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Esketamine

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Esketamine

  • Molecular FormulaC13H16ClNO
  • Average mass237.725 Da

(+)-Ketamine(2S)-2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanone
(S)-Ketamine33643-46-8[RN]7884Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (2S)-Cyclohexanone, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-, (S)-
KetamineCAS Registry Number: 6740-88-1CAS Name: 2-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)cyclohexanoneMolecular Formula: C13H16ClNOMolecular Weight: 237.73Percent Composition: C 65.68%, H 6.78%, Cl 14.91%, N 5.89%, O 6.73%Literature References: Prepn: C. L. Stevens, BE634208idem,US3254124 (1963, 1966 both to Parke, Davis). Isoln of optical isomers: T. W. Hudyma et al.,DE2062620 (1971 to Bristol-Myers), C.A.75, 118119x (1971). Clinical pharmacology of racemate and enantiomers: P. F. White et al.,Anesthesiology52, 231 (1980). Toxicity: E. J. Goldenthal, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.18, 185 (1971). Enantioselective HPLC determn in plasma: G. Geisslinger et al.,J. Chromatogr.568, 165 (1991). Comprehensive description: W. C. Sass, S. A. Fusari, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs.6, 297-322 (1977). Review of pharmacology and use in veterinary medicine: M. Wright, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.180, 1462-1471 (1982). Review of pharmacology and clinical experience: D. L. Reich, G. Silvay, Can. J. Anaesth.36, 186-197 (1989); in pediatric procedures: S. M. Green, N. E. Johnson, Ann. Emerg. Med.19, 1033-1046 (1990).Properties: Crystals from pentane-ether, mp 92-93°. uv max (0.01N NaOH in 95% methanol): 301, 276, 268, 261 nm (A1%1cm 5.0, 7.0, 9.8, 10.5). pKa 7.5. pH of 10% aq soln 3.5.Melting point: mp 92-93°pKa: pKa 7.5Absorption maximum: uv max (0.01N NaOH in 95% methanol): 301, 276, 268, 261 nm (A1%1cm 5.0, 7.0, 9.8, 10.5) 
Derivative Type: HydrochlorideCAS Registry Number: 1867-66-9Manufacturers’ Codes: CI-581Trademarks: Ketalar (Pfizer); Ketanest (Pfizer); Ketaset (Fort Dodge); Ketavet (Gellini); Vetalar (Bioniche)Molecular Formula: C13H16ClNO.HClMolecular Weight: 274.19Percent Composition: C 56.95%, H 6.25%, Cl 25.86%, N 5.11%, O 5.84%Properties: White crystals, mp 262-263°. Soly in water: 20 g/100 ml. LD50 in adult mice, rats (mg/kg): 224 ±4, 229 ±5 i.p. (Goldenthal).Melting point: mp 262-263°Toxicity data: LD50 in adult mice, rats (mg/kg): 224 ±4, 229 ±5 i.p. (Goldenthal) 
NOTE: This is a controlled substance (depressant): 21 CFR, 1308.13.Therap-Cat: Anesthetic (intravenous).Therap-Cat-Vet: Anesthetic (intravenous).Keywords: Anesthetic (Intravenous).Esketamine hydrochloride, S enantiomer of ketamine, is in phase III clinical trials by Johnson & Johnson for the treatment of depression.Drug Name:Esketamine HydrochlorideResearchCode:JNJ-54135419MOA:Dopamine reuptake inhibitor; NMDA receptor antagonistIndication:DepressionStatus:Phase III (Active)Company:Johnson & Johnson (Originator)

Molecular Weight274.19
FormulaC13H16ClNO•HCl
CAS No.33643-46-8 (Esketamine);
33643-47-9 (Esketamine Hydrochloride);

Route 1

Reference:1. US6040479.

https://patents.google.com/patent/US6040479A/en

EXAMPLE 1

50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine are dissolved in 613 ml of acetone at the boiling point and subsequently mixed with 31.5 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to obtain a clear solution, 40 ml of water are added thereto at the boiling point and subsequently the clear solution is filtered off while still hot. After the addition of seed crystals obtained in a small preliminary experiment, the whole is allowed to cool to ambient temperature while stirring. After standing overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.).

