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- Molecular FormulaC7H16N4O4S2
- Average mass284.356 Da
2H-1,2,4-Thiadiazine, 4,4′-methylenebis[tetrahydro-, 1,1,1′,1′-tetraoxide
CAS Registry Number: 19388-87-5
CAS Name: 4,4¢-Methylenebis(tetrahydro-1,2,4-thiadiazine) 1,1,1¢,1¢-tetraoxide
Additional Names: 4,4¢-methylenebis(perhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide); bis(1,1-dioxoperhydro-1,2,4-thiadiazin-4-yl)methane
Trademarks: Drainasept (Geistlich); Taurolin (HMR); Tauroflex (Geistlich)
Molecular Formula: C7H16N4O4S2, Molecular Weight: 284.36
Percent Composition: C 29.57%, H 5.67%, N 19.70%, O 22.51%, S 22.55%
Literature References: Broad spectrum, synthetic formaldehyde carrier formed by the condensation of two molecules of taurine and three molecules of formaldehyde. Prepn: FR1458701; R. W. Pfirrmann, US3423408 (1966, 1969 both to Ed. Geistlich Söhne). Antibacterial activity in mice: M. K. Browne et al.,J. Appl. Bacteriol.41, 363 (1976). Anti-endotoxin activity in lab animals: R. W. Pfirrmann, G. B. Leslie, ibid.46, 97 (1979). Mechanism of action: E. Myers et al.,ibid.48, 89 (1980). HPLC determn of metabolites in plasma: A. D. Woolfson et al.,Int. J. Pharm.49, 135 (1989). Pharmacokinetics: C. Steinbach-Lebbin et al.,Arzneim.-Forsch.32, 1542 (1982). Metabolism in humans: B. I. Knight et al.,Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.12, 695 (1981). Clinical trials in peritonitis: M. K. Browne et al.,Surg. Gynecol. Obstet.146, 721 (1978); G. Wesch et al.,Fortschr. Med.101, 545 (1983); in wound sepsis: A. K. Halsall et al.,Pharmatherapeutica2, 673 (1981); in pleural infection: A. A. Conlan et al.,S. Afr. Med. J.64, 653 (1983).
Properties: White crystals, mp 154-158°. Sol in water.
Melting point: mp 154-158°
Keywords: Antibacterial (Synthetic).
Taurolidine is an antimicrobial that is used to try to prevent infections in catheters. Side effects and the induction of bacterial resistance is uncommon. It is also being studied as a treatment for cancer.
It is derived from the endogenous amino acid taurine. Taurolidine’s putative mechanism of action is based on a chemical reaction. During the metabolism of taurolidine to taurinamide and ultimately taurine and water, methylol groups are liberated that chemically react with the mureins in the bacterial cell wall and with the amino and hydroxyl groups of endotoxins and exotoxins. This results in denaturing of the complex polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide components of the bacterial cell wall and of the endotoxin and in the inactivation of susceptible exotoxins.
Taurolidine is an antibacterial drug and also has antiendotoxic substance, which is used as an antiseptic solution in surgery for washing out the abdominal cavity and it also prevents septic shock. It is commercially sold as Taurolidine (Formula I). The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of Taurolidine which provides significant advantages over the existing processes.
