on 95% efficacy in clinical trials and a similar safety profile to other viral vaccines over a span of approximately 2 months.1 Tozinameran was granted an EUA in the UK on December 2, 2020,8 and in Canada on December 9, 20207 for active immunization against SARS-CoV-2.12

Currently, sufficient data are not available to determine the longevity of protection against COVID-19, nor direct evidence that the vaccine prevents the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from one individual to another.9 Fact sheets for caregivers, recipients, and healthcare providers are now available.10,11

Tozinameran has not yet been fully approved by any country. In both the UK and Canada, Tozinameran is indicated under an interim authorization for active immunization to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 in individuals aged 16 years and older.7,8

On December 11, 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for Tozinameran to prevent COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients aged 16 years and above.9 Safety and immune response information for adolescents 12-15 years of age will follow, and studies to further explore the administration of Tozinameran in pregnant women, children under 12 years of age, and those in special risk groups will be evaluated in the future.1

This vaccine should only be administered where appropriate medical treatment for immediate allergic reactions are immediately available in the case of an acute anaphylactic reaction after vaccine administration.12 Tozinameran administration should be postponed in any individual suffering from an acute febrile illness. Its use should be carefully considered in immunocompromised individuals and individuals with a bleeding disorder or on anticoagulant therapy. Appropriate medical treatment should be readily available in case of an anaphylactic reaction following vaccine administration.7,8

Tozinameran contains nucleoside modified mRNA (modRNA) encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles that deliver the modRNA into host cells. The lipid nanoparticle formulation facilitates the delivery of the RNA into human cells.12 Once inside these cells, the modRNA is translated by host machinery to produce the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein antigen, which is subsequently recognized by the host immune system. Tozinameran has been shown to elicit both neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses to the S protein, which helps protect against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection.7,8

Tozinameran is a nucleoside modified mRNA (modRNA) vaccine encoding an optimized full-length version of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, translated and expressed in cells in vaccinated individuals to produce the S protein antigen against which an immune response is mounted. As with all vaccines, protection cannot be guaranteed in all recipients, and full protection may not occur until at least seven days following the second dose.7,8

In U.S. clinical trials, the vaccine was 95% effective in preventing COVID-19; eight COVID-19 cases occurred in the vaccine group and 162 cases occurred in the placebo group. Of the total 170 COVID-19 cases, one case in the vaccine group and three cases in the placebo group were considered to be severe infections.1,9

  1. Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, Perez JL, Perez Marc G, Moreira ED, Zerbini C, Bailey R, Swanson KA, Roychoudhury S, Koury K, Li P, Kalina WV, Cooper D, Frenck RW Jr, Hammitt LL, Tureci O, Nell H, Schaefer A, Unal S, Tresnan DB, Mather S, Dormitzer PR, Sahin U, Jansen KU, Gruber WC: Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 10. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2034577. [PubMed:33301246]
  2. Gen Eng News: BNT162 vaccine candidates [Link]
  3. BioNTech BNT162 Update [Link]
  4. Clinical Trial NCT04368728 [Link]
  5. Clinical Trial NCT04380701 [Link]
  6. FDA fast track designation: BNT162b1 and BNT162b2 [Link]
  7. Health Canada Interim Product Monograph: BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine [Link]
  8. MHRA Interim Product Monograph: BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine [Link]
  9. FDA News Release: FDA Takes Key Action in Fight Against COVID-19 By Issuing Emergency Use Authorization for First COVID-19 Vaccine [Link]
  10. Pfizer: Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers Administering Vaccine, Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 vaccine [Link]
  11. Pfizer: Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers, Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine [Link]
  12. FDA Emergency Use Authorization: Full EUA Prescribing information, Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine [Link]
    PHASESTATUSPURPOSECONDITIONSCOUNT2Active Not RecruitingPreventionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)12, 3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)11, 2Active Not RecruitingPreventionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19)11, 2RecruitingTreatmentCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‑19) / Protection Against COVID-19 and Infections With SARS CoV 2 / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI) / RNA Virus Infections / Vaccine Adverse Reaction / Viral Infections / Virus Diseases1 




Formal Name
CAS Number 1616690-16-4
Molecular Formula   C16H16N2O6
Formula Weight 332.3
FormulationA crystalline solid
λmax233, 291, 335

2-(1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamido)acetic acid


Glycine, N-((1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-quinolinyl)carbonyl)-


ZYAN1 compound







(1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl) glycine in 98% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 333.05 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.44-0.38 (m, 2H), 0.62-0.53 (m, 2H), 1.34-1.24 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.04 (d, 2H), 4.14-4.13 (d, 2H), 7.43-7.39 (t, 1H), 7.72-7.70 (d, 1H), 7.89-7.85 (m, 1H), 8.11-8.09 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H), 12.97 (bs, 1H), 16.99 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.85%

Desidustat | C16H16N2O6 - PubChem

breakingnewspharma hashtag on Twitter

Desidustat (INN, also known as ZYAN1) is an investigational drug for the treatment of anemia of chronic kidney disease. Clinical trials on desidustat have been done in India and Australia.[1] In a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, 6-week, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, safety and efficacy study, a mean Hb increase of 1.57, 2.22, and 2.92 g/dL in Desidustat 100, 150, and 200 mg arms, respectively, was observed.[2] It is currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials.[3] Desidustat is being developed for the treatment of anemia, where currently erythropoietin and its analogues are drugs of choice. Desidustat is a prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) inhibitor. In preclinical studies, effect of desidustat was assessed in normal and nephrectomized rats, and in chemotherapy-induced anemia. Desidustat demonstrated hematinic potential by combined effects on endogenous erythropoietin release and efficient iron utilization.[4][5] Desidustat can also be useful in treatment of anemia of inflammation since it causes efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation.[6]. In January 2020, Zydus entered into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings for development and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China. Under the license agreement, CMS will pay Zydus an initial upfront payment, regulatory milestones, sales milestones and royalties on net sales of the product. CMS will be responsible for development, registration and commercialization of Desidustat in Greater China [7]




      Patent applications WO 2004041818, US 20040167123, US 2004162285, US 20040097492 and US 20040087577 describes the utility of N-arylated hydroxylamines of formula (IV), which are intermediates useful for the synthesis of certain quinolone derivatives (VI) as inhibitors of hepatitis C (HCV) polymerase useful for the treatment of HCV infection. In these references, the compound of formula (IV) was prepared using Scheme 1 which involves partial reduction of nitro group and subsequent O-alkylation using sodium hydride as a base.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The patent application WO 2014102818 describes the use of certain quinolone based compound of formula (I) as prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of anemia. Compound of formula (I) was prepared according to scheme 2 which involved partial reduction of nitro group and subsequent O-alkylation using cesium carbonate as a base.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The drawback of process disclosed in WO 2014102818 (Scheme 2) is that it teaches usage of many hazardous reagents and process requires column chromatographic purification using highly flammable solvent at one of the stage and purification at multi steps during synthesis, which is not feasible for bulk production.
Scheme 3:

 (MOL) (CDX)

 Scheme 4.

 (MOL) (CDX)

      The process for the preparation of compound of formula (I-a) comprises the following steps:

Step 1′a Process for Preparation of ethyl 2-iodobenzoate (XI-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, Ethanol (1.25 L) charged at room temperature. 2-iodobenzoic acid (250 g, 1.00 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Sulphuric acid (197.7 g, 2.01 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mixture at 20 to 35° C. The reaction mixture was heated to 80 to 85° C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 hours at 80 to 85° C. After completion of reaction distilled out ethanol at below 60° C. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature. Water (2.5 L) was then added carefully at 20 to 35° C. The reaction mixture was then charged with Ethyl acetate (1.25 L). After complete addition of ethyl acetate, reaction mixture turned to clear solution. At room temperature it was stirred for 5 to 10 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer then again extracted with ethyl acetate (1.25 L) and separated aqueous layer. Combined organic layer then washed with twice 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (2×1.25 L) and twice process water (2×1.25L) and separated aqueous layer. Organic layer then washed with 30% brine solution (2.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Concentrated ethyl acetate in vacuo to get ethyl 2-iodobenzoate in 95% yield, as an oil, which was used in next the reaction, without any further purification. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 248.75 (M+H). 1H NMR (CDCl 3): 1.41-1.37 (t, 3H), 4.41-4.35 (q, 2H), 7.71-7.09 (m, 1H), 7.39-7.35 (m, 1H), 7.94-7.39 (m, 1H), 7.96-7.96 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.27%

Step-2 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)aminolbenzoate (XII-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, toluene (1.5 L) was charged at room temperature. Copper (I) iodide (15.3 g, 0.08 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Glycine (39.1 g, 0.520 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature. Ethyl 2-iodobenzoate (221.2 g, 0.801 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Tert-butyl (cyclopropylmethoxy)carbamate (150 g, 0.801 mol) was added in one lot at room temperature. Reaction mixture was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature. Potassium carbonate (885.8 g, 6.408 mol) and ethanol (0.9 L) were added at 25° C. to 35° C. Reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was refluxed at 78 to 85° C. for 24 hours. Reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and stirred for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was then charged with ethyl acetate (1.5 L). After complete addition of ethyl acetate, reaction mixture turned to thick slurry. At room temperature it was stirred for 30 minutes and the solid inorganic material was filtered off through hyflow supercel bed. Inorganic solid impurity was washed with ethyl acetate (1.5 L), combined ethyl acetate layer was washed with twice water (2×1.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Organic layer washed with 30% sodium chloride solution (1.5 L) and separated aqueous layer. Ethyl acetate was concentrated in vacuo to get ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate in 89% yield, as an oil, which was used in next the reaction, without any further purification. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 357.93 (M+Na). 1H NMR (CDCl 3): 0.26-0.23 (m, 2H), 0.52-0.48 (m, 2H), 1.10-1.08 (m, 1H), 1.38-1.35 (t, 3H), 1.51 (s, 9H), 3.78-3.76 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 4.35-4.30 (q, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 7.29-7.25 (m, 1H), 7.49-7.47 (m, 2H), 7.78-7.77 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 88.07%

Step 3 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (XIII-a)

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly, dichloromethane (2.4 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)(cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (200 g, 0.596 mol) was charged and cooled externally with ice-salt at 0 to 10° C. Methanolic HCl (688.3 g, 3.458 mol, 18.34% w/w) solution was added slowly drop wise, over a period of 15 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature below 10° C. Reaction mixture was warmed to 20 to 30° C., and stirred at 20 to 30° C. for 3 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (3.442 L). Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turn out to light yellow coloured solution. At room temperature it was stirred for another 15 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer was again extracted with Dichloromethane (0.8 L). Combined dichloromethane layer then washed with 20% sodium chloride solution (1.0 L) and separated aqueous layer. Concentrated dichloromethane vacuo to get Ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate in 92% yield, as an oil. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 235.65 (M+H) +1H NMR (CDCl 3): 0.35-0.31 (m, 2H), 0.80-0.59 (m, 2H), 0.91-0.85 (m, 1H), 1.44-1.38 (t, 3H), 3.76-3.74 (d, 2H), 4.36-4.30 (q, 2H), 6.85-6.81 (t, 1H), 7.36-7.33 (d, 1H), 7.92-7.43 (m, 1H), 7.94-7.93 (d, 1H), 9.83 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 87.62%

Step 4 Process for the Preparation of ethyl 24N-(cyclopropylinethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate (XIV-a)

      In a 2 L fixed glass assembly, Acetonitrile (0.6 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-((cyclopropylmethoxy)amino)benzoate (120 g, 0.510 mol) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl hydrogen malonate (74.1 g, 0.561 mol) was charged at room temperature. Pyridine (161.4 g, 2.04 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mass at room temperature and cooled externally with ice-salt at 0 to 10° C. Phosphorous oxychloride (86.0 g, 0.561 mol) was added slowly drop wise, over a period of 2 hours, while maintaining internal temperature below 10° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 0 to 10° C. for 45 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (1.0 L). Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turns out to dark red coloured solution. Dichloromethane (0.672 L) was charged at room temperature and it was stirred for another 15 minutes and separated aqueous layer. Aqueous layer was again extracted with dichloromethane (0.672 L). Combined dichloromethane layer then washed with water (0.400 L) and 6% sodium chloride solution (0.400 L) and separated aqueous layer. Mixture of acetonitrile and dichloromethane was concentrated in vacuo to get Ethyl 2-(N-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate in 95% yield, as an oil. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 350.14 (M+H) l1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.3-0.2 (m, 2H), 0.6-0.4 (m, 2H), 1.10-1.04 (m, 1H), 1.19-1.15 (t, 3H), 1.29-1.25 (t, 3H), 3.72-3.70 (d, 2H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 4.17-4.12 (q, 2H), 4.25-4.19 (q, 2H), 7.44-7.42 (d, 1H), 7.50-7.46 (t, 1H), 7.68-7.64 (m, 1H), 7.76-7.74 (d, 1H). HPLC Purity: 86.74%

Step 5: Process for the Preparation of ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2 dihydroquinolline-3-carboxylate (XY-a)

      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly under Nitrogen atmosphere, Methanol (0.736 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 2-(N-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-3-ethoxy-3-oxopropanamido)benzoate (160 g, 0.457 mol) was charged at room temperature. Sodium methoxide powder (34.6 g, 0.641 mol) was added portion wise, over a period of 30 minutes, while maintaining internal temperature 10 to 20° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 10 to 20° C. for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of ˜1N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.64 L) to bring pH 2, over a period of 20 minutes, while maintaining an internal temperature 10 to 30° C. Upon completion of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution addition, the reaction mixture turned to light yellow coloured slurry. Diluted the reaction mass with water (3.02 L) and it was stirred for another 1 hour. Solid material was filtered off and washed twice with water (2×0.24 L). Dried the compound in fan dryer at temperature 50 to 55° C. for 6 hours to get crude ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmetboxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate as a solid.


      In a 10 L fixed glass assembly, DMF (0.48 L) was charged at room temperature. Crude ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (120 g) was charged at room temperature. Upon completion of addition of crude compound, clear reaction mass observed. Reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature. Precipitate the product by addition of water (4.8 L), over a period of 30 minutes, while maintaining an internal temperature 25 to 45° C. Upon completion of addition of water, the reaction mixture turned to light yellow colored slurry. Reaction mixture was stirred at 25 to 45° C. for 30 minutes. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (0.169 L). Dried the product in fan dryer at temperature 50 to 55° C. for 6 hours to get pure ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate in 81% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 303.90 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.37-0.35 (m, 2H), 0.59-0.55 (m, 2H), 1.25-1.20 (m, 1H), 1.32-1.29 (t, 3H), 3.97-3.95 (d, 2H), 4.36-4.31 (q, 2H), 7.35-7.31 (in, 1H), 7.62-7.60 (dd, 1H), 7.81-7.77 (m, 1H), 8.06-7.04 (dd, 1H). HPLC Purity: 95.52%

Step 6 Process for the Preparation of ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate (XVI-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, tetrahydrofuran (0.5 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (100 g, 0.329 mol) was charged at room temperature. Glycine ethyl ester HCl (50.7 g, 0.362 mol) was charged at room temperature. N,N-Diisopropylethyl amine (64 g, 0.494 mol) was added carefully in to reaction mass at room temperature and heated the reaction mass at 65 to 70° C. Reaction mixture was stirred at 65 to 70° C. for 18 hours. The reaction mixture was quenched with addition of water (2.5 L).
      Upon completion of water addition, the reaction mixture turns out to off white to yellow coloured slurry. Concentrated tetrahydrofuran below 55° C. in vacuo and reaction mixture was stirred at 25 to 35° C. for 1 hour. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (3×0.20 L). Dried the compound in fan dryer at temperature 55 to 60° C. for 8 hours to get crude ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate as a solid.