Yield (tartrate): 64.8 g

m.p.: 161° C.

[α]D : +26.1° (c=2/H2 O)

Thereafter, the crystallisate is recrystallised in a mixture of 1226 ml acetone and 90 ml water. After cooling to ambient temperature and subsequently stirring for 4 hours, the crystals are filtered off with suction and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C). There are obtained 38.8 g of tartrate (95.29% of theory).

m.p.: 175.3° C.

[α]D : +68.9° (c=2/H2 O)

The base is liberated by taking up 38.8 g of tartrate in 420 ml of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and stirring with 540 ml of diethyl ether. The ethereal phase is first washed with water and subsequently with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. The organic phase is dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. After filtering, the solution is evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator, a crystalline, colourless product remaining behind.

Yield (crude base): 21.5 g=86.0% of theory

m.p.: 118.9° C. (literature: 120-122° C.)

[α]D : -55.8° (c=2/EtOH) (literature: [α]D : -56.35° ).

In order possibly to achieve a further purification, the base can be recrystallised from cyclohexane. For this purpose, 10.75 g of the crude base are dissolved in 43 ml cyclohexane at the boiling point. While stirring, the clear solution is slowly cooled to about 10° C. and then stirred at this temperature for about 1 hour. The crystallisate which precipitates out is filtered off with suction and dried to constant weight.

Yield (base): 10.3 g=82.4% of theory

m.p.: 120° C. (literature: 120-122° C.)

[α]D : -56.8° (c=2/EtOH) (literature: [α]D : -56.35° )

EXAMPLE 2

125 ml of water are taken and subsequently 31.5 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine added thereto. While stirring, this mixture is warmed to 50-60° C. until a clear solution results. After cooling to ambient temperature while stirring and subsequently stirring overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction. Subsequently, the crystallisate is first washed with water (1-6° C.) and subsequently washed twice with, in each case, 20 ml of acetone. Drying in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.) gives 31.79 g of tartrate (78.23%) of theory).

EXAMPLE 3

150 ml of water are taken and subsequently mixed with 39.8 g (0.27 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine. While stirring, this mixture is warmed to 50-60° C. until a clear solution results.

After cooling to ambient temperature while stirring and subsequently stirring overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction. Subsequently, the crystallisate is successively washed with 8 ml of water (1-6° C.) and thereafter twice with, in each case, 20 ml acetone.

Drying in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.) gives 32.58 g of tartrate (80.02% of theory).

EXAMPLE 4

150 ml of water and 50 ml isopropanol are taken. After the addition of 39.8 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine, the mixture is heated to reflux temperature while stirring until a solution results (possibly add water until all is dissolved).

Subsequently, while stirring, the solution is allowed to cool to ambient temperature and stirred overnight. The crystals are filtered off with suction and subsequently washed with a 1:2 mixture of 20 ml of water/isopropanol and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.). There are obtained 24.45 g of tartrate (62.63% of theory).

EXAMPLE 5

50 g (0.21 mol) R,S-ketamine are dissolved at the boiling point in 300 ml acetone and subsequently mixed with 31.5 g (0.21 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid and 100 ml of water. The whole is allowed to cool while stirring and possibly seeded.

After standing overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction, then washed twice with, in each case, 20 ml acetone and dried in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.). There are obtained 30.30 g of tartrate (74.57% of theory).

EXAMPLE 6

75 ml of water and 50 ml isopropanol are taken and subsequently 39.8 g (0.27 mol) L-(+)-tartaric acid added thereto. While stirring, the mixture is heated to reflux temperature until a clear solution results. After cooling to ambient temperature while stirring and subsequently stirring overnight, the crystals formed are filtered off with suction. Subsequently, the crystallisate is washed with a 1:2 mixture of 20 ml water/isopropanol. After drying in a circulating air drying cabinet (first at ambient temperature and then at 50-60° C.), there are obtained 34.84 g of tartrate (85.74% of theory).

