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Sage Therapeutics receives fast track designation for status epilepticus therapy

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Allopregnanolone.png

SAGE-547
 ALLOPREGNANOLONE

Sage Therapeutics (Originator)

Sage Therapeutics

For Epilepsy, status epilepticus

SGE-102; SAGE-547; allopregnanolone; allosteric GABA A receptor modulators (CNS disorders),

Sage Therapeutics receives fast track designation for status epilepticus therapy
Ligand Pharmaceuticals announced that its partner Sage Therapeutics has received fast track designation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the Captisol-enabled SAGE-547 to treat status epilepticus.

read at

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newssage-therapeutics-receives-fast-track-designation-for-status-epilepticus-therapy-4324543?WT.mc_id=DN_News

 

Chemical Name:   (3α)-Allopregnanolone
Synonyms:   (+)-3α-Hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one; (3α,5α)-3-Hydroxypregnan-20-one; 3α,5α-THP; 3α,5α-Tetrahydroprogesterone; 3α-Hydroxy-5α-dihydroprogesterone; 3α-Hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one; 3α-Hydroxy-5α-pregnane-20-one; 5α-Pregnan-3α-ol-20-one; 5α-Pregnane-3α-ol-20-one; Allopregnan-3α-ol-20-one; Allopregnanolone; Allotetrahydroprogesterone;
CAS Number:   516-54-1
Applications:   (3α)-Allopregnanolone acts as a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator. (3α)-Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of Progesterone (P755900). (3α)-Allopregnanolone is a neuroactive steroid present in the blood and also the brain.
References:   Puja, G. et al.: Neuron, 4, 759 (1990); Belelli, D. et ael. Neurosteroid, 6, 565 (2006); Viapiano, M. et al.: Neurochem. Res., 23, 155 (1998);
Mol. Formula:   C21H34O2
Appearance:   White Solid
Melting Point:   174-176°C
Mol. Weight:   318.49

SAGE-547 is a GABA(A) receptor modulator in phase I/II clinical trials at Sage Therapeutics as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of adults with super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE).

In 2014, orphan drug designation was assigned in the U.S for the treatment of status epilepticus. In July 2014, fast track designation was received in the U.S. for the treatment of adults with super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE).

July 22, 2014

SAGE Therapeutics, a biopharmaceutical company developing novel medicines to treat life-threatening, rare central nervous system (CNS) disorders, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted fast track designation to the SAGE-547 development program. SAGE-547 is an allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors in development for the treatment of adult patients with refractory status epilepticus who have not responded to standard regimens (super-refractory status epilepticus, or SRSE). SAGE is currently evaluating SAGE-547 in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial for the treatment of SRSE. Preliminary data indicate that the first four patients enrolled in the clinical trial met the key efficacy endpoint, in that each was successfully weaned off his or her anesthetic agent while SAGE-547 was being administered. There have also been no reported drug-related serious adverse events in these four patients to date.

“The fast track designation for SAGE-547 recognizes the significant unmet need that exists in the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus,” said Jeff Jonas, MD, chief executive officer of SAGE Therapeutics. “The receipt of orphan drug designation earlier this year for status epilepticus and the fast track designation are both significant regulatory milestones for SAGE-547, and we will continue to work closely with the FDA to advance our lead compound and the additional programs in our pipeline for the treatment of life-threatening CNS disorders.”

Fast track designation is granted by the FDA to facilitate the development and expedite the review of drug candidates that are intended to treat serious or life-threatening conditions and that demonstrate the potential to address unmet medical needs.

About SAGE-547

SAGE-547 is an allosteric modulator of both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABAA receptors. GABAA receptors are widely regarded as validated drug targets for a variety of CNS disorders, with decades of research and multiple approved drugs targeting these receptor systems. SAGE-547 is an intravenous agent in Phase 1/2 clinical development as an adjunctive therapy, a therapy combined with current therapeutic approaches, for the treatment of SRSE.