      In a 2 L fixed glass assembly, Methanol (1.15 L) was charged at room temperature. Crude ethyl (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycinate (100 g) was charged at room temperature. The reaction mass was heated to 65 to 70° C. Reaction mass was stirred for 1 h at 65 to 70° C. Removed heating and cool the reaction mass to 25 to 35° C. Reaction mass stirred for 1 h at 25 to 35° C. Solid material was filtered off and washed with methanol (0.105 L). The product was dried under fan dryer at temperature 55 to 60° C. for 8 hours to get pure ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate in 80% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 360.85 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.39 (m, 2H), 0.60-0.54 (m, 2H), 1.23-1.19 (t, 3H), 1.31-1.26 (m, 1H), 4.04-4.02 (d, 2H), 4.18-4.12 (q, 2H), 4.20-4.18 (d, 2H), 7.40-7.36 (m, 1H), 7.70-7.68 (d, 1H), 7.87-7.83 (m, 1H), 8.08-8.05 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.84%

Step 7: Process for the Preparation of (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine (I-a)

      In a 5 L fixed glass assembly, methanol (0.525 L) was charged at room temperature. Ethyl 1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (75 g, 0.208 mol) was charged at room temperature. Water (0.30 L) was charged at room temperature. Sodium hydroxide solution (20.8 g, 0.520 mol) in water (0.225 L) was added carefully at 30 to 40° C. Upon completion of addition of sodium hydroxide solution, the reaction mass turned to clear solution. Reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes at 30 to 40° C. Diluted the reaction by addition of water (2.1 L). Precipitate the solid by addition of hydrochloric acid solution (75 mL) in water (75 mL). Upon completion of addition of hydrochloric acid solution, the reaction mass turned to off white colored thick slurry. Reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Solid material was filtered off and washed with water (4×0.375 L). The compound was dried under fan dryer at temperature 25 to 35° C. for 6 hours and then dried for 4 hours at 50 to 60° C. to get (1-(cyclopropylmethoxy)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3-carbonyl) glycine in 98% yield, as a solid. MS (ESI-MS): m/z 333.05 (M+H) +1H NMR (DMSO-d 6): 0.44-0.38 (m, 2H), 0.62-0.53 (m, 2H), 1.34-1.24 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.04 (d, 2H), 4.14-4.13 (d, 2H), 7.43-7.39 (t, 1H), 7.72-7.70 (d, 1H), 7.89-7.85 (m, 1H), 8.11-8.09 (dd, 1H), 10.27-10.24 (t, 1H), 12.97 (bs, 1H), 16.99 (s, 1H). HPLC Purity: 99.85%

Polymorphic Data (XRPD):


  1. ^ Kansagra KA, Parmar D, Jani RH, Srinivas NR, Lickliter J, Patel HV, et al. (January 2018). “Phase I Clinical Study of ZYAN1, A Novel Prolyl-Hydroxylase (PHD) Inhibitor to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics Following Oral Administration in Healthy Volunteers”Clinical Pharmacokinetics57 (1): 87–102. doi:10.1007/s40262-017-0551-3PMC5766731PMID28508936.
  2. ^ Parmar DV, Kansagra KA, Patel JC, Joshi SN, Sharma NS, Shelat AD, Patel NB, Nakrani VB, Shaikh FA, Patel HV; on behalf of the ZYAN1 Trial Investigators. Outcomes of Desidustat Treatment in People with Anemia and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Phase 2 Study. Am J Nephrol. 2019 May 21;49(6):470-478. doi: 10.1159/000500232.
  3. ^ “Zydus Cadila announces phase III clinical trials of Desidustat”. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019 – via The Hindu BusinessLine.
  4. ^ Jain MR, Joharapurkar AA, Pandya V, Patel V, Joshi J, Kshirsagar S, et al. (February 2016). “Pharmacological Characterization of ZYAN1, a Novel Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Anemia”. Drug Research66 (2): 107–12. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1554630PMID26367279.
  5. ^ Joharapurkar AA, Pandya VB, Patel VJ, Desai RC, Jain MR (August 2018). “Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors: A Breakthrough in the Therapy of Anemia Associated with Chronic Diseases”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry61 (16): 6964–6982. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01686PMID29712435.
  6. ^ Jain M, Joharapurkar A, Patel V, Kshirsagar S, Sutariya B, Patel M, et al. (January 2019). “Pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase protects against inflammation-induced anemia via efficient erythropoiesis and hepcidin downregulation”. European Journal of Pharmacology843: 113–120. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2018.11.023PMID30458168S2CID53943666.
  7. ^ “Zydus enters into licensing agreement with China Medical System Holdings”. 20 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020 – via Business Standard.



Publication Dates
WO – 30.04.2020
Int.Class A61P 7/06Appl.No PCT/US2019/057687Applicant SCHOLAR ROCK, INC.Inventor NICHOLLS, Samantha
Selective inhibitors of repulsive guidance molecule C (RGMc), are described. Related methods, including methods for making, as well as therapeutic use of these inhibitors in the treatment of disorders, such as anemia, are also provided.
WO – 26.03.2020
Int.Class C12N 5/071Appl.No PCT/IB2019/057882Applicant UNIVERSITY HEALTH NETWORKInventor KELLER, Gordon
Disclosed herein are methods of producing a population of venous angioblast cells from stem cells using a venous angioblast inducing media and optionally isolating a CD34+ population from the cell population comprising the venous angioblast cells, for example using a CD34 affinity reagent, CD31 affinity reagent and/or CD144 affinity reagent, optionally with or without a CD73 affinity reagent as well as methods of further differentiating the venous angioblasts in vitro to produce SEC-LCs and/or in vivo to produce SECs. Uses of the cells and compositions comprising the cells are also described.
CN – 13.03.2020
Int.Class A61K 45/00Appl.No 201911014253.3Applicant PEKING UNIVERSITYInventor JIANG CHANGTAO
The invention discloses application of an HIF2alpha agonist and an ACER2 agonist in preparation of a medicine for treating and/or preventing atherosclerosis. Wherein the HIF2alpha agonist can be an adipose cell HIF2alpha agonist, and the ACER2 agonist can be a visceral fat ACER2 enzyme activator. The invention also discloses an application of Roxadustat in preparing a medicine for treating and/orpreventing atherosclerosis. The HIF2alpha agonist, the ACER2 agonist and the Roxadustat can be used for inhibiting or alleviating the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.
US – 28.11.2019
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 16421671Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LIMITEDInventor Ranjit C. Desai

The present invention relates to an improved process for the preparation of quinolone based compounds of general formula (I) using intermediate compound of general formula (XII). Invention also provides an improved process for the preparation of compound of formula (I-a) using intermediate compound of formula (XII-a) and some novel impurities generated during process. Compounds prepared using this process can be used to treat anemia.

WO – 06.09.2019
Int.Class A61F 9/00Appl.No PCT/US2019/020113Applicant THE SCHEPENS EYE RESEARCH INSTITUTEInventor SULLIVAN, David, A.
Systems and methods of treating meibomian and sebaceous gland dysfunction. The methods include reducing oxygen concentration in the environment of one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands, thereby restoring a hypoxic status of one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands. The reducing of the oxygen concentration is accomplished by restricting blood flow to the one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands and the environment of one or more dysfunctional meibomian sebaceous glands. The restricting of the blood flow is accomplished by contracting or closing one or more blood vessels around the one or more dysfunctional meibomian or sebaceous glands. The methods also include giving local or systemic drugs that lead to the generation of hypoxia-inducible factors in one or more dysfunctional meibomian and sebaceous glands.
EA – 30.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 201591195Applicant КАДИЛА ХЕЛЗКЭР ЛИМИТЕДInventor Десаи Ранджит К.

Настоящее изобретение относится к новым соединениям общей формулы (I), фармацевтическим композициям, содержащим указанные соединения, применению этих соединений для лечения состояний, опосредованных пролилгидроксилазой HIF, и к способу лечения анемии, включающему введение заявленных соединений

EP – 28.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 13828997Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LTDInventor DESAI RANJIT C
The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation. [Formula should be inserted here].
US – 22.10.2015
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No 14652024Applicant Cadila Healthcare LimitedInventor Ranjit C. Desai

The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation.

embedded image

WO – 03.07.2014
Int.Class C07D 215/58Appl.No PCT/IN2013/000796Applicant CADILA HEALTHCARE LIMITEDInventor DESAI, Ranjit, C.
The present invention relates to novel compounds of the general formula (I), their tautomeric forms, their stereoisomers, their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical compositions containing them, methods for their preparation, use of these compounds in medicine and the intermediates involved in their preparation. [Formula should be inserted here].



Clinical data
Other names ZYAN1
CAS Number
Chemical and physical data
Formula C16H16N2O6
Molar mass 332.312 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)


CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT04215120 Desidustat in the Treatment of Anemia in CKD on Dialysis Patients Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-01-02
NCT04012957 Desidustat in the Treatment of Anemia in CKD Phase 3 Recruiting 2019-12-24




Azithromycin structure.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Azithromycin | C38H72N2O12





CAS: 83905-01-5
PubChem: 51091811
ChEBI: 2955
DrugBank: DB00207
LigandBox: D07486
NIKKAJI: J134.080H
CAS Registry Number: 83905-01-5
CAS Name: (2R,3S,4R,5R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-13-[(2,6-Dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-a-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-b-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one
Additional Names: N-methyl-11-aza-10-deoxo-10-dihydroerythromycin A; 9-deoxo-9a-methyl-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A
Molecular Formula: C38H72N2O12
Molecular Weight: 748.98
Percent Composition: C 60.94%, H 9.69%, N 3.74%, O 25.63%
Literature References: Semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic; related to erythromycin A, q.v. Prepn: BE 892357; G. Kobrehel, S. Djokic, US 4517359 (1982, 1985 both to Sour Pliva); of the crystalline dihydrate: D. J. M. Allen, K. M. Nepveux, EP 298650eidemUS 6268489 (1989, 2001 both to Pfizer). Antibacterial spectrum: S. C. Aronoff et al., J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 19, 275 (1987); and mode of action: J. Retsema et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 1939 (1987). Series of articles on pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical experience: J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 31, Suppl. E, 1-198 (1993). Clinical trial in prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients: M. W. Dunne et al., Lancet 354, 891 (1999). Review of pharmacology and clinical efficacy in pediatric infections: H. D. Langtry, J. A. Balfour, Drugs 56, 273-297 (1998).
Properties: Amorphous solid, mp 113-115°. [a]D20 -37° (c = 1 in CHCl3).
Melting point: mp 113-115°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -37° (c = 1 in CHCl3)
Derivative Type: Dihydrate
CAS Registry Number: 117772-70-0
Manufacturers’ Codes: CP-62993; XZ-450
Trademarks: Azitrocin (Pfizer); Ribotrex (Fabre); Sumamed (Pliva); Trozocina (Sigma-Tau); Zithromax (Pfizer); Zitromax (Pfizer)
Properties: White crystalline powder. mp 126°. [a]D26 -41.4° (c = 1 in CHCl3).
Melting point: mp 126°
Optical Rotation: [a]D26 -41.4° (c = 1 in CHCl3)
Therap-Cat: Antibacterial.

Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.[3] This includes middle ear infectionsstrep throatpneumoniatraveler’s diarrhea, and certain other intestinal infections.[3] It can also be used for a number of sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.[3] Along with other medications, it may also be used for malaria.[3] It can be taken by mouth or intravenously with doses once per day.[3]

Common side effects include nauseavomitingdiarrhea and upset stomach.[3] An allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxisQT prolongation, or a type of diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile is possible.[3] No harm has been found with its use during pregnancy.[3] Its safety during breastfeeding is not confirmed, but it is likely safe.[4] Azithromycin is an azalide, a type of macrolide antibiotic.[3] It works by decreasing the production of protein, thereby stopping bacterial growth.[3]

Azithromycin was discovered 1980 by Pliva, and approved for medical use in 1988.[5][6] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[7] The World Health Organization classifies it as critically important for human medicine.[8] It is available as a generic medication[9] and is sold under many trade names worldwide.[2] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.18 to US$2.98 per dose.[10] In the United States, it is about US$4 for a course of treatment as of 2018.[11] In 2016, it was the 49th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 15 million prescriptions.[12]

Medical uses

Azithromycin is used to treat many different infections, including:

  • Prevention and treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. The benefits of long-term prophylaxis must be weighed on a patient-by-patient basis against the risk of cardiovascular and other adverse effects.[13]
  • Community-acquired pneumonia due to C. pneumoniaeH. influenzaeM. pneumoniae, or S. pneumoniae[14]
  • Uncomplicated skin infections due to S. aureusS. pyogenes, or S. agalactiae
  • Urethritis and cervicitis due to C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. In combination with ceftriaxone, azithromycin is part of the United States Centers for Disease Control-recommended regimen for the treatment of gonorrhea. Azithromycin is active as monotherapy in most cases, but the combination with ceftriaxone is recommended based on the relatively low barrier to resistance development in gonococci and due to frequent co-infection with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae.[15]
  • Trachoma due to C. trachomatis[16]
  • Genital ulcer disease (chancroid) in men due to H. ducrey
  • Acute bacterial sinusitis due to H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae. Other agents, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate are generally preferred, however.[17][18]
  • Acute otitis media caused by H. influenzaeM. catarrhalis or S. pneumoniae. Azithromycin is not, however, a first-line agent for this condition. Amoxicillin or another beta lactam antibiotic is generally preferred.[19]
  • Pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes as an alternative to first-line therapy in individuals who cannot use first-line therapy[20]

Bacterial susceptibility

Azithromycin has relatively broad but shallow antibacterial activity. It inhibits some Gram-positive bacteria, some Gram-negative bacteria, and many atypical bacteria.

A strain of gonorrhea reported to be highly resistant to azithromycin was found in the population in 2015. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is normally susceptible to azithromycin,[21] but the drug is not widely used as monotherapy due to a low barrier to resistance development.[15] Extensive use of azithromycin has resulted in growing Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance.[22]

Aerobic and facultative Gram-positive microorganisms

Aerobic and facultative Gram-negative microorganisms

Anaerobic microorganisms

Other microorganisms

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

No harm has been found with use during pregnancy.[3] However, there are no adequate well-controlled studies in pregnant women.[23]

Safety of the medication during breastfeeding is unclear. It was reported that because only low levels are found in breast milk and the medication has also been used in young children, it is unlikely that breastfed infants would suffer adverse effects.[4] Nevertheless, it is recommended that the drug be used with caution during breastfeeding.[3]

Airway diseases

Azithromycin appears to be effective in the treatment of COPD through its suppression of inflammatory processes.[24] And potentially useful in asthma and sinusitis via this mechanism.[25] Azithromycin is believed to produce its effects through suppressing certain immune responses that may contribute to inflammation of the airways.[26][27]

Adverse effects

Most common adverse effects are diarrhea (5%), nausea (3%), abdominal pain (3%), and vomiting. Fewer than 1% of people stop taking the drug due to side effects. Nervousness, skin reactions, and anaphylaxis have been reported.[28] Clostridium difficile infection has been reported with use of azithromycin.[3] Azithromycin does not affect the efficacy of birth control unlike some other antibiotics such as rifampin. Hearing loss has been reported.[29]

Occasionally, people have developed cholestatic hepatitis or delirium. Accidental intravenous overdose in an infant caused severe heart block, resulting in residual encephalopathy.[30][31]

In 2013 the FDA issued a warning that azithromycin “can cause abnormal changes in the electrical activity of the heart that may lead to a potentially fatal irregular heart rhythm.” The FDA noted in the warning a 2012 study that found the drug may increase the risk of death, especially in those with heart problems, compared with those on other antibiotics such as amoxicillin or no antibiotic. The warning indicated people with preexisting conditions are at particular risk, such as those with QT interval prolongation, low blood levels of potassium or magnesium, a slower than normal heart rate, or those who use certain drugs to treat abnormal heart rhythms.[32][33][34]


Mechanism of action

Azithromycin prevents bacteria from growing by interfering with their protein synthesis. It binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus inhibiting translation of mRNA. Nucleic acid synthesis is not affected.[23]


Azithromycin is an acid-stable antibiotic, so it can be taken orally with no need of protection from gastric acids. It is readily absorbed, but absorption is greater on an empty stomach. Time to peak concentration (Tmax) in adults is 2.1 to 3.2 hours for oral dosage forms. Due to its high concentration in phagocytes, azithromycin is actively transported to the site of infection. During active phagocytosis, large concentrations are released. The concentration of azithromycin in the tissues can be over 50 times higher than in plasma due to ion trapping and its high lipid solubility.[citation needed] Azithromycin’s half-life allows a large single dose to be administered and yet maintain bacteriostatic levels in the infected tissue for several days.[35]

Following a single dose of 500 mg, the apparent terminal elimination half-life of azithromycin is 68 hours.[35] Biliary excretion of azithromycin, predominantly unchanged, is a major route of elimination. Over the course of a week, about 6% of the administered dose appears as unchanged drug in urine.


