New Drug Approvals

Home » Uncategorized » Mercaptamine bitartrate, システアミン , меркаптамин , 巯乙胺

Mercaptamine bitartrate, システアミン , меркаптамин , 巯乙胺



Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 


Blog Stats

  • 4,296,123 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,821 other subscribers

add to any


Cysteamine bitartrate.pngImage result for mercaptamine bitartrate

Image result for mercaptamine bitartrate

Mercaptamine bitartrate

2-aminoethanethiol;2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid

Molecular Formula: C6H13NO6S
Molecular Weight: 227.231 g/mol

Cystagon; Cysteamine – Mylan/Orphan Europe; Cysteamine bitartrate

Procysbi; CYSTEAMINE BITARTRATE; 27761-19-9; CHEBI:50386; (+/-)-Tartaric Acid

Cysteamine Bitartrate QO84GZ3TST 27761-19-9
Cysteamine Hydrochloride IF1B771SVB 156-57-0

Cysteamine bitartrate is a mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.

Cysteamine Bitartrate is an aminothiol salt used in the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis. Cysteamine bitartrate enters the cell and reacts with cystine producing cysteineand cysteinecysteamine mixed disulfide compound, both of which, unlike cystine, can pass through the lysosomal membrane. This prevents the accumulation of cystinecrystals in the lysosomes of patients with cystinosis, which can cause considerable damage and eventual destruction of the cells, particularly in the kidneys. (NCI05)

Cysteamine is a simple aminothiol molecule that is used to treat nephropathic cystinosis, due to its ability to decrease the markedly elevated and toxic levels of intracellular cystine that occur in this disease and cause its major complications. Cysteamine has been associated with serum enzyme elevations when given intravenously in high doses, but it has not been shown to cause clinically apparent acute liver injury.

Given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. The bitartrate salts (Cystagon® and Procysbi) have been used for the oral treatment of nephropathic cystinosis and cystinurea. The hydrochloride salt (Cystaran™) is indicated for the treatment of corneal cystine crystal accumulation in cystinosis patients.

  • OriginatorMylan
  • DeveloperAlphapharm; Mylan
  • ClassMercaptoethylamines; Small molecules; Sulfhydryl compounds
  • Mechanism of ActionGlutathione synthase stimulants

Highest Development Phases

  • MarketedNephropathic cystinosis
  • DiscontinuedUnspecified

Most Recent Events

  • 09 Apr 2018Mercaptamine bitartrate licensed to Recordati worldwide
  • 26 Oct 2017Chemical structure information added
  • 31 Dec 2008Mercaptamine bitartrate oral is still in phase II/III trials for Undefined indication in European Union

DESCRIPTION: CYSTAGON® (cysteamine bitartrate) Capsules for oral administration, contain cysteamine bitartrate, a cystine depleting agent which lowers the cystine content of cells in patients with cystinosis, an inherited defect of lysosomal transport. CYSTAGON® is the bitartrate salt of cysteamine, an aminothiol, beta-mercaptoethylamine. Cysteamine bitartrate is a highly water soluble white powder with a molecular weight of 227 and the molecular formula C2H7NS · C4H6O6. It has the following chemical structure:


Cysteamine is a medication intended for a number of indications, and approved by the FDA to treat cystinosis.

It is stable aminothiol, i.e., an organic compound containing both an amine and a thiol functional groups. Cysteamine is a white, water-soluble solid. It is often used as salts of the ammonium derivative [HSCH2CH2NH3]+[1] including the hydrochloride, phosphocysteamine, and bitartrate.[2]

Cysteamine molecule is biosynthesized in mammals, including humans, by the degradation of coenzyme A. The intermedia pantetheineis broken down into cysteamine and pantothenic acid.[2] It is the biosynthetic precursor to the neurotransmitter hypotaurine.[3][4]

Medical uses

Cysteamine is used to treat cystinosis. It is available by mouth (capsule and extended release capsule) and in eye drops.[5][6][7][8][9]

Adverse effects

Topical use

The most important adverse effect related to topical use might be skin irritation.