The current process for the preparation of Taurolidine is depicted in Scheme 1
Formula IVFormula IThe present inventors thus propose an industrially viable procedure for isolation of Taurolidine in substantially pure form.Taurolidine is dissolved in a suitable solvent to obtain a clear solution. The product starts to precipitate and an anti solvent is added optionally to maximize the precipitation procedure. The solvents employed for the purification are non -aqueous aprotic solvents comprising DMSO, DMAc, DMF, Acetonitirle, DMSO being the most preferred solvent. The antisolvents employed are toluene, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, ether; toluene being the most preferred.Taurolidine obtained by the instant procedure has purity greater than or equal to 99.5 %. The process of the invention is illustrated by the following examples to obtain Taurolidine. Example ICbz-Taurine sodium salt (Formula II)To 1000ml of water in the RBF charge 192gm of (3.0 eq) of sodium hydroxide under cooling followed by 200gm of Taurine and dissolve it until clear solution is obtained. Cool to 0°C to 5°C, and Charge 50% CBZ-C1 in toluene at 0°C to 5°C. After completion of addition, maintain at room temperature for 14h. Separate the toluene layer and wash the aqueous layer with 2x200ml of ethyl acetate. Add slowly 27gm of sodium hydroxide in 60ml of water to the aqueous layer and adjust pH to 12- 14. Cool to 0°C to 5°C and a white solid separates from the solution. Filter the solid and dry the solid at 60 -70 °C. Weight of the solid: 320 gExample 2Cbz-Taurinamide (Formula III)To a clean dry flask charge 1500ml of toluene and charge 320gm of Formula II and cool to 0°C to 5°C. Charge 308 gm of PC15 slowly at 0°C to 5°C for 2hrs. Maintain at 0°C to 5°C up to completion of reaction. Quench the RM into another flask containing 2 ltr of water at 0°C to 5°C. Separate the organic layer, wash and extract the aqueous layer with toluene. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and cool to 0°C to 5°C. Purge ammonia gas into the reaction mass till the reaction is complete. Filter the solid and dissolve the solid in 21tr of water and extract the aqueous layer with 2x600ml of ethyl acetate. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and concentrate it under reduced pressure to obtain a white solid. Weight of the solid: 150 gExample 3Taurinamide Succinate (Formula IV)Take a suspension of 100 g of Cbz-Taurinamide in 1000 ml methanol, and 10% Pd/C (1 .0 g) and subject to hydrogenation at 45-50 psi. Upon completion of the reaction filter the catalyst and add succinic acid (1 .0 eq) to the solvent and distill off the solvent under vacuum to provide the title compound in about 90% yield as a white solid.Example 4Taurolidine (Formula I)To a solution of 100 g Taurinamide succinate in water is added sat sodium bicarbonate solution and pH adjusted to 7-8. To the solution was added formaldehyde (50 ml) and allowed to stir for 4 h. The solid obtained was filtered and washed with water to give Taurolidine. The title compound was obtained in about 70% yield and about 98% purity.Example 5Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 40 % yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure.Example 6Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. To the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70 % yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure by HPLC and passed elemental analysis within 0.4% of the theoretical values.Example 7Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMAc (800 ml) and to the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70% yield.
https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2022007713&_cid=P12-KYJIDL-52672-1Taurolidine (English name Taurolidine, chemical name is 4,4′-methylenebis[tetrahydro-2H-1,2,4-thiadiazine] 1,1,1′,1′-tetraoxide , the molecular formula is C 7 H 16 N 4 O 4 S 2 ) is a derivative of the amino acid taurine, and its structure is as follows:
Taurolidine has anti-endotoxin, anti-bacterial and anti-adherent properties. In terms of bacteria, taurolidine can chemically react with cell walls, endotoxins and exotoxins to inhibit microbial adhesion and play an antibacterial role. In addition, in terms of anti-tumor, taurolidine can induce cytotoxicity of tumor cells by inducing apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis. The extent to which these processes are involved may vary with the type of tumor cell. Until July 2020, there were more than 260 foreign literature searches on taurolidine research reports, most of which focused on the exploration of the effect of taurolidine on tumor-related signaling pathways, while the application of taurolidine in antiviral activity was not yet available. See research reports.
Taurolidine synthetic operation step:1. the preparation of tauryl villaumite hydrochlorate
In being housed, ventpipe, escape pipe, thermometer and churned mechanically 300ml four-necked bottle add Mercaptamine 25g, 200ml methylene dichloride and 32ml dehydrated alcohol, under ice-water bath (below the 10 ℃) mechanical stirring, feed dry appropriate chlorine, reaction begins and heat release immediately, the thick solid of adularescent generates, and temperature remains on below 50 ℃ and stirs, reaction 5h.The whole process HCl gas and the monochloroethane gas of alkali lye absorption reaction process.Stop logical chlorine after reacting end, get yellow mercury oxide, suction filtration is used washed with dichloromethane four times, and vacuum-drying gets white solid 50g, 152～154 ℃ of fusing points.2. the preparation of tauryl azide salt hydrochlorate