A team of researchers at the pharmaceutical company Pliva in ZagrebSR CroatiaYugoslavia, — Gabrijela Kobrehel, Gorjana Radobolja-Lazarevski, and Zrinka Tamburašev, led by Dr. Slobodan Đokić — discovered azithromycin in 1980.[6] It was patented in 1981. In 1986, Pliva and Pfizer signed a licensing agreement, which gave Pfizer exclusive rights for the sale of azithromycin in Western Europe and the United States. Pliva put its azithromycin on the market in Central and Eastern Europe under the brand name Sumamed in 1988. Pfizer launched azithromycin under Pliva’s license in other markets under the brand name Zithromax in 1991.[36] Patent protection ended in 2005.[37]

Society and culture


Zithromax (azithromycin) 250 mg tablets (CA)


It is available as a generic medication.[9] The wholesale cost is about US$0.18 to US$2.98 per dose.[10] In the United States it is about US$4 for a course of treatment as of 2018.[11] In India, it is about US$1.70 for a course of treatment.[citation needed]

Available forms

Azithromycin is commonly administered in film-coated tablet, capsule, oral suspensionintravenous injection, granules for suspension in sachet, and ophthalmic solution.[2]


In 2010, azithromycin was the most prescribed antibiotic for outpatients in the US,[38] whereas in Sweden, where outpatient antibiotic use is a third as prevalent, macrolides are only on 3% of prescriptions.[39]

Solved: Using Push Arrows To Show Mechanisms, Show How To ...
Antibiotics | Free Full-Text | From Erythromycin to Azithromycin ...





  1. Jump up to:ab “Azithromycin Use During Pregnancy” 2 May 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2019.
  2. Jump up to:abcdef “Azithromycin International Brands”. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  3. Jump up to:abcdefghijklm “Azithromycin”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
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External links

Keywords: Antibacterial (Antibiotics); Macrolides.

Azithromycin structure.svg
Azithromycin 3d structure.png
Clinical data
Trade names Zithromax, Azithrocin, others[2]
Other names 9-deoxy-9α-aza-9α-methyl-9α-homoerythromycin A
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a697037
License data
  • AU: B1 [1]
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies) [1]
Routes of
By mouth (capsule, tablet or suspension), intravenouseye drop
Drug class Macrolide antibiotic
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 38% for 250 mg capsules
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 11–14 h (single dose) 68 h (multiple dosing)
Excretion Biliarykidney (4.5%)
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.126.551 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C38H72N2O12
Molar mass 748.984 g·mol−1 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

/////////AZITHROMYCIN, Antibacterial, Antibiotics,  Macrolides, CORONA VIRUS, COVID 19, アジスロマイシン ,

Substances Referenced in Synthesis Path
CAS-RN Formula Chemical Name CAS Index Name
76801-85-9 C37H70N2O12 2-deoxo-9a-aza-9a-homoerythromycin A 1-Oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one,
13-[(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-2-eth- yl-3,4,10-trihydroxy-3,5,8,10,12,14-hexamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-, [2R-(2

90503-04-1 C37H70N2O14 [2R-(2R*,3S*,4R*,5R*,8R*,10R*,11R*,12S*,
β-D-xylo-hexopyranosyl] oxy]-1-oxa-6-azacyclopentadecan-15-one
trideoxy-3-(dimethyloxidoamino)-β-Dxylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-, [2R-(2R*,3S*,4R

90503-05-2 C38H72N2O14 [2R-(2R*,3S*,4R*,5R*,8R*,10R*,11R*,12S*,
13S*,14R*)]-13-[(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl3-O-methyl-α-L-ribo-hexopyranosyl) oxy]-2-ethyl-3,4,10-trihydroxy3,5,6,8,10,12,14-heptamethyl-11-[[3,4,6-
trideoxy-3-(dimethyloxidoamino)-βD-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy]-, 6-oxide,

50-00-0 CH2O formaldehyde Formaldehyde
74-88-4 CH3I methyl iodide Methane, iodoTrade Names

Country Trade Name Vendor Annotation
D Ultreon Pfizer
Zithromax Pfizer Pharma/Gödecke/Parke-Davis
numerous generic preparations
F Azadose Pfizer
Monodose Pfizer
Zithromax Pfizer
GB Zithromax Pfizer
I Azitrocin Bioindustria
Ribotrex Pierre Fabre
Trocozina Sigma-Tau
Zithromax Pfizer
J Zithromac Pfizer
USA Azasite InSite Vision
Zithromax Pfizer as dihydrate

cps. 100 mg, 250 mg; Gran. 10%; susp. 200 mg (as dihydrate); tabl. 250 mg
Djokic, S. et al.: J. Antibiot. (JANTAJ) 40, 1006 (1987).
a DOS 3 140 449 (Pliva; appl. 12.10.1981; YU-prior. 6.3.1981).
US 4 517 359 (Pliva; 14.5.1985; appl. 22.9.1981; YU-prior. 6.3.1981).
b EP 101 186 (Pliva; appl. 14.7.1983; USA-prior. 19.7.1982, 15.11.1982).
US 4 474 768 (Pfizer; 2.10.1984; prior. 19.7.1982, 15.11.1982).
educt by ring expansion of erythromycin A oxime by Beckmann rearrangement:
Djokic, S. et al.: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 (JCPRB4) 1986, 1881-1890.
Bright, G.M. et al.: J. Antibiot. (JANTAJ) 41, 1029 (1988). US 4 328 334 (Pliva; 4.5.1982; YU-prior. 2.4.1979).
stable, non-hygroscopic dihydrate: EP 298 650 (Pfizer; appl. 28.6.1988).
medical use for treatment of protozoal infections:
US 4 963 531 (Pfizer; 16.10.1990; prior. 16.8.1988, 10.9.1987).

Molnupiravir, EIDD 2801

CID 145996610.png

EIDD 2801

Molecular Formula: C13H19N3O7
Molecular Weight: 329.31 g/mol

[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[4-(hydroxyamino)-2-oxopyrimidin-1-yl]oxolan-2-yl]methyl 2-methylpropanoate


CAS 2349386-89-4

Molnupiravir (development codes MK-4482 and EIDD-2801) is an experimental antiviral drug which is orally active (can be taken orally) and was developed for the treatment of influenza. It is a prodrug of the synthetic nucleoside derivative N4-hydroxycytidine, and exerts its antiviral action through introduction of copying errors during viral RNA replication.[1][2] Activity has also been demonstrated against coronaviruses including SARSMERS and SARS-CoV-2.[3]

The drug was developed at Emory University by the university’s drug innovation company, Drug Innovation Ventures at Emory (DRIVE). It was then acquired by Miami-based company Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, who later partnered with Merck & Co. to develop the drug further.



Safety Controversy

In April 2020, a whistleblower complaint by former Head of US Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) Rick Bright revealed concerns over providing funding for the further development of molnupiravir due to similar drugs having mutagenic properties (producing birth defects).[4] A previous company, Pharmasset, that had investigated the drug’s active ingredient had abandoned it. These claims were denied by George Painter, CEO of DRIVE, noting that toxicity studies on molnupiravir had been carried out and data provided to regulators in the US and UK, who permitted safety studies in humans to move forward in the spring of 2020. Also at this time, DRIVE and Ridgeback Biotherapeutics stated they planned future safety studies in animals.[5]


After being found to be active against SARS-CoV-2 in March 2020, molnupiravir was tested in a preliminary human study for “Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics” in healthy volunteers in the UK and US.[6] In June 2020, Ridgeback Biotherapeutics announced it was moving to Phase II trials to test the efficacy of the drug as a treatment for COVID-19.[7] Two trials of small numbers of hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in the US and the UK were underway in July.[8][9] In late July 2020, and without yet releasing any medical data, Merck, which had been partnering with Ridgeback Biotherapeutics on developing the drug, announced its intention to move molnupiravir to late stage trials beginning in September 2020.[10] On October 19 2020, Merck began a one year Stage 2/3 trial focused on hospitalized patients.[11]


WO 2019113462

Example 10: Synthesis of EIDD-2801

A 1L round bottom flask was charged with uridine (25 g, 102.38 mmol) and acetone (700 mL). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at rt. The slurry was then treated with sulfuric acid (0.27 mL, 5.12 mmol). Stirring was allowed to continue at rt for 18 hours. The reaction was quenched with 100 mL of trimethylamine and was used in the next step without further pruficication.

A 1L round bottom flask was charged with the reaction mixture from the previous reaction. Triethylamine (71.09 mL, 510.08 mmol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (0.62 g, 5.1 mmol) were then added. The flask was cooled using an ice bath and then 2-methylpropanoyl 2-methylpropanoate (17.75 g, 112.22 mmol) was slowly added. The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at rt until the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was dissolved in 600 mL ethyl acetate and washed with saturated aqueous bicarbonate solution x 2, water x 2 and brine x 2. The organics were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield a clear colorless oil. The crude product was used in the next step without further purification.

A 1L round bottom flask was charged with the crude product from above (36 g, 101.59 mmol) and MeCN (406.37 mL). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir until all the starting material was dissolved. Next, 1,2, 4-triazole (50.52 g, 731.46 mmol) was added followed by the addition of N,N-diethylethanamine (113.28 mL, 812.73 mmol). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at rt until all solids dissolved. The reaction was then cooled to 0°C using an ice bath. Phosphorous oxychloride (24.44 mL, 152.39 mmol) was added slowly. The slurry that formed was allowed to stir under argon while slowly warming to rt. The reaction was then allowed to stir until complete by TLC (EtOAc). The reaction was then quenched by the addition of lOOmL of water. The slurry then became a dark colored solution, which was

then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in DCM and washed with water and brine. The organics were then dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The product was purified by silica gel chromatography (2 x 330 g columns). All fractions containing product were collected and concentrated under reduced pressure.

A 500 mL round bottom flask was charged with the product from the previous step (11.8 g, 29.11 mmol) and isopropyl alcohol (150 mL). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at rt until all solids dissolved. Next, hydroxylamine (1.34 mL, 43.66 mmol) was added and stirring continued at ambient temperature. When the reaction was complete (HPLC) some solvent was removed under high vacuum at ambient temperature. The remaining solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 45°C. The resulting residue was dissolved in EtOAc and was washed with water and brine. The organics were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield oil. Crystals formed upon standing at rt. The crystals were collected by filtration, washed with ether x 3, and dried in vacuo to provide the product as a white solid.

A 200 mL round bottom flask was charged with the product from the previous step (6.5 g, 17.6 mmol) and formic acid (100 mL, 2085.6 mmol). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir at rt overnight. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure at 42°C to yield a clear, pale pink oil. Next, 30 mL of ethanol was added. Solvent was then removed under reduced pressure. MTBE (50 mL) was added to the solid and heated. Next, isopropyl alcohol was added and heating was continued until all solid material dissolved (5 mL). The solution was then allowed to cool and stand at rt.

A solid started to form after about lhr. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with MTBE, and dried in vacuo to yield the EIDD-2801 as a white solid. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield a sticky solid, which was dissolved in a small amount of isopropyl alcohol with heating. The solution was allowed to stand at rt overnight. A solid formed in the flask, which was collected by filtration, rinsed with isopropyl alcohol and MTBE, and dried in vacuo to an additional crop of desired product.

EIDD-2801 (25 g) was dissolved in 250 mL of isopropyl alcohol by heating to 70°C to give a clear solution. The warm solution was polish filtered and filtrate transferred to 2L three neck flask with overhead stirrer. It was warmed back to 70°C and MTBE (250 mL) was slowly added into the flask. The clear solution was seeded and allowed to cool slowly to rt with stirring for 18 hrs. The EIDD-2801 solid that formed was filtered and washed with MTBE and dried at 50°C under vacuum for l8hours. The filtrate was concentrated, redissolved in 50 mL isopropyl alcohol and 40 mL MTBE by warming to give clear solution and allowed to stand at rt to give a second crop of EIDD-2801.

Example 11: General synthesis for Deuteration

389 390

The lactone 389 (0.0325 mol) was added to a dry flask under an argon atmosphere and was then dissolved in dry THF (250 mL). The solution as then cooled to -78°C and a DIBAL-D solution in toluene (0.065 mol) was dropwise. The reaction was allowed to stir at -78°C for 3-4 hours. The reaction was then quenched with the slow addition of water (3 mL). The reaction was then allowed to stir while warming to rt. The mixture was then diluted with two volumes of diethyl ether and was then poured into an equal volume of saturated sodium potassium tartrate solution. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSCri. filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified on silica eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate. The resulting lactol 390 was then converted to an acetate or benzolyate and subjected to cytosine coupling conditions and then further elaborated to N-hydroxycytidine.


WO 2019173602


ChemRxiv (2020), 1-3.


ChemRxiv (2020), 1-2


A Concise Route to MK-4482 (EIDD-2801) from Cytidine: Part 2
Synlett (2020), Ahead of Print.


A new route to MK-4482 was developed. The route replaces uridine with the more available and less expensive cytidine. Low-cost, simple reagents are used for the chemical transformations, and the yield is improved from 17% to 44%. A step is removed from the longest linear sequence, and these advancements are expected to expand access to MK-4482 should it become a viable drug substance.

To a 20 mL vial was added N-hydroxycytidine acetonide ester 5 (0.25 g, 96% purity) followed by formic acid (4 mL). The resultant solution was stirred at room temperature for 4 h 20 min. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure and fresh EtOH (5 mL) was added. The resultant solution was again concentrated under vacuum to afford an oil. Methyl tert-butyl ether and IPA (5 mL each) were successively added as described earlier for preparation of compound 4 and concentrated to give 0.205 g of crude material (77% assay yield, 79% purity). This material was purified by silica gel column chromatography in 8 % MeOH/ Chloroform to afford 130 mg of EIDD-2801 as a solid (60% isolated yield corrected for purity, 98% purity) 1H NMR (600 MHz, CD3OD): δ 6.91 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 2H), 4.14 (t, J = 4.9 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (p, J = 4.9 Hz, 2H), 2.62 (septet, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 1.19 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 6H); 13C NMR (151 MHz, CD3OD): δ 178.6, 151.81, 146.44, 132.04, 99.84, 90.74, 82.88, 74.67, 71.80, 65.23, 35.45, 27.49, 19.65, 19.61.

One-Pot Transamination/Deprotection of 4 to EIDD-2801: To acetonide ester 4 (1.03 g, 77% Purity) in a 100 mL single neck round bottom flask was added hydroxylamine sulfate (1.09 g, 3.2 equiv.) followed by 40% IPA (20 mL prepared by mixing 12 mL of water and 8 mL of 99.5% IPA. The resultant solution was heated to 78˚C (internal temperature 72-73 ˚C) for 23 h upon which time HPLC showed the formation of EIDD-2801. Solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator and isopropanol (20 mL) was then added. The resulting slurry was sonicated for 5 minutes. The insoluble residue was then filtered and the filtrate concentrated under reduced pressure to afford crude material. (1.34 g, 38% purity, 69% assay yield). The resultant material was purified by silica gel chromatography (5-6% MeOH/DCM) to provide pure EIDD-2801 as two fractions (0.26 g, >99% purity, 36% corrected yield) as an yellow solid and 0.27 g (69.5% purity, 26% corrected yield) as a pinkish solid. The lower purity material was subjected to a second column purification again using 7% MeOH/ DCM to afford 0.137 g of material with 90% purity by NMR. The combined yield thus was estimated to be 53%. The 1H NMR spectrum of the product thus obtained matched the one obtained in the sequential approach as outlined above.





A High‐Yielding Synthesis of EIDD‐2801 from Uridine** - Steiner - -  European Journal of Organic Chemistry - Wiley Online Library

A High‐Yielding Synthesis of EIDD‐2801 from Uridine** - Steiner - -  European Journal of Organic Chemistry - Wiley Online Library

EIDD-2801 was isolated in 69% yield (307 mg) and ≥99% purity as a white
1H-NMR (300 MHz, MeOH-d4) δ 6.91 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (d, J= 4.8 Hz, 1H), 5.61 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 4.29
(d, J= 3.6 Hz, 2H), 4.15-4.07 (m, 3H), 2.62 (sept, J= 7.0 Hz, 1H), 1.18 (d, J= 7.0 Hz 6H);

13C-NMR (75 MHz,
MeOH-d4Ϳ δ 178.2, 151.5, 146.1, 131.7, 99.5, 90.4, 82.5, 74.3, 71.5, 64.9, 35.1, 19.3, 19.3. The NMR data
is in agreement with previously published values.[2] HRMS (ESI, positive mode): m/z [M + H]+
Calcd for
[C13H20N3O7 +H]+
: 330.1296, found: 330.1297.


C. Oliver Kappe, Doris Dallinger, University of Graz, Austria, and colleagues have developed an improved synthesis of EIDD-2801 from uridine (pictured below) by strategically reordering the synthetic steps. The reaction sequence starts with the activation of uridine with 1,2,4-triazole and continues with a telescoped acetonide protection/esterification and a telescoped hydroxyamination/acetonide deprotection. Telescoped reaction sequences consist of two or more than one one-pot procedures that are performed back-to-back without a work-up step in-between. A continuous flow process was used for the final acetonide deprotection, which improved selectivity and reproducibility.


Frontiers | Turning the Tide: Natural Products and Natural-Product-Inspired  Chemicals as Potential Counters to SARS-CoV-2 Infection | Pharmacology



To a solution of 5’-O-isobutyrylcytidine 4 (1.0 g, 90% purity, 2.87 mmol, 1.0 eq) in 2-propanol (15 ml), hydroxylamine sulphate (2.12 g, 12.93 mmol, 4.5 eq.) was added and reaction was stirred for 20 h at 78 C. Upon completion, the reaction was cooled to room temperature. The organic layer (upper layer) was separated from biphasic reaction mixture. The aqueous layer was washed with 2-propanol (2 X 5 mL). The combined organic layer was concentrated using rotary evaporation and the crude was purified by column chromatography with a gradient of 2-15% methanol in dichloromethane to yield EIDD-2801 (1) as a white solid (963 mg, 94% purity, 96% yield). 1H NMR (600 MHz, D2O) δ 6.98 (d, J = 8.3 Hz, 1H), 5.87 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 5.78 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 4.39 – 4.33 (m, 3H), 4.28 (dd, J = 6.6, 3.4 Hz, 2H), 2.69 (hept, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 1.17 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 3H), 1.16 (d, J = 3.7 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (126 MHz, D2O) δ 18.1, 18.2, 33.9, 48.8, 63.6, 69.6, 72.5, 81.0, 88.5, 98.8, 131.1, 151.1, 179.8 ppm; LRMS: 330.1 [M+H]+ ; HRMS (ESI): calcd. for C13H19N3O7 [M+H]+ 330.1296, found 330.1302; Purity: 94% (assessed by qNMR).

A concise route to MK-4482 (EIDD-2801) from cytidine,Chemical  Communications - X-MOL

A concise route to MK-4482 (EIDD-2801) from cytidine - Chemical  Communications (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039/D0CC05944G

image file: d0cc05944g-f2.tif
  Fig. 2 A new route to MK-4482 from cytidine.


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  2. ^ Toots M, Yoon JJ, Hart M, Natchus MG, Painter GR, Plemper RK (April 2020). “Quantitative efficacy paradigms of the influenza clinical drug candidate EIDD-2801 in the ferret model”. Translational Research218: 16–28. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2019.12.002PMID 31945316.
  3. ^ Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Zhou S, Graham RL, Pruijssers AJ, Agostini ML, et al. (April 2020). “An orally bioavailable broad-spectrum antiviral inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cell cultures and multiple coronaviruses in mice”Science Translational Medicine12 (541): eabb5883. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.abb5883PMC 7164393PMID 32253226.
  4. ^ Halford, Bethany. “An emerging antiviral takes aim at COVID-19”. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  5. ^ Cohen, Jon; Piller, Charles (13 May 2020). “Emails offer look into whistleblower charges of cronyism behind potential COVID-19 drug”. Science. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  6. ^ “COVID-19 First In Human Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of EIDD-2801 in Healthy Volunteers” Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  7. ^ “Ridgeback Biotherapeutics Announces Launch of Phase 2 Trials Testing EIDD-2801 as Potential Treatment for COVID-19”Business Wire. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  8. ^ “A Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of EIDD-2801 to Eliminate Infectious Virus Detection in Persons With COVID-19” Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  9. ^ “The Effect of EIDD-2801 on Viral Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)” Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  10. ^ Court, Emma (31 July 2020). “Merck pushes ahead on COVID-19 treatment, vaccines”. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  11. ^ ClinicaL trials register : Efficacy and Safety of Molnupiravir (MK-4482) in Hospitalized Adult Participants With COVID-19 (MK-4482-001)

Story image

Electron microscope image of SARS virus in a tissue culture isolate, courtesy of CDC Public Health Image Library.

The drug EIDD-1931 was effective against SARS and MERS viruses in the laboratory, and a modified version (EIDD-2801) could potentially be valuable against 2019-nCoV.

Emory, collaborators testing antiviral drug as potential treatment for coronaviruses


An antiviral compound discovered at Emory University could potentially be used to treat the new coronavirus associated with the outbreak in China and spreading around the globe. Drug Innovation Ventures at Emory (DRIVE), a non-profit LLC wholly owned by Emory, is developing the compound, designated EIDD-2801.

In testing with collaborators at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the active form of EIDD-2801, which is called EIDD-1931, has shown efficacy against the related coronaviruses SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)- and MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus). Some of the data was recently published in Journal of Virology.

EIDD-2801 is an oral ribonucleoside analog that inhibits the replication of multiple RNA viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, chikungunya, Ebola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, and Eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

“We have been planning to enter human clinical tests of EIDD-2801 for the treatment of influenza, and recognized that it has potential activity against the current novel coronavirus,” says George Painter, PhD, director of the Emory Institute for Drug Development (EIDD) and CEO of DRIVE. “Based on the drug’s broad-spectrum activity against viruses including influenza, Ebola and SARS-CoV/MERS-CoV, we believe it will be an excellent candidate.”

“Our studies in the Journal of Virology show potent activity of the EIDD-2801 parent compound against multiple coronaviruses including SARS and MERS,” says Mark Denison, MD, the Stahlman Professor of Pediatrics and director of pediatric infectious diseases at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.  “It also has a strong genetic barrier to development of viral resistance, and its oral bioavailability makes it a candidate for use during an outbreak.”

“Generally speaking, seasonal flu is still a much more common threat than this coronavirus, however, novel emerging coronaviruses represent a considerable threat to global health as evidenced by the new 2019-nCoV,” said Ralph Baric, PhD, an epidemiology professor at the University of North Carolina’s Gillings School of Global Public Health. “But the reason the new coronavirus is so concerning is that it’s much more likely to be deadly than the flu – fatal for about one in 25 people versus one in 1,000 for the flu.”

The development of EIDD-2801 has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from  the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), under contract numbers HHSN272201500008C and 75N93019C00058, and from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), under contract numbers HDTRA1-13-C-0072 and HDTRA1-15-C-0075, for the treatment of Influenza, coronavirus, chikungunya,  and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus.

About DRIVE:  DRIVE is a non-profit LLC wholly owned by Emory started as an innovative approach to drug development.  Operating like an early stage biotechnology company, DRIVE applies focus and industry development expertise to efficiently translate discoveries to address viruses of global concern. Learn more at:

Emory-discovered antiviral is poised for COVID-19 clinical trials

The nucleoside inhibitor has advantages over Gilead’s remdesivir but has yet to be tested in humans

Asmall-molecule antiviral discovered by Emory University chemists could soon start human testing against COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus. That’s the plan of Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, which licensed the compound, EIDD-2801, from an Emory nonprofit.

EIDD-2801 works similarly to Gilead Sciences’ remdesivir, an unapproved drug that was developed for the Ebola virus and is being studied in five Phase III trials against COVID-19. Both molecules are nucleoside analogs that metabolize into an active form that blocks RNA polymerase, an essential component of viral replication.

But remdesivir can only be given intravenously, meaning it would be difficult to deploy widely. In contrast, EIDD-2801 can be taken in pill form, says Mark Denison, a coronavirus expert and director of the infectious diseases division at Vanderbilt Medical School. Denison partnered with Emory and researchers at the University of North Carolina to test the compound against coronaviruses.


EIDD-2801 has other promising features. Many antivirals work by introducing errors into the viral genome, but, unlike other viruses, coronaviruses can fix some mistakes. In lab experiments, EIDD-2801 “was able to overcome the coronavirus proofreading function,” Denison says.

He also notes that while remdesivir and EIDD-2801 both block RNA polymerase, they appear to do it in different ways, meaning they could be complementary.

Unlike remdesivir, EIDD-2801 lacks human safety data. Ridgeback founder and CEO Wendy Holman says she expects the US Food and Drug Administration to give the green light for a Phase I study in COVID-19 infections within “weeks, not months.”

“weeks, not months.”

Clinical data
Other names MK-4482, EIDD-2801
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: Investigational drug
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H19N3O7
Molar mass 329.31 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

////////EIDD 2801, EMORY, CORONA VIRUS,  COVID 19, mk 4482, molnupiravir






CHLOROQUINE, クロロキン;Хлорохин , クロロキン , كلوروكين




Хлорохин [Russian] [INN]
クロロキン [Japanese]
كلوروكين [Arabic] [INN]
Mol weight
CAS Registry Number: 54-05-7
CAS Name: N4-(7-Chloro-4-quinolinyl)-N1,N1-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine
Additional Names: 7-chloro-4-(4-diethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)quinoline
Manufacturers’ Codes: SN-7618; RP-3377
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3
Molecular Weight: 319.87
Percent Composition: C 67.59%, H 8.19%, Cl 11.08%, N 13.14%
Literature References: Prepd by the condensation of 4,7-dichloroquinoline with 1-diethylamino-4-aminopentane: DE 683692 (1939); H. Andersag et al., US 2233970 (1941 to Winthrop); Surrey, Hammer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68, 113 (1946). Review: Hahn in Antibiotics vol. 3, J. W. Corcoran, F. E. Hahn, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975) pp 58-78. Comprehensive description: D. D. Hong, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 5, 61-85 (1976). Comparative clinical trial with dapsone in rheumatoid arthritis: P. D. Fowler et al., Ann. Rheum. Dis. 43, 200 (1984); with penicillamine: T. Gibson et al., Br. J. Rheumatol. 26, 279 (1987).
Properties: mp 87°.
Melting point: mp 87°
Image result for CHLOROQUINE
Derivative Type: Diphosphate
CAS Registry Number: 50-63-5
Trademarks: Arechin (Polfa); Avloclor (AstraZeneca); Malaquin (Ahn Gook); Resochin (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3.2H3PO4
Molecular Weight: 515.86
Percent Composition: C 41.91%, H 6.25%, Cl 6.87%, N 8.15%, P 12.01%, O 24.81%
Properties: Bitter, colorless crystals. Dimorphic. One modification, mp 193-195°; the other, mp 215-218°. Freely sol in water; pH of 1% soln about 4.5; less sol at neutral and alkaline pH. Stable to heat in solns of pH 4.0 to 6.5. Practically insol in alcohol, benzene, chloroform, ether.
Melting point: mp 193-195°; mp 215-218°
Derivative Type: Sulfate
CAS Registry Number: 132-73-0
Trademarks: Aralen (Sanofi-Synthelabo); Nivaquine (Aventis)
Molecular Formula: C18H26ClN3.H2SO4
Molecular Weight: 417.95
Percent Composition: C 51.73%, H 6.75%, Cl 8.48%, N 10.05%, S 7.67%, O 15.31%
Therap-Cat: Antimalarial; antiamebic; antirheumatic. Lupus erythematosus suppressant.
Keywords: Antiamebic; Antiarthritic/Antirheumatic; Antimalarial; Lupus Erythematosus Suppressant.

Chloroquine is a medication used primarily to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where that parasitic disease is known to remain sensitive to its effects.[1] A benefit of its use in therapy, when situations allow, is that it can be taken by mouth (versus by injection).[1] Controlled studies of cases involving human pregnancy are lacking, but the drug may be safe for use for such patients.[verification needed][1][2] However, the agent is not without the possibility of serious side effects at standard doses,[1][3] and complicated cases, including infections of certain types or caused by resistant strains, typically require different or additional medication.[1] Chloroquine is also used as a medication for rheumatoid arthritislupus erythematosus, and other parasitic infections (e.g., amebiasis occurring outside of the intestines).[1] Beginning in 2020, studies have proceeded on its use as a coronavirus antiviral, in possible treatment of COVID-19.[4]

Chloroquine, otherwise known as chloroquine phosphate, is in the 4-aminoquinoline class of drugs.[1] As an antimalarial, it works against the asexual form of the malaria parasite in the stage of its life cycle within the red blood cell.[1] In its use against rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, its activity as a mild immunosuppressive underlies its mechanism.[1] Antiviral activities, established and putative, are attributed to chloroquines inhibition of glycosylation pathways (of host receptor sialylation or virus protein post-translational modification), or to inhibition of virus endocytosis (e.g., via alkalisation of endosomes), or other possible mechanisms.[5] Common side effects resulting from these therapeutic uses, at common doses, include muscle problems,[clarification needed] loss of appetite, diarrhea, and skin rash.[clarification needed][1] Serious side effects include problems with vision (retinopathy), muscle damage, seizures, and certain anemias.[1][6]

Chloroquine was discovered in 1934 by Hans Andersag.[7][8] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[9] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.04.[10] In the United States, it costs about US$5.30 per dose.[1]

Medical uses


Distribution of malaria in the world:[11]
♦ Elevated occurrence of chloroquine- or multi-resistant malaria
♦ Occurrence of chloroquine-resistant malaria
♦ No Plasmodium falciparum or chloroquine-resistance
♦ No malaria

Chloroquine has been used in the treatment and prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivaxP. ovale, and P. malariae. It is generally not used for Plasmodium falciparum as there is widespread resistance to it.[12][13]

Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it.[14] In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations.[15]


In treatment of amoebic liver abscess, chloroquine may be used instead of or in addition to other medications in the event of failure of improvement with metronidazole or another nitroimidazole within 5 days or intolerance to metronidazole or a nitroimidazole.[16]

Rheumatic disease

As it mildly suppresses the immune system, chloroquine is used in some autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.[1]

Side effects

Side effects include blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headache, diarrhea, swelling legs/ankles, shortness of breath, pale lips/nails/skin, muscle weakness, easy bruising/bleeding, hearing and mental problems.[17][18]