EXAMPLE 7

20 g of the S-(+)-tartrate obtained in Example 4 are dissolved in 100 ml of water at 30-40° C. With about 7 ml of 50% sodium hydroxide solution, an S-(-)-ketamine base is precipitated out up to about pH 13. It is filtered off with suction and washed neutral with water to pH 7-8. Subsequently, it is dried for about 24 hours at 50° C. in a circulating air drying cabinet. There are obtained 11.93 g S-(-)-ketamine (97.79% of theory).

EXAMPLE 8

5 g of the S-(-)-ketamine obtained in Example 7 are dissolved in 50 ml isopropanol at about 50° C. and possibly filtered off with suction over kieselguhr. Subsequently, gaseous hydrogen chloride is passed in at 50-60° C. until a pH value of 0-1 is reached. The reaction mixture is allowed to cool to ambient temperature, filtered off with suction and washed with about 5 ml isopropanol. The moist product is dried overnight at about 50° C. in a circulating air drying cabinet. There are obtained 5.09 g S-(+)-ketamine hydrochloride (88.06% of theory).


Route 2

Reference:1. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015137, 3205-3208.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs.5b00229

Here we report the direct asymmetric amination of α-substituted cyclic ketones catalyzed by a chiral phosphoric acid, yielding products with a N-containing quaternary stereocenter in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. Kinetic resolution of the starting ketone was also found to occur on some of the substrates under milder conditions, providing enantioenriched α-branched ketones, another important building block in organic synthesis. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in the short synthesis of (S)-ketamine, the more active enantiomer of this versatile pharmaceutical.

Abstract Image

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Initial reagent: cyclopentyl Grignard Step 0: Producing cyclopentyl Grignard Reacting cyclopentyl bromide with magnesium in solvent (ether or THF) Best results: distill solvent from Grignard under vacuum and replace with hydrocarbon solvent (e.g. benzene) Step 1: processing to (o-chlorophenyl)-cyclopentyl ketone Adding o-chlorobenzonitrile to cyclopentyl Grignard in solvent, stirring for long period of time (typically three days) Hydrolyzing reaction with mixture containing crushed ice, ammonium chloride and some ammonium hydroxide Extraction with organic solvent gives (o-chlorophenyl)-cyclopentyl ketone

Step 2: processing to alpha-bromo (o-chlorophenyl)-cyclopentyl ketone ketone processed with bromine in carbon tetrachloride at low temperature (typical T = 0°C), addition of bromine dropwise forming orange suspension Suspension washed in dilute aquerous solution of sodium bisufide and evaporated giving 1-bromocyclopentyl-(o-chlorophenyl)-ketone Note: bromoketone is unstable, immeadiate usage. Bromination carried out with NBromosuccinimide result higher yield (roughly 77%) Step 3: processing to 1-hydroxycyclopentyl-(o-chlorophenyl)-ketone-N-methylimine Dissolving bromoketone in liquid methylamine freebase (or benzene as possible solvent) After time lapse (1h): excess methylamine evaporated, residue dissolved in pentane and filtered evaporation of solvent yields 1-hydroxy-cyclopentyl-(o-chlorophenyl)-ketone N-methylimine Note: longer time span (4-5d) for evaporation of methylaminemay increase yield Step 4: processing to 2-Methylamino-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-cyclohexanone (Ketamine) Method: Thermal rearragement (qualitative yield after 30min in 180°C) N-methylimine dissolved in 15ml decalin, refluxed for 2.5h Evaporation of solvent under reduced temperature followed by extraction of residue with dilute hydrochloric acid Treatment with decolorizing charcoal (solution: acidic => basic) Recrystallization from pentane-ether Note – alternative to use of decalin: pressure bomb

racemic compound, in pharmaceutical preparation racemic more active enantiomere esketamine (S-Ketamine) available as Ketanest S, but Arketamine (R-Ketamine) never marketed for clinical use, Optical rotation: varies between salt and free base form free base form: (S)-Ketamine dextrorotation  (S)-(+)-ketamine hydrochloridesalt: levorotation(S)-(-)-ketamine  Reason found in molecular level: different orientation of substituents: freebase: o-chlorophenyl equatorial, methylamino axia