The reaction flask ice-water bath of containing 45ml water is cooled to-15 ℃, adds NaN 3(2g), after stirring is molten entirely, add slightly pinkiness of tauryl villaumite hydrochlorate (9g) solution in batches, the water-bath of 20 minutes recession deicings, room temperature continues stirring 60 minutes.3. the preparation of tauryl amine hydrochlorate
Above-mentioned reaction solution is joined in the 500ml autoclave, add 0.5g 5%Pd/C, feed hydrogen, pressure is 7Mpa, stirring at room 6h.Turn off hydrogen, pour out reaction solution, elimination Pd/C gets colourless reaction solution.The reaction solution that takes a morsel adds in the nuclear-magnetism pipe, adds deuterated reagent D 2O, with 1HNMR determines the transformation efficiency of hydrogenation reaction.Two kinds of CH of tauryl amine hydrochlorate 2D 1The HNMR peak is 3.29～3.31 and 3.40～3.42ppm place, and two kinds of CH of reactant tauryl azide salt hydrochlorate 2D 1The HNMR peak is 3.37～3.38 and 3.82～3.84ppm place.Determine that with the peak height ratio of two kinds of compounds the 4th step added the amount of formaldehyde.4. the preparation of taurolidine
With the above-mentioned reaction solution that removes by filter Pd/C, add 5g NaHCO 3, be stirred to molten entirely, frozen water cooling, stir slowly splash into down formaldehyde solution (37%, 2ml), have milky white precipitate to produce after 30 minutes, continue to stir 1h, suction filtration, filter cake is washed 3 times with frozen water.Vacuum-drying gets white powdery solid 2.3g, 170～174 ℃ of fusing points.Embodiment 2:Making with extra care of taurolidine:The above-mentioned taurolidine white powder 5～10g that obtains adds 50～200ml acetonitrile, and heating for dissolving removes by filter a small amount of insolubles, concentrates, and cooling below 10 ℃ gets white powder 5～10g, 172～174 ℃ of fusing points.Embodiment 3:Proton nmr spectra ( 1H-NMR) data are as follows:1HNMR(DMSO-D6，TMS7.26-7.28(t，2H，NH)，4.09-4.10(d，4H，N-CH 2)，3.53(s，2H，N-CH 2-N)，3.28-3.29(t，4H，N-CH 2-CH 2)，2.96-2.97(t，4H，S-CH 2-CH 2)。The infrared absorption spectrum data are as follows:IR (KBr compressing tablet cm -1): 3425,3263,1633,1450,1404,1317,1278,1228,1160,1134,1073,1026,993,958,924,830,757,667,532,511.See Fig. 3.The ultimate analysis analytical value:C, 29.04%, N, 18.55%, H, 5.85%; Calculated value: C, 29.57%, N, 19.71%, H, 5.67%Embodiment 4:Taurolidine formulation optimizing injection type of the present invention, as: infusion solution, injection liquid, freeze-dried powder injection or powder ampoule agent for injection etc., more preferably infusion solution.The preparation of infusion solution[prescription 1] taurolidine 10.0～30.0gPVP 40.0～80.0gNaCl 2～5gAdd water to 1000ml[method for making] takes by weighing taurolidine, is dissolved in water, and stirs, and adds the PVP dissolving, and adjust pH to 7.0 is crossed the moisture film of 0.22 μ m, packing, and 121 ℃ of sterilizations 20 minutes, promptly.[prescription 2] taurolidine 10.0～30.0gCitric acid 0.1～1.0gLemon enzyme sodium 10.0～20.0gAdd water to 1000ml[method for making] takes by weighing taurolidine, is dissolved in water, stir, and the dissolving of adding citric acid sodium, adjust pH to 7.0, the moisture film of mistake 0.22 μ m, packing was sterilized 20 minutes for 121 ℃, promptly.
Example ICbz-Taurine Sodium Salt (Formula II)To 1000 ml of water in the RBF charge 192 gm of (3.0 eq) of sodium hydroxide under cooling followed by 200 gm of Taurine and dissolve it until clear solution is obtained. Cool to 0° C. to 5° C., and Charge 50% CBZ-Cl in toluene at 0° C. to 5° C. After completion of addition, maintain at room temperature for 14 h. Separate the toluene layer and wash the aqueous layer with 2×200 ml of ethyl acetate. Add slowly 27 gm of sodium hydroxide in 60 ml of water to the aqueous layer and adjust pH to 12-14. Cool to 0° C. to 5° C. and a white solid separates from the solution. Filter the solid and dry the solid at 60-70° C. Weight of the solid: 320 g
Example 2Cbz-Taurinamide (Formula III)To a clean dry flask charge 1500 ml of toluene and charge 320 gm of Formula II and cool to 0° C. to 5° C. Charge 308 gm of PCl5 slowly at 0° C. to 5° C. for 2 hrs. Maintain at 0° C. to 5° C. up to completion of reaction. Quench the RM into another flask containing 2 ltr of water at 0° C. to 5° C. Separate the organic layer, wash and extract the aqueous layer with toluene. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and cool to 0° C. to 5° C. Purge ammonia gas into the reaction mass till the reaction is complete. Filter the solid and dissolve the solid in 2 ltr of water and extract the aqueous layer with 2×600 ml of ethyl acetate. Dry the organic layer with sodium sulphate and concentrate it under reduced pressure to obtain a white solid. Weight of the solid: 150 g
Example 3Taurinamide Succinate (Formula IV)Take a suspension of 100 g of Cbz-Taurinamide in 1000 ml methanol, and 10% Pd/C (1.0 g) and subject to hydrogenation at 45-50 psi. Upon completion of the reaction filter the catalyst and add succinic acid (1.0 eq) to the solvent and distill off the solvent under vacuum to provide the title compound in about 90% yield as a white solid.