About Status Epilepticus (SE)

SE is a life-threatening seizure condition that occurs in approximately 150,000 people each year in the U.S., of which 30,000 SE patients die.1 We estimate that there are 35,000 patients with SE in the U.S. that are hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) each year. An SE patient is first treated with benzodiazepines, and if no response, is then treated with other, second-line, anti-seizure drugs. If the seizure persists after the second-line therapy, the patient is diagnosed as having refractory SE (RSE), admitted to the ICU and placed into a medically induced coma. Currently, there are no therapies that have been specifically approved for RSE; however, physicians typically use anesthetic agents to induce the coma and stop the seizure immediately. After a period of 24 hours, an attempt is made to wean the patient from the anesthetic agents to evaluate whether or not the seizure condition has resolved. Unfortunately, not all patients respond to weaning attempts, in which case the patient must be maintained in the medically induced coma. At this point, the patient is diagnosed as having SRSE. Currently, there are no therapies specifically approved for SRSE.

About SAGE Therapeutics

SAGE Therapeutics (NASDAQ: SAGE) is a biopharmaceutical company committed to developing and commercializing novel medicines to treat life-threatening, rare CNS disorders. SAGE’s lead program, SAGE-547, is in clinical development for super-refractory status epilepticus and is the first of several compounds the company is developing in its portfolio of potential seizure medicines. SAGE’s proprietary chemistry platform has generated multiple new compounds that target GABAA and NMDA receptors, which are broadly accepted as impacting many psychiatric and neurological disorders. SAGE Therapeutics is a public company launched in 2010 by an experienced team of R&D leaders, CNS experts and investors. For more information, please visitwww.sagerx.com.

Allopregnanolone
Allopregnanolone.png
Identifiers
PubChem 262961
ChemSpider 17216124 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL38856 
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C21H34O2
Molar mass 318.49 g/mol

 

Allopregnanolone (3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone), generally abbreviated as ALLO or as 3α,5α-THP, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.[1] It is synthesized from progesterone, and is a potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.[1] Allopregnanolone has effects similar to those of other potentiators of the GABAA receptor such as the benzodiazepines, including anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity.[1]

The 21-hydroxylated derivative of this compound, tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC), is an endogenous inhibitory neurosteroid with similar properties to those of allopregnanolone, and the 3β-methyl analogue of allopregnanolone, ganaxolone, is under development to treat epilepsy and other conditions.[1]

Biosynthesis

The biosynthesis of allopregnanolone starts with the conversion of progesterone into 5α-dihydroprogesterone by 5α-reductase type I. After that, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase converts this intermediate into allopregnanolone.[1]

Depression, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction are frequently-seen side effects of 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride, and are thought to be caused, in part, by interfering with the normal production of allopregnanolone.[2]

Mechanism

Allopregnanolone acts as a potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.[1] While allopregnanolone, like other inhibitory neurosteroids such as THDOC, positively modulates all GABAA receptor isoforms, those isoforms containing δ subunits exhibit the greatest potentiation.[1] Allopregnanolone has also been found to act as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA-ρ receptor, though the implications of this action are unclear.[3][4] In addition to its actions on GABA receptors, allopregnanolone, like progesterone, is known to be a negative allosteric modulator of nACh receptors,[5] and also appears to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the 5-HT3 receptor.[6] Along with the other inhibitory neurosteroids, allopregnanolone appears to have little or no action at other ligand-gated ion channels, including the NMDA, AMPA, kainate, and glycine receptors.[7]

