PATENT-US 5,525,616, US 5,472,969 TO Actelion Pharms Ltd
Miglustat is a drug developed by Actelion and is used primarily to treat Type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1). It is marketed under the trade name Zavesca. Miglustat (OGT 918, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin) is an imino sugar (molecular weight: 219 daltons), a synthetic analogue of D-glucose and a white to off-white crystalline solid that has a bitter taste The primary pharmacological activity of miglustat is inhibition of the enzyme glucosylceramide synthase, catalyzing the first step in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSL), i.e., the formation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer). Reduced formation of GlcCer will lead to decreased biosynthesis of more complex GSL. This therapeutic principle, called substrate reduction therapy (SRT), may be useful in disorders of intracellular (predominantly lysosomal) accumulation of GSL either due to their deficient breakdown or intracellular transport/trafficking. Miglustat exhibits a large volume of distribution and has the capacity to access deep organs such as the brain, bone and lung.
Miglustat is a synthetic derivative of a family of polyhydroxylated alkaloids or amino sugar extracted from plants and microorganisms. Its synthesis starts from D-glucose sugar in plants. The sugar then aminated and oxidized to amino fructose sugar, which then can form a cyclic aminohemiacetal called nojirimycin. Then the dehydration and reduction takes place successively before the formation of deoxynojirimycin, which is a precursor of miglustat. Since it is a synthetic derivative drug, alkylation ofdeoxynojirimycin can be synthesized in the laboratory with 1-butyl halide via amine alkylation.
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