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MICONAZOLE NITRATE , Миконазол , ミコナゾール硝酸塩



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Miconazole            C18H14Cl4N2O    416.13             [22916478]

Miconazole Nitrate            C18H14Cl4N2O.HNO3              479.14             [22832877]

ミコナゾール硝酸塩 JP16
Miconazole Nitrate

C18H14Cl4N2O▪HNO3 : 479.14








click on above image for clear view



1D 1H, n/a spectrum for Miconazole


2D [1H,1H]-TOCSY, n/a spectrum for Miconazole


1D DEPT90, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

1D DEPT135

1D DEPT135, n/a spectrum for Miconazole


2D [1H,13C]-HSQC

2D [1H,13C]-HSQC, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,13C]-HMBC

2D [1H,13C]-HMBC, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,1H]-COSY

2D [1H,1H]-COSY, n/a spectrum for Miconazole

2D [1H,13C]-HMQC

2D [1H,13C]-HMQC, n/a spectrum for Miconazole
Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, commonly applied topically to the skin or tomucous membranes to cure fungal infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. It can also be used against certain species of Leishmania protozoa which are a type of unicellular parasites that also contain ergosterol in their cell membranes. In addition to its antifungal and antiparasitic actions, it also has some antibacterialproperties. It is marketed in various formulations under various brand names.

Miconazole is also used in Ektachrome film developing in the final rinse of the Kodak E-6 process and similar Fuji CR-56 process, replacing formaldehydeFuji Hunt also includes miconazole as a final rinse additive in their formulation of the C-41RA rapid access color negative developing process.
It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[1]

ALTERNATIVE ROUTES beginning with the racemic raw material will likely be more costly or more time-consuming to develop, Cox says. Crystallization might be tricky because the stereogenic center does not have a group that can readily undergo acid-base chemistry. Catalytic asymmetric chemistry will necessitate converting the raw material to an appropriate substrate and identifying effective, as well as usable, chemical catalysts or biocatalysts.
What happens to the unwanted enantiomer also depends on the economics. Reracemizing and feeding the racemate back into the process is ideal but not always practical. In the miconazole case, the raw material costs $32 per kg. It is unlikely that reracemizing would be less costly in this example, Cox explains.
People should not forget that the goal of chiral technologies–enantiopure product–also may be achieved with chemistry that already exists, notes David R. Dodds, founder of Dodds & Associates LLC, Manlius, N.Y., a consulting service for biotechnology and chemical companies. Process chemists seek the most robust, most productive, and least expensive synthetic route and aim to find it as fast as possible. Any reaction that can help reach this goal is useful. It is the overall process cost that will dictate which reactions will be used. And that cost covers not only reagents but also waste streams, utilities, equipment use, unit operations, and downstream requirements. Thus, it may be more commercially attractive to replace an elegant but expensive single reaction with several more mundane ones that have a lower total cost, he says. Such a situation is likely to arise when an asymmetric step requires an expensive chiral catalyst or chiral auxiliary.

Brief background information


Salt ATC Formula MM CAS
18 H 14 Cl 4 N 2 O 416.14 g / mol 22916-47-8
mononitrate A01AB09 
18 H 14 Cl 4 N 2 O ⋅ HNO 3 479.15 g / mol 22832-87-7



  • antifungal agent for topical use
  • antimycotic agent

Classes substance


  • Imidazoles, 1- (hlorfenetil) imidazoles

synthesis Way


Synthesis of a)

trade names


A country Tradename Manufacturer
Germany Castellani Hollborn
Daktar McNeil
Derma-Mikotral Rosen Pharma
Fungur HEXAL
Gyno-Daktar Janssen-Cilag, 1974
Gyno-Mikotral Rosen Pharma
Infektozoor Mundgel Infectopharm
Mikobeta betapharm
Mikotar Dermapharm
Mikoderm Engelhard
Mikotin Ardeypharm
Vobamik Almirall Hermal
France Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Gyno-Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Loramik Bioalliance
United Kingdom Gyno-Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Italy Daktapin Janssen-Cilag
Mikonal Ecobi
Mikotef LPB
Miderm Mendelejeff
Nizakol PS Pharma
Pivanazolo Medestea
Prilagin Sofar
Japan Florid Mochida
USA Fungoid Pedinol
Ukraine GІNEZOL 7 Sagmel, Іnk., USA
MІKONAZOL-Darnitsa CJSC “Farmatsevtichna FIRMA” Darnitsa “, m. Kyiv, Ukraine
MІKOGEL BAT “Kiїvmedpreparat”, m. Kyiv, Ukraine
various generic drugs



  • ampoule 200 mg / 20 ml;
  • cream 1%, 2 g / 100 g 20 mg / g;
  • losyon 1%;
  • ointment 1%;
  • 2% oral gel;
  • Powder 2 g / 100 g 20 mg / g (in the form mononitrate);
  • solution of 20 mg / ml;
  • 100 mg suppositories;
  • Tablets of 250 mg (free base form);
  • vaginal cream 20 mg / g;
  • bottles of 400 mg / 40 ml



  1. Synthesis of a)
    • DAS 1,940,388 (Janssen; appl 8.8.1969;. USA-prior 19.8.1968, 23.7.1969.).
    • US 3,717,655 (Janssen; 20.2.1973; appl 19.8.1968.).
    • US 3,839,574 (Janssen; 1.10.1974; prior 23.7.1969.).

Miconazole nitrate was prepared by Godefori et
7]. Imidazole 1 was coupled with
brominated 2,4‑dichloroacetophenone 2 and the resulting ketonic product 3
was reduced with sodium borohydride to its corresponding alcohol 4. The
latter compound 4 was then coupled with 2,4-dichlorotoluene by sodium borohydride
in hexamethylphosphoramide (an aprotic solvent) which was then extracted with
nitric acid to give miconazole nitrate.



2-     Miconazole was also
prepared by Molina Caprile [8] as follows:
Phenyl methyl ketone 1 was brominated to give
1-phenyl-2-bromoethanone 2. Compound 2 was treated with
methylsulfonic acid to yield the corresponding methylsulfonate 3.
Etherification of 3 gave the a‑benzyloxy derivative 4 and compound 4 was
then chlorinated to give the 2,4‑dichlorinated derivative in both aromatic ring
systems 5. Compound 5 reacted with imidazole in dimethylformamide
to give miconazole 6 [7] which is converted to miconazole nitrate.


3-     Ye
et al reported that the reduction of 2,4-dichlorophenyl-2-chloroethanone
1 with potassium borohydride in dimethylformamide to give 90% a‑chloromethyl-2,4-dichlorobenzyl
alcohol 2. Alkylation of imidazole with compound 2 in dimethyl­formamide
in the presence of sodium hydroxide and triethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, gave
1-(2,4‑dichlorophenyl-2-imidazolyl)ethanol 3 and etherification of 3
with 2,4-dichlorobenzyl chloride under the same condition, 62% yield of
miconazole [9].
4-     Liao
and Li enantioselectively synthesized and studied the antifungal activity of
optically active miconazole and econazole. The key step was the
enantioselective reduction of 2‑chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethanone catalyzed
by chiral oxazaborolidine [10].
5-     Yanez
et al reported the synthesiz of miconazole and analogs through a
carbenoid intermediate. The process involves the intermolecular insertion of
carbenoid species to imidazole from a‑diazoketones with copper acetylacetonate as the key
reaction of the synthetic route [11].
5-11 as 1-7
1.             E.F. Godefori and J. Heeres, Ger. Pat. 1,940,388
E.F. Godefori and J. Heeres, U.S. Pat. 3,717,655
E.F. Godefori, J. Heeres, J. van Cutsem and P.A.J.
Janssen, J. Med. Chem., 12, 784 (1969).
F. Molina Caprile, Spanish Patent ES 510870 A1
B. Ye, K. Yu and Q. Huang, Zhongguo Yiyao Gongye
, 21, 56 (1990).
Y.W. Liao and H.X. Li, Yaoxue Xuebao, 28,
22 (1993).
E.C. Yanez, A.C. Sanchez, J.M.S. Becerra, J.M.
Muchowski and C.R. Almanza, Revista de la Sociedad Quimica de Mexico, 48,
49 (2004).

