New Drug Approvals

Home » Uncategorized » TAUROLIDINE

TAUROLIDINE

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Categories

Recent Posts

Blog Stats

  • 4,036,058 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,753 other followers

add to any

Share

ChemSpider 2D Image | Taurolidine | C7H16N4O4S2
Taurolidine.png

TAUROLIDINE

  • Molecular FormulaC7H16N4O4S2
  • Average mass284.356 Da

19388-87-5[RN]
243-016-5[EINECS]
2H-1,2,4-Thiadiazine, 4,4′-methylenebis[tetrahydro-, 1,1,1′,1′-tetraoxide
4,4′-methanediylbis(1,2,4-thiadiazinane) 1,1,1′,1′-tetraoxide
UNII-8OBZ1M4V3V 
тауролидин 
توروليدين 
牛磺利定 
NMR https://www.apexbt.com/downloader/document/C4559/NMR-2.pdf
MS https://www.apexbt.com/downloader/document/C4559/MS-2.pdf
Taurolidine 
CAS Registry Number: 19388-87-5 
CAS Name: 4,4¢-Methylenebis(tetrahydro-1,2,4-thiadiazine) 1,1,1¢,1¢-tetraoxide 
Additional Names: 4,4¢-methylenebis(perhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide); bis(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazin-4-yl)methane 
Trademarks: Drainasept (Geistlich); Taurolin (HMR); Tauroflex (Geistlich) 
Molecular Formula: C7H16N4O4S2, Molecular Weight: 284.36 
Percent Composition: C 29.57%, H 5.67%, N 19.70%, O 22.51%, S 22.55% 
Literature References: Broad spectrum, synthetic formaldehyde carrier formed by the condensation of two molecules of taurine and three molecules of formaldehyde. Prepn: FR1458701; R. W. Pfirrmann, US3423408 (1966, 1969 both to Ed. Geistlich Söhne). Antibacterial activity in mice: M. K. Browne et al.,J. Appl. Bacteriol.41, 363 (1976). Anti-endotoxin activity in lab animals: R. W. Pfirrmann, G. B. Leslie, ibid.46, 97 (1979). Mechanism of action: E. Myers et al.,ibid.48, 89 (1980). HPLC determn of metabolites in plasma: A. D. Woolfson et al.,Int. J. Pharm.49, 135 (1989). Pharmacokinetics: C. Steinbach-Lebbin et al.,Arzneim.-Forsch.32, 1542 (1982). Metabolism in humans: B. I. Knight et al.,Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.12, 695 (1981). Clinical trials in peritonitis: M. K. Browne et al.,Surg. Gynecol. Obstet.146, 721 (1978); G. Wesch et al.,Fortschr. Med.101, 545 (1983); in wound sepsis: A. K. Halsall et al.,Pharmatherapeutica2, 673 (1981); in pleural infection: A. A. Conlan et al.,S. Afr. Med. J.64, 653 (1983). 
Properties: White crystals, mp 154-158°. Sol in water. 
Melting point: mp 154-158° 
Therap-Cat: Antibacterial. 
Keywords: Antibacterial (Synthetic).

Taurolidine is an antimicrobial that is used to try to prevent infections in catheters.[1] Side effects and the induction of bacterial resistance is uncommon.[1] It is also being studied as a treatment for cancer.[2]

It is derived from the endogenous amino acid taurine. Taurolidine’s putative mechanism of action is based on a chemical reaction. During the metabolism of taurolidine to taurinamide and ultimately taurine and water, methylol groups are liberated that chemically react with the mureins in the bacterial cell wall and with the amino and hydroxyl groups of endotoxins and exotoxins. This results in denaturing of the complex polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide components of the bacterial cell wall and of the endotoxin and in the inactivation of susceptible exotoxins.[3]

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2012070066A1/en

Taurolidine is an antibacterial drug and also has antiendotoxic substance, which is used as an antiseptic solution in surgery for washing out the abdominal cavity and it also prevents septic shock. It is commercially sold as Taurolidine (Formula I). The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of Taurolidine which provides significant advantages over the existing processes.