Example 4Taurolidine (Formula I)To a solution of 100 g Taurinamide succinate in water is added sat sodium bicarbonate solution and pH adjusted to 7-8. To the solution was added formaldehyde (50 ml) and allowed to stir for 4 h. The solid obtained was filtered and washed with water to give Taurolidine. The title compound was obtained in about 70% yield and about 98% purity.
Example 5Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 40% yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure.
Example 6Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMSO (400 ml) and a clear solution is obtained and a precipitate is obtained immediately. To the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70% yield. The product obtained was >99.5% pure by HPLC and passed elemental analysis within 0.4% of the theoretical values.
Example 7Purification of TaurolidineTaurolidine (100 g) was dissolved in DMAc (800 ml) and to the solution, toluene (1000 ml) is added. The solid is filtered and washed with toluene and dried to give a white solid in 70% yield.
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Taurolidine is an antimicrobial agent used in an effort to prevent catheter infections. It however is not approved for this use in the United States as of 2011.
- Catheter lock solution in home parenteral nutrition (HPN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN): catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) remains the most common serious complication associated with long-term parenteral nutrition. The use of taurolidine as a catheter lock solution shows a reduction of CRBSI. The overall quality of the evidence however is not strong enough to justify routine use.
- Catheter lock solution: Taurolidine decreases the adherence of bacteria and fungi to host cells by destructing the fimbriae and flagella and thus prevent the biofilm formation. Taurolidine is the active ingredient of antimicrobial catheter lock solutions for the prevention and treatment of catheter related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) and is suitable for use in all catheter based vascular access devices. Bacterial resistance against taurolidine has never been observed in various studies.
- The use of a taurolidine lock solution may decrease the risk of catheter infection in children with cancer but the evidence is tentative.
No systemic side effects have been identified. The safety of taurolidine has also been confirmed in clinical studies with long-term intravenous administration of high doses (up to 20 grams daily). In the body, taurolidine is metabolized rapidly via the metabolites taurultam and methylol taurinamide, which also have a bactericidal action, to taurine, an endogenous aminosulphonic acid, carbon dioxide and water. Therefore, no toxic effects are known or expected in the event of accidental injection. Burning sensation while instilling, numbness, erythema, facial flushing, headache, epistaxis, and nausea have been reported.
Taurolidine has a relatively low acute and subacute toxicity. Intravenous injection of 5 grams taurolidine into humans over 0.5–2 hours produce only burning sensation while instilling, numbness, and erythema at the injection sites. For treatment of peritonitis, taurolidine was administered by peritoneal lavage, intraperitoneal instillation or intravenous infusion, or by a combination thereof. The total daily dose ranged widely from 0.5 to 50 g. The total cumulative dose ranged from 0.5 to 721 g. In those patients who received intravenous taurolidine, the daily intravenous dose was usually 15 to 30 g but several patients received up to 40 g/day. Total daily doses of up to 40 g and total cumulative doses exceeding 300 g were safe and well tolerated.
- Metabolism: Taurolidine and taurultam are quickly metabolized to taurinamide, taurine, carbon dioxide and water. Taurolidine exists in equilibrium with taurultam and N-methylol-taurultam in aqueous solution.
- Pharmacokinetic (elimination): The half-life of the terminal elimination phase of taurultam is about 1.5 hours, and of the taurinamide metabolite about 6 hours. 25% of the taurolidine dose applied is renally eliminated as taurinamide and/or taurine.
