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Miglustat- to treat Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1)



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PATENT-US 5,525,616, US 5,472,969 TO Actelion Pharms Ltd

Miglustat is a drug developed by Actelion and is used primarily to treat Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1). It is marketed under the trade name Zavesca. Miglustat (OGT 918, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin) is an imino sugar (molecular weight: 219 daltons), a synthetic analogue of D-glucose  and a white to off-white crystalline solid that has a bitter taste The primary pharmacological activity of miglustat is inhibition of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase, catalyzing the first step in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSL), i.e., the formation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer). Reduced formation of GlcCer will lead to decreased biosynthesis of more complex GSL. This therapeutic principle, called substrate reduction therapy (SRT), may be useful in disorders of intracellular (predominantly lysosomal) accumulation of GSL either due to their deficient breakdown or intracellular transport/trafficking. Miglustat exhibits a large volume of distribution and has the capacity to access deep organs such as the brain, bone and lung.

Miglustat is a synthetic derivative of a family of polyhydroxylated alkaloids or amino sugar extracted from plants and microorganisms. Its synthesis starts from D-glucose sugar in plants. The sugar then aminated and oxidized to amino fructose sugar, which then can form a cyclic aminohemiacetal called nojirimycin. Then the dehydration and reduction takes place successively before the formation of deoxynojirimycin, which is a precursor of miglustat. Since it is a synthetic derivative drug, alkylation ofdeoxynojirimycin can be synthesized in the laboratory with 1-butyl halide via amine alkylation.

Synthesis of miglustat

CAS : 72599-27-0
Additional Names: N-butyldeoxynojirimycin; N-butylmoranoline
Manufacturers’ Codes: OGT-918; SC-48334
Trademarks: Zavesca (Actelion)
Molecular Formula: C10H21NO4
Molecular Weight: 219.28
 C 54.77%, H 9.65%, N 6.39%, O 29.19%
Literature Ref: Amino sugar; inhibitor of glucosyltransferase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids.
Prepn: B. Junge et al., DE 2758025see also, eidem, US 4639436 (1979, 1987 both to Bayer).
Improved synthesis: E. W. Baxter, A. B. Reitz, J. Org. Chem. 59, 3175 (1994); C. R. R. Matos et al., Synthesis 1999, 571.
 In vitro efficacy vs HIV: A. Karpas et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 9229 (1988). Inhibition of glycolipid biosynthesis: F. M. Platt et al., J. Biol. Chem. 269, 8362 (1994).
Clinical evaluation in Gaucher’s disease: T. Cox et al., Lancet 355, 1481 (2000). Review of pharmacology and clinical development in Gaucher’s disease: P. L. McCormack, K. L. Goa, Drugs 63, 2427-2434 (2003).
Properties: White to off-white crystalline solid, mp 125-126°. [a]D25 -15.9° (c = 0.77 in water). Highly sol in water (>1000 mg/ml).
Melting point: mp 125-126°
Optical Rotation: [a]D25 -15.9° (c = 0.77 in water)
Therap-Cat: In treatment of inherited glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage disorders.







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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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