Oral use

The label for oral formulations of cysteamine carry warnings about symptoms similar to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, severe skin rashes, ulcers or bleeding in the stomach and intestines, central nervous symptoms including seizures, lethargy, somnolence, depression, and encephalopathy, low white blood cell levelselevated alkaline phosphatase, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension that can cause headache, tinnitus, dizziness, nausea, double or blurry vision, loss of vision, and pain behind the eye or pain with eye movement.[6]

The main side effects are Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, severe skin rashes, ulcers or bleeding in the stomach and intestines, central nervous symptoms, low white blood cell levelselevated alkaline phosphatase, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). IIH can cause headache, ringing in the ears, dizziness, nausea, blurry vision, loss of vision, and pain behind the eye or with eye movement.

Additional adverse effects of oral cysteamine include bad breath, skin odor, vomiting, nausea, stomach pain, diarrhea, and loss of appetite.[6]

The drug is in pregnancy category C; the risks of cysteamine to a fetus are not known but it harms babies in animal models at doses less than those given to people.[7][8]

For eye drops, the most common adverse effects are sensitivity to light, redness, and eye pain, headache, and visual field defects.[8]


There are no drug interactions for normal capsules or eye drops,[7][8] but the extended release capsules should not be taken with drugs that affect stomach acid like proton pump inhibitors or with alcohol, as they can cause the drug to be released too quickly.[6] It doesn’t inhibit any cytochrome P450 enzymes.[6]


People with cystinosis lack a functioning transporter (cystinosin) which transports cystine from the lysosome to the cytosol. This ultimately leads to buildup of cystine in lysosomes, where it crystallizes and damages cells.[5] Cysteamine enters lysosomes and converts cystine into cysteine and cysteine-cysteamine mixed disulfide, both of which can exit the lysosome.[6]

Biological function

Cysteamine also promotes the transport of L-cysteine into cells, that can be further used to synthesize glutathione, which is one of the most potent intracellular antioxidants.[4]

Cysteamine is used as a drug for the treatment of cystinosis; it removes cystine that builds up in cells of people with the disease.[10]


First evidence regarding the therapeutic effect of cysteamine on cystinosis dates back to 1950s. Cysteamine was first approved as a drug for cystinosis in the US in 1994.[6] An extended release form was approved in 2013.[11]

Society and culture

It is approved by FDA and EMA.[5][6]

In 2013, the regular capsule of cysteamine cost about $8,000 per year; the extended release form that was introduced that year was priced at $250,000 per year.[11]


It was studied in in vitro and animal models for radiation protection in the 1950s, and in similar models from the 1970s onwards for sickle cell anemia, effects on growth, its ability to modulate the immune system, and as a possible inhibitor of HIV.[2]

In the 1970s it was tested in clinical trials for Paracetamol toxicity which it failed, and in clinical trials for systemic lupus erythematosus in the 1990s and early 2000s, which it also failed.[2]

Clinical trials in Huntington’s disease were begun in the 1990s and were ongoing as of 2015.[2][12]

As of 2013 it was in clinical trials for Parkinson’s diseasemalaria, radiation sickness, neurodegenerative disorders, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cancer treatment.[10][2]

It has been studied in clinical trials for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease[13]

Horizon Pharma , following the acquisition of Raptor Pharmaceuticals (previously through its Bennu Pharmaceuticals subsidiary, and following its acquisition of Encode Pharmaceuticals , which licensed the drug from the University of California )) has developed and launched DR Cysteamine (EC Cysteamine; Procysbi), a methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene modulating, oral delayed-release (DR), enteric-coated (EC), bitartrate salt formulation of mercaptamine (cysteamine).

PRODUCT PATENT, WO2007089670 ,

hold SPC protection in most of the EU states until September 2028, and expire in the US in July 2037. In July 2018, the US FDA’s Orange Book was seen to list a patent covering product ( US8026284 and US9173851 ) of cysteamine bitartrate, that is due to expire in September 2027 and December 2034, respectively.