MiconazoleTitle: Miconazole

CAS Registry Number: 22916-47-8
CAS Name: 1-[2-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-1H-imidazole
Additional Names: 1-[2,4-dichloro-b-[(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxy]phenethyl]imidazole
Molecular Formula: C18H14Cl4N2O
Molecular Weight: 416.13
Percent Composition: C 51.95%, H 3.39%, Cl 34.08%, N 6.73%, O 3.84%
Literature References: Prepn: E. F. Godefroi et al., J. Med. Chem. 12, 784 (1969); E. F. Godefroi, J. Heeres, DE 1940388;eidem, US 3717655 (1970, 1973 to Janssen). Clinical evaluation: Brugmans et al., Arch. Dermatol. 102, 428 (1970); Godts et al.,Arzneim.-Forsch. 21, 256 (1971). Review: P. Janssen, W. Van Bever, in Pharmacological and Biochemical Properties of Drug Substances vol. 2, M. E. Goldberg, Ed. (Am. Pharm. Assoc., Washington, DC, 1979) pp 333-354; R. C. Heel et al., Drugs 19, 7-30 (1980).
Derivative Type: Nitrate
CAS Registry Number: 22832-87-7
Manufacturers’ Codes: R-14889
Trademarks: Aflorix (Gramon); Albistat (Ortho); Andergin (ISOM); Brentan (Janssen); Conoderm (C-Vet); Conofite (Mallinckrodt); Daktar (Janssen); Daktarin (Janssen); Deralbine (Andromaco); Dermonistat (Ortho); Epi-Monistat (Cilag); Florid (Mochida); Fungiderm (Janssen); Fungisdin (Isdin); Gyno-Daktarin (Janssen); Gyno-Monistat (Cilag-Chemie); Micatin (J & J); Miconal Ecobi (Ecobi); Micotef (LPB); Monistat (Cilag-Chemie); Prilagin (Gambar); Vodol (Andromaco)
Molecular Formula: C18H14Cl4N2O.HNO3
Molecular Weight: 479.14
Percent Composition: C 45.12%, H 3.16%, Cl 29.60%, N 8.77%, O 13.36%
Properties: Crystals, mp 170.5° (Godefroi, Heeres, 1970); 184-185° (Godefroi).
Melting point: mp 170.5° (Godefroi, Heeres, 1970); 184-185° (Godefroi)
Derivative Type: (+)-Form nitrate
Properties: mp 135.3°. [a]D20 +59° (methanol).
Melting point: mp 135.3°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 +59° (methanol)
Derivative Type: (-)-Form nitrate
Properties: mp 135°. [a]D20 -58° (methanol).
Melting point: mp 135°
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 -58° (methanol)
Therap-Cat: Antifungal (topical).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antifungal (topical).
Keywords: Antifungal (Synthetic); Imidazoles.


  1. Jump up^ “WHO Model List of EssentialMedicines” (PDF)World Health Organization. October 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  2. Jump up^ British National Formulary ’45’ March 2003
  3. Jump up^ “Strange Beauty: Monistat Effectively Increases Hair Growth?”. Black Girl With Long Hair. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  4. Jump up^ Ju, Jiang; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kojima, Yuko; Ogawa, Hideoki (2005). “Topical application of ketoconazole stimulates hair growth in C3H/HeN mice”Journal of dermatology32: 243–247.
  5. Jump up^ S., Venturoli; O. Marescalchi; F. M. Colombo; S. Macrelli; B. Ravaioli; A. Bagnoli; R. Paradisi; C. Flamigni (April 1999). “A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Low Dose Flutamide, Finasteride, Ketoconazole, and Cyproterone Acetate-Estrogen Regimens in the Treatment of Hirsutism”The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism84 (4): 1304–1310. doi:10.1210/jc.84.4.1304. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  6. Jump up^ Duret C, Daujat-Chavanieu M, Pascussi JM, Pichard-Garcia L, Balaguer P, Fabre JM, Vilarem MJ, Maurel P, Gerbal-Chaloin S (2006). “Ketoconazole and miconazole are antagonists of the human glucocorticoid receptor: consequences on the expression and function of the constitutive androstane receptor and the pregnane X receptor”. Mol. Pharmacol70 (1): 329–39. doi:10.1124/mol.105.022046PMID 16608920.
  7. Jump up^ Najm, Fadi J.; Madhavan, Mayur; Zaremba, Anita; Shick, Elizabeth; Karl, Robert T.; Factor, Daniel C.; Miller, Tyler E.; Nevin, Zachary S.; Kantor, Christopher (2015-01-01).“Drug-based modulation of endogenous stem cells promotes functional remyelination in vivo”Nature522 (7555). doi:10.1038/nature14335.
  8. Jump up^ United States Patent 5461068

External links




Miconazole ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Desenex, Monistat, Zeasorb-AF
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a601203
  • AU: A
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
  • In Australia, it is category A when used topically. In the US, the pregnancy category is C for oral and topical treatment.
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: S2 (Pharmacy only)
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
  • US: OTC
  • Schedule 2 in Australia for topical formulations, schedule 3 (Aus) for vaginal use and for oral candidiasis, otherwise schedule 4 in Australia
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability n/a
Metabolism n/a
Biological half-life n/a
Excretion n/a
CAS Number 22916-47-8 Yes
ATC code A01AB09 (WHO)A07AC01 (WHO)D01AC02 (WHO)G01AF04 (WHO)J02AB01 (WHO)S02AA13 (WHO)
PubChem CID 4189
DrugBank DB01110 Yes
ChemSpider 4044 Yes
KEGG D00416 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:6923 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C18H14Cl4N2O
Molar mass 416.127 g/mol
Chirality Racemic mixture

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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