Unlike progesterone, allopregnanolone is inactive at the nuclear progesterone receptor (nPR).[7] However, allopregnanolone can be intracellularly oxidized into 5α-dihydroprogesterone, which is an agonist of the nPR, and thus/in accordance, allopregnanolone does appear to have indirect nPR-mediated progestogenic effects.[8] In addition, allopregnanolone has recently been found to be an agonist of the newly-discovered membrane progesterone receptors (mPR), including mPRδ, mPRα, and mPRβ, with its activity at these receptors about a magnitude more potent than at the GABAA receptor.[9][10] The action of allopregnanolone at these receptors may be related, in part, to its neuroprotective and antigonadotropic properties.[9][11] Also like progesterone, recent evidence has shown that allopregnanolone is an activator of the pregnane X receptor.[7][12]

Similarly to many other GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, allopregnanolone has been found to act as an inhibitor of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs),[13] including α1 subtypes Cav1.2 and Cav1.3.[14] However, the threshold concentration of allopregnanolone to inhibit L-VGCCs was determined to be 3 μM (3,000 nM), which is far greater than the concentration of 5 nM that has been estimated to be naturally produced in the human brain.[14] Thus, inhibition of L-VGCCs is unlikely of any actual significance in the effects of endogenous allopregnanolone.[14] Also, allopregnanolone, along with several other neurosteroids, has been found to activate the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1, or TGR5).[15] However, it is only able to do so at micromolar concentrations, which, similarly to the case of the L-VGCCs, are far greater than the low nanomolar concentrations of allopregnanolone estimated to be present in the brain.[15]

Function

Allopregnanolone possesses a wide variety of effects, including, in no particular order, antidepressant, anxiolytic, stress-reducing, rewarding,[16] prosocial,[17] antiaggressive,[18] prosexual,[17] sedative, pro-sleep,[19] cognitive and memory-impairing, analgesic,[20] anesthetic, anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects.[1]

Fluctuations in the levels of allopregnanolone and the other neurosteroids seem to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood, anxiety, premenstrual syndrome, catamenial epilepsy, and various other neuropsychiatric conditions.[21][22][23]

Increased levels of allopregnanolone can produce paradoxical effects, including negative mood, anxiety, irritability, and aggression.[24][25][26] This appears to be because allopregnanolone possesses biphasic, U-shaped actions at the GABAA receptor – moderate level increases (in the range of 1.5–2 nM/L total allopregnanolone, which are approximately equivalent to luteal phase levels) inhibit the activity of the receptor, while lower and higher concentration increases stimulate it.[24][25] This seems to be a common effect of many GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators.[26][21] In accordance, acute administration of low doses of micronized progesterone (which reliably elevates allopregnanolone levels), have been found to have negative effects on mood, while higher doses have a neutral effect.[27]

Therapeutic applications

Allopregnanolone and the other endogenous inhibitory neurosteroids have very short half-lives, and for this reason, have not been pursued for clinical use themselves. Instead, synthetic analogs with improved pharmacokinetic profiles, such as ganaxolone, have been synthesized and are being investigated. However, exogenous progesterone, such as oral micronized progesterone (OMP), reliably elevates allopregnanolone levels in the body with good dose-to-serum level correlations.[28] Due to this, it has been suggested that OMP could be described as a prodrug of sorts for allopregnanolone.[28] As a result, there has been some interest in using OMP to treat catamenial epilepsy,[29] as well as other menstrual cycle-related and neurosteroid-associated conditions.

……………………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2006037016A2?cl=en

Materials and Methods

[0181] The materials and methods used for the follwing experiments have been described in Griffin L.D., et al, Nature Medicine 10: 704-711 (2004). This reference is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

Example 1: Allopregnanolone Treatment of Niemann Pick type-C Mice Substantially Reduces Accumulation of the Gangliosides GMl, GM2, and GM3 in the Brain [0182] Mice were given a single injection of allopregnanolone, prepared in 20% βcyclodextrin in phosphate buffered saline, at a concentration of 25 mg/kg. The injection was on day 7 of life (P7, postnatal day 7). Concentrations of gangliosides GMl, GM2, GM3, were measured as well as other lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides.

…………………………………………….

WO-2014031792 OR EQ

http://www.google.com/patents/US20140057885?cl=en

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WO-2013112605

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013112605A2?cl=en

References

  1. Reddy DS (2010). “Neurosteroids: endogenous role in the human brain and therapeutic potentials”. Prog. Brain Res. 186: 113–37. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53630-3.00008-7. PMC 3139029. PMID 21094889.
  2. Römer B, Gass P (December 2010). “Finasteride-induced depression: new insights into possible pathomechanisms”. J Cosmet Dermatol 9 (4): 331–2. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2165.2010.00533.x. PMID 21122055.
  3. Morris KD, Moorefield CN, Amin J (October 1999). “Differential modulation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type C receptor by neuroactive steroids”. Mol. Pharmacol. 56 (4): 752–9. PMID 10496958.
  4. Li W, Jin X, Covey DF, Steinbach JH (October 2007). “Neuroactive steroids and human recombinant rho1 GABAC receptors”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 323 (1): 236–47. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.127365. PMID 17636008.
  5. Bullock AE, Clark AL, Grady SR, et al. (June 1997). “Neurosteroids modulate nicotinic receptor function in mouse striatal and thalamic synaptosomes”. J. Neurochem. 68 (6): 2412–23. PMID 9166735.
  6. Wetzel CH, Hermann B, Behl C, et al. (September 1998). “Functional antagonism of gonadal steroids at the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor”. Mol. Endocrinol. 12 (9): 1441–51. doi:10.1210/mend.12.9.0163. PMID 9731711.
  7. Mellon SH (October 2007). “Neurosteroid regulation of central nervous system development”. Pharmacol. Ther. 116 (1): 107–24. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.04.011. PMC 2386997. PMID 17651807.
  8. Rupprecht R, Reul JM, Trapp T, et al. (September 1993). “Progesterone receptor-mediated effects of neuroactive steroids”. Neuron 11 (3): 523–30. PMID 8398145.
  9. Thomas P, Pang Y (2012). “Membrane progesterone receptors: evidence for neuroprotective, neurosteroid signaling and neuroendocrine functions in neuronal cells”. Neuroendocrinology 96 (2): 162–71. doi:10.1159/000339822. PMC 3489003. PMID 22687885.
  10. Pang Y, Dong J, Thomas P (January 2013). “Characterization, neurosteroid binding and brain distribution of human membrane progesterone receptors δ and {epsilon} (mPRδ and mPR{epsilon}) and mPRδ involvement in neurosteroid inhibition of apoptosis”. Endocrinology 154 (1): 283–95. doi:10.1210/en.2012-1772. PMC 3529379. PMID 23161870.
  11. Sleiter N, Pang Y, Park C, et al. (August 2009). “Progesterone receptor A (PRA) and PRB-independent effects of progesterone on gonadotropin-releasing hormone release”. Endocrinology 150 (8): 3833–44. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0774. PMC 2717864. PMID 19423765.
  12. Lamba V, Yasuda K, Lamba JK, et al. (September 2004). “PXR (NR1I2): splice variants in human tissues, including brain, and identification of neurosteroids and nicotine as PXR activators”. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 199 (3): 251–65. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2003.12.027. PMID 15364541.
  13. Hu AQ, Wang ZM, Lan DM, et al. (July 2007). “Inhibition of evoked glutamate release by neurosteroid allopregnanolone via inhibition of L-type calcium channels in rat medial prefrontal cortex”. Neuropsychopharmacology 32 (7): 1477–89. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1301261. PMID 17151597.
  14. Earl DE, Tietz EI (April 2011). “Inhibition of recombinant L-type voltage-gated calcium channels by positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 337 (1): 301–11. doi:10.1124/jpet.110.178244. PMC 3063747. PMID 21262851.
  15. Keitel V, Görg B, Bidmon HJ, et al. (November 2010). “The bile acid receptor TGR5 (Gpbar-1) acts as a neurosteroid receptor in brain”. Glia 58 (15): 1794–805. doi:10.1002/glia.21049. PMID 20665558.
  16. Rougé-Pont F, Mayo W, Marinelli M, Gingras M, Le Moal M, Piazza PV (July 2002). “The neurosteroid allopregnanolone increases dopamine release and dopaminergic response to morphine in the rat nucleus accumbens”. Eur. J. Neurosci. 16 (1): 169–73. PMID 12153544.
  17. Frye CA (December 2009). “Neurosteroids’ effects and mechanisms for social, cognitive, emotional, and physical functions”. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 34 Suppl 1: S143–61. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.07.005. PMC 2898141. PMID 19656632.
  18. Pinna G, Costa E, Guidotti A (February 2005). “Changes in brain testosterone and allopregnanolone biosynthesis elicit aggressive behavior”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (6): 2135–40. doi:10.1073/pnas.0409643102. PMC 548579. PMID 15677716.
  19. Terán-Pérez G, Arana-Lechuga Y, Esqueda-León E, Santana-Miranda R, Rojas-Zamorano JÁ, Velázquez Moctezuma J (October 2012). “Steroid hormones and sleep regulation”. Mini Rev Med Chem 12 (11): 1040–8. PMID 23092405.
  20. Patte-Mensah C, Meyer L, Taleb O, Mensah-Nyagan AG (February 2014). “Potential role of allopregnanolone for a safe and effective therapy of neuropathic pain”. Prog. Neurobiol. 113: 70–8. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07.004. PMID 23948490.
  21. Bäckström T, Andersson A, Andreé L, et al. (December 2003). “Pathogenesis in menstrual cycle-linked CNS disorders”. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1007: 42–53. PMID 14993039.
  22. Guille C, Spencer S, Cavus I, Epperson CN (July 2008). “The role of sex steroids in catamenial epilepsy and premenstrual dysphoric disorder: implications for diagnosis and treatment”. Epilepsy Behav 13 (1): 12–24. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.02.004. PMID 18346939.
  23. Finocchi C, Ferrari M (May 2011). “Female reproductive steroids and neuronal excitability”. Neurol. Sci. 32 Suppl 1: S31–5. doi:10.1007/s10072-011-0532-5. PMID 21533709.
  24. Bäckström T, Haage D, Löfgren M, et al. (September 2011). “Paradoxical effects of GABA-A modulators may explain sex steroid induced negative mood symptoms in some persons”. Neuroscience 191: 46–54. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.03.061. PMID 21600269.
  25. Andréen L, Nyberg S, Turkmen S, van Wingen G, Fernández G, Bäckström T (September 2009). “Sex steroid induced negative mood may be explained by the paradoxical effect mediated by GABAA modulators”. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34 (8): 1121–32. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.02.003. PMID 19272715.
  26. Bäckström T, Bixo M, Johansson M, et al. (February 2014). “Allopregnanolone and mood disorders”. Prog. Neurobiol. 113: 88–94. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.07.005. PMID 23978486.
  27. Andréen L, Sundström-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Nyberg S, Bäckström T (August 2006). “Allopregnanolone concentration and mood–a bimodal association in postmenopausal women treated with oral progesterone”. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) 187 (2): 209–21. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0417-0. PMID 16724185.
  28. Andréen L, Spigset O, Andersson A, Nyberg S, Bäckström T (June 2006). “Pharmacokinetics of progesterone and its metabolites allopregnanolone and pregnanolone after oral administration of low-dose progesterone”. Maturitas 54 (3): 238–44. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2005.11.005. PMID 16406399.
  29. Orrin Devinsky; Steven Schachter; Steven Pacia (1 January 2005). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Epilepsy. Demos Medical Publishing. pp. 378–. ISBN 978-1-934559-08-6.

Additional reading

  • Herd, MB; Belelli, D; Lambert, JJ (2007). Neurosteroid modulation of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors. Pharmacol. Ther. 116(1):20-34. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2007.03.007.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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