Sources: http://creationwiki.org/Ketamine#Synthesis http://www.lycaeum.org/rhodium/chemistry/pcp/ketamine.html https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ketamine https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/ketamine#section=Drug-Warning http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2014/02/ketamine-special-k-drugs-podcast http://drugabuse.com/library/the-effects-of-ketamine-use/ http://www.drugfreeworld.org/drugfacts/prescription/ketamine.html http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1615-9314(20021101)25:15/17%3C1155::AID-JSSC1155%3E3.0.CO;2-M/pdf

CLIP

Process Research and Impurity Control Strategy of Esketamine Organic Process Research & Development ( IF 3.023
Pub Date: 2020-03-18 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.9b00553
Shenghua Gao; Xuezhi Gao; Zhezhou Yang; Fuli Zhang
An improved synthesis of ( S )-ketamine (esketamine) has been developed, which was cost-effective, and the undesired isomer could be recovered by racemization. Critical process parameters of each step were identified as well as the process-related impurities. The formation mechanisms and control strategies of most impurities were first discussed. Moreover, the ( S )-ketamine tartrate is a dihydrate, which was disclosed for the first time. The practicable racemization catalyzed by aluminum chloride was carried out in quantitative yield with 99% purity . The ICH-grade quality ( S)-ketamine hydrochloride was obtained in 51.1% overall yield (14.0% without racemization) by chiral resolution with three times recycling of the mother liquors. The robust process of esketamine could be industrially scalable.


Process Research and ketamine impurity control strategy

has been developed an improved ( S ) – ketamine (esketamine) synthesis, the high cost-effective way, the undesired isomer may be recycled by racemization. Determine the key process parameters and process-related impurities for each step. First, the formation mechanism and control strategy of most impurities are discussed. In addition, ( S )-ketamine tartrate is a dihydrate, which is the first time it has been published. The feasible racemization catalyzed by aluminum chloride proceeds in a quantitative yield with a purity of 99%. ICH grade quality ( S) 5-ketamine hydrochloride can be obtained through chiral resolution and three times the mother liquor recovery rate. The total yield is 51.1% (14.0% without racemization). The robust process of ketamine can be used in Industrial promotion.

CLIP

Ketamine - Wikiwand

CLIP

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13738-018-1404-1#citeas

Taghizadeh, M.J., Gohari, S.J.A., Javidan, A. et al. A novel strategy for the asymmetric synthesis of (S)-ketamine using (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide and 1,2-cyclohexanedione. J IRAN CHEM SOC 15, 2175–2181 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13738-018-1404-1

Download citation

Abstract

We present a novel asymmetric synthesis route for synthesis of (S)-ketamine using a chiral reagent according to the strategy (Scheme 1), with good enantioselectivity (85% ee) and yield. In this procedure, the (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide (TBSA) acts as a chiral auxiliary reagent to generate (S)-ketamine. A series of new intermediates were synthesized and identified for the first time in this work (2–4). The monoketal intermediate (1) easily obtained after partial conversion of one ketone functional group  of 1,2-cyclohexanedione into a ketal using ethylene glycol. The sulfinylimine (2) was obtained by condensation of (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide (TBSA) with (1), 4-dioxaspiro[4.5]decan-6-one in 90% yield. The (S)-Ntert-butanesulfinyl ketamine (3) was prepared on further reaction of sulfinylimine (2) with appropriate Grignard reagent (ArMgBr) in which generated chiral center in 85% yield and with 85% diastereoselectivity. Methylation of amine afforded the product (4). Finally, the sulfinyl- and ketal-protecting groups were removed from the compound (4) by brief treatment with stoichiometric quantities of HCl in a protic solvent gave the (S)-ketamine in near quantitative yield.

Esketamine, sold under the brand name Spravato[4] among others,[6][7] is a medication used as a general anesthetic and for treatment-resistant depression.[4][1] Esketamine is used as a nasal spray or by injection into a vein.[4][1]

Esketamine acts primarily as a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist.[1][8] It also acts to some extent as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor but, unlike ketamine, does not interact with the sigma receptors.[1] The compound is the S(+) enantiomer of ketamine, which is an anesthetic and dissociative similarly.[1] It is unknown whether its antidepressant action is superior, inferior or equal to racemic ketamine and its opposite enantiomer, arketamine, which are both being investigated for the treatment of depression.

Esketamine was introduced for medical use in 1997.[1] In 2019, it was approved for use with other antidepressants, for the treatment of depression in adults in the United States.[9]

In August 2020, it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the added indication for the short-term treatment of suicidal thoughts.[10]

Medical uses

Anesthesia

Esketamine is a general anesthetic and is used for similar indications as ketamine.[1] Such uses include induction of anesthesia in high-risk patients such as those with hemorrhagic shockanaphylactic shockseptic shock, severe bronchospasm, severe hepatic insufficiencycardiac tamponade, and constrictive pericarditis; anesthesia in caesarian section; use of multiple anesthetics in burns; and as a supplement to regional anesthesia with incomplete nerve blocks.[1]

Depression

See also: List of investigational antidepressants

Similarly to ketamine, esketamine appears to be a rapid-acting antidepressant.[8][11] It received a breakthrough designation from the FDA for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in 2013 and major depressive disorder (MDD) with accompanying suicidal ideation in 2016.[12][11] The medication was studied for use in combination with an antidepressant in people with TRD who had been unresponsive to treatment;[12][8][11] six phase III clinical trials for this indication were conducted in 2017.[12][8][11] It is available as a nasal spray.[12][8][11]

In February 2019, an outside panel of experts recommended that the FDA approve the nasal spray version of esketamine,[13] provided that it be given in a clinical setting, with people remaining on site for at least two hours after. The reasoning for this requirement is that trial participants temporarily experienced sedation, visual disturbances, trouble speaking, confusion, numbness, and feelings of dizziness during immediately after.[14]

In January 2020, esketamine was rejected by the National Health Service of Great Britain. NHS questioned the benefits and claimed that it was too expensive. People who have been already using the medication were allowed to complete treatment if their doctors consider this necessary.[15]

Side effects

Most common side effects when used in those with treatment resistant depression include dissociation, dizziness, nausea, sleepiness, anxiety, and increased blood pressure.[16]

Pharmacology

Esketamine is approximately twice as potent as an anesthetic as racemic ketamine.[17] It is eliminated from the human body more quickly than arketamine (R(–)-ketamine) or racemic ketamine, although arketamine slows its elimination.[18]

A number of studies have suggested that esketamine has a more medically useful pharmacological action than arketamine or racemic ketamine[citation needed] but, in mice, that the rapid antidepressant effect of arketamine was greater and lasted longer than that of esketamine.[19] The usefulness of arketamine over eskatamine has been supported by other researchers.[20][21][22]

Esketamine inhibits dopamine transporters eight times more than arketamine.[23] This increases dopamine activity in the brain. At doses causing the same intensity of effects, esketamine is generally considered to be more pleasant by patients.[24][25] Patients also generally recover mental function more quickly after being treated with pure esketamine, which may be a result of the fact that it is cleared from their system more quickly.[17][26] This is however in contradiction with R-ketamine being devoid of psychotomimetic side effects.[27]

Unlike arketamine, esketamine does not bind significantly to sigma receptors. Esketamine increases glucose metabolism in frontal cortex, while arketamine decreases glucose metabolism in the brain. This difference may be responsible for the fact that esketamine generally has a more dissociative or hallucinogenic effect while arketamine is reportedly more relaxing.[26] However, another study found no difference between racemic and (S)-ketamine on the patient’s level of vigilance.[24] Interpretation of this finding is complicated by the fact that racemic ketamine is 50% (S)-ketamine.

History

Esketamine was introduced for medical use as an anesthetic in Germany in 1997, and was subsequently marketed in other countries.[1][28] In addition to its anesthetic effects, the medication showed properties of being a rapid-acting antidepressant, and was subsequently investigated for use as such.[8][12] In November 2017, it completed phase III clinical trials for treatment-resistant depression in the United States.[8][12] Johnson & Johnson filed a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) New Drug Application (NDA) for approval on September 4, 2018;[29] the application was endorsed by an FDA advisory panel on February 12, 2019, and on March 5, 2019, the FDA approved esketamine, in conjunction with an oral antidepressant, for the treatment of depression in adults.[9]

In the 1980s and ’90s, closely associated ketamine was used as a club drug known as “Special K” for its trip-inducing side effects.[30][31]

Society and culture

Names

Esketamine is the generic name of the drug and its INN and BAN, while esketamine hydrochloride is its BANM.[28] It is also known as S(+)-ketamine(S)-ketamine, or (–)-ketamine, as well as by its developmental code name JNJ-54135419.[28][12]

Esketamine is marketed under the brand name Spravato for use as an antidepressant and the brand names Ketanest, Ketanest S, Ketanest-S, Keta-S for use as an anesthetic (veterinary), among others.[28]

Availability

Esketamine is marketed as an antidepressant in the United States;[9] and as an anesthetic in the European Union.[28]

Legal status

Esketamine is a Schedule III controlled substance in the United States.[4]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j Himmelseher S, Pfenninger E (December 1998). “[The clinical use of S-(+)-ketamine–a determination of its place]”. Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie33 (12): 764–70. doi:10.1055/s-2007-994851PMID 9893910.
  2. ^ “Spravato 28 mg nasal spray, solution – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)”(emc). Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  3. ^ “Vesierra 25 mg/ml solution for injection/infusion – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)”(emc). 21 February 2020. Retrieved 24 November2020.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e “Spravato- esketamine hydrochloride solution”DailyMed. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2020.
  5. ^ “Spravato EPAR”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 16 October 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  6. ^ “Text search results for esketamine: Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference”MedicinesComplete. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 20 August 2017.[dead link]
  7. ^ Brayfield A, ed. (9 January 2017). “Ketamine Hydrochloride”MedicinesComplete. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 20 August2017.[dead link]
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Rakesh G, Pae CU, Masand PS (August 2017). “Beyond serotonin: newer antidepressants in the future”. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics17 (8): 777–790. doi:10.1080/14737175.2017.1341310PMID 28598698S2CID 205823807.
  9. Jump up to:a b c “FDA approves new nasal spray medication for treatment-resistant depression; available only at a certified doctor’s office or clinic”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). Retrieved 2019-03-06.
  10. ^ “FDA Approves A Nasal Spray To Treat Patients Who Are Suicidal”NPR. 4 August 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  11. Jump up to:a b c d e Lener MS, Kadriu B, Zarate CA (March 2017). “Ketamine and Beyond: Investigations into the Potential of Glutamatergic Agents to Treat Depression”Drugs77 (4): 381–401. doi:10.1007/s40265-017-0702-8PMC 5342919PMID 28194724.
  12. Jump up to:a b c d e f g “Esketamine – Johnson & Johnson – AdisInsight”. Retrieved 7 November 2017.
  13. ^ Koons C, Edney A (February 12, 2019). “First Big Depression Advance Since Prozac Nears FDA Approval”Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  14. ^ Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC) and Drug Safety and Risk Management (DSaRM) Advisory Committee (February 12, 2019). “FDA Briefing Document” (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved February 12, 2019. Meeting, February 12, 2019. Agenda Topic: The committees will discuss the efficacy, safety, and risk-benefit profile of New Drug Application (NDA) 211243, esketamine 28 mg single-use nasal spray device, submitted by Janssen Pharmaceutica, for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression.
  15. ^ “Anti-depressant spray not recommended on NHS”BBC News. 28 January 2020.
  16. ^ “Esketamine nasal spray” (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  17. Jump up to:a b Himmelseher S, Pfenninger E (December 1998). “[The clinical use of S-(+)-ketamine–a determination of its place]”. Anasthesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie (in German). 33 (12): 764–70. doi:10.1055/s-2007-994851PMID 9893910.
  18. ^ Ihmsen H, Geisslinger G, Schüttler J (November 2001). “Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketamine: R(–)-ketamine inhibits the elimination of S(+)-ketamine”. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics70 (5): 431–8. doi:10.1067/mcp.2001.119722PMID 11719729.
  19. ^ Zhang JC, Li SX, Hashimoto K (January 2014). “R (-)-ketamine shows greater potency and longer lasting antidepressant effects than S (+)-ketamine”. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior116: 137–41. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2013.11.033PMID 24316345S2CID 140205448.
  20. ^ Muller J, Pentyala S, Dilger J, Pentyala S (June 2016). “Ketamine enantiomers in the rapid and sustained antidepressant effects”Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology6 (3): 185–92. doi:10.1177/2045125316631267PMC 4910398PMID 27354907.
  21. ^ Hashimoto K (November 2016). “Ketamine’s antidepressant action: beyond NMDA receptor inhibition”. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets20 (11): 1389–1392. doi:10.1080/14728222.2016.1238899PMID 27646666S2CID 1244143.
  22. ^ Yang B, Zhang JC, Han M, Yao W, Yang C, Ren Q, Ma M, Chen QX, Hashimoto K (October 2016). “Comparison of R-ketamine and rapastinel antidepressant effects in the social defeat stress model of depression”Psychopharmacology233 (19–20): 3647–57. doi:10.1007/s00213-016-4399-2PMC 5021744PMID 27488193.
  23. ^ Nishimura M, Sato K (October 1999). “Ketamine stereoselectively inhibits rat dopamine transporter”. Neuroscience Letters274 (2): 131–4. doi:10.1016/s0304-3940(99)00688-6PMID 10553955S2CID 10307361.
  24. Jump up to:a b Doenicke A, Kugler J, Mayer M, Angster R, Hoffmann P (October 1992). “[Ketamine racemate or S-(+)-ketamine and midazolam. The effect on vigilance, efficacy and subjective findings]”. Der Anaesthesist (in German). 41 (10): 610–8. PMID 1443509.
  25. ^ Pfenninger E, Baier C, Claus S, Hege G (November 1994). “[Psychometric changes as well as analgesic action and cardiovascular adverse effects of ketamine racemate versus s-(+)-ketamine in subanesthetic doses]”. Der Anaesthesist (in German). 43 Suppl 2: S68-75. PMID 7840417.
  26. Jump up to:a b Vollenweider FX, Leenders KL, Oye I, Hell D, Angst J (February 1997). “Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET)”. European Neuropsychopharmacology7 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1016/s0924-977x(96)00042-9PMID 9088882S2CID 26861697.
  27. ^ Yang C, Shirayama Y, Zhang JC, Ren Q, Yao W, Ma M, Dong C, Hashimoto K (September 2015). “R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects”Translational Psychiatry5 (9): e632. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.136PMC 5068814PMID 26327690.
  28. Jump up to:a b c d e “Esketamine”Drugs.com.
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  30. ^ Marsa, Linda (January 2020). “A Paradigm Shift for Depression Treatment”. DiscoverKalmbach Media.
  31. ^ Hoffer, Lee (7 March 2019). “The FDA Approved a Ketamine-Like Nasal Spray for Hard-to-Treat Depression”Vice. Retrieved 11 February 2020.

External links

Clinical data
Trade namesSpravato, Ketanest, Vesierra, others
Other namesEsketamine hydrochloride; (S)-Ketamine; S(+)-Ketamine; JNJ-54135419
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa619017
License dataUS DailyMedEsketamineUS FDAEsketamine
Addiction
liability
Low–moderate[citation needed]
Routes of
administration
IntranasalIntravenous infusion[1]
Drug classNMDA receptor antagonistsAntidepressantsGeneral anestheticsDissociative hallucinogensAnalgesics
ATC codeN01AX14 (WHON06AX27 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S8 (Controlled drug)UK: POM (Prescription only) [2][3]US: Schedule III [4]EU: Rx-only [5]In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number33643-46-8 as HCl: 33795-24-3 
PubChem CID182137
IUPHAR/BPS9152
DrugBankDB01221 
ChemSpider158414 
UNII50LFG02TXDas HCl: 5F91OR6H84
KEGGD07283 as HCl: D10627 
ChEBICHEBI:6121 
ChEMBLChEMBL742 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID6047810 
ECHA InfoCard100.242.065 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC13H16ClNO
Molar mass237.73 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]CN[C@](C1=C(Cl)C=CC=C1)(CCCC2)C2=O
InChI[hide]InChI=1S/C13H16ClNO/c1-15-13(9-5-4-8-12(13)16)10-6-2-3-7-11(10)14/h2-3,6-7,15H,4-5,8-9H2,1H3/t13-/m0/s1 Key:YQEZLKZALYSWHR-ZDUSSCGKSA-N 

/////////////Esketamine, JNJ 54135419, phase 3


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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