Figure imgf000002_0001

Formula I

The current process for the preparation of Taurolidine is depicted in Scheme 1

Figure imgf000003_0001

Formula II

Figure imgf000003_0002

Formula IVFormula IThe present inventors thus propose an industrially viable procedure for isolation of Taurolidine in substantially pure form.Taurolidine is dissolved in a suitable solvent to obtain a clear solution. The product starts to precipitate and an anti solvent is added optionally to maximize the precipitation procedure. The solvents employed for the purification are non -aqueous aprotic solvents comprising DMSO, DMAc, DMF, Acetonitirle, DMSO being the most preferred solvent. The antisolvents employed are toluene, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, ether; toluene being the most preferred.Taurolidine obtained by the instant procedure has purity greater than or equal to 99.5 %. The process of the invention is illustrated by the following examples to obtain Taurolidine. Example ICbz-Taurine sodium salt (Formula II)To 1000ml of water in the RBF charge 192gm of (3.0 eq) of sodium hydroxide under cooling followed by 200gm of Taurine and dissolve it until clear solution is obtained. Cool to 0°C to 5°C, and Charge 50% CBZ-C1 in toluene at 0°C to 5°C. After completion of addition, maintain at room temperature for 14h. Separate the toluene layer and wash the aqueous layer with 2x200ml of ethyl acetate. Add slowly 27gm of sodium hydroxide in 60ml of water to the aqueous layer and adjust pH to 12- 14. Cool to 0°C to 5°C and a white solid separates from the solution. Filter the solid and dry the solid at 60 -70 °C. Weight of the solid: 320 gExample 2Cbz-Taurinamide (Formula III)To a clean dry flask charge 1500ml of toluene and charge 320gm of Formula II and cool to 0°C to 5°C. Charge 308 gm of PC15 slowly at 0°C to 5°C for 2hrs. Maintain at 0°C to 5°C up to completion of reaction. Quench the RM into another flask containing 2 ltr of water at 0°C to 5°C. Separate the organic layer, wash and extract the aqueous layer with toluene. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and cool to 0°C to 5°C. Purge ammonia gas into the reaction mass till the reaction is complete. Filter the solid and dissolve the solid in 21tr of water and extract the aqueous layer with 2x600ml of ethyl acetate. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and concentrate it under reduced pressure to obtain a white solid. Weight of the solid: 150 gExample 3Taurinamide Succinate (Formula IV)Take a suspension of 100 g of Cbz-Taurinamide in 1000 ml methanol, and 10% Pd/C (1 .0 g) and subject to hydrogenation at 45-50 psi. Upon completion of the reaction filter the catalyst and add succinic acid (1 .0 eq) to the solvent and distill off the solvent under vacuum to provide the title compound in about 90% yield as a white solid.Example 4Taurolidine (Formula I)To a solution of 100 g Taurinamide succinate in water is added sat sodium bicarbonate solution and pH adjusted to 7-8. To the solution was added formaldehyde (50 ml) and allowed to stir for 4 h. The solid obtained was filtered and washed with water to give Taurolidine. The title compound was obtained in about 70% yield and about 98% purity.Example 5Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 40 % yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure.Example 6Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. To the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70 % yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure by HPLC and passed elemental analysis within 0.4% of the theoretical values.Example 7Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMAc (800 ml) and to the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70% yield.

PATENT

WO/2022/007713

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2022007713&_cid=P12-KYJIDL-52672-1Taurolidine (English name Taurolidine, chemical name is 4,4′-methylenebis[tetrahydro-2H-1,2,4-thiadiazine] 1,1,1′,1′-tetraoxide , the molecular formula is C 7 H 16 N 4 O 4 S 2 ) is a derivative of the amino acid taurine, and its structure is as follows:

Taurolidine has anti-endotoxin, anti-bacterial and anti-adherent properties. In terms of bacteria, taurolidine can chemically react with cell walls, endotoxins and exotoxins to inhibit microbial adhesion and play an antibacterial role. In addition, in terms of anti-tumor, taurolidine can induce cytotoxicity of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis. The extent to which these processes are involved may vary with the type of tumor cell. Until July 2020, there were more than 260 foreign literature searches on taurolidine research reports, most of which focused on the exploration of the effect of taurolidine on tumor-related signaling pathways, while the application of taurolidine in antiviral activity was not yet available. See research reports. 
PATENThttps://patents.google.com/patent/CN101274921B/en
Taurolidine synthetic operation step:1. the preparation of tauryl villaumite hydrochlorate 
In being housed, ventpipe, escape pipe, thermometer and churned mechanically 300ml four-necked bottle add Mercaptamine 25g, 200ml methylene dichloride and 32ml dehydrated alcohol, under ice-water bath (below the 10 ℃) mechanical stirring, feed dry appropriate chlorine, reaction begins and heat release immediately, the thick solid of adularescent generates, and temperature remains on below 50 ℃ and stirs, reaction 5h.The whole process HCl gas and the monochloroethane gas of alkali lye absorption reaction process.Stop logical chlorine after reacting end, get yellow mercury oxide, suction filtration is used washed with dichloromethane four times, and vacuum-drying gets white solid 50g, 152~154 ℃ of fusing points.2. the preparation of tauryl azide salt hydrochlorate 
The reaction flask ice-water bath of containing 45ml water is cooled to-15 ℃, adds NaN 3(2g), after stirring is molten entirely, add slightly pinkiness of tauryl villaumite hydrochlorate (9g) solution in batches, the water-bath of 20 minutes recession deicings, room temperature continues stirring 60 minutes.3. the preparation of tauryl amine hydrochlorate 
Above-mentioned reaction solution is joined in the 500ml autoclave, add 0.5g 5%Pd/C, feed hydrogen, pressure is 7Mpa, stirring at room 6h.Turn off hydrogen, pour out reaction solution, elimination Pd/C gets colourless reaction solution.The reaction solution that takes a morsel adds in the nuclear-magnetism pipe, adds deuterated reagent D 2O, with 1HNMR determines the transformation efficiency of hydrogenation reaction.Two kinds of CH of tauryl amine hydrochlorate 21The HNMR peak is 3.29~3.31 and 3.40~3.42ppm place, and two kinds of CH of reactant tauryl azide salt hydrochlorate 21The HNMR peak is 3.37~3.38 and 3.82~3.84ppm place.Determine that with the peak height ratio of two kinds of compounds the 4th step added the amount of formaldehyde.4. the preparation of taurolidine 
With the above-mentioned reaction solution that removes by filter Pd/C, add 5g NaHCO 3, be stirred to molten entirely, frozen water cooling, stir slowly splash into down formaldehyde solution (37%, 2ml), have milky white precipitate to produce after 30 minutes, continue to stir 1h, suction filtration, filter cake is washed 3 times with frozen water.Vacuum-drying gets white powdery solid 2.3g, 170~174 ℃ of fusing points.Embodiment 2:Making with extra care of taurolidine:The above-mentioned taurolidine white powder 5~10g that obtains adds 50~200ml acetonitrile, and heating for dissolving removes by filter a small amount of insolubles, concentrates, and cooling below 10 ℃ gets white powder 5~10g, 172~174 ℃ of fusing points.Embodiment 3:Proton nmr spectra ( 1H-NMR) data are as follows:1HNMR(DMSO-D6,TMS7.26-7.28(t,2H,NH),4.09-4.10(d,4H,N-CH 2),3.53(s,2H,N-CH 2-N),3.28-3.29(t,4H,N-CH 2-CH 2),2.96-2.97(t,4H,S-CH 2-CH 2)。The infrared absorption spectrum data are as follows:IR (KBr compressing tablet cm -1): 3425,3263,1633,1450,1404,1317,1278,1228,1160,1134,1073,1026,993,958,924,830,757,667,532,511.See Fig. 3.The ultimate analysis analytical value:C, 29.04%, N, 18.55%, H, 5.85%; Calculated value: C, 29.57%, N, 19.71%, H, 5.67%Embodiment 4:Taurolidine formulation optimizing injection type of the present invention, as: infusion solution, injection liquid, freeze-dried powder injection or powder ampoule agent for injection etc., more preferably infusion solution.The preparation of infusion solution[prescription 1] taurolidine 10.0~30.0gPVP 40.0~80.0gNaCl 2~5gAdd water to 1000ml[method for making] takes by weighing taurolidine, is dissolved in water, and stirs, and adds the PVP dissolving, and adjust pH to 7.0 is crossed the moisture film of 0.22 μ m, packing, and 121 ℃ of sterilizations 20 minutes, promptly.[prescription 2] taurolidine 10.0~30.0gCitric acid 0.1~1.0gLemon enzyme sodium 10.0~20.0gAdd water to 1000ml[method for making] takes by weighing taurolidine, is dissolved in water, stir, and the dissolving of adding citric acid sodium, adjust pH to 7.0, the moisture film of mistake 0.22 μ m, packing was sterilized 20 minutes for 121 ℃, promptly. 
PATENThttps://patents.google.com/patent/US8952148B2/en

Figure US08952148-20150210-C00002

Example ICbz-Taurine Sodium Salt (Formula II)To 1000 ml of water in the RBF charge 192 gm of (3.0 eq) of sodium hydroxide under cooling followed by 200 gm of Taurine and dissolve it until clear solution is obtained. Cool to 0° C. to 5° C., and Charge 50% CBZ-Cl in toluene at 0° C. to 5° C. After completion of addition, maintain at room temperature for 14 h. Separate the toluene layer and wash the aqueous layer with 2×200 ml of ethyl acetate. Add slowly 27 gm of sodium hydroxide in 60 ml of water to the aqueous layer and adjust pH to 12-14. Cool to 0° C. to 5° C. and a white solid separates from the solution. Filter the solid and dry the solid at 60-70° C. Weight of the solid: 320 g

Example 2Cbz-Taurinamide (Formula III)To a clean dry flask charge 1500 ml of toluene and charge 320 gm of Formula II and cool to 0° C. to 5° C. Charge 308 gm of PClslowly at 0° C. to 5° C. for 2 hrs. Maintain at 0° C. to 5° C. up to completion of reaction. Quench the RM into another flask containing 2 ltr of water at 0° C. to 5° C. Separate the organic layer, wash and extract the aqueous layer with toluene. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and cool to 0° C. to 5° C. Purge ammonia gas into the reaction mass till the reaction is complete. Filter the solid and dissolve the solid in 2 ltr of water and extract the aqueous layer with 2×600 ml of ethyl acetate. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and concentrate it under reduced pressure to obtain a white solid. Weight of the solid: 150 g

Example 3Taurinamide Succinate (Formula IV)Take a suspension of 100 g of Cbz-Taurinamide in 1000 ml methanol, and 10% Pd/C (1.0 g) and subject to hydrogenation at 45-50 psi. Upon completion of the reaction filter the catalyst and add succinic acid (1.0 eq) to the solvent and distill off the solvent under vacuum to provide the title compound in about 90% yield as a white solid.

Example 4Taurolidine (Formula I)To a solution of 100 g Taurinamide succinate in water is added sat sodium bicarbonate solution and pH adjusted to 7-8. To the solution was added formaldehyde (50 ml) and allowed to stir for 4 h. The solid obtained was filtered and washed with water to give Taurolidine. The title compound was obtained in about 70% yield and about 98% purity.

Example 5Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 40% yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure.

Example 6Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. To the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70% yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure by HPLC and passed elemental analysis within 0.4% of the theoretical values.

Example 7Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMAc (800 ml) and to the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70% yield. 

str1
Flag Counter

AS ON DEC2021 3,491,869 VIEWS ON BLOG WORLDREACH AVAILABLEFOR YOUR ADVERTISEMENT

wdt-16

join me on Linkedin

Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D – India | LinkedIn

join me on Researchgate

RESEARCHGATE

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is research.jpg

join me on Facebook

Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr. | Facebook

join me on twitter

Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr. | twitter

+919321316780 call whatsaapp

EMAIL. amcrasto@amcrasto

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Medical uses

Taurolidine is an antimicrobial agent used in an effort to prevent catheter infections. It however is not approved for this use in the United States as of 2011.[4]

  • Catheter lock solution in home parenteral nutrition (HPN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN): catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) remains the most common serious complication associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. The use of taurolidine as a catheter lock solution shows a reduction of CRBSI.[1][5] The overall quality of the evidence however is not strong enough to justify routine use.[1][5]
  • Catheter lock solution: Taurolidine decreases the adherence of bacteria and fungi to host cells by destructing the fimbriae and flagella and thus prevent the biofilm formation.[6][7] Taurolidine is the active ingredient of antimicrobial catheter lock solutions for the prevention and treatment of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) and is suitable for use in all catheter based vascular access devices.[8][1] Bacterial resistance against taurolidine has never been observed in various studies.[9][10]
  • The use of a taurolidine lock solution may decrease the risk of catheter infection in children with cancer but the evidence is tentative.[11]

Side effects

No systemic side effects have been identified. The safety of taurolidine has also been confirmed in clinical studies with long-term intravenous administration of high doses (up to 20 grams daily). In the body, taurolidine is metabolized rapidly via the metabolites taurultam and methylol taurinamide, which also have a bactericidal action, to taurine, an endogenous aminosulphonic acid, carbon dioxide and water. Therefore, no toxic effects are known or expected in the event of accidental injection. Burning sensation while instilling, numbness, erythema, facial flushing, headache, epistaxis, and nausea have been reported.[12]

Toxicology

Taurolidine has a relatively low acute and subacute toxicity.[1] Intravenous injection of 5 grams taurolidine into humans over 0.5–2 hours produce only burning sensation while instilling, numbness, and erythema at the injection sites.[12] For treatment of peritonitis, taurolidine was administered by peritoneal lavage, intraperitoneal instillation or intravenous infusion, or by a combination thereof. The total daily dose ranged widely from 0.5 to 50 g. The total cumulative dose ranged from 0.5 to 721 g. In those patients who received intravenous taurolidine, the daily intravenous dose was usually 15 to 30 g but several patients received up to 40 g/day. Total daily doses of up to 40 g and total cumulative doses exceeding 300 g were safe and well tolerated.[12][13][14][15][16]

Pharmacology

  • Metabolism: Taurolidine and taurultam are quickly metabolized to taurinamide, taurine, carbon dioxide and water. Taurolidine exists in equilibrium with taurultam and N-methylol-taurultam in aqueous solution.[17]
  • Pharmacokinetic (elimination): The half-life of the terminal elimination phase of taurultam is about 1.5 hours, and of the taurinamide metabolite about 6 hours. 25% of the taurolidine dose applied is renally eliminated as taurinamide and/or taurine.[13][14][18]

Mechanism of action

Following administration of taurolidine, the antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activity of the taurolidine molecule is conferred by the release of three active methylol (hydroxymethyl) groups as taurolidine is rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis via methylol taurultam to methylol taurinamide and taurine. These labile N-methylol derivatives of taurultam and taurinamide react with the bacterial cell-wall resulting in lysis of the bacteria, and by inter- and intramolecular cross-linking of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex, neutralization of the bacterial endotoxins which is enhanced by enzymatic activation. This mechanism of action is accelerated and maximised when taurolidine is pre-warmed to 37 °C (99 °F). Microbes are killed and the resulting toxins are inactivated; the destruction time in vitro is 30 minutes.[19]

The chemical mode of action of taurolidine via its reactive methylol groups confers greater potency in vivo than indicated by in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, and also appears to preclude susceptibility to resistance mechanisms.[14]

Taurolidine binding to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) prevents microbial adherence to host epithelial cells, thereby prevents microbial invasion of uninfected host cells. Although the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity has not been fully elucidated, it may be related to this agent’s anti-adherence property.[6][7] Taurolidine has been shown to block interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).[20] In addition, taurolidine also promotes apoptosis by inducing various apoptotic factors and suppresses the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis.[21]

Taurolidine is highly active against the common infecting pathogens associated with peritonitis and catheter sepsis, this activity extends across a wide-spectrum of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi (with no diminution of effect in the presence of biological fluids, e.g. blood, serum, pus).[15][16][22]

Chemical properties

The chemical name for taurolidine is 4,4′-Methylene-bis(1,2,4-thiadiazinane)-1,1,1’,1′-tetraoxide.

It is a white to off white odourless crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in chloroform, slightly soluble in boiling acetone, ethanol, methanol, and ethyl acetate, sparingly soluble in water 8 at 20° and ethyl alcohol, soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, and dilute sodium hydroxide, and freely soluble in N,N-dimethylformamide (at 60 °C).

History

Taurolidine was first synthesized in the laboratories of Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland in 1972. Clinical trials begun in 1975 in patients with severe peritonitis.

Research

Taurolidine demonstrates some anti-tumor properties, with positive results seen in early-stage clinical investigations using the drug to treat gastrointestinal malignancies and tumors of the central nervous system.[23] More recently, it has been found to exert antineoplastic activity. Taurolidine induces cancer cell death through a variety of mechanisms. Even now, all the antineoplastic pathways it employs are not completely elucidated. It has been shown to enhance apoptosis, inhibit angiogenesis, reduce tumor adherence, downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and stimulate anticancer immune regulation following surgical trauma. Apoptosis is activated through both a mitochondrial cytochrome-c-dependent mechanism and an extrinsic direct pathway. A lot of in vitro and animal data support taurolidine’s tumoricidal action.[24][25][26] Taurolidine has been used as an antimicrobial agent in the clinical setting since the 1970s and thus far appears nontoxic. The nontoxic nature of taurolidine makes it a favorable option compared with current chemotherapeutic regimens. Few published clinical studies exist evaluating the role of taurolidine as a chemotherapeutic agent. The literature lacks a gold-standard level 1 randomized clinical trial to evaluate taurolidine’s potential antineoplastic benefits. However, these trials are currently underway. Such randomized control studies are vital to clarify the role of taurolidine in modern cancer treatment.[21][2]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f Liu Y, Zhang AQ, Cao L, Xia HT, Ma JJ (2013). “Taurolidine lock solutions for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”PLOS ONE8 (11): e79417. Bibcode:2013PLoSO…879417Ldoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079417PMC 3836857PMID 24278133.
  2. Jump up to:a b Neary PM, Hallihan P, Wang JH, Pfirrmann RW, Bouchier-Hayes DJ, Redmond HP (April 2010). “The evolving role of taurolidine in cancer therapy”. Annals of Surgical Oncology17 (4): 1135–43. doi:10.1245/s10434-009-0867-9PMID 20039217S2CID 23807182.
  3. ^ Waser PG, Sibler E (1986). “Taurolidine: A new concept in antimicrobial chemotherapy”. In Harms AF (ed.). Innovative Approaches in Drug Research. Elsevier Science Publishers. pp. 155–169.
  4. ^ O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, et al. (May 2011). “Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections”Clinical Infectious Diseases52 (9): e162-93. doi:10.1093/cid/cir257PMC 3106269PMID 21460264.
  5. Jump up to:a b Bradshaw JH, Puntis JW (August 2008). “Taurolidine and catheter-related bloodstream infection: a systematic review of the literature”. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition47 (2): 179–86. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e318162c428PMID 18664870S2CID 19136945.
  6. Jump up to:a b Gorman SP, McCafferty DF, Woolfson AD, Jones DS (April 1987). “Reduced adherence of micro-organisms to human mucosal epithelial cells following treatment with Taurolin, a novel antimicrobial agent”. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology62 (4): 315–20. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1987.tb04926.xPMID 3298185.
  7. Jump up to:a b Blenkharn JI (July 1989). “Anti-adherence properties of taurolidine and noxythiolin”. Journal of Chemotherapy1 (4 Suppl): 233–4. PMID 16312382.
  8. ^ Liu H, Liu H, Deng J, Chen L, Yuan L, Wu Y (2014). “Preventing catheter-related bacteremia with taurolidine-citrate catheter locks: a systematic review and meta-analysis”Blood Purification37 (3): 179–87. doi:10.1159/000360271PMID 24777144.
  9. ^ Olthof ED, Rentenaar RJ, Rijs AJ, Wanten GJ (August 2013). “Absence of microbial adaptation to taurolidine in patients on home parenteral nutrition who develop catheter related bloodstream infections and use taurolidine locks”. Clinical Nutrition32 (4): 538–42. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2012.11.014PMID 23267744.
  10. Jump up to:a b Torres-Viera C, Thauvin-Eliopoulos C, Souli M, DeGirolami P, Farris MG, Wennersten CB, et al. (June 2000). “Activities of taurolidine in vitro and in experimental enterococcal endocarditis”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy44 (6): 1720–4. doi:10.1128/aac.44.6.1720-1724.2000PMC 89943PMID 10817739.
  11. ^ Simon A, Bode U, Beutel K (July 2006). “Diagnosis and treatment of catheter-related infections in paediatric oncology: an update”Clinical Microbiology and Infection12 (7): 606–20. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01416.xPMID 16774556.