Cystinosis is a rare, autosomal recessive disease caused by intra-lysosomal accumulation of the amino acid cystine within various tissues, including the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, kidney, bone marrow, and eyes. Nephropathic cystinosis is associated with kidney failure that
necessitates kidney transplantation. To date, the only specific treatment for nephropathic cystinosis is the sulfhydryl agent, cysteamine. Cysteamine has been shown to lower intracellular cystine levels, thereby reducing the rate of progression of kidney failure in children.
[0004] Cysteamine, through a mechanism of increased gastrin and gastric acid production, is ulcerogenic. When administered orally to children with cystinosis, cysteamine has also been shown to cause a 3 -fold increase in gastric acid production and a 50% rise of serum gastrin levels. As a consequence, subjects that use cysteamine suffer
gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and are often unable to take cysteamine regularly or at full dose .

[0005] To achieve sustained reduction of leukocyte cystine levels, patients are normally required to take oral cysteamine every 6 hours, which invariably means having to awaken from sleep. However, when a single dose of
cysteamine was administered intravenously the leukocyte cystine level remained suppressed for more than 24 hours, possibly because plasma cysteamine concentrations were higher and achieved more rapidly than when the drug is administered orally. Regular intravenous administration of cysteamine would not be practical. Accordingly, there is a need for formulations and delivery methods that would result in higher plasma, and thus intracellular, concentration as well as decrease the number of daily doses and therefore improve the quality of life for patients.



Process for the preparation of cysteamine bitartrate . Represents the first patenting to be seen from Lupin Limited on cysteamine bitartrate.

Cysteamine bitartrate (I) is a cystine depleting agent which lower the cystine content of cells in patients with cystinosis, an inherited defect of lysosomal transport, it is indicated for the management of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. Cysteamine bitartrate (I) is simplest stable aminothiol salt and has the following structural formula:

 The application WO 2014204881 provides pharmaceutical composition of cysteamine bitrate and another application WO 2007089670 provides method of administrating cysteamine and pharmaceutically salts and method of treatment thereof.


1. Preparation of Cysteamine Bitartrate.

 A mixture of ethanol (1000 ml), butylated hydroxy anisole (1 g) and cysteamine hydrochloride (100 g) was stirred and cooled to 5 to 10° C. To this mixture a solution of ethanol (500 ml) and sodium hydroxide (352 g) was added over a period of 30 minutes.
The mixture was stirred at a temperature of 10 to 15° C. for 45 minutes. The mixture was filtered through celite. The filtrate was added to a mixture of ethanol (1250 ml), butylated hydroxy anisole (1 g) and L-(+)-tartaric acid (132 g) at a temperature of 55-60° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 70-75° C. for 45 minutes. The mixture was cooled to 20-30° C. The solid was filtered, washed with ethanol and dried under vacuum.

2. Purification of Cysteamine Bitartrate.

A mixture of cysteamine bitartrate (100 g) and ethanol (5000 ml) was heated to a temperature of 77-82° C. The solution was filtered and the filtrate was cooled to 20 to 30° C. and stirred for 40 minutes. The solid was filtered, washed with ethanol and dried under vacuum. Yield: 80 g; HPLC purity: 99.90%.

3. Preparation of Crystalline Form L1 of Cysteamine Bitartrate.

A mixture of cysteamine bitartrate (50 g) and methanol (600 ml) was heated to a temperature of 35-45° C. The solution was filtered and the filtrate was cooled to 5 to 10° C. Cysteamine bitartrate (0.25 g) seed material was added to the filtrate. The slurry was cooled to −5 to −25° C. and stirred for 40 minutes. The solid was filtered, washed with precooled methanol and dried under vacuum. Yield: 40 g. Cysteamine bitartrate with X-ray powder diffraction pattern as depicted in FIG. 1 was obtained.

4. Preparation of Crystalline Form L2 of Cysteamine Bitartrate.

A mixture of cysteamine bitartrate (50 g), butylated hydroxy anisole (1.3 g) and methanol (600 ml) was heated to a temperature of 35-45° C. The solution was filtered and the filtrate was cooled to 5 to 10° C. Cysteamine bitartrate (0.25 g) seed material was added to the filtrate. The slurry was cooled to −25 to −30° C. and stirred for 40 minutes. The solid was filtered, washed with precooled methanol and the solid was dried under 800-900 mm/Hg of vacuum at 35-40° C. for 5 hours. Yield: 40 g. Cysteamine bitartrate with X-ray powder diffraction pattern as depicted in FIG. 2 was obtained.


WO 2014204881

EP3308773A1 *2016-10-112018-04-18Recordati Industria Chimica E Farmaceutica SPAFormulations of cysteamine and cysteamine derivatives
Family To Family Citations
JP2016523364A *2013-06-172016-08-08ラプター ファーマシューティカルズ インコーポレイテッドシステアミン組成物の分析方法
WO2017087532A1 *2015-11-162017-05-26The Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaMethods of treating non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (nash) using cysteamine compounds
WO2017157922A12016-03-182017-09-21Recordati Industria Chimica E Farmaceutica S.P.A.Prolonged release pharmaceutical composition comprising cysteamine or salt thereof, 
KR20167000255A2014-06-17서방성 시스테아민 비드 투약 형태
CN 2014800346472014-06-17延迟释放型半胱胺珠粒调配物,以及其制备及使用方法
EP201408131322014-06-17Delayed release cysteamine bead formulation
CA 29147702014-06-17Delayed release cysteamine bead formulation, and methods of making and using same


  1. Jump up^ Reid, E. Emmet (1958). Organic Chemistry of Bivalent Sulfur1. New York: Chemical Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 398–399.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f Besouw, M; Masereeuw, R; van den Heuvel, L; Levtchenko, E (August 2013). “Cysteamine: an old drug with new potential”. Drug Discovery Today18 (15–16): 785–92. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2013.02.003PMID 23416144.
  3. Jump up^ Singer, Thomas P (1975). “Oxidative Metabolism of Cysteine and Cystine”. In Greenberg, David M. Metabolic pathways Vol. 7. Metabolism of sulfur compounds (3rd ed.). New York: Academic Press. p. 545. ISBN 9780323162081.
  4. Jump up to:a b Besouw, Martine; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Levtchenko, Elena (August 2013). “Cysteamine: an old drug with new potential”. Drug Discovery Today18(15–16): 785–792. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2013.02.003ISSN 1878-5832PMID 23416144.
  5. Jump up to:a b c Nesterova, Galina; Gahl, William A. (October 6, 2016). “Cystinosis”GeneReviews. University of Washington, Seattle.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “US Label: Cysteamine bitartrate delayed-release capsules” (PDF). FDA. August 2015.
  7. Jump up to:a b c “US Label: Cysteamine bitartrate capsules” (PDF). FDA. June 2007.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d “US Label: Cysteamine ophthalmic solution” (PDF). FDA. October 2012.
  9. Jump up^ Shams, F; Livingstone, I; Oladiwura, D; Ramaesh, K (10 October 2014). “Treatment of corneal cystine crystal accumulation in patients with cystinosis”Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)8: 2077–84. doi:10.2147/OPTH.S36626PMC 4199850Freely accessiblePMID 25336909.
  10. Jump up to:a b Besouw, Martine; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; van den Heuvel, Lambert; Levtchenko, Elena (August 2013). “Cysteamine: an old drug with new potential”Drug Discovery Today18(15–16): 785–792. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2013.02.003ISSN 1878-5832PMID 23416144.
  11. Jump up to:a b Pollack, Andrew (30 April 2013). “F.D.A. Approves Raptor Drug for Form of Cystinosis”The New York Times.
  12. Jump up^ Shannon, KM; Fraint, A (15 September 2015). “Therapeutic advances in Huntington’s Disease”. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society30 (11): 1539–46. doi:10.1002/mds.26331PMID 26226924.
  13. Jump up^ Mitchel, EB; Lavine, JE (November 2014). “Review article: the management of paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease”Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics40 (10): 1155–70. doi:10.1111/apt.12972PMID 25267322.
Cysteamine 3D ball.png

Skeletal formula (top)
Ball-and-stick model of the cysteamine
Clinical data
Synonyms 2-Aminoethanethiol
License data
CAS Number
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.421 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C2H7NS
Molar mass 77.15 g·mol−1
Melting point 95 to 97 °C (203 to 207 °F)
Title: Cysteamine
CAS Registry Number: 60-23-1
CAS Name: 2-Aminoethanethiol
Additional Names: mercaptamine; b-mercaptoethylamine; 2-aminoethyl mercaptan; thioethanolamine; decarboxycysteine; MEA; mercamine
Manufacturers’ Codes: L-1573
Trademarks: Becaptan (Labaz); Lambratene (formerly) (Cilag Italiano)
Molecular Formula: C2H7NS
Molecular Weight: 77.15
Percent Composition: C 31.14%, H 9.15%, N 18.16%, S 41.56%
Line Formula: HSCH2CH2NH2
Literature References: A sulfhydryl compound with a variety of biological effects. Prepn: Gabriel, Leupold, Ber. 31, 2837 (1898); Knorr, Rössler, ibid. 36, 1281 (1903); Mills, Jr., Bogart, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 62, 1173 (1940); Wenker, ibid. 57, 2328 (1935); D. A. Shirley, Preparation of Organic Intermediates (Wiley, New York, 1951) p 189. Use in treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning: L. F. Prescott et al., Lancet 2, 109 (1976); A. L. Harris, Br. Med. J. 284, 825 (1982). Effects in nephropathic cystinosis: M. Yudkoff et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 304, 141 (1981). Radioprotective effects: R. P. Bird, Radiat. Res. 72, 290 (1980); C. J. Koch, R. L. Howell, ibid. 87, 265 (1981). Cysteamine has been shown to be a duodenal ulcerogen in rats: H. Selye, S. Szabo, Nature 244,458 (1973); S. Szabo, Am. J. Pathol. 93, 273 (1978); P. Kirkegaard et al., Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 15, 621 (1980). Review: S. Szabo, Lab. Invest. 51, 121 (1984). It has also been found to deplete somatostatin concentration: S. Szabo, S. Reichlein, Endocrinology 109, 2255 (1981); S. M. Sagar et al., J. Neurosci. 2, 225 (1982). In pituitary tissue, cysteamine is a potent depletor of prolactin concentrations in vivo and in vitro: W. J. Millard et al., Science 217, 452 (1982). Toxicity studies: E. Beccari et al.,Arzneim.-Forsch. 5, 421 (1955); D. L. Klayman et al., J. Med. Chem. 12, 510 (1969); P. K. Srivastava, L. Field, ibid. 18, 798 (1975).
Properties: Crystals by sublimation in vacuo. Disagreeable odor. mp 97-98.5°. Oxidizes to cystamine on standing in air. Freely sol in water, alkaline reaction. LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 625 orally; 250 i.p. (Klayman); (Srivastava, Field).
Melting point: mp 97-98.5°
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice (mg/kg): 625 orally; 250 i.p. (Klayman); (Srivastava, Field)
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
Molecular Formula: C2H7NS.HCl
Molecular Weight: 113.61
Percent Composition: C 21.14%, H 7.10%, N 12.33%, S 28.22%, Cl 31.21%
Properties: Crystals from alc, mp 70.2-70.7°. Sol in water, alcohol. LD50 (cg/kg): 23.19 i.p. in rats; 14.95 i.v. in rabbits (Beccari).
Melting point: mp 70.2-70.7°
Toxicity data: LD50 (cg/kg): 23.19 i.p. in rats; 14.95 i.v. in rabbits (Beccari)
Use: Experimentally as a radioprotective agent and to produce acute and chronic duodenal ulcers in rats.
Therap-Cat: Antidote to acetaminophen.
Keywords: Antidote (Acetaminophen Poisoning)

///////////Mercaptamine bitartrate, Cystagon, Cysteamine,  Cysteamine bitartrate, Mercaptamine,, システアミン , меркаптамин ,  巯乙胺


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.


Follow New Drug Approvals on

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,821 other subscribers


DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

Personal Links

View Full Profile →


Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: