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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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FDA okays Vifor Fresenius phosphate binder Velphoro

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Oral phosphate binder, treatement of elevated
phosphate levels in patients undergoing dialysis
1. Ferric hydroxide oxide
2. Mixture of iron(III) oxyhydroxide, sucrose, starches
3. Polynuclear iron(III) oxyhydroxide stabilized with sucrose and starches
O =Fe -OH

SPONSOR Vifor (International) Inc.

sucroferric oxyhydroxide

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide nonproprietary drug name…/sucroferricoxyhydroxide.pdf


The US Food and Drug Administration has given the green light to Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma’s hyperphosphatemia drug Velphoro.

The approval for Velphoro (sucroferric oxyhydroxide), formerly known as PA21, is based on Phase III data demonstrated that the drug successfully controls the accumulation of phosphorus in the blood with the advantage of a much lower pill burden than the current standard of care in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis, namely Sanofi’s Renvela (sevelamer carbonate). read this at

Velphoro (PA21) receives US FDA approval for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients on dialysis
Velphoro (sucroferric oxyhydroxide) has received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the control of serum phosphorus levels in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) on dialysis. Velphoro will be launched in the US by Fresenius Medical Care North America in 2014.

Velphoro (previously known as PA21) is an iron-based, calcium-free, chewable phosphate binder. US approval was based on a pivotal Phase III study, which met its primary and secondary endpoints. The study demonstrated that Velphoro® successfully controls hyperphosphatemia with fewer pills than sevelamer carbonate, the current standard of care in patients with CKD on dialysis. The average daily dose to control hyperphosphatemia was 3.3 pills per day after 52 weeks.

Velphoro was developed by Vifor Pharma. In 2011, all rights were transferred to Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma, a common company of Galenica and Fresenius Medical Care. In the US, Velphorowill be marketed by Fresenius Medical Care North America, a company with a strong marketing and sales organization, and expertise in dialysis care. The active ingredient of Velphoro is produced by Vifor Pharma in Switzerland.

Hyperphosphatemia, an abnormal elevation of phosphorus levels in the blood, is a common and serious condition in CKD patients on dialysis. Most dialysis patients are treated with phosphate binders. However, despite the availability of a number of different phosphate binders, up to 50% of patients depending on the region are still unable to achieve and maintain their target serum phosphorus levels. In some patients, noncompliance due to the high pill burden and poor tolerability appear to be key factors in the lack of control of serum phosphorus levels. On average, dialysis patients take approximately 19 pills per day with phosphate binders comprising approximately 50% of the total daily pill burden. The recommended starting dose of Velphoro is 3 tablets per day (1 tablet per meal).

Full results from the pivotal Phase III study involving more than 1,000 patients were presented at both the 50th ERA-EDTA (European Renal Association European Dialysis and Transplant Association) Congress in Istanbul, Turkey, in May 2013, and the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Kidney Week in Atlanta, Georgia, in November 2013. Velphorowas shown to be a potent phosphate binder, with lower pill burden and a good safety profile.

Based on these data, Vifor Fresenius Medical Care Renal Pharma believes that Velphoro offers a new and effective therapeutic option for the control of serum phosphorus levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis.
The regulatory processes in Europe, Switzerland and Singapore are ongoing and decisions are expected in the first half 2014. Further submissions for approval are being prepared.

Advaxis’s cancer vaccine gets FDA orphan status for treatment of HPV-associated head and neck cancer

US-based clinical-stage biotechnology firm Advaxis has received orphan drug designation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its lead drug candidate ADXS-HPV to treat human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancer patients.

Advaxis’s cancer vaccine gets FDA orphan status for treatment of HPV-associated head and neck cancer

PRINCETON, N.J., Nov 05, 2013 (BUSINESS WIRE) — Advaxis, Inc., /quotes/zigman/23528806/delayed/quotes/nls/adxs ADXS +2.61% , a leader in developing the next generation of cancer immunotherapies, announced that it has been granted Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD) for ADXS-HPV, its lead drug candidate, for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancer.

Orphan Drug Designation is granted to drug therapies intended to treat diseases or conditions that affect fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Orphan Drug Designation entitles the sponsor to clinical protocol assistance with the FDA, as well as federal grants, tax credits, and potentially a seven year market exclusivity period.

“We are very pleased to have been granted an orphan drug designation for ADXS-HPV in this unmet medical need,” commented Dr. Robert Petit, Chief Scientific Officer of Advaxis. “Patients with head and neck cancer have limited treatment options and we hope to improve their survival by developing ADXS-HPV for this indication. We plan to initiate an additional Phase 1/2 study in early stage head and neck cancer for ADXS-HPV with a nationally recognized center of excellence, and we will continue the ongoing Phase 1 study being sponsored by the University of Liverpool and Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust that is evaluating the safety and efficacy of ADXS-HPV when combined with standard chemotherapy and radiation treatment in patients with head and neck cancer.”

“Receiving orphan drug designation for ADXS-HPV in head and neck cancer is excellent news for a technology that may offer the potential to treat an indication with few therapy options, and, importantly, it helps define a clear path forward to registration,” commented Daniel J. O’Connor, President and Chief Executive Officer of Advaxis.

About Orphan Drug Designation

Under the Orphan Drug Act (ODA), the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biological product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug or biological product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product. The benefits of orphan drug designation can be substantial and include federal grants, tax credits, and potentially a seven year market exclusivity period once the product is approved, provided that the product is first to market.

In order for a sponsor to obtain orphan designation for a drug or biological product, an application must be submitted to OOPD, and the designation approved. The approval of an application for orphan designation is based upon the information submitted by the sponsor. A drug that has obtained orphan designation is said to have “orphan status.” Each designation request must stand on its own merit. Sponsors requesting designation of the same drug for the same indication as a previously designated product must submit their own data in support of their designation request. The approval of an orphan designation request does not alter the standard regulatory requirements and process for obtaining marketing approval. Safety and efficacy of a compound must be established through adequate and well-controlled studies.


ADXS-HPV is an immunotherapy that is designed to target cells expressing the HPV gene E7. Expression of the E7 gene from high-risk HPV variants is responsible for the transformation of infected cells into dysplastic and malignant tissues. Eliminating these cells can eliminate the dysplasia or malignancy. ADXS-HPV is designed to infect antigen-presenting cells and direct them to generate a powerful, cellular immune response to HPV E7. The resulting cytotoxic Tcells infiltrate and attack the tumors while specifically inhibiting tumor Tregs and MDSCs in the tumors that are protecting it.

About Head and Neck Cancer

Cancer of the head and neck includes cancers arising from mucosa lining the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, sinonasal tract, and nasopharynx. The most common histologic type observed is squamous cell carcinoma; therefore, the term “head and neck squamous cell carcinoma” (HNSCC) is frequently used to imply squamous cell carcinomas involving these anatomical sites. Excessive tobacco and alcohol are important risk factors for HNSCCs overall, but human papillomavirus (HPV) is now recognized as the causative agent in a subset of HNSCCs.

While the incidence of head and neck cancers that are linked to alcohol and tobacco use as the primary risk factor has fallen in the past three decades, a trend attributed to decreasing tobacco use in the United States, the incidence of HPV-associated head and neck cancer has been increasing. The increase was observed particularly among young individuals (<60 years of age), men, and Caucasians. Studies have shown that oral HPV infection is likely to be sexually acquired, as the increase in the incidence of HPV-associated head and neck cancers may be attributed to changing sexual practices. According to the World Health Organization’s Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers in the World Summary Report 2010, HPV is associated with 20-50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. HPV-associated head and neck cancer is growing at an epidemic rate in western countries; and occurs more frequently (3:1) in men than women. In the United States, the number of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cases has already equaled the number of cervical cancer cases.

About Advaxis, Inc.

Advaxis is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing the next generation of immunotherapies for cancer and infectious diseases. Advaxis immunotherapies are based on a novel platform technology using live, attenuated bacteria that are bio-engineered to secrete an antigen/adjuvant fusion protein(s) that is designed to redirect the powerful immune response all human beings have to the bacterium to the cancer itself.

ADXS-HPV is currently being evaluated in four clinical trials for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers: recurrent/refractory cervical cancer (India), locally advanced cervical cancer (GOG/NCI U.S. study, Clinical Identifier NCT01266460), head & neck cancer (CRUK study, Clinical Identifier NCT01598792), and anal cancer (BrUOG study, Clinical Identifier NCT01671488). Advaxis has over 15 distinct immunotherapies in various stages of development, developed directly by Advaxis and through strategic collaborations with recognized centers of excellence such as: the University of Pennsylvania, the Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Brown University Oncology Group, and others.

ADXS-HPV is currently in Phase 1/2 clinical development for recurrent/refractory and advanced cervical cancer, HPV caused head and neck cancers, and anal cancer.

Links to ADXS-HPV trials:

ADXS-HPV is an immunotherapy that is designed to target cells expressing the HPV gene E7. Expression of the E7 gene from high-risk HPV variants is responsible for the transformation of infected cells into dysplastic and malignant tissues. Eliminating these cells can eliminate the dysplasia or malignancy. ADXS-HPV is designed to infect antigen-presenting cells and direct them to generate a powerful, cellular immune response to HPV E7. The resulting cytotoxic Tcells infiltrate and attack the tumors while specifically inhibiting tumor Tregs and MDSCs in the tumors that are protecting it.

The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be about 12,340 newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases and 7,060 newly diagnosed cases of anal cancer in the U.S. in 2013.

In 2009, the CDC reported that about 45% of women aged 20 to 24 had HPV.  HPV causes a number of different types of cancer. The same types of genital HPV that cause cervical cancer (HPV-16, HPV-18) cause about 8 out of 10 squamous cell anal cancers. In addition, nearly half of cancers of the vulva and about 7 out of 10 vaginal cancers are HPV-related. Some other genital cancers (cancers of the penis and urethra) and some head and neck cancers (mostly the throat, tongue, and tonsils) are also related to high-risk types of HPV. For additional information about HPV, please visit:


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BioDelivery Sciences Announces FDA Acceptance of Bunavail NDA for Filing




RALEIGH, N.C., Oct. 9, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc. announced today that its New Drug Application (NDA) for Bunavail (buprenorphine naloxone buccal film) for the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence has been accepted for filing by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), indicating that the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. Based on timelines established by the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), the review of the Bunavail NDA is expected to be completed by early June 2014.

BAYER- sPRM (BAY 1002670) Vilaprisan is a novel oral progesterone receptor modulator that holds the promises of long-term treatment of patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids

WP_000066.jpg   str is available in this link

progesterone receptor antagonist

BAY 1002670, vilaprisan


C27H29F5O4S544.574   str is available in this link

Bayer has also made good progress in the development of new treatment options for patients with gynecological diseases: sPRM (BAY 1002670) is a novel oral progesterone receptor modulator that holds the promises of long-term treatment of patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Based on promising early clinical data the initiation of a Phase III study is planned for mid-2014.

selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) is an agent that acts on the progesterone receptor. A characteristic that distinguishes such substances from receptor full agonists (such as progesterone) and full antagonists (such as mifepristone) is that their action differs in different tissues (agonist in some while antagonist in others). This mixed agonist/antagonist profile of action leads to selective stimulation or inhibition progesterone-like action in different tissues and furthermore raises the possibility of dissociation of desirable therapeutic effects from undesirable side effects in synthetic progesterone receptor drug candidates




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Orexigen files obesity drug Contrave for approval in Europe

Orexigen files obesity drug Contrave for approval in Europe

Orexigen Therapeutics  has submitted the Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for Contrave, an investigational weight-loss drug to the European Medicines Agency (EMA). 

OREXIGNEThe La Jolla, CA-based  drug firm is using the EMA’s centralised procedure to seek approval for Contrave  Orexigen (32 mg naltrexone sustained release (SR) / 360 mg bupropion SR) for the management of obesity, including weight loss and maintenance of weight loss, in conjunction with lifestyle modification. The company filed the application after meeting with the European agency to discuss the filing strategy and “both were supportive” of the company’s plan to file in advance of an eagerly-anticipated interim analysis of a cardiovascular outcomes trial called the Light study. Orexigen and the European regulator have also agreed upon an investigation plan in children and adolescents.

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Big boost for Incyte as Jakafi shines in PhII


Top-line results from a Phase II trial showed that its JAK inhibitor Jakafi (ruxolitinib), in combination with Roche’s Xeloda (capecitabine), improved survival in some patients with recurrent or treatment refractory advanced pancreatic cancer


Ruxolitinib (trade names Jakafi and Jakavi, by Incyte Pharmaceuticals and Novartis) is a drug for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis, a type of bone marrow cancer.It is also being investigated for the treatment of other types of cancer (such as lymphomas and pancreatic cancer), for polycythemia vera, and for plaque psoriasis.
The phase III Controlled Myelofibrosis Study with Oral JAK Inhibitor-I (COMFORT-I) and COMFORT-II trials showed significant benefits by reducing spleen size, relieving debilitating symptoms, and improving overall survival.

Mechanism of action

Ruxolitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor with selectivity for subtypes 1 and 2 of this enzyme.
Side effects

Immunologic side effects have included herpes zoster (1.9%) and case reports of opportunistic infections.[10] Metabolic side effects have included weight gain (7.1%). Laboratory abnormalities have included alanine transaminase (ALT) abnormalities (25.2%), aspartate transaminase (AST) abnormalities (17.4%), and elevated cholesterol levels (16.8%).
Legal status

In November 2011, ruxolitinib was approved by the USFDA for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis based on results of the COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II Trials.

Some analysts believe this to be a potential blockbuster drug.[3] As of the end of March 2012, and according to an Incyte spokesman, approximately 1000 physicians had prescribed the drug in the United States, out of a total 6500 hematologists and oncologists nationwide.

The US Food and Drug Administration had approved Incyte’s Jakafi (ruxolitinib) to treat patients with the bone marrow disease myelofibrosis (MF).  Jakafi is the first and only drug granted license specifically for the treatment of the rare blood cancer.

Jakafi for Myelofibrosis

Jakafi approved by FDA to treat rare bone marrow disease

Posted By Edward Su On November 17th, 2011

MF is a rare, potentially life-threatening blood cancer with limited treatment methods. Patients with the bone marrow disoder, characterized by bone marrow failure, enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), suffer from the symptoms of fatigue, night sweats and pruritus, poor quality of life, weight loss and shortened survival. The US drug firm Incyte estimates the disease affects about 16,000-18,500 people in the USA. Currently,  the disease is treated with chemotherapy or bone marrow transplant.

Incyte’s Jakafi, the first drug to reach market from the Wilmington-based drug company, was approved by the FDA as a twice-a-day pill for the treatment of patients with intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis (MF), including primary MF, post-polycythemia vera MF and post-essential thrombocythemia MF.  The US regulators reviewed Jakafi under its priority review program for important new therapies.

The approval of  Jakafi was based on the results from two clinical studies involved 528 patients with the disease. Patients in the Jakafi treatment arm experienced a significant reduction in the size of their spleen as well as a 50 percent decrease in symptoms, including pain, discomfort and night sweats.

Jakafi, generically known as ruxolitinib,  works by blocking JAK1 and JAK2 enzymes associated with the disease. The company has co-developed the drug with Novartis as part of their collaboration signed in 2009. The Swiss drug firm has the rights to market Jakafi in other countries.

“The availability of Jakafi is a significant medical advancement for people living with myelofibrosis, a debilitating disease,” said Paul A. Friedman, M.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Incyte. “This milestone marks a tremendous achievement for Incyte because a scientific discovery from our research laboratories has become the first JAK inhibitor to reach the market and provide a clinical benefit to patients.”

Richard Pazdur, director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Drug Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said that Jakafi “represents another example of an increasing trend in oncology where a detailed scientific understanding of the mechanisms of a disease allows a drug to be directed toward specific molecular pathways”.

Incyte says Jakafi will be available next week, and the drug will cost $7,000 per month, or $84,000 for a year’s supply for insured patients. The company plans to provide Jakafi free to uninsured patients and will offer co-pay assistance to patients with financial need.

(JAK1, JAK2) inhibitor, developed by the Incyte Corporation, trade name Jakafi.
Ruxolitinib synthetic route as shown below. 4 – bromo-pyrazole ( 1 ) with ethyl vinyl ether ( 2 ) to protect, and then with a Grignard reagent to a halogen – exchanged with isopropyl magnesiumpinacol ester ( 3 ) quenching to obtain 4 . Compound 5 is obtained consisting of hydrogen is protected 6 , and then with a boronic acid ester 4 Suzuki coupling occurs under acidic conditions after removal of the protecting group pyrazolyl 7 , 7 and α, β-unsaturated aldehyde 8 chiral catalyst 9 of under the catalysis of asymmetric Michael addition to give ( R ) -10 (90% EE). ( R) -10 , after reaction with ammonia to obtain an imine oxidation with iodine nitrile 11 , respectively, with different conditions for the final removal of the protecting group to afford Ruxolitinib.

Ruxolitinib <wbr> 2011 年 11 月 FDA approved drugs treat myelofibrosis



Cabergoline therapy for cushing disease throughout pregnancy


Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Aug;122(2 Pt 2):485-7. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31829e398a.
Woo I, Ehsanipoor RM.
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
Cushing disease during pregnancy is rare and is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is the first-line therapy; however, in cases of failed surgery or in patients who are not surgical candidates, medical therapy has been used to control symptoms.
A 29-year-old woman with Cushing disease and a noncurative transsphenoidal pituitary surgery was successfully treated with cabergoline, a dopamine agonist. After approximately 1 year of therapy, she became pregnant. She was maintained on high-dose cabergoline throughout her pregnancy and had an uncomplicated antenatal course. She went into spontaneous labor at 38 weeks of gestation and delivered a healthy female neonate.
Cabergoline can be used to manage Cushing disease successfully during pregnancy with an opportunity for a favorable outcome.

Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and Cabaser), an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors. In vitro, rat studies show cabergoline has a direct inhibitory effect on pituitary lactotroph (prolactin) cells.[1] It is frequently used as a first-line agent in the management of prolactinomas due to higher affinity for D2 receptor sites, less severe side effects, and more convenient dosing schedule than the older bromocriptine.


Cabergoline was invented by scientists working for the Italian drug company Farmitalia-Carlo Erba SpA in Milan in 1981/82,[2] who were experimenting with semisynthetic derivatives of the ergot alkaloids. Farmitalia-Carlo Erba was acquired by Pharmacia in 1992, which in turn was acquired by Pfizer in 2002. The drug was approved by the FDA on December 23, 1996. It went generic in late 2005 following US patent expiration.

Intellectual property

Farmitalia filed a patent application for Cabergoline in 1982, and U.S. Patent 4,526,892 issued in July 1985.


Although cabergoline is commonly described principally as a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, it also possesses significant affinity for the D3, D4, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, α2B receptors, and moderate/low affinity for the D1 and 5-HT7 receptors. Cabergoline functions as an agonist at all of these receptors except for 5-HT7 and α2B, where it acts as an antagonist.[3]

Following a single oral dose, resorption of cabergoline from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is highly variable, typically occurring within 0.5 to 4 hours. Ingestion with food does not alter its absorption rate. Human bioavailability has not been determined since the drug is intended for oral use only. In mice and rats the absolute bioavailability has been determined to be 30 and 63 percent, respectively. Cabergoline is rapidly and extensively metabolized in the liver and excreted in bile and to a lesser extent in urine. All metabolites are less active than the parental drug or inactive altogether. The human elimination half-life is estimated to be 63 to 68 hours in patients with Parkinson’s disease and 79 to 115 hours in patients with pituitary tumors. Average elimination half-life is 80 hours.

The therapeutic effect in treatment of hyperprolactinemia will typically persist for at least 4 weeks after cessation of treatment.

Mechanism of action

Cabergoline is a long-acting dopamine D2 receptor agonist and in vitro rat studies show a direct inhibitory effect on the prolactin secretion in the pituitary’s lactotroph cells. Cabergoline decreased serum prolactin levels in reserpinized rats.

Receptor binding studies indicate a low affinity for dopamine D1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors, and α2-adrenergic receptors.[1]

  • Dostinex at”. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
  • 2 US Patent 4526892 – Dimethylaminoalkyl-3-(ergoline-8′.beta.carbonyl)-ureas
  • 3  Sharif NA, McLaughlin MA, Kelly CR, Katoli P, Drace C, Husain S, Crosson C, Toris C, Zhan GL, Camras C (March 2009). “Cabergoline: Pharmacology, ocular hypotensive studies in multiple species, and aqueous humor dynamic modulation in the Cynomolgus monkey eyes”. Experimental Eye Research 88 (3): 386–97. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2008.10.003. PMID 18992242.
  • National Institute ofMental Health. PDSD Ki Database (Internet) [cited 2013 Jul 24]. ChapelHill (NC): University of North Carolina. 1998-2013. Available from:
  •  Sayyah-Melli, M; Tehrani-Gadim, S; Dastranj-Tabrizi, A; Gatrehsamani, F; Morteza, G; Ouladesahebmadarek, E; Farzadi, L; Kazemi-Shishvan, M (2009). “Comparison of the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and dopamine receptor agonist on uterine myoma growth. Histologic, sonographic, and intra-operative changes”. Saudi medical journal 30 (8): 1024–33. PMID 19668882edit

Sankaran, S.; Manyonda, I. (2008). “Medical management of fibroids”. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology 22 (4): 655. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2008.03.001. PMID 18468953. edit


Vifor gets FDA approval for Injectafer

Switzerland’s Vifor Pharma is celebrating after getting the thumbs-up from US regulators for Injectafer for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia.

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved the treatment, sold in Europe as Ferinject (ferric carboxymaltose) since getting the green light in 2007. Specifically, Injectafer will be available for the treatment of IDA in adults who have had an unsatisfactory response or are intolerant to oral iron.

The approval is based on two large trials conducted by Vifor’s US partner Luitpold Pharmaceuticals which studied more than 3,500 patients, of which 1,800 were treated with Injectafer.

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Ferric carboxymaltose
Chemical structure
The active substance of FERINJECT is a complex of polynuclear iron(III)-hydroxide with 4(R)-(poly-(1→4)-
O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-oxy-2(R),3(S),5(R),6-tetrahydroxy-hexanoate. The relative molecular weight is
approximately 150,000 Da, corresponding to the empirical formula:
[FeOx(OH)y(H2O)z]n [{(C6H10O5)m (C6H12O7)}l]k, where n ≈ 103, m ≈ 8, l ≈ 11, and k ≈ 4.
9007-72-1     for structure

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