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St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) can keep you happy

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St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) – This herb is often used to treat mild to moderate depression. It is especially helpful to patients who do not respond well to SSRI medication (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). This herb can limit the effectiveness of some prescription medications, though, so double check with your doctor before taking it. A 2009 systematic review of 29 international studies suggested that St. John’s Wort may be better than a placebo (an inactive substance that appears identical to the study substance) and as effective as standard prescription antidepressants for major depression of mild to moderate severity.

Hypericum perforatum
Saint johns wart flowers.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Hypericaceae
Genus: Hypericum
Species: H. perforatum
Binomial name
Hypericum perforatum
L.

Hypericum perforatum, also known as St John’s wort, is a flowering plant species of the genus Hypericum and a medicinal herb that is sold over-the-counter as a treatment for depression.[1][2] Other names for it include Tipton’s weedrosin rosegoatweedchase-devil, or Klamath weed.[1] With qualifiers, St John’s wort is used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. Therefore, H. perforatum is sometimes called common St John’s wort or perforate St John’s wort to differentiate it. Hypericum is classified in the family Hypericaceae, having previously been classified as Guttiferae or Clusiaceae.[3][4] Approximately 370 species of the genus Hypericum exist worldwide with a native geographical distribution including temperate and subtropical regions of EuropeTurkeyUkraineRussia, Middle East, India, andChina.

 

 

Botanical description

Translucent dots on the leaves

Hypericum perforatum is a yellow-flowering, stoloniferous or sarmentoseperennial herb indigenous to Europe. It has been introduced to many temperate areas of the world and grows wild in many meadows. The herb’s common name comes from its traditional flowering and harvesting on St John‘s day, 24 June. The genus name Hypericum is derived from the Greek words hyper (above) and eikon (picture), in reference to the plant’s traditional use in warding off evil by hanging plants over a religious icon in the house during St John’s day. Thespecies name perforatum refers to the presence of small oil glands in the leaves that look like windows, which can be seen when they are held against the light.[1]

St John’s wort is a perennial plant with extensive, creeping rhizomes. Its stems are erect, branched in the upper section, and can grow to 1 m high. It has opposing, stalkless, narrow, oblong leaves that are 12 mm long or slightly larger. The leaves are yellow-green in color, with transparent dots throughout the tissue and occasionally with a few black dots on the lower surface.[1] Leaves exhibit obvious translucent dots when held up to the light, giving them a ‘perforated’ appearance, hence the plant’s Latin name.

Its flowers measure up to 2.5 cm across, have five petals, and are colored bright yellow with conspicuous black dots. The flowers appear in broad cymes at the ends of the upper branches, between late spring and early to mid summer. The sepals are pointed, with glandular dots in the tissue. There are many stamens, which are united at the base into three bundles. The pollen grains are ellipsoidal.[1]

When flower buds (not the flowers themselves) or seed pods are crushed, a reddish/purple liquid is produced.

Ecology

St John’s wort reproduces both vegetatively and sexually. It thrives in areas with either a winter- or summer-dominant rainfall pattern; however, distribution is restricted by temperatures too low for seed germination or seedling survival. Altitudes greater than 1500 m, rainfall less than 500 mm, and a daily mean January (in Southern hemisphere) temperature greater than 24 degrees C are considered limiting thresholds. Depending on environmental and climatic conditions, and rosette age, St John’s wort will alter growth form and habit to promote survival. Summer rains are particularly effective in allowing the plant to grow vegetatively, following defoliation by insects or grazing.

The seeds can persist for decades in the soil seed bank, germinating following disturbance.[5]

Invasive species

Although Hypericum perforatum is grown commercially in some regions of south east Europe, it is listed as a noxious weed in more than twenty countries and has introduced populations in South and North America, IndiaNew ZealandAustralia, and South Africa.[5] In pastures, St John’s wort acts as both a toxic and invasive weed.[6] It replaces nativeplant communities and forage vegetation to the dominating extent of making productive land nonviable[citation needed] or becoming an invasive species in natural habitats andecosystems. Ingestion by livestock can cause photosensitization, central nervous system depression, spontaneous abortion, and can lead to death. Effective herbicides for control of Hypericum include 2,4-D, picloram, and glyphosate. In western North America three beetles Chrysolina quadrigeminaChrysolina hyperici and Agrilus hyperici have been introduced as biocontrol agents.

Medical uses

Major depressive disorder

St John’s wort is widely known as a herbal treatment for depression. In some countries, such as Germany, it is commonly prescribed for mild to moderate depression, especially in children and adolescents.[7] Specifically, Germany has a governmental organization called Commission E which regularly performs rigorous studies on herbal medicine. It is proposed that the mechanism of action of St. John’s wort is due to the inhibition of reuptake of certain neurotransmitters.[1] The best studied chemical components of the plant are hypericin and pseudohypericin.

An analysis of twenty-nine clinical trials with more than five thousand patients was conducted by Cochrane Collaboration. The review concluded that extracts of St John’s wort were superior to placebo in patients with major depression. St John’s wort had similar efficacy to standard antidepressants. The rate of side-effects was half that of newer SSRIantidepressants and one-fifth that of older tricyclic antidepressants.[8] A report[8] from the Cochrane Review states:

The available evidence suggests that the Hypericum extracts tested in the included trials a) are superior to placebo in patients with major depression; b) are similarly effective as standard antidepressants; and c) have fewer side-effects than standard antidepressants.

However the report also noted that some of the studies they reviewed may have been flawed or biased, as “results from German-language countries are considerably more favourable for Hypericum than trials from other countries”. The authors did not know the reason for this discrepancy.

 

Other medical uses

St John’s wort is being studied for effectiveness in the treatment of certain somatoform disorders. Results from the initial studies are mixed and still inconclusive; some research has found no effectiveness, other research has found a slight lightening of symptoms. Further study is needed and is being performed.

A major constituent chemical, hyperforin, may be useful for treatment of alcoholism, although dosage, safety and efficacy have not been studied.[9][10] Hyperforin has also displayed antibacterial properties against Gram-positive bacteria, although dosage, safety and efficacy has not been studied.[11] Herbal medicine has also employed lipophilic extracts from St John’s wort as a topical remedy for wounds, abrasions, burns, and muscle pain.[10] The positive effects that have been observed are generally attributed to hyperforin due to its possible antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects.[10] For this reason hyperforin may be useful in the treatment of infected wounds and inflammatory skin diseases.[10] In response to hyperforin’s incorporation into a new bath oil, a study to assess potential skin irritation was conducted which found good skin tolerance of St John’s wort.[10]

randomized controlled trial of St John’s wort found no significant difference between it and placebo in the management of ADHD symptoms over eight weeks. However, the St John’s wort extract used in the study, originally confirmed to contain 0.3% hypericin, was allowed to degrade to levels of 0.13% hypericin and 0.14% hyperforin. Given that the level of hyperforin was not ascertained at the beginning of the study, and levels of both hyperforin and hypericin were well below that used in other studies, little can be determined based on this study alone.[12] Hypericin and pseudohypericin have shown both antiviral and antibacterial activities. It is believed that these molecules bind non-specifically to viral and cellular membranes and can result in photo-oxidation of the pathogens to kill them.[1]

A research team from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) published a study entitled “Hypericum perforatum. Possible option against Parkinson’s disease”, which suggests that St John’s wort has antioxidant active ingredients that could help reduce the neuronal degeneration caused by the disease.[13][14][15][16]

Recent evidence suggests that daily treatment with St John’s wort may improve the most common physical and behavioural symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome.[17]

St John’s wort was found to be less effective than placebo, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.[18]

St John’s wort alleviated age-related long-term memory impairment in rats.[19]

Adverse effects and drug interactions

St John’s wort is generally well tolerated, with an adverse effect profile similar to placebo.[20] The most common adverse effects reported are gastrointestinal symptoms, dizziness, confusion, tiredness and sedation.[21][22] It also decreases the levels of estrogens, such as estradiol, by speeding up its metabolism, and should not be taken by women oncontraceptive pills as it upregulates the CYP3A4 cytochrome of the P450 system in the liver.[23]

St John’s wort may rarely cause photosensitivity. This can lead to visual sensitivity to light and to sunburns in situations that would not normally cause them.[20] Related to this, recent studies concluded that the extract reacts with light, both visible and ultraviolet, to produce free radicals, molecules that can damage the cells of the body. These can react with vital proteins in the eye that, if damaged, precipitate out, causing cataracts.[24] Another study found that in low concentrations, St. John’s wort inhibits free radical production in both cell-free and human vascular tissue, revealing antioxidant properties of the compound. The same study found pro-oxidant activity at the highest concentration tested.[25]

St John’s wort is associated with aggravating psychosis in people who have schizophrenia.[26]

Consumption of St. John’s wort is discouraged for those with bipolar disorder. There is concern that people with major depression taking St. John’s wort may be at a higher risk for mania.[27]

While St. John’s wort shows some promise in treating children, it is advised that it is only done with medical supervision. [27]

Pharmacokinetic interactions

St John’s wort has been shown to cause multiple drug interactions through induction of the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, and CYP1A2 (females only). This drug-metabolizing enzyme induction results in the increased metabolism of certain drugs, leading to decreased plasma concentration and potential clinical effect.[28] The principal constituents thought to be responsible are hyperforin and amentoflavone.

St John’s wort has also been shown to cause drug interactions through the induction of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter. Increased P-gp expression results in decreased absorption and increased clearance of certain drugs, leading to lower plasma concentration and potential clinical efficacy.[29]

Examples of drugs causing clinically significant interactions with St John’s wort
Class Drugs
Antiretrovirals Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorsprotease inhibitors
Benzodiazepines Alprazolammidazolam
Hormonal contraception Combined oral contraceptives
Immunosuppressants Calcineurin inhibitorscyclosporinetacrolimus
Antiarrhythmics Amiodaroneflecainidemexiletine
Beta-blockers Metoprololcarvedilol
Calcium channel blockers Verapamildiltiazemamlodipine
Statins (cholesterol-reducing medications) Lovastatinsimvastatinatorvastatin
Others Digoxinmethadoneomeprazolephenobarbitaltheophyllinewarfarinlevodopabuprenorphineirinotecan
Reference: Rossi, 2005; Micromedex

For a complete list, see CYP3A4 ligands and CYP2C9 ligands. For further updating on interactions and appropriate management, see Herbological.com – St John’s Wort Interactions table (outdated since 2005).

Pharmacodynamic interactions

In combination with other drugs that may elevate 5-HT (serotonin) levels in the central nervous system (CNS), St John’s wort may contribute to serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction.[30]

Drugs that may contribute to serotonin syndrome with St John’s wort
Class Drugs
Antidepressants MAOIsTCAsSSRIsSNRIsmirtazapine
Opioids Tramadolmeperidine (pethidine), Levorphanol
CNS stimulants Phenterminediethylpropionamphetaminessibutraminecocaine
5-HT1 agonists Triptans
Psychedelic drugs Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin / psilocinMescaline and virtually every serotonergic psychedelic.
Others Selegilinetryptophanbuspironelithiumlinezolid5-HTPdextromethorphan
Reference:[30]

Detection in body fluids

Hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperforin may be quantitated in plasma as confirmation of usage and to estimate the dosage. These three active substituents have plasma elimination half-lives within a range of 15–60 hours in humans. None of the three has been detected in urine specimens.[31]

Chemical constituents

The plant contains the following:[32][33]

The naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin are thought to be among the numerous active constituents.[1][34][35][36]It also contains essential oils composed mainly of sesquiterpenes.[1]

Mechanism of action

St. John’s wort (SJW), similarly to other herbal products, contains a whole host of different chemical constituents that may be pertinent to its therapeutic effects.[32] Hyperforin andadhyperforin, two phloroglucinol constituents of SJW, is a TRPC6 receptor agonist and, consequently, it induces noncompetitive reuptake inhibitor of monoamines (specifically,dopaminenorepinephrine, and serotonin), GABA, and glutamate when it activates this receptor.[2][37][38] It inhibits reuptake of these neurotransmitters by increasing intracellularsodium ion concentrations.[2] Moreover, SJW is known to downregulate the β1 adrenoceptor and upregulate postsynaptic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, both of which are a type of serotonin receptor.[2] Other compounds may also play a role in SJW’s antidepressant effects such compounds include: oligomeric procyanidinesflavonoids (quercetin),hypericin, and pseudohypericin.[2][39][40][41]

In humans, the active ingredient hyperforin is a monoamine reuptake inhibitor which also acts as an inhibitor of PTGS1Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseSLCO1B1 and an inducer ofcMOAT. Hyperforin is also a powerful anti-inflammatory compound with anti-angiogenicantibiotic, and neurotrophic properties.[37][38][42][43] Hyperforin also has an antagonistic effect on NMDA receptors, a type of glutamate receptor.[42] According to one study, hyperforin content correlates with therapeutic effect in mild to moderate depression.[44]Moreover, a hyperforin-free extract of St John’s wort (Remotiv) may still have significant antidepressive effects.[45][46] The limited existing literature on adhyperforin suggests that, like hyperforin, it is a reuptake inhibitor of monoamines, GABA, and glutamate.[47]

Livestock

Poisoning

In large doses, St John’s wort is poisonous to grazing livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, horses).[6] Behavioural signs of poisoning are general restlessness and skin irritation. Restlessness is often indicated by pawing of the ground, headshaking, head rubbing, and occasional hindlimb weakness with knuckling over, panting, confusion, and depression. Mania and hyperactivity may also result, including running in circles until exhausted. Observations of thick wort infestations by Australian graziers include the appearance of circular patches giving hillsides a ‘crop circle’ appearance, it is presumed, from this phenomenon. Animals typically seek shade and have reduced appetite. Hypersensitivity to water has been noted, and convulsions may occur following a knock to the head. Although general aversion to water is noted, some may seek water for relief.

Severe skin irritation is physically apparent, with reddening of non-pigmented and unprotected areas. This subsequently leads to itch and rubbing, followed by further inflammation, exudation, and scab formation. Lesions and inflammation that occur are said to resemble the conditions seen in foot and mouth disease. Sheep have been observed to have face swelling, dermatitis, and wool falling off due to rubbing. Lactating animals may cease or have reduced milk production; pregnant animals may abort. Lesions onudders are often apparent. Horses may show signs of anorexiadepression (with a comatose state), dilated pupils, and injected conjunctiva.

Diagnosis[edit]

Increased respiration and heart rate is typically observed while one of the early signs of St John’s wort poisoning is an abnormal increase in body temperature. Affected animals will lose weight, or fail to gain weight; young animals are more affected than old animals. In severe cases death may occur, as a direct result of starvation, or because of secondary disease or septicaemia of lesions. Some affected animals may accidentally drown. Poor performance of suckling lambs (pigmented and non-pigmented) has been noted, suggesting a reduction in the milk production, or the transmission of a toxin in the milk.

Photosensitisation[edit]

Most clinical signs in animals are caused by photosensitisation.[96] Plants may induce either primary or secondary photosensitisation:

  • primary photosensitisation directly from chemicals contained in ingested plants
  • secondary photosensitisation from plant-associated damage to the liver.

Araya and Ford (1981) explored changes in liver function and concluded there was no evidence of Hypericum-related effect on the excretory capacity of the liver, or any interference was minimal and temporary. However, evidence of liver damage in blood plasma has been found at high and long rates of dosage.

Photosensitisation causes skin inflammation by a mechanism involving a pigment or photodynamic compound, which when activated by a certain wavelength of light leads tooxidation reactions in vivo. This leads to lesions of tissue, particularly noticeable on and around parts of skin exposed to light. Lightly covered or poorly pigmented areas are most conspicuous. Removal of affected animals from sunlight results in reduced symptoms of poisoning.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links

 

What is it?

St. John’s wort is an herb. Its flowers and leaves are used to make medicine.St. John’s wort is most commonly used for depression and conditions that sometimes go along with depression such as anxiety, tiredness, loss of appetite and trouble sleeping. There is some strong scientific evidence that it is effective for mild to moderate depression.

Other uses include heart palpitations, moodiness and other symptoms of menopause, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

St. John’s wort has been tried for exhaustion, stop-smoking help, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), migraine and other types of headaches, muscle pain, nerve pain, and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used for cancer, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis C.

An oil can be made from St. John’s wort. Some people apply this oil to their skin to treat bruises and scrapes, inflammation and muscle pain, first degree burns, wounds, bug bites, hemorrhoids, and nerve pain. But applying St. John’s wort directly to the skin is risky. It can cause serious sensitivity to sunlight.

St. John’s wort is native to Europe but is commonly found in the US and Canada in the dry ground of roadsides, meadows, and woods. Although not native to Australia and long considered a weed, St. John’s wort is now grown there as a crop. Today, Australia produces 20 percent of the world’s supply.

The use of St. John’s wort dates back to the ancient Greeks. Hippocrates recorded the medical use of St. John’s wort flowers. St. John’s wort was given its name because it blooms about June 24th, the birthday of John the Baptist. “Wort” is an old English word for plant.

France has banned the use of St. John’s wort products. The ban appears to be based on a report issued by the French Health Product Safety Agency warning of significant interactions between St. John’s wort and some medications. Several other countries, including Japan, the United Kingdom, and Canada, are in the process of including drug-herb interaction warnings on St. John’s wort products.

The active ingredients in St. John’s wort can be deactivated by light. That’s why you will find many products packaged in amber containers. The amber helps, but it doesn’t offer total protection against the adverse effects of light.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.The effectiveness ratings for ST. JOHN’S WORT are as follows:

 

Likely effective for…

  • Mild to moderate depression. Taking St. John’s wort extracts improves mood, and decreases anxiety and insomnia related to depression. It seems to be about as effective in treating depression as many prescription drugs. In fact, clinical guidelines from the American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine suggest that St. John’s wort can be considered an option along with antidepressant medications for short-term treatment of mild depression. However, since St. John’s wort does not appear to be more effective or significantly better tolerated than antidepressant medications, and since St. John’s wort causes many drug interactions, the guidelines suggest it might not be an appropriate choice for many people, particularly those who take other medications. St. John’s wort might not be as effective for more severe cases of depression.

Possibly effective for…

  • Menopausal symptoms. Some research shows that a combination of St. John’s wort plus black cohosh can help improve menopausal symptoms.
  • The conversion of mental experiences or states into bodily symptoms (somatization disorder). Treatment with St. John’s wort seems to reduce symptoms after 6 weeks of treatment.
  • Wound healing. Some research shows that applying a specific St. John’s wort ointment (Gol-Daru Company) three times daily for 16 days improves wound healing and reduces scar formation after a cesarean section.

Possibly ineffective for…

  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Taking a St. John’s wort extract for 8 weeks does not seem to improve symptoms of ADHD in children ages 6-17 years.
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
  • HIV/AIDS.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • Pain conditions related to diabetes (polyneuropathy.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for…

  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). There is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness of St. John’s wort for OCD. The reason for contradictory findings could be due to differences in study design, differences in the St. John’s wort products used, or other factors.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). There is preliminary evidence that St. John’s wort might help reduce PMS symptoms, by even as much as 50% in some women.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Early studies suggest that St. John’s wort might help SAD. It appears to improve symptoms of anxiety, decreased sex drive, and sleep disturbances associated with SAD. It is useful alone or in combination with light therapy.
  • Smoking cessation. Research to date suggests that taking a specific St. John’s wort extract (LI-160, Lichtwer Pharma US) 300 mg once or twice daily starting 1 week before and continuing for 3 months after quitting smoking does not improve long-term quit rates.
  • Stomach upset.
  • Bruises.
  • Skin conditions.
  • Migraine headache.
  • Nerve pain.
  • Sciatica.
  • Excitability.
  • Fibromyalgia.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Muscle pain.
  • Cancer.
  • Weight loss.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate St. John’s wort for these uses.

How does it work?

For a long time, investigators thought a chemical in St. John’s wort called hypericin was responsible for its effects against depression. More recent information suggests another chemical, hyperforin, may play a larger role in depression. Hypericin and hyperforin act on chemical messengers in the nervous system that regulate mood.
Are there safety concerns?
St. John’s wort is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term. It can cause some side effects such as trouble sleeping, vivid dreams, restlessness, anxiety, irritability, stomach upset, fatigue, dry mouth, dizziness, headache, skin rash, diarrhea, and tingling. Take St. John’s wort in the morning or lower the dose if it seems to be causing sleep problems.St. John’s wort seems to be safe when used in children under 12 years of age for up to 6 weeks.

However, St. John’s wort is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large doses. It might cause severe reactions to sun exposure. Wear sun block outside, especially if you are light-skinned.

Not enough is known about the safety of St. John’s wort when it is applied to the skin. To be safe, don’t use it topically.

St. John’s wort interacts with many drugs (see the section below). Let your healthcare provider know if you want to take St. John’s wort. Your healthcare provider will want to review your medications to see if there could be any problems.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: St. John’s wort is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken during pregnancy. There is some evidence that it can cause birth defects in unborn rats. No one yet knows whether it has the same effect in unborn humans. Nursing infants of mothers who take St. John’s wort can experience colic, drowsiness, and listlessness. Until more is known, don’t use St. John’s wort if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Infertility: There are some concerns that St. John’s wort might interfere with conceiving a child. If you are trying to conceive, don’t use St. John’s wort, especially if you have known fertility problems.

Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): There is some concern that St. John’s wort might worsen symptoms of ADHD, especially in people taking the medication methylphenidate for ADHD. Until more is known, don’t use St. John’s wort if you are taking methylphenidate.

Bipolar disorder: People with bipolar disorder cycle between depression and mania, a state marked by excessive physical activity and impulsive behavior. St. John’s wort can bring on mania in these individuals and can also speed up the cycling between depression and mania.

Major depression: In people with major depression, St. John’s wort might bring on mania, a state marked by excessive physical activity and impulsive behavior.

Schizophrenia: St. John’s wort might bring on psychosis in some people with schizophrenia.

Alzheimer’s disease: There is concern that St. John’s wort might contribute to dementia in people with Alzheimer’s disease.

Anesthesia and surgery: Use of anesthesia in people who have used St. John’s wort for six months may lead to serious heart complications during surgery. Stop using St. John’s wort at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.


3 Comments

  1. […] your skin.Midnight Armor-Hiking companion balm.Bridal make up, Σωτηρία Λαζαρίδου !St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) can keep you happybody { background: […]

  2. Ron says:

    The first and the last picture is not correct.
    It are pictures from domesticated garden plants. Look at wikipedia.
    kindly regards
    Ron

  3. Denice says:

    %first_paragraphFarsightedness is a condition where mostly far objects are seen fully, but not closer items. This problem happens as a result of having eyeballs which are very short or corneas which aren’t curved enough. Those who suffer from nearsightedness experience the opposite; the nearer the objects are, the clearer they come into focus as relatively far objects get blurred. Nearsighted individuals have elongated eyeballs or overly curved corneas. Astigmatism happens to those who have blurred eyesight caused by irregularly shaped corneas or irregularly arced lens. The above mentioned disorders cause the light penetrating the eye not to focus properly on the retina, causing improperly sent electrical impulses from the retina to the brain, eventually triggering vision problems.

    All eye doctors have supporters who are known as an optician. But dont confuse these two kinds of eye doctors with the opticians. This kind of eye doctor can simply perform standard eye tests, prescribe reading glasses as well as contact lenses to patients but arent licensed to carry out eye surgeries.

    No matter how personally-charming the optometrist can be, but, if he or she does not possess the right tools and equipment, there is no guarantee that the diagnosis of your condition was correctly made. To find someone like this, you will have to rely on personal experiences and encounters of others. The best optometrist is also someone who is equipped with the latest technology. You may also do this and ask recommendations from other people using the Internet. Ask your friends whom they can recommend and their reasons why.

    You can begin by looking through the phone book and check the names of various eye doctors in Miami. Or if you are Internet savvy, there is no better way than an Internet search. They will have an eye exam for all ages so if your kids have vision problems or eye complications then you should get an eye checkup for them. Some eye doctors in Miami have a family practice so you can take your kids there too. If the eye doctor is open to receiving new patients then you should easily be able to get an appointment for an eye exam. If you have relatives and friends who wear eye glasses, perhaps you could speak to them and find out which optometrist in Miami they visit. Today, it is not at all difficult to find a good optometrist in Miami.

    It is for this reason that only specialists like an Austin optometrist are allowed to determine suitability for contact lens wear to any individual. The use of contact lenses is not without complications. If one suffers any defects in vision, he or she must go through a comprehensive set of eye examinations first before he or she can be fitted with corrective contact lenses.

    Whatever happens in Sundays Community Shield against Chelsea, it is only the beginning and birth of one of United latest talents, and I feel we will be hearing of Federico ‘Kiko’ Macheda for many years to come!

    Cosmetic dentistry helps in taking care of the dental problems and also beautifies the teeth. A Lethbridge dentist, who uses high end technology for dental care, gives the maximum importance to a positive experience in terms of treatment and education after the treatment is the right choice. Cosmetic dentistry can cure crooked teeth, stained or discolored teeth, uneven spaces, chipped teeth, decayed teeth, broken or fractured teeth or take care of whitening treatment. Apart from regular dental problems, many people visit a Lethbridge dentist for cosmetic dentistry as well.

    The problem, however, lies in finding taper equipment rentals that do not disappoint in the essence that you will have quality and reliable services whenever you need it from the rental company. Larger or more standard equipment should have up to 24hours rental period. Make sure that the contract clearly stipulates this duration to avoid confusion once you rent out the equipment. Find out any other charges that may be imposed by the equipment rental. You need to, first, check the rental time offered by the equipment rental.

    For those people who can see fairly well, the penalty that one has to pay for poor eye health may not cross their minds. A good optometrist in Miami can assist you in addressing many an eye problem fast and effectively and if you already have a history with one then it is time critical. Accidents can happen any time and we can also lose vision as a part of the aging process. Even if you do not make use of eye glasses or contact lenses, you still need to go to one of the eye doctors in Miami as we all need to have our eyes checked on a regular basis immaterial of any past medical history. But the fact that you can see well today does not ascertain that you will be able to see well tomorrow.

    They are instrumental in detecting systemic conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure, which affect the vision of patients. Thus, patients who need to approach the optometrists for eyewear or vision problems must research the reputation and expertise of the practitioner to enjoy quality care. Sometimes, optometrists even provide post-operative care to patients who have had corrective surgery or cataract operations. Optometrists prescribe medications in case of vision problems. Optometrists refer patients to ophthalmologists or other doctors if needed.%

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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