Mechanism of action
Following administration of taurolidine, the antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activity of the taurolidine molecule is conferred by the release of three active methylol (hydroxymethyl) groups as taurolidine is rapidly metabolized by hydrolysis via methylol taurultam to methylol taurinamide and taurine. These labile N-methylol derivatives of taurultam and taurinamide react with the bacterial cell-wall resulting in lysis of the bacteria, and by inter- and intramolecular cross-linking of the lipopolysaccharide-protein complex, neutralization of the bacterial endotoxins which is enhanced by enzymatic activation. This mechanism of action is accelerated and maximised when taurolidine is pre-warmed to 37 °C (99 °F). Microbes are killed and the resulting toxins are inactivated; the destruction time in vitro is 30 minutes.
The chemical mode of action of taurolidine via its reactive methylol groups confers greater potency in vivo than indicated by in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values, and also appears to preclude susceptibility to resistance mechanisms.
Taurolidine binding to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) prevents microbial adherence to host epithelial cells, thereby prevents microbial invasion of uninfected host cells. Although the mechanism underlying its antineoplastic activity has not been fully elucidated, it may be related to this agent’s anti-adherence property. Taurolidine has been shown to block interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In addition, taurolidine also promotes apoptosis by inducing various apoptotic factors and suppresses the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis.
Taurolidine is highly active against the common infecting pathogens associated with peritonitis and catheter sepsis, this activity extends across a wide-spectrum of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi (with no diminution of effect in the presence of biological fluids, e.g. blood, serum, pus).
- Gram-positive bacteria (MIC of 1–2 mg/mL): Staphylococcus (including multiple-antibiotic resistant coagulase negative strains, methicillin-resistant S. aureus), Streptococcus, Enterococcus.
- Gram-negative bacteria (MIC of 0.5–5 mg/mL): Aerobacter species, Citrobacter species, Enterobacter species, Escherichia coli, Proteus species (indole negative), Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas species (including P. aeruginosa), Salmonella species, Serratia marcescans, Klebsiella species.
- Anaerobes (MIC 0.03–0.3 mg/mL): Bacteroides species (including B. fragilis), Fusobacteria, Clostridium species, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius.
- Fungi (MIC 0.3–5 mg/mL): Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Pityrosporum ovale.
The chemical name for taurolidine is 4,4′-Methylene-bis(1,2,4-thiadiazinane)-1,1,1’,1′-tetraoxide.
It is a white to off white odourless crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in chloroform, slightly soluble in boiling acetone, ethanol, methanol, and ethyl acetate, sparingly soluble in water 8 at 20° and ethyl alcohol, soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, and dilute sodium hydroxide, and freely soluble in N,N-dimethylformamide (at 60 °C).
Taurolidine was first synthesized in the laboratories of Geistlich Pharma AG, Switzerland in 1972. Clinical trials begun in 1975 in patients with severe peritonitis.
Taurolidine demonstrates some anti-tumor properties, with positive results seen in early-stage clinical investigations using the drug to treat gastrointestinal malignancies and tumors of the central nervous system. More recently, it has been found to exert antineoplastic activity. Taurolidine induces cancer cell death through a variety of mechanisms. Even now, all the antineoplastic pathways it employs are not completely elucidated. It has been shown to enhance apoptosis, inhibit angiogenesis, reduce tumor adherence, downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokine release, and stimulate anticancer immune regulation following surgical trauma. Apoptosis is activated through both a mitochondrial cytochrome-c-dependent mechanism and an extrinsic direct pathway. A lot of in vitro and animal data support taurolidine’s tumoricidal action. Taurolidine has been used as an antimicrobial agent in the clinical setting since the 1970s and thus far appears nontoxic. The nontoxic nature of taurolidine makes it a favorable option compared with current chemotherapeutic regimens. Few published clinical studies exist evaluating the role of taurolidine as a chemotherapeutic agent. The literature lacks a gold-standard level 1 randomized clinical trial to evaluate taurolidine’s potential antineoplastic benefits. However, these trials are currently underway. Such randomized control studies are vital to clarify the role of taurolidine in modern cancer treatment.
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|ATC code||B05CA05 (WHO)|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)||DTXSID00173001|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||284.35 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)||Interactive image|
////////////////////TAUROLIDINE, UNII-8OBZ1M4V3V, тауролидин ,توروليدين , 牛磺利定 ,
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