  • Unwanted/uncontrolled movements (including tongue and face twitching) [17]
  • Deafness or tinnitus.[17]
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps[18]
  • Headache.[17]
  • Mental/mood changes (such as confusion, personality changes, unusual thoughts/behavior, depression, feeling being watched, hallucinating)[17][18]
  • Signs of serious infection (such as high fever, severe chills, persistent sore throat)[17]
  • Skin itchiness, skin color changes, hair loss, and skin rashes.[18][19]
    • Chloroquine-induced itching is very common among black Africans (70%), but much less common in other races. It increases with age, and is so severe as to stop compliance with drug therapy. It is increased during malaria fever; its severity is correlated to the malaria parasite load in blood. Some evidence indicates it has a genetic basis and is related to chloroquine action with opiate receptors centrally or peripherally.[20]
  • Unpleasant metallic taste
    • This could be avoided by “taste-masked and controlled release” formulations such as multiple emulsions.[21]
  • Chloroquine retinopathy
  • Electrocardiographic changes[22]
    • This manifests itself as either conduction disturbances (bundle-branch block, atrioventricular block) or Cardiomyopathy – often with hypertrophy, restrictive physiology, and congestive heart failure. The changes may be irreversible. Only two cases have been reported requiring heart transplantation, suggesting this particular risk is very low. Electron microscopy of cardiac biopsies show pathognomonic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies.
  • Pancytopeniaaplastic anemia, reversible agranulocytosislow blood plateletsneutropenia.[23]


Chloroquine has not been shown to have any harmful effects on the fetus when used for malarial prophylaxis.[24] Small amounts of chloroquine are excreted in the breast milk of lactating women. However, this drug can be safely prescribed to infants, the effects are not harmful. Studies with mice show that radioactively tagged chloroquine passed through the placenta rapidly and accumulated in the fetal eyes which remained present five months after the drug was cleared from the rest of the body.[23][25] Women who are pregnant or planning on getting pregnant are still advised against traveling to malaria-risk regions.[24]


There is not enough evidence to determine whether chloroquine is safe to be given to people aged 65 and older. Since it is cleared by the kidneys, toxicity should be monitored carefully in people with poor kidney functions.[23]

Drug interactions

Chloroquine has a number of drug-drug interactions that might be of clinical concern:[citation needed]


Chloroquine is very dangerous in overdose. It is rapidly absorbed from the gut. In 1961, a published compilation of case reports contained accounts of three children who took overdoses and died within 2.5 hours of taking the drug. While the amount of the overdose was not stated, the therapeutic index for chloroquine is known to be small.[26] One of the children died after taking 0.75 or 1 gram, or twice a single therapeutic amount for children. Symptoms of overdose include headache, drowsiness, visual disturbances, nausea and vomiting, cardiovascular collapse, seizures, and sudden respiratory and cardiac arrest.[23]

An analog of chloroquine – hydroxychloroquine – has a long half-life (32–56 days) in blood and a large volume of distribution (580–815 L/kg).[27] The therapeutic, toxic and lethal ranges are usually considered to be 0.03 to 15 mg/l, 3.0 to 26 mg/l and 20 to 104 mg/l, respectively. However, nontoxic cases have been reported up to 39 mg/l, suggesting individual tolerance to this agent may be more variable than previously recognised.[27]


Chloroquine’s absorption of the drug is rapid. It is widely distributed in body tissues. It’s protein binding is 55%.[ It’s metabolism is partially hepatic, giving rise to its main metabolite, desethylchloroquine. It’s excretion os ≥50% as unchanged drug in urine, where acidification of urine increases its elimination It has a very high volume of distribution, as it diffuses into the body’s adipose tissue.

Accumulation of the drug may result in deposits that can lead to blurred vision and blindness. It and related quinines have been associated with cases of retinal toxicity, particularly when provided at higher doses for longer times. With long-term doses, routine visits to an ophthalmologist are recommended.

Chloroquine is also a lysosomotropic agent, meaning it accumulates preferentially in the lysosomes of cells in the body. The pKa for the quinoline nitrogen of chloroquine is 8.5, meaning—in simplified terms, considering only this basic site—it is about 10% deprotonated at physiological pH (per the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation) This decreases to about 0.2% at a lysosomal pH of 4.6.Because the deprotonated form is more membrane-permeable than the protonated form, a quantitative “trapping” of the compound in lysosomes results.

Mechanism of action

Medical quinolines


Hemozoin formation in P. falciparum: many antimalarials are strong inhibitors of hemozoin crystal growth.

The lysosomotropic character of chloroquine is believed to account for much of its antimalarial activity; the drug concentrates in the acidic food vacuole of the parasite and interferes with essential processes. Its lysosomotropic properties further allow for its use for in vitro experiments pertaining to intracellular lipid related diseases,[28][29] autophagy, and apoptosis.[30]

Inside red blood cells, the malarial parasite, which is then in its asexual lifecycle stage, must degrade hemoglobin to acquire essential amino acids, which the parasite requires to construct its own protein and for energy metabolism. Digestion is carried out in a vacuole of the parasitic cell.[citation needed]

Hemoglobin is composed of a protein unit (digested by the parasite) and a heme unit (not used by the parasite). During this process, the parasite releases the toxic and soluble molecule heme. The heme moiety consists of a porphyrin ring called Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (FP). To avoid destruction by this molecule, the parasite biocrystallizes heme to form hemozoin, a nontoxic molecule. Hemozoin collects in the digestive vacuole as insoluble crystals.[citation needed]

Chloroquine enters the red blood cell by simple diffusion, inhibiting the parasite cell and digestive vacuole. Chloroquine then becomes protonated (to CQ2+), as the digestive vacuole is known to be acidic (pH 4.7); chloroquine then cannot leave by diffusion. Chloroquine caps hemozoin molecules to prevent further biocrystallization of heme, thus leading to heme buildup. Chloroquine binds to heme (or FP) to form the FP-chloroquine complex; this complex is highly toxic to the cell and disrupts membrane function. Action of the toxic FP-chloroquine and FP results in cell lysis and ultimately parasite cell autodigestion. [31] Parasites that do not form hemozoin are therefore resistant to chloroquine.[32]

Resistance in malaria[edit source]

Since the first documentation of P. falciparum chloroquine resistance in the 1950s, resistant strains have appeared throughout East and West Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. The effectiveness of chloroquine against P. falciparum has declined as resistant strains of the parasite evolved. They effectively neutralize the drug via a mechanism that drains chloroquine away from the digestive vacuole. Chloroquine-resistant cells efflux chloroquine at 40 times the rate of chloroquine-sensitive cells; the related mutations trace back to transmembrane proteins of the digestive vacuole, including sets of critical mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) gene. The mutated protein, but not the wild-type transporter, transports chloroquine when expressed in Xenopus oocytes (frog’s eggs) and is thought to mediate chloroquine leak from its site of action in the digestive vacuole.[33] Resistant parasites also frequently have mutated products of the ABC transporter P. falciparum multidrug resistance (PfMDR1) gene, although these mutations are thought to be of secondary importance compared to PfcrtVerapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, has been found to restore both the chloroquine concentration ability and sensitivity to this drug. Recently, an altered chloroquine-transporter protein CG2 of the parasite has been related to chloroquine resistance, but other mechanisms of resistance also appear to be involved.[34] Research on the mechanism of chloroquine and how the parasite has acquired chloroquine resistance is still ongoing, as other mechanisms of resistance are likely.[citation needed]

Other agents which have been shown to reverse chloroquine resistance in malaria are chlorpheniraminegefitinibimatinibtariquidar and zosuquidar.[35]


Chloroquine has antiviral effects.[36] It increases late endosomal or lysosomal pH, resulting in impaired release of the virus from the endosome or lysosome – release requires a low pH. The virus is therefore unable to release its genetic material into the cell and replicate.[37][38]

Chloroquine also seems to act as a zinc ionophore, that allows extracellular zinc to enter the cell and inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[39][40]


Chloroquine inhibits thiamine uptake.[41] It acts specifically on the transporter SLC19A3.

Against rheumatoid arthritis, it operates by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, phospholipase A2, antigen presentation in dendritic cells, release of enzymes from lysosomes, release of reactive oxygen species from macrophages, and production of IL-1.


In Peru the indigenous people extracted the bark of the Cinchona plant[42] trees and used the extract (Chinchona officinalis) to fight chills and fever in the seventeenth century. In 1633 this herbal medicine was introduced in Europe, where it was given the same use and also began to be used against malaria.[43] The quinoline antimalarial drug quinine was isolated from the extract in 1820, and chloroquine is an analogue of this.

Chloroquine was discovered in 1934, by Hans Andersag and coworkers at the Bayer laboratories, who named it “Resochin”.[44] It was ignored for a decade, because it was considered too toxic for human use. During World War II, United States government-sponsored clinical trials for antimalarial drug development showed unequivocally that chloroquine has a significant therapeutic value as an antimalarial drug. It was introduced into clinical practice in 1947 for the prophylactic treatment of malaria.[45]

Society and culture

Resochin tablet package


Chloroquine comes in tablet form as the phosphate, sulfate, and hydrochloride salts. Chloroquine is usually dispensed as the phosphate.[46]


Brand names include Chloroquine FNA, Resochin, Dawaquin, and Lariago.[47]

Other animals

Chloroquine is used to control the aquarium fish parasite Amyloodinium ocellatum.[48]



In late January 2020 during the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak, Chinese medical researchers stated that exploratory research into chloroquine and two other medications, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir, seemed to have “fairly good inhibitory effects” on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the virus that causes COVID-19. Requests to start clinical testing were submitted.[49] Chloroquine had been also proposed as a treatment for SARS, with in vitro tests inhibiting the SARS-CoV virus.[50][51]

Chloroquine has been recommended by Chinese, South Korean and Italian health authorities for the treatment of COVID-19.[52][53] These agencies noted contraindications for people with heart disease or diabetes.[54] Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, but a further study concluded that hydroxychloroquine was more potent than chloroquine, with a more tolerable safety profile.[55] Preliminary results from a trial suggested that chloroquine is effective and safe in COVID-19 pneumonia, “improving lung imaging findings, promoting a virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease course.”[56] Self-medication with chloroquine has caused one known fatality.[57]

On 24 March 2020, NBC News reported[58] a fatality due to misuse of a chloroquine product used to control fish parasites.[59]

Other viruses

In October 2004, a group of researchers at the Rega Institute for Medical Research published a report on chloroquine, stating that chloroquine acts as an effective inhibitor of the replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in vitro.[60]

Chloroquine was being considered in 2003, in pre-clinical models as a potential agent against chikungunya fever.[61]


The radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing properties of chloroquine are beginning to be exploited in anticancer strategies in humans.[62][63] In biomedicinal science, chloroquine is used for in vitro experiments to inhibit lysosomal degradation of protein products.
















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  22. ^ Tönnesmann E, Kandolf R, Lewalter T (June 2013). “Chloroquine cardiomyopathy – a review of the literature”. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology35 (3): 434–42. doi:10.3109/08923973.2013.780078PMID 23635029.
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  25. ^ Ullberg S, Lindquist NG, Sjòstrand SE (September 1970). “Accumulation of chorio-retinotoxic drugs in the foetal eye”. Nature227 (5264): 1257–8. Bibcode:1970Natur.227.1257Udoi:10.1038/2271257a0PMID 5452818.
  26. ^ Cann HM, Verhulst HL (January 1961). “Fatal acute chloroquine poisoning in children”Pediatrics27: 95–102. PMID 13690445.
  27. Jump up to:a b Molina DK (March 2012). “Postmortem hydroxychloroquine concentrations in nontoxic cases”. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology33 (1): 41–2. doi:10.1097/PAF.0b013e3182186f99PMID 21464694.
  28. ^ Chen PM, Gombart ZJ, Chen JW (March 2011). “Chloroquine treatment of ARPE-19 cells leads to lysosome dilation and intracellular lipid accumulation: possible implications of lysosomal dysfunction in macular degeneration”Cell & Bioscience1 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/2045-3701-1-10PMC 3125200PMID 21711726.
  29. ^ Kurup P, Zhang Y, Xu J, Venkitaramani DV, Haroutunian V, Greengard P, et al. (April 2010). “Abeta-mediated NMDA receptor endocytosis in Alzheimer’s disease involves ubiquitination of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP61”The Journal of Neuroscience30(17): 5948–57. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0157-10.2010PMC 2868326PMID 20427654.
  30. ^ Kim EL, Wüstenberg R, Rübsam A, Schmitz-Salue C, Warnecke G, Bücker EM, et al. (April 2010). “Chloroquine activates the p53 pathway and induces apoptosis in human glioma cells”Neuro-Oncology12 (4): 389–400. doi:10.1093/neuonc/nop046PMC 2940600PMID 20308316.
  31. ^ Hempelmann E (March 2007). “Hemozoin biocrystallization in Plasmodium falciparum and the antimalarial activity of crystallization inhibitors”. Parasitology Research100 (4): 671–6. doi:10.1007/s00436-006-0313-xPMID 17111179.
  32. ^ Lin JW, Spaccapelo R, Schwarzer E, Sajid M, Annoura T, Deroost K, et al. (June 2015). “Replication of Plasmodium in reticulocytes can occur without hemozoin formation, resulting in chloroquine resistance” (PDF)The Journal of Experimental Medicine212(6): 893–903. doi:10.1084/jem.20141731PMC 4451122PMID 25941254Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  33. ^ Martin RE, Marchetti RV, Cowan AI, Howitt SM, Bröer S, Kirk K (September 2009). “Chloroquine transport via the malaria parasite’s chloroquine resistance transporter”. Science325 (5948): 1680–2. Bibcode:2009Sci…325.1680Mdoi:10.1126/science.1175667PMID 19779197.
  34. ^ Essentials of medical pharmacology fifth edition 2003, reprint 2004, published by-Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher Ltd, 2003, KD Tripathi, pages 739,740.
  35. ^ Alcantara LM, Kim J, Moraes CB, Franco CH, Franzoi KD, Lee S, et al. (June 2013). “Chemosensitization potential of P-glycoprotein inhibitors in malaria parasites”. Experimental Parasitology134 (2): 235–43. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2013.03.022PMID 23541983.
  36. ^ Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R (November 2003). “Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases?”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases3(11): 722–7. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(03)00806-5PMID 14592603.
  37. ^ Al-Bari MA (February 2017). “Targeting endosomal acidification by chloroquine analogs as a promising strategy for the treatment of emerging viral diseases”Pharmacology Research & Perspectives5 (1): e00293. doi:10.1002/prp2.293PMC 5461643PMID 28596841.
  38. ^ Fredericksen BL, Wei BL, Yao J, Luo T, Garcia JV (November 2002). “Inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal degradation increases the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus”Journal of Virology76 (22): 11440–6. doi:10.1128/JVI.76.22.11440-11446.2002PMC 136743PMID 12388705.
  39. ^ Xue J, Moyer A, Peng B, Wu J, Hannafon BN, Ding WQ (1 October 2014). “Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore”PloS One9(10): e109180. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109180PMC 4182877PMID 25271834.
  40. ^ te Velthuis AJ, van den Worm SH, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ (November 2010). “Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture”PLoS Pathogens6 (11): e1001176. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176PMC 2973827PMID 21079686.
  41. ^ Huang Z, Srinivasan S, Zhang J, Chen K, Li Y, Li W, et al. (2012). “Discovering thiamine transporters as targets of chloroquine using a novel functional genomics strategy”PLOS Genetics8 (11): e1003083. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003083PMC 3510038PMID 23209439.
  42. ^ Fern, Ken (2010–2020). “Cinchona officinalis – L.” Plans for a FutureArchived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  43. ^ V. Kouznetsov, Vladímir (2008). “Antimalarials: construction of molecular hybrids based on chloroquine” (PDF)Universitas Scientiarum: 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020 – via scielo.
  44. ^ Krafts K, Hempelmann E, Skórska-Stania A (July 2012). “From methylene blue to chloroquine: a brief review of the development of an antimalarial therapy”. Parasitology Research111 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1007/s00436-012-2886-xPMID 22411634.
  45. ^ “The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease”. Centers for Disease Control. 29 July 2019. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010.
  46. ^ “Chloroquine” National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  47. ^ “Ipca Laboratories: Formulations – Branded”Archived from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  48. ^ Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Floyd, Maxine R. “Amyloodinium ocellatum, an Important Parasite of Cultured Marine Fish” (PDF)
  49. ^ “Could an old malaria drug help fight the new coronavirus?”asbmb.orgArchived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  50. ^ Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst M (October 2004). “In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications323 (1): 264–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085PMID 15351731.
  51. ^ Devaux CA, Rolain JM, Colson P, Raoult D. New insights on the antiviral effects of chloroquine against coronavirus: what to expect for COVID-19? Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020 Mar 11:105938. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105938 PMID 32171740
  52. ^ “Physicians work out treatment guidelines for coronavirus” (in Korean). 13 February 2020. Archivedfrom the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  53. ^ “Azioni intraprese per favorire la ricerca e l’accesso ai nuovi farmaci per il trattamento del COVID-19” (in Italian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  54. ^ “Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) dose, indications, adverse effects, interactions… from”http://www.pdr.netArchivedfrom the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  55. ^ Yao X, Ye F, Zhang M, Cui C, Huang B, Niu P, et al. (March 2020). “In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Clinical Infectious Diseasesdoi:10.1093/cid/ciaa237PMID 32150618.
  56. ^ Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X (February 2020). “Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies”Bioscience Trends14: 72–73. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01047PMID 32074550Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  57. ^ Edwards, Erika; Hillyard, Vaughn (23 March 2020). “Man dies after ingesting chloroquine in an attempt to prevent coronavirus”NBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  58. ^ “A man died after ingesting a substance he thought would protect him from coronavirus”NBC News. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  59. ^ “Banner Health experts warn against self-medicating to prevent or treat COVID-19”Banner Health (Press release). 23 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  60. ^ Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Neyts J, Van Ranst M (October 2004). “In vitro inhibition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus by chloroquine”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications323 (1): 264–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.085PMID 15351731.
  61. ^ Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R (November 2003). “Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases?”. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases3(11): 722–7. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(03)00806-5PMID 14592603.
  62. ^ Savarino A, Lucia MB, Giordano F, Cauda R (October 2006). “Risks and benefits of chloroquine use in anticancer strategies”. The Lancet. Oncology7 (10): 792–3. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70875-0PMID 17012039.
  63. ^ Sotelo J, Briceño E, López-González MA (March 2006). “Adding chloroquine to conventional treatment for glioblastoma multiforme: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”. Annals of Internal Medicine144 (5): 337–43. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-144-5-200603070-00008PMID 16520474.
    “Summaries for patients. Adding chloroquine to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme”. Annals of Internal Medicine144 (5): I31. March 2006. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-144-5-200603070-00004PMID 16520470.

External links

“Chloroquine”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Chloroquine 3D structure.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation /ˈklɔːrəkwɪn/
Trade names Aralen, other
Other names Chloroquine phosphate
AHFS/ Monograph
License data
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Metabolism Liver
Elimination half-life 1-2 months
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.175 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C18H26ClN3
Molar mass 319.872 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////CHLOROQUINE,, クロロキン, ANTIMALARIAL, COVID 19, CORONA VIRUS, Хлорохинクロロキン كلوروكين

Niclosamide, ニクロサミド , никлосамид , نيكلوساميد , 氯硝柳胺 , 




ChemSpider 2D Image | Niclosamide | C13H8Cl2N2O4



Mol weight
никлосамид [Russian] [INN]
نيكلوساميد [Arabic] [INN]
氯硝柳胺 [Chinese] [INN]
Niclosamide [BSI] [INN] [ISO] [USAN] [Wiki]
2′,5-Dichlor-4′-nitro-salizylsaeureanilid [German]
200-056-8 [EINECS]
50-65-7 [RN]

CAS Registry Number: 50-65-7

CAS Name: 5-Chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide
Additional Names: 2¢,5-dichloro-4¢-nitrosalicylanilide; 5-chloro-N-(2¢-chloro-4¢-nitrophenyl)salicylamide; 5-chlorosalicyloyl-(o-chloro-p-nitranilide); N-(2¢-chloro-4¢-nitrophenyl)-5-chlorosalicylamide
Manufacturers’ Codes: Bayer 2353
Trademarks: Cestocide (Bayer); Niclocide (Miles); Ruby (Spencer); Trédémine (RPR); Yomesan (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C13H8Cl2N2O4
Molecular Weight: 327.12
Percent Composition: C 47.73%, H 2.47%, Cl 21.68%, N 8.56%, O 19.56%
Literature References: Prepn: GB 824345 (1959 to Bayer), C.A. 54, 15822b (1960). See also: E. Schraufstätter, R. Gönnert, US 3079297; R. Strufe et al., US 3113067 (both 1963 to Bayer); Bekhli et al., Med. Prom. SSSR 1965, 25.
Properties: Pale yellow crystals, mp 225-230°. Practically insol in water. Sparingly sol in ethanol, chloroform, ether.
Melting point: mp 225-230°
Derivative Type: Ethanolamine salt
CAS Registry Number: 1420-04-8
Additional Names: Clonitrilide
Trademarks: Bayluscid (Bayer)
Molecular Formula: C13H8Cl2N2O4.C2H7NO
Molecular Weight: 388.20
Percent Composition: C 46.41%, H 3.89%, Cl 18.27%, N 10.82%, O 20.61%
Properties: Yellow-brown solid, mp 204°.
Melting point: mp 204°
Use: The ethanolamine salt as a molluscicide.
Therap-Cat: Anthelmintic (Cestodes).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Anthelmintic (Cestodes).
Keywords: Anthelmintic (Cestodes).

Niclosamide, sold under the brand name Niclocide among others, is a medication used to treat tapeworm infestations.[2] This includes diphyllobothriasishymenolepiasis, and taeniasis.[2] It is not effective against other worms such as pinworms or roundworms.[3] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and itchiness.[2] It may be used during pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby.[2] Niclosamide is in the anthelmintic family of medications.[3] It works by blocking the uptake of sugar by the worm.[4]

Niclosamide was discovered in 1958.[5] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.24 USD for a course of treatment.[7] It is not commercially available in the United States.[3] It is effective in a number of other animals.[4]

Side effects

Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness.[2] Rarely, dizziness, skin rash, drowsiness, perianal itching, or an unpleasant taste occur. For some of these reasons, praziquantel is a preferable and equally effective treatment for tapeworm infestation.[citation needed]

Mechanism of action

Niclosamide inhibits glucose uptake, oxidative phosphorylation, and anaerobic metabolism in the tapeworm.[8]

Other applications

Niclosamide’s metabolic effects are relevant to wide ranges of organisms, and accordingly it has been applied as a control measure to organisms other than tapeworms. For example, it is an active ingredient in some formulations such as Bayluscide for killing lamprey larvae,[9][10] as a molluscide,[11] and as a general purpose piscicide in aquaculture. Niclosamide has a short half-life in water in field conditions; this makes it valuable in ridding commercial fish ponds of unwanted fish; it loses its activity soon enough to permit re-stocking within a few days of eradicating the previous population.[11] Researchers have found that niclosamide is effective in killing invasive zebra mussels in cool waters.[12]


Niclosamide is being studied in a number of types of cancer.[13] Niclosamide along with oxyclozanide, another anti-tapeworm drug, was found in a 2015 study to display “strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)”.[14]


Image result for niclosamide


  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. pp. 81, 87, 591. hdl:10665/44053ISBN 9789241547659.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “Niclosamide Advanced Patient Information –”http://www.drugs.comArchived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  3. Jump up to:a b Jim E. Riviere; Mark G. Papich (13 May 2013). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1096. ISBN 978-1-118-68590-7Archived from the original on 10 September 2017.
  4. ^ Mehlhorn, Heinz (2008). Encyclopedia of Parasitology: A-M. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 483. ISBN 9783540489948Archived from the original on 2016-12-20.
  5. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  6. ^ “Niclosamide”International Drug Price Indicator GuideArchived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  7. ^ Weinbach EC, Garbus J (1969). “Mechanism of action of reagents that uncouple oxidative phosphorylation”. Nature221 (5185): 1016–8. doi:10.1038/2211016a0PMID 4180173.
  8. ^ Boogaard, Michael A. Delivery Systems of Piscicides “Request Rejected”(PDF)Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-06-01. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  9. ^ Verdel K.Dawson (2003). “Environmental Fate and Effects of the Lampricide Bayluscide: a Review”. Journal of Great Lakes Research29 (Supplement 1): 475–492. doi:10.1016/S0380-1330(03)70509-7.
  10. Jump up to:a b “WHO Specifications And Evaluations. For Public Health Pesticides. Niclosamide” (PDF).[dead link]
  11. ^ “Researchers find new methods to combat invasive zebra mussels”The Minnesota Daily. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  12. ^ “Clinical Trials Using Niclosamide”NCI. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  13. ^ Rajamuthiah R, Fuchs BB, Conery AL, Kim W, Jayamani E, Kwon B, Ausubel FM, Mylonakis E (April 2015). Planet PJ (ed.). “Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus”PLoS ONE10 (4): e0124595. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124595ISSN 1932-6203PMC 4405337PMID 25897961.

External links



Clinical data
Trade names Niclocide, Fenasal, Phenasal, others[1]
AHFS/ Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information
Routes of
By mouth
ATC code
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.052 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C13H8Cl2N2O4
Molar mass 327.119 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Melting point 225 to 230 °C (437 to 446 °F)

//////////Niclosamide ニクロサミド , никлосамидنيكلوساميد氯硝柳胺 , covid 19, corona virus

Nitazoxanide ニタゾキサニド;


Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS


Exact mass
Mol weight
CAS Registry Number: 55981-09-4
CAS Name: 2-(Acetyloxy)-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide
Additional Names: N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)salicylamide acetate (ester); 2-(2¢-acetoxy)benzamido-5-nitrothiazole
Manufacturers’ Codes: PH-5776
Trademarks: Alinia (Romark); Cryptaz (Romark)
Molecular Formula: C12H9N3O5S
Molecular Weight: 307.28
Percent Composition: C 46.90%, H 2.95%, N 13.67%, O 26.03%, S 10.44%
Literature References: Broad spectrum antiparasitic agent; inhibits pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Prepn: J. F. Rossignol, R. Cavier, DE 2438037eidem, US 3950351 (1975, 1976 both to S.P.R.L. Phavic); and antiparasitic activity: R. Cavier et al., Eur. J. Med. Chem. – Chim. Ther. 13, 539 (1978). Antibacterial spectrum in vitro: L Dubreuil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40, 2266 (1996). Toxicology: J. R. Murphy, J.-C. Friedmann, J. Appl. Toxicol. 5, 49 (1985). Clinical pharmacokinetics: A. Stockis et al., Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 34, 349 (1996). Clinical trial in intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections: H. Abaza et al., Curr. Ther. Res. 59, 116 (1998). Review of mechanism of action and clinical experience: H. M. Gilles, P. S. Hoffman, Trends Parasitol. 18, 95-97 (2002).
Properties: Light yellow crystalline powder. Crystals from methanol, mp 202°. Poorly sol in ethanol. Practically insol in water. LD50 orally in male, female mice: 1350, 1380 mg/kg; in rats: >10 g/kg (Murphy, Friedmann).
Melting point: mp 202°
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in male, female mice: 1350, 1380 mg/kg; in rats: >10 g/kg (Murphy, Friedmann)
Therap-Cat: Anthelmintic (cestodes); antiprotozoal (Cryptosporidium).
Keywords: Anthelmintic (Cestodes); Antiprotozoal (Cryptosporidium).

Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthicprotozoal, and viral infections.[4][5][6] It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza.[1][6] Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths;[4][7] emerging evidence suggests that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well.[6]

Chemically, nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, a class of drugs which are synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivatives with antiparasitic and antiviral activity.[4][6][8] Tizoxanide, an active metabolite of nitazoxanide in humans, is also an antiparasitic drug of the thiazolide class.[4][9]


Nitazoxanide is an effective first-line treatment for infection by Blastocystis species[10][11] and is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent adults and children.[1] It is also an effective treatment option for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths (e.g., Entamoeba histolytica,[12] Hymenolepis nana,[13] Ascaris lumbricoides,[14] and Cyclospora cayetanensis[15]).[7]

As of September 2015, it is in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment influenza due to its inhibitory effect on a broad range of influenza virus subtypes and efficacy against influenza viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors like oseltamivir.[6][16] Nitazoxanide is also being researched as a potential treatment for chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis Crotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis.[6]

Chronic hepatitis B

Nitazoxanide alone has shown preliminary evidence of efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B over a one-year course of therapy.[17] Nitazoxanide 500 mg twice daily resulted in a decrease in serum HBV DNA in all of 4 HBeAg-positive patients, with undetectable HBV DNA in 2 of 4 patients, loss of HBeAg in 3 patients, and loss of HBsAg in one patient. Seven of 8 HBeAg-negative patients treated with nitazoxanide 500 mg twice daily had undetectable HBV DNA and 2 had loss of HBsAg. Additionally, nitazoxanide monotherapy in one case and nitazoxanide plus adefovir in another case resulted in undetectable HBV DNA, loss of HBeAg and loss of HBsAg.[18] These preliminary studies showed a higher rate of HBsAg loss than any currently licensed therapy for chronic hepatitis B. The similar mechanism of action of interferon and nitazoxanide suggest that stand-alone nitazoxanide therapy or nitazoxanide in concert with nucleos(t)ide analogs have the potential to increase loss of HBsAg, which is the ultimate end-point of therapy. A formal phase Ⅱ study is being planned for 2009.[19]

Chronic hepatitis C

Romark initially decided to focus on the possibility of treating chronic hepatitis C with nitazoxanide.[20] The drug garnered interest from the hepatology community after three phase II clinical trials involving the treatment of hepatitis C with nitazoxanide produced positive results for treatment efficacy and similar tolerability to placebo without any signs of toxicity.[20] A meta-analysis from 2014 concluded that the previous held trials were of low-quality and with held with a risk of bias. The authors concluded that more randomized trials with low risk of bias are needed to give any determine if Nitazoxanide can be used as an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients.[21]

Clinical trials

Nitazoxanide has gone through Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin.[22][23]Romark Laboratories has announced encouraging results from international Phase I and II clinical trials evaluating a controlled release version of nitazoxanide in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The company used 675 mg and 1,350 mg twice daily doses of controlled release nitazoxanide showed favorable safety and tolerability throughout the course of the study, with mild to moderate adverse events. Primarily GI-related adverse events were reported.

A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study published in 2006, with a group of 38 young children (Lancet, vol 368, page 124-129)[24] concluded that a 3-day course of nitazoxanide significantly reduced the duration of rotavirus disease in hospitalized pediatric patients. Dose given was “7.5 mg/kg twice daily” and the time of resolution was “31 hours for those given nitazoxanide compared with 75 hours for those in the placebo group.” Rotavirus is the most common infectious agent associated with diarrhea in the pediatric age group worldwide.

Teran et al.. conducted a study at the Pediatric Center Albina Patinö, a reference hospital in the city of Cochabamba, Bolivia, from August 2007 to February 2008. The study compared nitazoxanide and probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea. They found Small differences in favor of nitazoxanide in comparison with probiotics and concluded that nitazoxanide is an important treatment option for rotavirus diarrhea.[17]

Lateef et al.. conducted a study in India that evaluated the effectiveness of nitazoxanide in the treatment of beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata) infection. They concluded that nitazoxanide is a safe, effective, inexpensive, and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata) infection.[18]

A retrospective review of charts of patients treated with nitazoxanide for trichomoniasis by Michael Dan and Jack D. Sobel demonstrated negative result. They reported three case studies; two of which with metronidazole-resistant infections. In Case 3, they reported the patient to be cured with high divided dose tinidazole therapy. They used a high dosage of the drug (total dose, 14–56 g) than the recommended standard dosage (total dose, 3 g) and observed a significant adverse reaction (poorly tolerated nausea) only with the very high dose (total dose, 56 g). While confirming the safety of the drug, they showed nitazoxanide is ineffective for the treatment of trichomoniasis.[25]


Nitazoxanide is contraindicated only in individuals who have experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to nitazoxanide or the inactive ingredients of a nitazoxanide formulation.[1]

Adverse effects

The side effects of nitazoxanide do not significantly differ from a placebo treatment for giardiasis;[1] these symptoms include stomach pain, headache, upset stomach, vomiting, discolored urine, excessive urinating, skin rash, itching, fever, flu syndrome, and others.[1][26] Nitazoxanide does not appear to cause any significant adverse effects when taken by healthy adults.[1][2]


Information on nitazoxanide overdose is limited. Oral doses of 4 grams in healthy adults do not appear to cause any significant adverse effects.[1][2] In various animals, the oral LD50 is higher than 10 g/kg.[1]


Due to the exceptionally high plasma protein binding (>99.9%) of nitazoxanide’s metabolite, tizoxanide, the concurrent use of nitazoxanide with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices (e.g., warfarin) increases the risk of drug toxicity.[1] In vitro evidence suggests that nitazoxanide does not affect the CYP450 system.[1]



The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism.[1][8] PFOR inhibition may also contribute to its activity against anaerobic bacteria.[27]

It has also been shown to have activity against influenza A virus in vitro.[28] The mechanism appears to be by selectively blocking the maturation of the viral hemagglutinin at a stage preceding resistance to endoglycosidase H digestion. This impairs hemagglutinin intracellular trafficking and insertion of the protein into the host plasma membrane.

Nitazoxanide modulates a variety of other pathways in vitro, including glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate-gated chloride ion channels in nematodes, respiration and other pathways in bacteria and cancer cells, and viral and host transcriptional factors.[27]


Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly hydrolyzed to the pharmacologically active metabolite, tizoxanide, which is 99% protein bound.[1][9] Tizoxanide is then glucuronide conjugated into the active metabolite, tizoxanide glucuronide.[1] Peak plasma concentrations of the metabolites tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucuronide are observed 1–4 hours after oral administration of nitazoxanide, whereas nitazoxanide itself is not detected in blood plasma.[1]

Roughly ​23 of an oral dose of nitazoxanide is excreted as its metabolites in feces, while the remainder of the dose excreted in urine.[1] Tizoxanide is excreted in the urinebile and feces.[1] Tizoxanide glucuronide is excreted in urine and bile.[1]



Nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, which is a drug class of structurally-related broad-spectrum antiparasitic compounds.[4] Nitazoxanide is a light yellow crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water.

Nitazoxanide was originally discovered in the 1980s by Jean-François Rossignol at the Pasteur Institute. Initial studies demonstrated activity versus tapewormsIn vitro studies demonstrated much broader activity. Dr. Rossignol co-founded Romark Laboratories, with the goal of bringing nitazoxanide to market as an anti-parasitic drug. Initial studies in the USA were conducted in collaboration with Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Marietta, GA) and focused on development of the drug for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. Controlled trials began shortly after the advent of effective anti-retroviral therapies. The trials were abandoned due to poor enrollment and the FDA rejected an application based on uncontrolled studies.

Subsequently, Romark launched a series of controlled trials. A placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in cryptosporidiosis demonstrated significant clinical improvement in adults and children with mild illness. Among malnourished children in Zambia with chronic cryptosporidiosis, a three-day course of therapy led to clinical and parasitologic improvement and improved survival. In Zambia and in a study conducted in Mexico, nitazoxanide was not successful in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in advanced infection with human immunodeficiency virus at the doses used. However, it was effective in patients with higher CD4 counts. In treatment of giardiasis, nitazoxanide was superior to placebo and comparable to metronidazole. Nitazoxanide was successful in the treatment of metronidazole-resistant giardiasis. Studies have suggested efficacy in the treatment of cyclosporiasisisosporiasis, and amebiasis.[29] Recent studies have also found it to be effective against beef tapeworm(Taenia saginata).[30]


Nitazoxanide is also under investigation for the treatment of COVID-19.[31]

Pharmaceutical products

Dosage forms

Nitazoxanide is currently available in two oral dosage forms: a tablet (500 mg) and an oral suspension (100 mg per 5 ml when reconstituted).[1]

An extended release tablet (675 mg) has been used in clinical trials for chronic hepatitis C; however, this form is not currently marketed and available for prescription.[20]

Brand names

Nitazoxanide is sold under the brand names Adonid, Alinia, Allpar, Annita, Celectan, Colufase, Daxon, Dexidex, Diatazox, Kidonax, Mitafar, Nanazoxid, Parazoxanide, Netazox, Niazid, Nitamax, Nitax, Nitaxide, Nitaz, Nizonide, NT-TOX, Pacovanton, Paramix, Toza, and Zox.


Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS


Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS

Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS


Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS


Image result for nitazoxanide SYNTHESIS



  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w “Nitazoxanide Prescribing Information” (PDF). Romark Pharmaceuticals. August 2013. pp. 1–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e Stockis A, Allemon AM, De Bruyn S, Gengler C (May 2002). “Nitazoxanide pharmacokinetics and tolerability in man using single ascending oral doses”. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther40 (5): 213–220. doi:10.5414/cpp40213PMID 12051573.
  3. ^ “Nitazoxanide”PubChem Compound. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e Di Santo N, Ehrisman J (2013). “Research perspective: potential role of nitazoxanide in ovarian cancer treatment. Old drug, new purpose?”Cancers (Basel)5 (3): 1163–1176. doi:10.3390/cancers5031163PMC 3795384PMID 24202339Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity against a wide variety of protozoa and helminths.  … Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a main compound of a class of broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds named thiazolides. It is composed of a nitrothiazole-ring and a salicylic acid moiety which are linked together by an amide bond … NTZ is generally well tolerated, and no significant adverse events have been noted in human trials [13]. … In vitro, NTZ and tizoxanide function against a wide range of organisms, including the protozoal species Blastocystis hominis, C. parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, G. lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis [13]
  5. ^ White CA (2004). “Nitazoxanide: a new broad spectrum antiparasitic agent”. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther2 (1): 43–9. doi:10.1586/14787210.2.1.43PMID 15482170.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e f Rossignol JF (October 2014). “Nitazoxanide: a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent”. Antiviral Res110: 94–103. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.014PMID 25108173Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. … From a chemical perspective, nitazoxanide is the scaffold for a new class of drugs called thiazolides. These small-molecule drugs target host-regulated processes involved in viral replication. … A new dosage formulation of nitazoxanide is presently undergoing global Phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors. … Nitazoxanide also inhibits the replication of a broad range of other RNA and DNA viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, coronavirus, rotavirus, norovirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture assays. Clinical trials have indicated a potential role for thiazolides in treating rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis and chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C. Ongoing and future clinical development is focused on viral respiratory infections, viral gastroenteritis and emerging infections such as dengue fever.
  7. Jump up to:a b Anderson, V. R.; Curran, M. P. (2007). “Nitazoxanide: A review of its use in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections”. Drugs67(13): 1947–1967. doi:10.2165/00003495-200767130-00015PMID 17722965Nitazoxanide is effective in the treatment of protozoal and helminthic infections … Nitazoxanide is a first-line choice for the treatment of illness caused by C. parvum or G. lamblia infection in immunocompetent adults and children, and is an option to be considered in the treatment of illnesses caused by other protozoa and/or helminths.
  8. Jump up to:a b Sisson G1, Goodwin A, Raudonikiene A, Hughes NJ, Mukhopadhyay AK, Berg DE, Hoffman PS. (July 2002). “Enzymes associated with reductive activation and action of nitazoxanide, nitrofurans, and metronidazole in Helicobacter pylori”Antimicrob. Agents Chemother46 (7): 2116–23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002PMC 127316PMID 12069963Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a redox-active nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide
  9. Jump up to:a b Korba BE, Montero AB, Farrar K, et al. (January 2008). “Nitazoxanide, tizoxanide and other thiazolides are potent inhibitors of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus replication”. Antiviral Res77 (1): 56–63. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.08.005PMID 17888524.
  10. ^ “Blastocystis: Resources for Health Professionals”. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-05-02. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  11. ^ Roberts T, Stark D, Harkness J, Ellis J (May 2014). “Update on the pathogenic potential and treatment options for Blastocystis sp”Gut Pathog6: 17. doi:10.1186/1757-4749-6-17PMC 4039988PMID 24883113Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protists of humans. … A recent study showed that 100% of people from low socio-economic villages in Senegal were infected with Blastocystis sp. suggesting that transmission was increased due to poor hygiene sanitation, close contact with domestic animals and livestock, and water supply directly from well and river [10]. …
    Table 2: Summary of treatments and efficacy for Blastocystis infection
  12. ^ Muñoz P, Valerio M, Eworo A, Bouza E (2011). “Parasitic infections in solid-organ transplant recipients”Curr Opin Organ Transplant16 (6): 565–575. doi:10.1097/MOT.0b013e32834cdbb0PMID 22027588. Retrieved 7 January 2016Nitazoxanide: intestinal amoebiasis: 500 mg po bid x 3 days
  13. ^ “Hymenolepiasis: Resources for Health Professionals”. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-05-02. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  14. ^ Hagel I, Giusti T (October 2010). “Ascaris lumbricoides: an overview of therapeutic targets”Infectious Disorders – Drug Targets10 (5): 349–67. doi:10.2174/187152610793180876PMID 20701574new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials.
  15. ^ Shoff WH (5 October 2015). Chandrasekar PH, Talavera F, King JW (eds.). “Cyclospora Medication”Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 11 January 2016Nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole derivative with broad-spectrum activity against helminths and protozoans, has been shown to be effective against C cayetanensis, with an efficacy 87% by the third dose (first, 71%; second 75%). Three percent of patients had minor side effects.
  16. ^ Li TC, Chan MC, Lee N (September 2015). “Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza”Viruses7 (9): 4929–4944. doi:10.3390/v7092850PMC 4584294PMID 26389935Oral nitazoxanide is an available, approved antiparasitic agent (e.g., against cryptosporidium, giardia) with established safety profiles. Recently, it has been shown (together with its active metabolite tizoxanide) to possess anti-influenza activity by blocking haemagglutinin maturation/trafficking, and acting as an interferon-inducer [97]. … A large, multicenter, Phase 3 randomized-controlled trial comparing nitazoxanide, oseltamivir, and their combination in uncomplicated influenza is currently underway (NCT01610245).
    Figure 1: Molecular targets and potential antiviral treatments against influenza virus infection
  17. Jump up to:a b Teran, C. G.; Teran-Escalera, C. N.; Villarroel, P. (2009). “Nitazoxanide vs. Probiotics for the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea in children: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in Bolivian children”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases13(4): 518–523. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2008.09.014PMID 19070525.
  18. Jump up to:a b Lateef, M.; Zargar, S. A.; Khan, A. R.; Nazir, M.; Shoukat, A. (2008). “Successful treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm infection with nitazoxanide”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases12 (1): 80–82. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2007.04.017PMID 17962058.
  19. ^ World Journal of Gastroenterology 2009 April 21, Emmet B Keeffe MD, Professor, Jean-François Rossignol The Romark Institute for Medical Research, Tampa
  20. Jump up to:a b c Keeffe, E. B.; Rossignol, J. F. (2009). “Treatment of chronic viral hepatitis with nitazoxanide and second generation thiazolides”World Journal of Gastroenterology15 (15): 1805–1808. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.1805PMC 2670405PMID 19370775.
  21. ^ Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit; Jakobsen, Janus C (2014). “Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD009182. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009182.pub2ISSN 1465-1858PMID 24706397.
  22. ^ “Romark Initiates Clinical Trial Of Alinia For Chronic Hepatitis C In The United States” (Press release). Medical News Today. August 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  23. ^ Franciscus, Alan (October 2, 2007). “Hepatitis C Treatments in Current Clinical Development”. HCV Advocate. Archived from the original on September 6, 2003. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  24. ^ Rossignol, Jean-François; Abu-Zekry, Mona; Hussein, Abeer; Santoro, M Gabriella (2006). “Effect of nitazoxanide for treatment of severe rotavirus diarrhoea: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial”. The Lancet368 (9530): 124–9. CiteSeerX 16829296.
  25. ^ Dan, M.; Sobel, J. D. (2007). “Failure of Nitazoxanide to Cure Trichomoniasis in Three Women”. Sexually Transmitted Diseases34 (10): 813–4. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31802f5d9aPMID 17551415.
  26. ^ “Nitazoxanide”MedlinePlus. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  27. Jump up to:a b Shakya, A; Bhat, HR; Ghosh, SK (2018). “Update on Nitazoxanide: A Multifunctional Chemotherapeutic Agent”. Current Drug Discovery Technologies15 (3): 201–213. doi:10.2174/1570163814666170727130003PMID 28748751.
  28. ^ Rossignol, J. F.; La Frazia, S.; Chiappa, L.; Ciucci, A.; Santoro, M. G. (2009). “Thiazolides, a New Class of Anti-influenza Molecules Targeting Viral Hemagglutinin at the Post-translational Level”Journal of Biological Chemistry284 (43): 29798–29808. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.029470PMC 2785610PMID 19638339.
  29. ^ White Jr, AC (2003). “Nitazoxanide: An important advance in anti-parasitic therapy”. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg68 (4): 382–383. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.382PMID 12875283.
  30. ^ Lateef, M.; Zargar, S. A.; Khan, A. R.; Nazir, M.; Shoukat, A. (2008). “Successful treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm infection with nitazoxanide”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases12 (1): 80–2. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2007.04.017PMID 17962058.
  31. ^ Cynthia Liu, Qiongqiong Zhou, Yingzhu Li, Linda V. Garner, Steve P. Watkins, Linda J. Carter, Jeffrey Smoot, Anne C. Gregg, Angela D. Daniels, Susan Jervey, Dana Albaiu. Research and Development on Therapeutic Agents and Vaccines for COVID-19 and Related Human Coronavirus Diseases. ACS Central Science 2020; doi:10.1021/acscentsci.0c00272

External links

Clinical data
Trade names Alinia, Nizonide, and others
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a603017
License data
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Routes of
Drug class Antiprotozoal
Broad-spectrum antiparasitic
Broad-spectrum antiviral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding Nitazoxanide: ?
Tizoxanide: over 99%[1][2]
Metabolism Rapidly hydrolyzed to tizoxanide[1]
Metabolites tizoxanide[1][2]
tizoxanide glucuronide[1][2]
Elimination half-life 3.5 hours[3]
Excretion Renalbiliary, and fecal[1]
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.054.465 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C12H9N3O5S
Molar mass 307.283 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////nitazoxanide, corona virus, covid 19



ChemSpider 2D Image | Galidesivir | C11H15N5O3


  • Molecular FormulaC11H15N5O3
  • Average mass265.268 Da
галидесивир [Russian] [INN]
غاليديسيفير [Arabic] [INN]
加利司韦 [Chinese] [INN]
Galidesivir [INN]
(2S,3S,4R,5R)-2-(4-amino- 5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin- 7-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidine-3,4-diol
(2S,3S,4R,5R)-2-(4-Amino-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-7-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-pyrrolidinediol [ACD/IUPAC Name]
222631-44-9 [RN]
249503-25-1 [RN]
3,4-Pyrrolidinediol, 2-(4-amino-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-7-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-, (2S,3S,4R,5R)- [ACD/Index Name]
BCX4430 [Wiki]



222631-44-9, BCX-4430 (HCL salt form of galidesivir)


Galidesivir (BCX4430Immucillin-A) is an antiviral drug, an adenosine analog[1] (a type of nucleoside analog).[2] It is developed by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals with funding from NIAID, originally intended as a treatment for hepatitis C, but subsequently developed as a potential treatment for deadly filovirus infections such as Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease.

It also shows broad-spectrum antiviral effectiveness against a range of other RNA virus families, including bunyavirusesarenavirusesparamyxovirusescoronavirusesflaviviruses and phleboviruses.[3] BCX4430 has been demonstrated to protect against both Ebola and Marburg viruses in both rodents and monkeys, even when administered up to 48 hours after infection,[1] and development for use in humans was then being fast-tracked due to concerns about the lack of treatment options for the 2013-2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.[4]

BCX4430 later showed efficacy against Zika virus in a mouse model, though there are no plans for human trials at this stage.[5]

Galidesivir is one of several antiviral drugs being tested for coronavirus disease 2019.[6]

Image result for Galidesivir SYNTHESIS


Image result for Galidesivir SYNTHESIS



When any new virus emerges, drug and vaccine developers spring into action, searching for products to stop it in its tracks. Drug discovery campaigns launch, vaccine development efforts ramp up, and everyone mobilizes to get it all into the clinic as quickly as possible.

The current pandemic, driven by a coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2, is no different. Already, a Phase I study of an mRNA-based vaccine developed by Moderna has begun, and major pharma companies and small biotechs are working on other types of vaccines. But even if they work, the most optimistic timelines put a vaccine a year to 18 months away.

The more immediate approach to an outbreak is to scour the medicine cabinet for existing molecules that could be repurposed against a new virus. The most advanced potential treatment is Gilead Sciences’ remdesivir, an antiviral discovered during the 2014 Ebola epidemic. The compound is already being tested in four, Phase III trials—two in China and two in the US—against the respiratory disease COVID-19. Gilead expects the first dataset from those studies to come out in April.

A new paper from CAS explored remdesivir and other possible options the cabinet might contain (ACS Cent. Sci. 2020, DOI: 10.1021/acscentsci.0c00272). CAS, a division of the American Chemical Society, which publishes C&EN, looked at the landscape of patent and journal articles covering small molecules, antibodies, and other therapeutic classes to identify therapies with potential activity against COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2, belongs to the same family as two coronaviruses responsible for earlier outbreaks, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Because all three feature structurally similar proteins that allow entry into and replication inside host cells, CAS searched for patent data related to those more well-studied coronaviruses.

C&EN has assembled the relevant small molecules identified by CAS, which can be explored by the stage in the viral life cycle they aim to disrupt.


Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US7390890 Inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism 2007-08-23 2008-06-24
US7211653 Inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism 2005-02-03 2007-05-01
US6803455 Inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism 2003-05-22 2004-10-12
US6492347 Inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism 2002-05-23 2002-12-10
US6228847 Inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism 2001-05-08
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US6066722 Inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism 2000-05-23


  1. Jump up to:a b Warren TK, Wells J, Panchal RG, Stuthman KS, Garza NL, Van Tongeren SA, et al. (April 2014). “Protection against filovirus diseases by a novel broad-spectrum nucleoside analogue BCX4430” (PDF)Nature508 (7496): 402–5. Bibcode:2014Natur.508..402Wdoi:10.1038/nature13027PMID 24590073.
  2. ^ Kamat SS, Burgos ES, Raushel FM (October 2013). “Potent inhibition of the C-P lyase nucleosidase PhnI by Immucillin-A triphosphate”Biochemistry52 (42): 7366–8. doi:10.1021/bi4013287PMC 3838859PMID 24111876.
  3. ^ Westover JB, et al. Galidesivir limits Rift Valley fever virus infection and disease in Syrian golden hamsters. Antiviral Res. 2018 Aug;156:38-45. Westover, J. B.; Mathis, A.; Taylor, R.; Wandersee, L.; Bailey, K. W.; Sefing, E. J.; Hickerson, B. T.; Jung, K. H.; Sheridan, W. P.; Gowen, B. B. (2018). “Galidesivir limits Rift Valley fever virus infection and disease in Syrian golden hamsters”Antiviral Research156: 38–45. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.05.013PMC 6035881PMID 29864447.
  4. ^ Rodgers P (8 April 2014). “BioWar Lab Helping To Develop Treatment For Ebola”Forbes Magazine.
  5. ^ Julander JG, Siddharthan V, Evans J, Taylor R, Tolbert K, Apuli C, et al. (January 2017). “Efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound BCX4430 against Zika virus in cell culture and in a mouse model”Antiviral Research137: 14–22. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.11.003PMC 5215849PMID 27838352.
  6. ^ Praveen Duddu. Coronavirus outbreak: Vaccines/drugs in the pipeline for Covid-19. 19 February 2020.


Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C11H15N5O3
Molar mass 265.268 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////Galidesivir, Immucillin-A, OLF97F86A7, UNII:OLF97F86A7, галидесивирغاليديسيفير加利司韦 , BCX4430, BCX 4430, CORONAVIRUS, COVID 19



Hydroxychloroquine, ヒドロキシクロロキン, гидроксихлорохин , هيدروكسيكلوروكين , 羟氯喹 ,

ChemSpider 2D Image | hydroxychloroquine | C18H26ClN3O


sulphate 747-36-4
Mol weight


гидроксихлорохин [Russian] [INN]
هيدروكسيكلوروكين [Arabic] [INN]
羟氯喹 [Chinese] [INN]
Oxychlorochin, Plaquenil Plaquenil®, 

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria.[2] Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria.[3] Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritislupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] It is also being used as an experimental treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[4]

Common side effects include vomitingheadache, changes in vision and muscle weakness.[2] Severe side effects may include allergic reactions.[2] Although all risk cannot be excluded it remains a treatment for rheumatic disease during pregnancy.[5] Hydroxychloroquine is in the antimalarial and 4-aminoquinoline families of medication.[2]

Hydroxychloroquine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955.[2] It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[6] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$4.65 per month as of 2015, when used for rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.[7] In the United States the wholesale cost of a month of treatment is about US$25 as of 2020.[8] In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about £ 5.15.[9] In 2017, it was the 128th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than five million prescriptions.[10]

Medical use

Hydroxychloroquine treats malaria, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic disorders like rheumatoid arthritisporphyria cutanea tarda, and Q fever.[2]

In 2014, its efficacy to treat Sjögren syndrome was questioned in a double-blind study involving 120 patients over a 48-week period.[11]

Hydroxychloroquine is widely used in the treatment of post-Lyme arthritis. It may have both an anti-spirochaete activity and an anti-inflammatory activity, similar to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.[12]


The drug label advises that hydroxychloroquine should not be prescribed to individuals with known hypersensitivity to 4-Aminoquinoline compounds.[13] There are a range of other contraindications[14] [15] and caution is required if patients have certain heart conditions, diabetes, psoriasis etc.

Side effects[

The most common adverse effects are a mild nausea and occasional stomach cramps with mild diarrhea. The most serious adverse effects affect the eye, with dose-related retinopathy as a concern even after hydroxychloroquine use is discontinued.[2] For short-term treatment of acute malaria, adverse effects can include abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heart problems, reduced appetite, headache, nausea and vomiting.[2]

For prolonged treatment of lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, adverse effects include the acute symptoms, plus altered eye pigmentation, acneanemia, bleaching of hair, blisters in mouth and eyes, blood disorders, convulsions, vision difficulties, diminished reflexes, emotional changes, excessive coloring of the skin, hearing loss, hives, itching, liver problems or liver failureloss of hair, muscle paralysis, weakness or atrophy, nightmares, psoriasis, reading difficulties, tinnitus, skin inflammation and scaling, skin rash, vertigoweight loss, and occasionally urinary incontinence.[2] Hydroxychloroquine can worsen existing cases of both psoriasis and porphyria.[2]

Children may be especially vulnerable to developing adverse effects from hydroxychloroquine.[2]


One of the most serious side effects is retinopathy (generally with chronic use).[2][16] People taking 400 mg of hydroxychloroquine or less per day generally have a negligible risk of macular toxicity, whereas the risk begins to go up when a person takes the medication over 5 years or has a cumulative dose of more than 1000 grams. The daily safe maximum dose for eye toxicity can be computed from one’s height and weight using this calculator. Cumulative doses can also be calculated from this calculator. Macular toxicity is related to the total cumulative dose rather than the daily dose. Regular eye screening, even in the absence of visual symptoms, is recommended to begin when either of these risk factors occurs.[17]

Toxicity from hydroxychloroquine may be seen in two distinct areas of the eye: the cornea and the macula. The cornea may become affected (relatively commonly) by an innocuous cornea verticillata or vortex keratopathy and is characterized by whorl-like corneal epithelial deposits. These changes bear no relationship to dosage and are usually reversible on cessation of hydroxychloroquine.

The macular changes are potentially serious. Advanced retinopathy is characterized by reduction of visual acuity and a “bull’s eye” macular lesion which is absent in early involvement.


Due to rapid absorption, symptoms of overdose can occur within a half an hour after ingestion. Overdose symptoms include convulsions, drowsiness, headache, heart problems or heart failure, difficulty breathing and vision problems.

Hydroxychloroquine overdoses are rarely reported, with 7 previous cases found in the English medical literature. In one such case, a 16-year-old girl who had ingested a handful of hydroxychloroquine 200mg presented with tachycardia (heart rate 110 beats/min), hypotension (systolic blood pressure 63 mm Hg), central nervous system depression, conduction defects (ORS = 0.14 msec), and hypokalemia (K = 2.1 meq/L). Treatment consisted of fluid boluses and dopamine, oxygen, and potassium supplementation. The presence of hydroxychloroquine was confirmed through toxicologic tests. The patient’s hypotension resolved within 4.5 hours, serum potassium stabilized in 24 hours, and tachycardia gradually decreased over 3 days.[18]


The drug transfers into breast milk and should be used with care by pregnant or nursing mothers.[citation needed]

Care should be taken if combined with medication altering liver function as well as aurothioglucose (Solganal), cimetidine (Tagamet) or digoxin (Lanoxin). HCQ can increase plasma concentrations of penicillamine which may contribute to the development of severe side effects. It enhances hypoglycemic effects of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents. Dose altering is recommended to prevent profound hypoglycemiaAntacids may decrease the absorption of HCQ. Both neostigmine and pyridostigmine antagonize the action of hydroxychloroquine.[19]

While there may be a link between hydroxychloroquine and hemolytic anemia in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, this risk may be low in those of African descent.[20]

Specifically, the FDA drug label for hydroxychloroquine lists the following drug interactions [13]:

  • Digoxin (wherein it may result in increased serum digoxin levels)
  • Insulin or antidiabetic drugs (wherein it may enhance the effects of a hypoglycemic treatment)
  • Drugs that prolong QT interval and other arrhythmogenic drugs (as Hydroxychloroquine prolongs the QT interval and may increase the risk of inducing ventricular arrhythmias if used concurrently)
  • Mefloquine and other drugs known to lower the convulsive threshold (co-administration with other antimalarials known to lower the convulsion threshold may increase risk of convulsions)
  • Antiepileptics (concurrent use may impair the antiepileptic activity)
  • Methotrexate (combined use is unstudied and may increase the frequency of side effects)
  • Cyclosporin (wherein an increased plasma cylcosporin level was reported when used together).



Hydroxychloroquine has similar pharmacokinetics to chloroquine, with rapid gastrointestinal absorption and elimination by the kidneys. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2D62C83A4 and 3A5) metabolize hydroxychloroquine to N-desethylhydroxychloroquine.[21]


Antimalarials are lipophilic weak bases and easily pass plasma membranes. The free base form accumulates in lysosomes (acidic cytoplasmic vesicles) and is then protonated,[22] resulting in concentrations within lysosomes up to 1000 times higher than in culture media. This increases the pH of the lysosome from 4 to 6.[23] Alteration in pH causes inhibition of lysosomal acidic proteases causing a diminished proteolysis effect.[24] Higher pH within lysosomes causes decreased intracellular processing, glycosylation and secretion of proteins with many immunologic and nonimmunologic consequences.[25] These effects are believed to be the cause of a decreased immune cell functioning such as chemotaxisphagocytosis and superoxide production by neutrophils.[26] HCQ is a weak diprotic base that can pass through the lipid cell membrane and preferentially concentrate in acidic cytoplasmic vesicles. The higher pH of these vesicles in macrophages or other antigen-presenting cells limits the association of autoantigenic (any) peptides with class II MHC molecules in the compartment for peptide loading and/or the subsequent processing and transport of the peptide-MHC complex to the cell membrane.[27]

Mechanism of action

Hydroxychloroquine increases[28] lysosomal pH in antigen-presenting cells. In inflammatory conditions, it blocks toll-like receptors on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs).[citation needed] Hydroxychloroquine, by decreasing TLR signaling, reduces the activation of dendritic cells and the inflammatory process. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR 9) recognizes DNA-containing immune complexes and leads to the production of interferon and causes the dendritic cells to mature and present antigen to T cells, therefore reducing anti-DNA auto-inflammatory process.

In 2003, a novel mechanism was described wherein hydroxychloroquine inhibits stimulation of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 family receptors. TLRs are cellular receptors for microbial products that induce inflammatory responses through activation of the innate immune system.[29]

As with other quinoline antimalarial drugs, the mechanism of action of quinine has not been fully resolved. The most accepted model is based on hydrochloroquinine and involves the inhibition of hemozoin biocrystallization, which facilitates the aggregation of cytotoxic heme. Free cytotoxic heme accumulates in the parasites, causing their deaths.[citation needed]

Brand names

It is frequently sold as a sulfate salt known as hydroxychloroquine sulfate.[2] 200 mg of the sulfate salt is equal to 155 mg of the base.[2]

Brand names of hydroxychloroquine include Plaquenil, Hydroquin, Axemal (in India), Dolquine, Quensyl, Quinoric.[30]



Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been recommended by Chinese and South Korean health authorities for the experimental treatment of COVID-19.[31][32] In vitro studies in cell cultures demonstrated that hydroxychloroquine was more potent than chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2.[33]

On 17 March 2020, the AIFA Scientific Technical Commission of the Italian Medicines Agency expressed a favorable opinion on including the off-label use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.[34]



Image result for hydroxychloroquine


white solid (0.263 g, 78%). 1H NMR
(600 MHz, CDCl3
) δ 8.48 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.34 (dd, J = 8.8, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.96 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.70 (sx,J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (m, 2H), 2.57 (m, 5H), 2.49 (m, 2H),
1.74–1.62 (m, 1H), 1.65–1.53 (m, 3H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H),
1.24 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H);

13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3) δ 152.2,
149.5, 149.2, 135.0, 129.0, 125.4, 121.2, 117.4, 99.4, 58.6, 54.9,
53.18, 48.5, 47.9, 34.5, 24.1, 20.6, 11.9. Spectra were obtained
in accordance with those previously reported [38,39].

38. Cornish, C. A.; Warren, S. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1 1985,
2585–2598. doi:10.1039/P19850002585
39. Münstedt, R.; Wannagat, U.; Wrobel, D. J. Organomet. Chem. 1984,
264, 135–148. doi:10.1016/0022-328X(84)85139-6




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  6. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  7. ^ “Single Drug Information | International Medical Products Price Guide”. Retrieved 31 December 2019.[dead link]
  8. ^ “NADAC as of 2019-08-07”Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved 19 March 2020Typical dose is 600mg per day. Costs 0.28157 per dose. Month has about 30 days.
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  12. ^ Steere, AC; Angelis, SM (October 2006). “Therapy for Lyme Arthritis: Strategies for the Treatment of Antibiotic-refractory Arthritis”. Arthritis and Rheumatism54 (10): 3079–86. doi:10.1002/art.22131PMID 17009226.
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  14. ^ “Plaquenil (hydroxychl