  12. Jump up to:a b c Gong L, Greenberg HE, Perhach JL, Waldman SA, Kraft WK (June 2007). “The pharmacokinetics of taurolidine metabolites in healthy volunteers”Journal of Clinical Pharmacology47 (6): 697–703. doi:10.1177/0091270007299929PMID 17395893S2CID 31059736.
  13. Jump up to:a b Knight BI, Skellern GG, Browne MK, Pfirrmann RW (November 1981). “Peritoneal absorption of the antibacterial and antiendotoxin taurolin in peritonitis”British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology12 (5): 695–9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1981.tb01292.xPMC 1401955PMID 7332737.
  14. Jump up to:a b c Stendel R, Scheurer L, Schlatterer K, Stalder U, Pfirrmann RW, Fiss I, et al. (2007). “Pharmacokinetics of taurolidine following repeated intravenous infusions measured by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS of the derivatives taurultame and taurinamide in glioblastoma patients”. Clinical Pharmacokinetics46 (6): 513–24. doi:10.2165/00003088-200746060-00005PMID 17518510S2CID 33321671.
  15. Jump up to:a b Browne MK, MacKenzie M, Doyle PJ (May 1978). “C controlled trial of taurolin in established bacterial peritonitis”. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics146 (5): 721–4. PMID 347606.
  16. Jump up to:a b Browne MK (1981). “The treatment of peritonitis by an antiseptic – taurolin”. Pharmatherapeutica2 (8): 517–22. PMID 7255507.
  17. Jump up to:a b Knight BI, Skellern GG, Browne MK, Pfirrmann RW (September 1981). “The characterisation and quantitation by high-performance liquid chromatography of the metabolites of taurolin”British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology12 (3): 439–40. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1981.tb01245.xPMC 1401804PMID 7295478.
  18. ^ Browne MK, Leslie GB, Pfirrmann RW (December 1976). “Taurolin, a new chemotherapeutic agent”. The Journal of Applied Bacteriology41 (3): 363–8. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1976.tb00647.xPMID 828157.
  19. ^ Braumann C, Pfirrman RW, et al. (2013). “Taurolidine, an Effective Multimodal Antimicrobial Drug Versus Traditional Antiseptics and Antibiotics”. In Willy C (ed.). Antiseptics in Surgery – Update 2013. Lindqvist Book Publishing. pp. 119–125.
  20. ^ Bedrosian I, Sofia RD, Wolff SM, Dinarello CA (November 1991). “Taurolidine, an analogue of the amino acid taurine, suppresses interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor synthesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells”. Cytokine3 (6): 568–75. doi:10.1016/1043-4666(91)90483-tPMID 1790304.
  21. Jump up to:a b Jacobi CA, Menenakos C, Braumann C (October 2005). “Taurolidine–a new drug with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects”. Anti-Cancer Drugs16 (9): 917–21. doi:10.1097/01.cad.0000176502.40810.b0PMID 16162968S2CID 33876185.
  22. Jump up to:a b Nösner K, Focht J (1994). “In-vitro Wirksamkeit von Taurolidin und 9 Antibiotika gegen klinische Isolate aus chirurgischem Einsendegut sowie gegen Pilze”. Chirurgische Gastroenterologie10 (Suppl 2): 10.
  23. ^ Stendel R, Picht T, Schilling A, Heidenreich J, Loddenkemper C, Jänisch W, Brock M (2004-04-01). “Treatment of glioblastoma with intravenous taurolidine. First clinical experience”. Anticancer Research24 (2C): 1143–7. PMID 15154639.
  24. ^ Calabresi P, Goulette FA, Darnowski JW (September 2001). “Taurolidine: cytotoxic and mechanistic evaluation of a novel antineoplastic agent”. Cancer Research61 (18): 6816–21. PMID 11559556.
  25. ^ Clarke NW, Wang JH, et al. (2005). “Taurolidine inhibits colorectal adenocarcinoma metastases in vivo and in vitro by inducing apoptosis”. Ir J Med Sci174 (Supplement 3): 1.
  26. ^ Stendel R, Scheurer L, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Brock M, Möhler H (2003-06-01). “Enhancement of Fas-ligand-mediated programmed cell death by taurolidine”. Anticancer Research23 (3B): 2309–14. PMID 12894508.
Clinical data
ATC codeB05CA05 (WHO)
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number19388-87-5
ChemSpider27486
UNII8OBZ1M4V3V
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID00173001 
ECHA InfoCard100.039.090 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC7H16N4O4S2
Molar mass284.35 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI

////////////////////TAUROLIDINE, UNII-8OBZ1M4V3V, тауролидин  ,توروليدين , 牛磺利定  ,

C1CS(=O)(=O)NCN1CN2CCS(=O)(=O)NC2

wdt-4

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

DR ANTHONY CRASTO

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,753 other followers
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

View Full Profile →

TWITTER

bloglovin

Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: