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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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CT 1812


img

CT-1812

Elayta

Condition(s): Alzheimer’s Disease
U.S. FDA Status: Alzheimer’s Disease (Phase 2)
Company: Cognition Therapeutics Inc.

CAS: 1802632-22-9
Chemical Formula: C24H33NO4S
Molecular Weight: 431.591

2-(tert-butoxy)-4-(3-methyl-3-(5-(methylsulfonyl)isoindolin-2-yl)butyl)phenol

Phenol, 4-[3-[1,3-dihydro-5-(methylsulfonyl)-2H-isoindol-2-yl]-3-methylbutyl]-2-(1,1-dimethylethoxy)-

  • Originator Cognition Therapeutics
  • Class Antidementias; Neuroprotectants; Nootropics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Sigma-2 receptor antagonists
  • Phase II Alzheimer’s disease
  • Phase I Cognition disorders
  • 21 Feb 2019 Cognition Therapeutics receives patent for a composition of matter patent covering Elayta™ in Europe
  • 19 Feb 2019 Pharmacokinetics and adverse events data from a phase I trial in Cognition disorders released by Cognition Therapeutics
  • 22 Oct 2018 CTP push 289675: Updated KDM, forwarded USA line from PI/II to PII

CT-1812 is a first-in-class, orally available sigma-2/PGRMC1 antagonist (alpha beta oligomer receptor antagonist), is being developed by Cognition. sCT-1812 is a novel therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer’s disease

SYN

BACKGROUND

CT1812 is a small-molecule antagonist of the sigma2 receptor, also known as the progesterone receptor membrane component 1. The rationale behind this therapeutic approach is that ligands for the sigma2/PGRMC1 receptor will compete with oligomeric Aβ binding to this receptor and thus interfere with Aβ-induced synaptic toxicity. CT1812 grew out of screening programs at Cognition Therapeutics. Company scientists have reported that compounds in this series not only block binding of a range of different Aβ species to this receptor but also displace it when applied after Aβ has bound (Dec 2014 conference news).

The structure of CT1812 has not been disclosed, but similar compounds in the series have been reported to enter the brain, occupy up to 80 percent of sigma2/PGRMC1 receptors, and restore behavioral deficits in APP transgenic mice (Izzo et al., 2014Izzo et al., 2014).

FINDINGS

From September 2015 to May 2016, Cognition Therapeutics ran a Phase 1 trial in 80 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 75 in Melbourne, Australia; target enrollment was originally listed as 114. Single-ascending-dose administration was followed by multiple ascending doses given once daily for two weeks. The dose range in this trial spanned 10 to 650 mg; if this would not generate data to set a maximum tolerated dose, doses up to 1,350 mg were to be tried. Outcome measures included safety, tolerability, plasma pharmacokinetics, and CSF CT1812 concentration. At the 2016 and 2017 AAIC conferences, company scientists reported that single doses up to 1,120 mg were given, as were multiple doses of up to 840 mg in young and up to 560 mg in elderly volunteers. The drug was reported to be well-tolerated, with suitable pharmacokinetics, sufficient brain penetrance and target exposure, and minimal drug-drug interactions affecting cytochrome P450 activity (Catalano et al., 2016Catalano et al., 2017).

From September 2016 to August 2017, Cognition Therapeutics ran a Phase 1/2 trial at four sites in Australia, enrolling 19 participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease supported by a recent MRI. It compared a four-week course of 90, 280, or 560 mg of CT 1812 to placebo, taken once daily, on safety and tolerability parameters. At the subsequent CTAD conference, Elayta was reported to have been generally safe and well tolerated, though there were four cases of lymphocytopenia. Exploratory measures such as ADAS-Cog14, verbal or category fluency tests recorded no difference between groups, but exploratory biomarker analyses yielded possible signals of synapse protection (Dec 2017 conference news).

In April 2018, a Phase 1/2 study started enrolling 21 people whose mild to moderate AD was confirmed by amyloid PET or CSF testing. Conducted at Yale University School of Medicine and dubbed COG0105 or SPARC, this trial will compare a six-month course of 100 or 300 mg of Elayta, or placebo. The primary outcome is cognition as assessed by the Alzheimer’s Disease Clinical Study Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL), but the trial will also use the investigational PET tracer UCB-J, which binds to the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, in an attempt to monitor synapse density before and after treatment (see company press release; Jul 2016 news).

In summer 2018, a Phase 1b target engagement study at the University of Pennsylvania will start enrolling 18 people whose mild to moderate AD is confirmed by amyloid PET. Called COG0104 or SNAP, it will compare single injections of 90, 280, or 560 mg of Elayta or placebo for their ability to displace Aβ oligomers and clear them into the CSF, as measured by a CSF Aβ oligomer assay.

Also in summer 2018, a Phase 2 multi-center study is expected to begin enrolling 24 people with mild to moderate AD as confirmed by amyloid PET for a six-month course of 100 or 300 mg of Elayta, or placebo. As of May 22, 2018, this trial lists CT1812 pharmacodynamic effects on CSF biomarkers, specifically as assessed by CSF neurogranin levels, as primary outcome.

For all trials of this compound, see clinicaltrials.gov.

PATENT

WO 2015116923

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015116923A1

There are only five medications currently FDA-approved for the treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Four are cholinesterase inhibitors: tacrine (COGNEX®; Sciele), donepezil (ARICEPT®; Pfizer), rivastigmine (EXELON®; Novartis), and galantamine (RAZADYNE®; Ortho-McNeil-Janssen). Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine are successors to tacrine, a first generation compound rarely prescribed because of the potential for hepatotoxicity; they are roughly equally efficacious at providing symptomatic improvement of cognition and function at all stages of AD. The fifth approved medication is memantine (NAMENDA®; Forest), a low-affinity, use dependent N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist that offers similar benefits, but only in moderate to severe AD. The clinical effects of these compounds are small and impermanent, and currently available data are inconclusive to support their use as disease modifying agents. See, e.g., Kerchner et al, 2010, Bapineuzumab, Expert Opin Biol Ther., 10(7): 1121-1130. Clearly, alternative approaches to treatment of AD are required.

[004] Certain isoindoline compounds are provided that act as sigma-2 receptor functional antagonists and inhibit the deleterious effects of soluble Αβ oligomers. In some embodiments, isoindoline sigma-2 receptor antagonist compounds and compositions are used to treat or prevent synaptic dysfunction in a subject.

Example 21 illustrates representative preparation of 2-(Tert-butoxy)-

4-(3-methyl-3-(5-(methylsulfonyl)isoindolin-2-yl)butyl)phenol, Example Compound 62, as shown in Scheme 17.

Figure imgf000185_0001
Figure imgf000186_0001

10 Compound 62

[0534] Scheme 17: Procedure for preparation of 2-(Tert-butoxy)-4-(3- methyl-3-(5-(methylsulfonyl)isoindolin-2-yl)butyl)phenol, Example Compound 62.

[0535] Preparation of compound l(Scheme 17): To a glass pressure -bottle at -30 °C containing a mixture of catechol (50.0 g, 454 mmol, 1.0 eq), concentrated sulfuric acid (0.3 mL) in dichloromethane (200 mL), isobutene (152.6 g, 2.72 mol, 6.0 eq) was condensed. After sealing the pressure-bottle with a threaded Teflon cap tipped with a Teflon-protected rubber O-ring, the mixture was heated at 35 °C for 3 h until a clear solution was obtained. After cooling (-30 °C), triethylamine (1.5 mL, 10.8 mmol) was added and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was suspended in 0.5 M NaOH (1 L) and stirred for 10 min. The dark-green colored solution was washed with petroleum ether (2x 100 mL) and the washing layers were reextracted with 0.5 M NaOH (3x 100 mL). The combined aqueous layers were brought to pH 7-8 with 2 N HCl (400 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (2* 1 L), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford product 1 (67.7 g, 90%) as a colorless oil, which was used directly for the next step reaction without further purification. TLC: PE/EA = 50/1 ; Rf (Catechol) = 0.1 ; Rf (Compound 1) = 0.6.

[0536] Preparation of compound 2 (Scheme 17): To a stirred solution of compound 1 (1 12.2 g, 676 mmol, 1.2 eq) and potassium iodide (1 12.2 g, 676 mmol, 1.0 eq) in methanol (2 L) at 0 °C was slowly added sodium hydroxide (27.0 g, 676 mmol, 1.0 eq), followed with aqueous sodium chlorite (7% aq., 718.8 mL, 710 mmol, 1.05 eq) dropwise over 3 h while keeping the reaction below 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for another 30 min and neutralized by adding 2 N HCl at 0 °C till pH 7, extracted with DCM (2 x 1 L). The organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford product 2 (179.8 g, 91%). TLC: PE/EA = 50/1; Rf(Compound 1) = 0.6 ; Rf (Compound 2) = 0.6.

[0537] Preparation of compound 3(Scheme 17): To a stirred solution of compound 2 (179.8 g, 616 mmol, 1.0 eq) and triethylamine (186.6 g, 1.85 mol, 3.0 eq) in dichloromethane (2 L) at 0 °C was slowly added acetyl chloride (53.2 g, 677 mmol, 1.1 eq). The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for another 30 min, and warmed up to rt, and stirred at rt for 3 h, water (1 L) was added into the reaction mixture and the organic layer was washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to afford product 3 (206 g, 100%), which was used directly to the next step without further purification. TLC: PE/EA = 50/1; Rf (Compound 2) = 0.6; Rf (Compound 3) = 0.5.

[0538] Preparation of compound 4 (Scheme 17): To a stirred solution of compound 3 (206 g, 616 mmol, 1.0 eq) in triethylamine (4.0 L) was added 2- methylbut-3-yn-2-amine (102.5 g, 1.23 mol, 2.0 eq), Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (15.1 g, 18.5 mmol, 0.03 eq) and copper(I) iodide (5.9 g, 31 mmol, 0.05 eq) and resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 17 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the crude product was purified by silica gel chromatography to afford the title compound 4 (132.7 g, 74%). TLC: PE/EA = 1/1; Rf (Compound 3) = 0.9; Rf (Compound 4) = 0.3. [0539] Preparation of compound 5(Scheme 17): To a stirred solution of compound 4 (104.5 g, 0.36 mol) in ethanol (1.5 L) was added Pd/C (10% wt, 10.5 g). The mixture was stirred under hydrogen (balloon) overnight, and filtered. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness to afford compound 5 (106.3 g, 100%), which was used directly to the next step without further purification. TLC: PE/EA = 1/1; Rf(Compound 4) = 0.3 ; Rf (Compound 5) = 0.3.

[0540] Preparation of compound 6 (Scheme 17): To a solution of o-xylene

(115.7 g, 1.09 mol, 1.0 eq) in chloroform (1.0 L) at 0 °C was added C1S03H (254 g, 2.18 mol, 2.0 eq) dropwise. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 days, and poured into ice. The crude mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 1.0 L). The organic layers were combined, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated to afford the crude compound 6 (161.5 g, 80%) as a white solid, which was used directly to the next step without further purification. TLC: PE/EA = 5/1; Rf (Compound 6) = 0.7.

[0541] General procedure for the preparation of compound 7 (Scheme

17): To a stirred solution of compound 6 (161.5 g, 0.87 mol, 1.0 eq) in saturated sodium sulfite solution (273 g, 2.17 mol, 2.5 eq, in 2.0 L of water) was added dropwise 32% NaOH (69.4 g, 1.73 mol, 2.0 eq) till the solution reached pH 9. After stirring at rt overnight, the reaction mixture was acidified with cone. HC1 in ice- cooling bath till pH 1. The precipitate was filtered, and washed with ice-water (2x), dried in vacuo to afford the crude product 7 (131 g, 88%), which was used directly for next step without further purification. TLC: PE/EA = 5/1; Rf (Compound 6) = 0.7; Rf (Compound 7) = 0.6.

[0542] Preparation of compound 8 (Scheme 17): To a stirred solution of compound 7 (130 g, 0.76 mol, 1.0 eq) and potassium carbonate (211 g, 1.53 mol, 2.0 eq) in DMF (300 mL) was added iodomethane (96 mL, 1.53 mol, 2.0 eq). The reaction was stirred at 40 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness, extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were washed with water and brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated, purified by flash column chromatography (PE: EA,10: 1 ~ 5: 1) to afford compound 8 (85.2 g, 61%). TLC: PE/EA = 5/1; Rf (Compound 7) = 0.6; Rf (Compound 8) = 0.3. [0543] Preparation of compound 9 (Scheme 17):To a stirred solution of compound 8 (78.2 g, 424 mmol, 1.0 eq) in 1 ,2-dichloroethane (1.2 L), were added N-bromosuccinimide (166 g, 934 mmol, 2.2 eq) and AIBN (6.9 g, 42.4 mmol, 0.1 eq). The reaction was stirred at reflux overnight. The reaction was diluted with water and dichloromethane. The organic layer was collected, and dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated, purified by flash column chromatography to afford compound 9, which was further recrystallized from hot methanol to afford the pure product 8 (75 g, 52%). TLC: PE/EA = 5/1; Rf (Compound 8) = 0.3; Rf (Compound 9) = 0.2.

[0544] Preparation of compound 10 (Scheme 17):To a stirred solution of compound 5 (46 g, 157 mmol, 1.0 eq) and compound 9 (53.5 g, 157 mmol, 1.0 eq) in THF (460 mL) was added triethylamine (47.7 g, 472 mmol, 3.0 eq). The reaction was stirred at 40 °C overnight, filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to dryness and purified by flash column chromatography to afford compound 10 (45 g, 63%). TLC: PE/EA = 1/1; Rf (Compound 5) = 0.3; Rf (Compound 9) = 1.0; Rf (Compound 10) = 0.4.

[0545] Preparation of Compound 62 (Scheme 17):To a stirred solution of compound 10 (45 g, 98.4 mmol) in methanol (300 mL) was added sodium methoxide (844 mg, 15.6 mmol, 0.16 eq) in one portion. The solution was stirred at rt overnight. Water (250 mL) was added dropwise into the reaction mixture over 1 h, the mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h, and filtered. The white solid was collected and dried on vacuum overnight to afford pure example Compound 62 base (38 g, 89%>). TLC: PE/EA = 1/1; Rf (Compound 10) = 0.4; Rf (Compound 62) = 0.4; ESI-MS: 432 (M+l)+; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.80-7.78 (m, 2H). 7.40-7.38 (m, 1H), 6.87-6.79 (m, 3H), 5.58 (s, 1H), 4.11 (s, 4H), 3.05 (s, 3H), 2.61-2.57 (m, 2H), 1.76- 1.72 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 1.18 (s, 6H). Example 22: Preparation of (2-(4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2- methylbutan-2-yl)isoindolin-4-yl)(piperazin-l-yl)methanone,

REFERENCES

1: Grundman M, Morgan R, Lickliter JD, Schneider LS, DeKosky S, Izzo NJ,
Guttendorf R, Higgin M, Pribyl J, Mozzoni K, Safferstein H, Catalano SM. A phase
1 clinical trial of the sigma-2 receptor complex allosteric antagonist CT1812, a
novel therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement (N Y).
2019 Jan 23;5:20-26. doi: 10.1016/j.trci.2018.11.001. eCollection 2019. PubMed
PMID: 30723776; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6352291.

Paper Citations

  1. A Two-Part, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 1 Study of the Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Ascending Doses of Ct1812 in Healthy VolunteersAlzheimer’s & Dementia, July 2016, Volume 12, Issue 7, Supplement
  2. A Phase 1 Safety Trial of the aβ Oligomer Receptor Antagonist CT1812Alzheimer’s & Dementia, July 2017, Volume 13, Issue 7
  3. Alzheimer’s therapeutics targeting amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers I: Abeta 42 oligomer binding to specific neuronal receptors is displaced by drug candidates that improve cognitive deficitsPLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111898. Epub 2014 Nov 12 PubMed.
  4. Alzheimer’s therapeutics targeting amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers II: Sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptors mediate Abeta 42 oligomer binding and synaptotoxicityPLoS One. 2014;9(11):e111899. Epub 2014 Nov 12PubMed.

/////CT-1812,  CT 1812, CT1812, Alzheimers , Cognition Therapeutics, Elayta, phase 2, Cognition disorders

OC1=CC=C(CCC(C)(N2CC3=C(C=C(S(=O)(C)=O)C=C3)C2)C)C=C1OC(C)(C)C

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ACLIMOSTAT


img

Image result for Aclimostat

Aclimostat
CAS: 2082752-83-6
Chemical Formula: C26H42N2O6
Molecular Weight: 478.63
Elemental Analysis: C, 65.25; H, 8.85; N, 5.85; O, 20.06

ZGN-1061; ZGN1061; ZGN 1061; Aclimostat,

UNII-X150A3JK8R

X150A3JK8R

(3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-Methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3- methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxiran-2-yl]-1-oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl 3-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]azetidine-1-carboxylate

1-Azetidinecarboxylic acid, 3-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-, (3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2-oxiranyl]-1-oxaspiro[2.5]oct-6-yl ester

3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-((2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxiran-2-yl)-1- oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl 3-(2-morpholinoethyl)azetidine-1-carboxylate

ZAFGEN,  PHASE 2,  DIABETES

Aclimostat, also known as ZGN-1061, is an anti-diabetic, anti-obesity MetAP2 inhibitor.

Over 1.1 billion people worldwide are reported to be overweight. Obesity is estimated to affect over 90 million people in the United States alone. Twenty-five percent of the population in the United States over the age of twenty is considered clinically obese. While being overweight or obese presents problems (for example restriction of mobility, discomfort in tight spaces such as theater or airplane seats, social difficulties, etc.), these conditions, in particular clinical obesity, affect other aspects of health, i.e., diseases and other adverse health conditions associated with, exacerbated by, or precipitated by being overweight or obese. The estimated mortality from obesity-related conditions in the United States is over 300,000 annually (O’Brien et al. Amer J Surgery (2002) 184:4S-8S; and Hill et al. (1998) Science, 280:1371). [0003] There is no curative treatment for being overweight or obese. Traditional pharmacotherapies for treating an overweight or obese subject, such as serotonin and noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitors, noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitors, selective serotonin re- uptake inhibitors, intestinal lipase inhibitors, or surgeries such as stomach stapling or gastric banding, have been shown to provide minimal short-term benefits or significant rates of relapse, and have further shown harmful side-effects to patients. [0004] MetAP2 encodes a protein that functions at least in part by enzymatically removing the amino terminal methionine residue from certain newly translated proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Warder et al. (2008) J. Proteome Res.7:4807). Increased expression of the MetAP2 gene has been historically associated with various forms of cancer. Molecules inhibiting the enzymatic activity of MetAP2 have been identified and have been explored for their utility in the treatment of various tumor types (Wang et al. (2003) Cancer Res.63:7861) and infectious diseases such as microsporidiosis, leishmaniasis, and malaria (Zhang et al. (2002) J. Biomed. Sci.9:34). Notably, inhibition of MetAP2 activity in obese and obese-diabetic animals leads to a reduction in body weight in part by increasing the oxidation of fat and in part by reducing the consumption of food (Rupnick et al. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:10730).

[0005] Such MetAP2 inhibitors may be useful as well for patients with excess adiposity and conditions related to adiposity including type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, and

cardiovascular disease (via e.g. ameliorating insulin resistance, reducing hepatic lipid content, and reducing cardiac workload). Accordingly, compounds capable of modulating MetAP2 are needed to address the treatment of obesity and related diseases as well as other ailments favorably responsive to MetAP2 modulator treatment.

Synthesis

CONTD……………….

contd………………….

Tetrahedron, 73(30), 4371-4379; 2017

WO 2017027684

PATENT

WO 2017027684

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017027684A1/en

Example 1

(3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-((2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxiran-2-yl)-1- oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl 3-(2-morpholinoethyl)azetidine-1-carboxylate

Figure imgf000117_0001

[00312] To a mixture of 4-(2-(azetidin-3-yl)ethyl)morpholine, trifluoroacetate (2.33 g, 3.7 mmol) in CH3CN (150 mL) was added DIPEA (2.9 mL, 17 mmol) drop-wise at 0-5oC. The mixture was then stirred at 0-5oC for 10 min, and carbonate Intermediate 1 (1.3 g, 2.9 mmol) was added to the mixture in portions at 0oC under a N2atmosphere. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25oC for 16 hrs. TLC (PE : EtOAc = 3 : 1) showed that the reaction was complete. The solvent was removed under vacuum below 40oC. The residue was diluted with DCM (60 mL), and the DCM solution was washed with ammonium acetate buffer (pH~4, 15 mL x 2). The combined aqueous layers were back-extracted with DCM (20 mL x 2). The combined organic layers were washed with aq. NaHCO3 solution (15 mL x 2, 5% wt), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated. Purification by silica gel column chromatography (DCM: MeOH=100: 0~60: 1), followed by preparative HPLC (Method A, H2O (0.1% FA) / CH3CN) gave the title compound (1.15 g) as a light yellow syrup. LC-MS: m/z = 479 [M+H]+1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.43 (br, 1H), 5.13 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.87-4.15 (m, 2H), 3.63-3.65 (m, 4H), 3.52- 3.56 (m, 3H), 3.49 (s, 3H), 2.90 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 2.46-2.54 (m, 3H), 2.19-2.36 (m, 7H), 1.97-2.13 (m, 2H), 1.78-1.89 (m, 5H), 1.73 (s, 3H), 1.62 (s, 3H), 1.13 (s, 3H), 0.99 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H).

REFERENCES

1: Malloy J, Zhuang D, Kim T, Inskeep P, Kim D, Taylor K. Single and multiple dose evaluation of a novel MetAP2 inhibitor: Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018 Aug;20(8):1878-1884. doi: 10.1111/dom.13305. Epub 2018 Apr 23. PubMed PMID: 29577550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6055687.

2: Burkey BF, Hoglen NC, Inskeep P, Wyman M, Hughes TE, Vath JE. Preclinical Efficacy and Safety of the Novel Antidiabetic, Antiobesity MetAP2 Inhibitor ZGN-1061. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 May;365(2):301-313. doi: 10.1124/jpet.117.246272. Epub 2018 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 29491038.

//////////////Aclimostat, ZGN-1061, ZAFGEN,  PHASE 2,  DIABETES

 O=C(N1CC(CCN2CCOCC2)C1)O[C@H](CC3)[C@@H](OC)[C@H]([C@@]4(C)O[C@@H]4C/C=C(C)\C)[C@]53CO5

Cavosonstat (N-91115)


Cavosonstat.png

Cavosonstat (N-91115)

CAS 1371587-51-7

C16H10ClNO3, 299.71 g/mol

UNII-O2Z8Q22ZE4, O2Z8Q22ZE4, NCT02589236; N91115-2CF-05; SNO-6

3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid

Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), AND Cystic fibrosis,  Nivalis Therapeutics, phase 2

The product was originated at Nivalis Therapeutics, which was acquired by Alpine Immune Sciences in 2017. In 2018, Alpine announced the sale and transfer of global rights to Laurel Venture Capital for further product development.

In 2016, orphan drug and fast track designations were granted to the compound in the U.S. for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

  • Originator N30 Pharma
  • Developer Nivalis Therapeutics
  • Class Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators; Glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors; Nitric oxide stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cystic fibrosis
  • 20 Jul 2018 Laurel Venture Capital acquires global rights for cavosonstat from Alpine Immune Sciences
  • 20 Jul 2018 Laurel Venture Capital plans a phase II trial for Asthma
  • 24 Jun 2018 Biomarkers information updated

 Cavosonstat, alos known as N91115) an orally bioavailable inhibitor of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, promotes cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) maturation and plasma membrane stability, with a mechanism of action complementary to CFTR correctors and potentiators.

cavosonstat-n91115Cavosonstat (N91115) was an experimental therapy being developed by Nivalis Therapeutics. Its primary mechanism of action was to inhibit the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) enzyme and to stabilize cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein activity. A press release published in February announced the end of research for this therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with F508del mutations. The drug, which did not meet primary endpoints in a Phase 2 trial, had been referred to as the first of a new class of compounds that stabilizes the CFTR activity.

History of cavosonstat

During preclinical studies, N91115 (later named cavosonstat) demonstrated an improvement in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) stability.

Phase 1 study was initiated in 2014 to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (how a drug is processed in the body) of the drug in healthy volunteers. Later that year, the pharmacokinetics of the drug were assessed in another Phase 1 trial involving CF patients with F508del mutation suffering from pancreatic insufficiency. Results were presented a year later by Nivalis, revealing good tolerance and safety in study participants.

A second, much smaller Phase 2 study (NCT02724527) assessed cavosonstat as an add-on therapy to ivacaftor (Kalydeco). This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 19 participants who received treatment with cavosonstat (400 mg) added to Kalydeco or with placebo added to Kalydeco. The primary objective was change in lung function from the study’s start to week 8. However, the treatment did not demonstrate a benefit in lung function measures or in sweat chloride reduction at eight weeks (primary objective). As a result, Nivalis decided not to continue development of cavosonstat for CF treatment.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had granted cavosonstat both fast track and orphan drug designations in 2016.

How cavosonstat works

The S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a signaling molecule that is present in high concentrations in the fluids of the lungs or muscle tissues, playing an important role in the dilatation of the airways. GSNO levels are regulated by the GSNO reductase (GSNOR) enzyme, altering CFTR activity in the membrane. In CF patients, GSNO levels are low, causing a loss of the airway function.

Cavosonstat’s mechanism of action is achieved through GSNOR inhibition, which was presumed to control the deficient CFTR protein. Preclinical studies showed that cavosonstat restored GSNO levels.

PATENT
WO 2012083165

The chemical compound nitric oxide is a gas with chemical formula NO. NO is one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known in biological systems, and plays an important role in controlling various biological events. For example, the endothelium uses NO to signal surrounding smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles to relax, resulting in vasodilation and increased blood flow to hypoxic tissues. NO is also involved in regulating smooth muscle proliferation, platelet function, and neurotransmission, and plays a role in host defense. Although NO is highly reactive and has a lifetime of a few seconds, it can both diffuse freely across membranes and bind to many molecular targets. These attributes make NO an ideal signaling molecule capable of controlling biological events between adjacent cells and within cells.

[0003] NO is a free radical gas, which makes it reactive and unstable, thus NO is short lived in vivo, having a half life of 3-5 seconds under physiologic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, NO can combine with thiols to generate a biologically important class of stable NO adducts called S-nitrosothiols (SNO’s). This stable pool of NO has been postulated to act as a source of bioactive NO and as such appears to be critically important in health and disease, given the centrality of NO in cellular homeostasis (Stamler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:7674-7677 (1992)). Protein SNO’s play broad roles in the function of cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous system (Foster et al., Trends in Molecular Medicine, 9 (4): 160-168, (2003)). One of the most studied SNO’s in biological systems is S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) (Gaston et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10957-10961 (1993)), an emerging key regulator in NO signaling since it is an efficient trans-nitrosating agent and appears to maintain an equilibrium with other S-nitrosated proteins (Liu et al., Nature, 410:490-494 (2001)) within cells. Given this pivotal position in the NO-SNO continuum, GSNO provides a therapeutically promising target to consider when NO modulation is pharmacologically warranted.

[0004] In light of this understanding of GSNO as a key regulator of NO homeostasis and cellular SNO levels, studies have focused on examining endogenous production of GSNO and SNO proteins, which occurs downstream from the production of the NO radical by the nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) enzymes. More recently there has been an increasing understanding of enzymatic catabolism of GSNO which has an important role in governing available concentrations of GSNO and consequently available NO and SNO’s.

[0005] Central to this understanding of GSNO catabolism, researchers have recently identified a highly conserved S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) (Jensen et al., Biochem J., 331 :659-668 (1998); Liu et al., (2001)). GSNOR is also known as glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GSH-FDH), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH-3) (Uotila and Koivusalo, Coenzymes and Coƒactors., D. Dolphin, ed. pp. 517-551 (New York, John Wiley & Sons, (1989)), and alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH-5). Importantly GSNOR shows greater activity toward GSNO than other substrates (Jensen et al., (1998); Liu et al., (2001)) and appears to mediate important protein and peptide denitrosating activity in bacteria, plants, and animals. GSNOR appears to be the major GSNO-metabolizing enzyme in eukaryotes (Liu et al., (2001)). Thus, GSNO can accumulate in biological compartments where GSNOR activity is low or absent (e.g. , airway lining fluid) (Gaston et al., (1993)).

[0006] Yeast deficient in GSNOR accumulate S-nitrosylated proteins which are not substrates of the enzyme, which is strongly suggestive that GSNO exists in equilibrium with SNO-proteins (Liu et al., (2001)). Precise enzymatic control over ambient levels of GSNO and thus SNO-proteins raises the possibility that GSNO/GSNOR may play roles across a host of physiological and pathological functions including protection against nitrosative stress wherein NO is produced in excess of physiologic needs. Indeed, GSNO specifically has been implicated in physiologic processes ranging from the drive to breathe (Lipton et al., Nature, 413: 171-174 (2001)) to regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Zaman et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 284:65-70 (2001)), to regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, and platelet function (de Belder et al., Cardiovasc Res.; 28(5):691-4 (1994)), Z. Kaposzta, et al., Circulation; 106(24): 3057 – 3062, (2002)) as well as host defense (de Jesus-Berrios et al., Curr. Biol., 13: 1963-1968 (2003)). Other studies have found that GSNOR protects yeast cells against nitrosative stress both in vitro (Liu et al., (2001)) and in vivo (de Jesus-Berrios et al., (2003)).

[0007] Collectively, data suggest GSNO as a primary physiological ligand for the enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), which catabolizes GSNO and

consequently reduces available SNO’s and NO in biological systems (Liu et al., (2001)), (Liu et al., Cell, 116(4), 617-628 (2004)), and (Que et al., Science, 308, (5728): 1618-1621 (2005)). As such, this enzyme plays a central role in regulating local and systemic bioactive NO. Since perturbations in NO bioavailability has been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, and cancer, agents that regulate GSNOR activity are candidate therapeutic agents for treating diseases associated with NO imbalance.

[0008] Nitric oxide (NO), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulate normal lung physiology and contribute to lung pathophysiology. Under normal conditions, NO and GSNO maintain normal lung physiology and function via their anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory actions. Lowered levels of these mediators in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may occur via up-regulation of GSNOR enzyme activity. These lowered levels of NO and GSNO, and thus lowered anti-inflammatory capabilities, are key events that contribute to pulmonary diseases and which can potentially be reversed via GSNOR inhibition.

[0009] S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has been shown to promote repair and/or regeneration of mammalian organs, such as the heart (Lima et al., 2010), blood vessels (Lima et al., 2010) skin (Georgii et al., 2010), eye or ocular structures (Haq et al., 2007) and liver (Prince et al., 2010). S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is the major catabolic enzyme of GSNO. Inhibition of GSNOR is thought to increase endogenous GSNO.

[0010] Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD’s), including Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in which NO, GSNO, and GSNOR can exert influences. Under normal conditions, NO and GSNO function to maintain normal intestinal physiology via anti-inflammatory actions and maintenance of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. In IBD, reduced levels of GSNO and NO are evident and likely occur via up-regulation of GSNOR activity. The lowered levels of these mediators contribute to the pathophysiology of IBD via disruption of the epithelial barrier via dysregulation of proteins involved in maintaining epithelial tight junctions. This epithelial barrier dysfunction, with the ensuing entry of micro-organisms from the lumen, and the overall lowered anti-inflammatory capabilities in the presence of lowered NO and GSNO, are key events in IBD progression that can be potentially influenced by targeting GSNOR.

[0011] Cell death is the crucial event leading to clinical manifestation of

hepatotoxicity from drugs, viruses and alcohol. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant redox molecule in cells and thus the most important determinant of cellular redox status. Thiols in proteins undergo a wide range of reversible redox modifications during times of exposure to reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, which can affect protein activity. The maintenance of hepatic GSH is a dynamic process achieved by a balance between rates of GSH synthesis, GSH and GSSG efflux, GSH reactions with reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and utilization by GSH peroxidase. Both GSNO and GSNOR play roles in the regulation of protein redox status by GSH.

[0012] Acetaminophen overdoses are the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States, Great Britain and most of Europe. More than 100,000 calls to the U.S. Poison Control Centers, 56,000 emergency room visits, 2600 hospitalizations, nearly 500 deaths are attributed to acetaminophen in this country annually. Approximately, 60% recover without needing a liver transplant, 9% are transplanted and 30% of patients succumb to the illness. The acetaminophen-related death rate exceeds by at least three-fold the number of deaths due to all other idiosyncratic drug reactions combined (Lee, Hepatol Res 2008; 38 (Suppl. 1):S3-S8).

[0013] Liver transplantation has become the primary treatment for patients with fulminant hepatic failure and end-stage chronic liver disease, as well as certain metabolic liver diseases. Thus, the demand for transplantation now greatly exceeds the availability of donor organs, it has been estimated that more than 18 000 patients are currently registered with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and that an additional 9000 patients are added to the liver transplant waiting list each year, yet less than 5000 cadaveric donors are available for transplantation.

[0014] Currently, there is a great need in the art for diagnostics, prophylaxis, ameliorations, and treatments for medical conditions relating to increased NO synthesis and/or increased NO bioactivity. In addition, there is a significant need for novel compounds, compositions, and methods for preventing, ameliorating, or reversing other NO-associated disorders. The present invention satisfies these needs.

Schemes 1-6 below illustrate general methods for preparing analogs.

[00174] For a detailed example of General Scheme 1 see Compound IV-1 in Example 1.

[00175] For a detailed example of Scheme 2, A conditions, see Compound IV-2 in Example 2.

[00176] For a detailed example of Scheme 2, B conditions, see Compound IV-8 in Example 8.

[00177] For a detailed example of Scheme 3, see Compound IV-9 in Example 9.

[00178] For a detailed example of Scheme 4, Route A, see Compound IV-11 in Example 11.

[00179] For a detailed example of Scheme 4, Route B, see Compound IV-12 in Example 12.

[00180] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound A, see Compound IV-33 in Example 33.

[00181] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound B, see Compound IV-24 in Example 24.

[00182] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound C, see Compound IV-23 in Example 23.

Example 8: Compound IV-8: 3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid

[00209] Followed Scheme 2, B conditions:

[00210] Step 1: Synthesis of 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid:

[00211] A mixture of 2-chloro-6-methoxyquinoline (Intermediate 1) (200 mg, 1.04 mmol), 4-carboxy-2-chlorophenylboronic acid (247 mg, 1.24 mmol) and K2CO3(369 mg, 2.70 mmol) in DEGME / H2O (7.0 mL / 2.0 mL) was degassed three times under N2 atmosphere. Then PdCl2(dppf) (75 mg, 0.104 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 110 °C for 3 hours under N2 atmosphere. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to give 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg, yield 46%) as a yellow solid, which was used for the next step without further purification.

[00212] Step 2: Synthesis of Compound IV-8: To a suspension of 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg, 0.479 mmol) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (5 mL) was added AlCl3 (320 mg, 2.40 mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed overnight. The mixture was quenched with saturated NH4Cl (10 mL) and the aqueous layer was extracted with CH2Cl2 / MeOH (v/v=10: l, 30 mL x3). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to give the crude product, which was purified by prep-HPLC (0.1% TFA as additive) to give 3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (25 mg, yield 18%). 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.20 (brs, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 8.10-8.00 (m, 2H), 7.95 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.80 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J = 6.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), MS (ESI): m/z 299.9 [M+H]+.

PATENT
WO 2012048181
PATENT
WO 2012170371

REFERENCES

1: Donaldson SH, Solomon GM, Zeitlin PL, Flume PA, Casey A, McCoy K, Zemanick ET,
Mandagere A, Troha JM, Shoemaker SA, Chmiel JF, Taylor-Cousar JL.
Pharmacokinetics and safety of cavosonstat (N91115) in healthy and cystic
fibrosis adults homozygous for F508DEL-CFTR. J Cyst Fibros. 2017 Feb 13. pii:
S1569-1993(17)30016-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2017.01.009. [Epub ahead of print]
PubMed PMID: 28209466.

//////////Cavosonstat, N-91115, Orphan Drug Status, NCT02589236, N91115-2CF-05,  SNO-6, PHASE 2, N30 Pharma, Nivalis Therapeutics, CYSTIC FIBROSIS, FAST TRACK

O=C(O)C1=CC=C(C2=NC3=CC=C(O)C=C3C=C2)C(Cl)=C1

Deutivacaftor


2D chemical structure of 1413431-07-8

Ivacaftor D9.png

Structure of DEUTIVACAFTOR

Deutivacaftor

RN: 1413431-07-8
UNII: SHA6U5FJZL

N-[2-tert-butyl-4-[1,1,1,3,3,3-hexadeuterio-2-(trideuteriomethyl)propan-2-yl]-5-hydroxyphenyl]-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-3-carboxamide

Molecular Formula, C24-H28-N2-O3, Molecular Weight, 401.552

Synonyms

  • CTP-656
  • D9-ivacaftor
  • Deutivacaftor
  • Ivacaftor D9
  • UNII-SHA6U5FJZL
  • VX-561
  • WHO 10704

Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

  • Originator Concert Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Amides; Aminophenols; Antifibrotics; Organic deuterium compounds; Quinolones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cystic fibrosis
  • Phase II Cystic fibrosis
  • 15 Apr 2019 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic fibrosis in April 2019 , (EudraCT2018-003970-28), (NCT03911713)
  • 11 Apr 2019 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic Fibrosis (Combination therapy) in May 2019 (NCT03912233)
  • 24 Oct 2018 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic fibrosis (with gating mutation) in the US in the first half of 2019

Patent

WO 2012158885

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=A7EFB561D919F34531D65DF294F8D74C.wapp1nB?docId=WO2012158885&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&queryString=%28+&recNum=99&maxRec=1000

Many current medicines suffer from poor absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion (ADME) properties that prevent their wider use or limit their use in certain indications. Poor ADME properties are also a major reason for the failure of drug candidates in clinical trials. While formulation technologies and prodrug strategies can be employed in some cases to improve certain ADME properties, these approaches often fail to address the underlying ADME problems that exist for many drugs and drug candidates. One such problem is rapid metabolism that causes a number of drugs, which otherwise would be highly effective in treating a disease, to be cleared too rapidly from the body. A possible solution to rapid drug clearance is frequent or high dosing to attain a sufficiently high plasma level of drug. This, however, introduces a number of potential treatment problems such as poor patient compliance with the dosing regimen, side effects that become more acute with higher doses, and increased cost of treatment. A rapidly metabolized drug may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.

[3] Another ADME limitation that affects many medicines is the formation of toxic or biologically reactive metabolites. As a result, some patients receiving the drug may experience toxicities, or the safe dosing of such drugs may be limited such that patients receive a suboptimal amount of the active agent. In certain cases, modifying dosing intervals or formulation approaches can help to reduce clinical adverse effects, but often the formation of such undesirable metabolites is intrinsic to the metabolism of the compound.

[4] In some select cases, a metabolic inhibitor will be co-administered with a drug that is cleared too rapidly. Such is the case with the protease inhibitor class of drugs that are used to treat HIV infection. The FDA recommends that these drugs be co-dosed with ritonavir, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4), the enzyme typically responsible for their metabolism (see Kempf, D.J. et al., Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1997, 41(3): 654-60). Ritonavir, however, causes adverse effects and adds to the pill burden for HIV patients who must already take a combination of different drugs. Similarly, the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine has been added to dextromethorphan for the purpose of reducing rapid CYP2D6 metabolism of dextromethorphan in a treatment of pseudobulbar affect. Quinidine, however, has unwanted side effects that greatly limit its use in potential combination therapy (see Wang, L et al., Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994, 56(6 Pt 1): 659-67; and FDA label for quinidine at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov).

[5] In general, combining drugs with cytochrome P450 inhibitors is not a satisfactory strategy for decreasing drug clearance. The inhibition of a CYP enzyme’s activity can affect the metabolism and clearance of other drugs metabolized by that same enzyme. CYP inhibition can cause other drugs to accumulate in the body to toxic levels.

[6] A potentially attractive strategy for improving a drug’s metabolic properties is deuterium modification. In this approach, one attempts to slow the CYP-mediated metabolism of a drug or to reduce the formation of undesirable metabolites by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms. Deuterium is a safe, stable, nonradioactive isotope of hydrogen. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium forms stronger bonds with carbon. In select cases, the increased bond strength imparted by deuterium can positively impact the ADME properties of a drug, creating the potential for improved drug efficacy, safety, and/or tolerability. At the same time, because the size and shape of deuterium are essentially identical to those of hydrogen, replacement of hydrogen by deuterium would not be expected to affect the biochemical potency and selectivity of the drug as compared to the original chemical entity that contains only hydrogen.

[7] Over the past 35 years, the effects of deuterium substitution on the rate of metabolism have been reported for a very small percentage of approved drugs (see, e.g., Blake, MI et al, J Pharm Sci, 1975, 64:367-91; Foster, AB, Adv Drug Res, 1985, 14: 1-40 (“Foster”); Kushner, DJ et al, Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 1999, 79-88; Fisher, MB et al, Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel, 2006, 9: 101-09 (“Fisher”)). The results have been variable and unpredictable. For some compounds deuteration caused decreased metabolic clearance in vivo. For others, there was no change in metabolism. Still others demonstrated increased metabolic clearance. The variability in deuterium effects has also led experts to question or dismiss deuterium modification as a viable drug design strategy for inhibiting adverse metabolism (see Foster at p. 35 and Fisher at p. 101).

[8] The effects of deuterium modification on a drug’s metabolic properties are not predictable even when deuterium atoms are incorporated at known sites of metabolism. Only by actually preparing and testing a deuterated drug can one determine if and how the rate of metabolism will differ from that of its non-deuterated counterpart. See, for example, Fukuto et al. (J. Med. Chem., 1991, 34, 2871-76). Many drugs have multiple sites where metabolism is possible. The site(s) where deuterium substitution is required and the extent of deuteration necessary to see an effect on metabolism, if any, will be different for each drug.

[9] This invention relates to novel derivatives of ivacaftor, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. This invention also provides compositions comprising a compound of this invention and the use of such compositions in methods of treating diseases and conditions that are beneficially treated by administering a CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) potentiator.

[10] Ivacaftor, also known as VX-770 and by the chemical name, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide, acts as a CFTR potentiator. Results from phase III trials of VX-770 in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying at least one copy of the G551D-CFTR mutation demonstrated marked levels of improvement in lung function and other key indicators of the disease including sweat chloride levels, likelihood of pulmonary exacerbations and body weight. VX-770 is also currently in phase II clinical trials in combination with VX-809 (a CFTR corrector) for the oral treatment of cystic fibrosis patients who carry the more common AF508-CFTR mutation. VX-770 was granted fast track designation and orphan drug designation by the FDA in 2006 and 2007, respectively.

[11] Despite the beneficial activities of VX-770, there is a continuing need for new compounds to treat the aforementioned diseases and conditions.

Patent

US 20140073667

Patent

JP 2014097964

PATENT

WO 2018183367

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/zh/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018183367&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&office=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AWO%26fq%3DICF_M%3A%22A61K%22&sortOption=%E5%85%AC%E5%B8%83%E6%97%A5%E9%99%8D%E5%BA%8F&queryString=&recNum=555&maxRec=186391

The use according to embodiment 1, comprising administering to the patient an effect amount of (N-(2-(tert-butyl)-5-hydroxy-4-(2-(methyl-d3)propan-2-yl-l, 1, 1,3, 3,3-d6)phenyl)-4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Compound Il-d):

Il-d

PATENT

WO 2019018395,

CONTD…………………………..

//////////////////deutivacaftor, Orphan Drug Status, Cystic fibrosis, CTP-656, D9-ivacaftor, Deutivacaftor, Ivacaftor D9, UNII-SHA6U5FJZL, VX-561, WHO 10704, PHASE 2

[2H]C([2H])([2H])C(c1cc(c(NC(=O)C2=CNc3ccccc3C2=O)cc1O)C(C)(C)C)(C([2H])([2H])[2H])C([2H])([2H])[2H]

VX-659, Bamocaftor potassium


VX-659 Chemical Structure

VX-659, BAMOCAFTOR

N-(Benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-1-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-1-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

3-Pyridinecarboxamide, N-(phenylsulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pyrrolidinyl]-

N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

CAS Number 2204245-48-5
UNII: 8C7XEW3K7S
BAMOCAFTOR
M. Wt 591.65
Formula C28H32F3N5O4S

str1

2D chemical structure of 2204245-47-4

Bamocaftor potassium

CAS 2204245-47-4

Molecular Formula C28 H31 F3 N5 O4 S . K
 Molecular Weight 629.735

VX-659
VX-659 potassium salt
VY7D8MTV72 (UNII code)

WHO 11167

3-Pyridinecarboxamide, N-(phenylsulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethyl-1-pyrrolidinyl]-, potassium salt (1:1)

Potassium (benzenesulfonyl)[6-(3-[2-[1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-1-yl]pyridine-3-carbonyl]azanide

PHASE 2 CYSTIC FIBRIOSIS , VERTEX

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) (DeltaF508 Mutant) Correctors

Bamocaftor potassium is a CFTR channel (DeltaF508-CFTR Mutant) corrector in phase II clinical trials at Vertex, in patients with CF who are homozygous for the F508del mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, or who are heterozygous for the F508del mutation and a minimal function (MF) CFTR mutation not likely to respond to tezacaftor, ivacaftor, or tezacaftor/ivacaftor and also in combination with tezacaftor and VX-561 in F508del/MF in patients with cystic fibrosis.

The compound is also developed by the company as a fixed-dose combination of VX-659, tezacaftor and ivacaftor.

Vertex Pharmaceuticals is developing a combination regimen comprising VX-659, a next-generation cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) corrector, with tezacaftor and ivacaftor, as a triple fixed-dose combination tablet. In March 2019, Vertex planned to file an NDA in the US in 3Q19 concurrently in patients aged 12 years or older with one F508del mutation and one minimal function mutation and in patients with two F508del mutations for either the VX-659 or VX-445 triple combination regimen; the regimen selected for a regulatory filing would be based on final 24-week data.

PATENT

WO 2018064632

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018064632

Example 4: Synthesis of Compounds 1-65

[00229] Synthetic Example 1: Synthesis of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Compound 1)

[00230] Part A: Synthesis of (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride

[00231] Step 1: Synthesis of methyl-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate

[00232] Tetrahydrofuran (THF, 4.5 L) was added to a 20 L glass reactor and stirred under N2 at room temperature. 2-Nitropropane (1.5 kg. 16.83 mol) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) (1.282 kg, 8.42 mol) were then charged to the reactor, and the jacket temperature was increased to 50 °C. Once the reactor contents were close to 50 °C, methyl methacrylate (1.854 kg, 18.52 mol) was added slowly over 100 minutes. The reaction temperature was maintained at or close to 50 °C for 21 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo then transferred back to the reactor and diluted with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 L). 2 M HC1 (7.5 L) was added, and this mixture was stirred for 5 minutes then allowed to settle. Two clear layers were visible – a lower yellow aqueous phase and an upper green organic phase. The aqueous layer was removed, and the organic layer was stirred again with 2 M HC1 (3 L). After separation, the HC1 washes were recombined and stirred with MTBE (3 L) for 5 minutes. The aqueous layer was removed, and all of the organic layers were combined in the reactor and stirred with water (3 L) for 5 minutes. After separation, the organic layers were concentrated in vacuo to afford a cloudy green oil. This was dried with MgSC and filtered to afford methyl-2,4-dimethyl-4-mtro-pentanoate as a clear green oil (3.16 kg, 99% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ 3.68 (s, 3H), 2.56 – 2.35 (m, 2H), 2.11 – 2.00 (m, 1H), 1.57 (s, 3H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.19 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H). [00233] Step 2: Synthesis of methyl (2S)-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate

[00234] A reactor was charged with purified water (2090 L; 10 vol) and then potassium phosphate monobasic (27 kg, 198.4 moles; 13 g/L for water charge). The pH of the reactor contents was adjusted to pH 6.5 (± 0.2) with 20% (w/v) potassium carbonate solution. The reactor was charged with racemic methyl-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate (209 kg; 1104.6 moles), and Palatase 20000L lipase (13 L, 15.8 kg; 0.06 vol).

[00235] The reaction mixture was adjusted to 32 ± 2 °C and stirred for 15-21 hours, and pH 6.5 was maintained using a pH stat with the automatic addition of 20% potassium carbonate solution. When the racemic starting material was converted to >98% ee of the S-enantiomer, as determined by chiral GC, external heating was switched off. The reactor was then charged with MTBE (35 L; 5 vol), and the aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE (3 times, 400-1000L). The combined organic extracts were washed with aqueous Na2CO3 (4 times, 522 L, 18 % w/w 2.5 vol), water (523 L; 2.5 vol), and 10% aqueous NaCl (314 L, 1.5 vol). The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to afford methyl (2S)-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate as a mobile yellow oil (>98% ee, 94.4 kg; 45 % yield).

[00236] Step 3: Synthesis of (3S)-3,5,5-trimethylpyrrolidin-2-one

[00237] A 20 L reactor was purged with N2. The vessel was charged sequentially with DI water-rinsed, damp Raney® Ni (2800 grade, 250 g), methyl (2S)-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate (1741g, 9.2 mol), and ethanol (13.9 L, 8 vol). The reaction was stirred at 900 rpm, and the reactor was flushed with H2 and maintained at -2.5 bar. The reaction mixture was then warmed to 60 °C for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and filtered to remove Raney nickel, and the solid cake was rinsed with ethanol (3.5 L, 2 vol). The ethanolic solution of the product was combined with a second equal sized batch and concentrated in vacuo to reduce to a minimum volume of ethanol (-1.5 volumes). Heptane (2.5 L) was added, and the suspension was concentrated again to -1.5 volumes. This was repeated 3 times; the resulting suspension was cooled to 0-5 °C, filtered under suction, and washed with heptane (2.5 L). The product was dried under vacuum for 20 minutes then transferred to drying trays and dried in a vacuum oven at 40 °C overnight to afford (3S)-3,5,5-trimethylpyrrolidin-2-one as a white crystalline solid (2.042 kg, 16.1 mol, 87 %). 1H NMR (400 MHz, Chloroform-d) δ 6.39 (s, 1H), 2.62 (ddq, J = 9.9, 8.6, 7.1 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (dd, J = 12.4, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 1.56 (dd, J = 12.5, 9.9 Hz, 1H), 1.31 (s, 3H), 1.25 (s, 3H), 1.20 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H).

[00238] Step 4: Synthesis of (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride

[00239] A glass lined 120 L reactor was charged with lithium aluminium hydride pellets (2.5 kg, 66 mol) and dry THF (60 L) and warmed to 30 °C. The resulting suspension was charged with (S)-3,5,5-trimethylpyrrolidin-2-one (7.0 kg, 54 mol) in THF (25 L) over 2 hours while maintaining the reaction temperature at 30 to 40 °C. After complete addition, the reaction temperature was increased to 60 – 63 °C and maintained overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22 °C, then cautiously quenched with the addition of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) (1.0 L, 10 moles), followed by a mixture of THF (3.4 L) and water (2.5 kg, 2.0 eq), and then a mixture of water (1.75 kg) with 50 % aqueous sodium hydroxide (750 g, 2 equiv water with 1.4 equiv sodium hydroxide relative to aluminum), followed by 7.5 L water. After the addition was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and the solid was removed by filtration and washed with THF (3 x 25 L). The filtrate and washings were combined and treated with 5.0 L (58 moles) of aqueous 37% HCl (1.05 equiv.) while maintaining the temperature below 30°C. The resultant solution was concentrated by vacuum distillation to a slurry. Isopropanol (8 L) was added and the solution was concentrated to near dryness by vacuum distillation. Isopropanol (4 L) was added, and 1he product was slurried by warming to about 50 °C. MTBE (6 L) was added, and the

slurry was cooled to 2-5 °C. The product was collected by filtration and rinsed with 12 L MTBE and dried in a vacuum oven (55 °C/300 torr/N2 bleed) to afford (4S)-2,2,4- trimethylpyrrolidine’HCl as a white, crystalline solid (6.21 kg, 75% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 9.34 (br d, 2H), 3.33 (dd, J = 11.4, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.75 (dd, / = 11.4, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 2.50 – 2.39 (m, 1H), 1.97 (dd, J= 12.7, 7.7 Hz, 1H), 1.42 (s, 3H), 1.38 (dd, J = 12.8, 10.1 Hz, 1H), 1.31 (s, 3H), 1.05 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H).

[00240] Part B: Synthesis of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l- (trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4- trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

[00241] Synthesis of starting materials:

[00242] Synthesis of tert-Butyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate

[00243] A solution of 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylic acid (10 g, 52.08 mmol) in THF (210 mL) was treated successively with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (17 g, 77.89 mmol) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (3.2 g, 26.19 mmol) and stirred overnight at room temperature. At this point, HC1 IN (400 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred vigorously for about 10 minutes. The product was extracted with ethyl acetate (2x300mL), and the combined organic layers were washed with water (300 mL) and brine (150 mL) and dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 12.94 g (96% yield) of tert- butyl 2,6-dichloropyndine-3-carboxylate as a colorless oil. ESI-MS m/z calc. 247.02, found 248.1 (M+l) +; Retention time: 2.27 minutes. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13) ppm 1.60 (s, 9H), 7.30 (d, .7=7.9 Hz, 1H), 8.05 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H).

[00244] Synthesis of tert-Butyl 3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrazole-l-carboxylate

[00245] A 50L reactor was started, and the jacket was set to 20 °C, with stirring at 150 rpm, reflux condenser (10 °C) and nitrogen purge. MeOH (2.860 L) and methyl (E)-3-methoxyprop-2-enoate (2.643 kg, 22.76 mol) were added, and the reactor was capped. The reaction was heated to an internal temperature of 40 °C, and the system was set to hold jacket temperature at 40 °C. Hydrazine hydrate (1300 g of 55 %w/w, 22.31 mol) was added portion wise via addition funnel over 30 min. The reaction was heated to 60 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and triethyamine (2.483 kg, 3.420 L, 24.54 mol) was added portion-wise, maintaining reaction temperature <30 °C. A solution of Boc anhydride (di-tert-butyl dicarbonate) (4.967 kg, 5.228 L. 22.76 mol) in MeOH (2.860 L) was added portion-wise maintaining temperature <45 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 16 h. The reaction solution was partially concentrated to remove MeOH, resulting in a clear, light amber oil. The resulting oil was transferred to the 50L reactor, stirred and water (7.150 L) and heptane (7.150 L) were added. The additions caused a small amount of the product to precipitate. The aqueous layer was drained into a clean container, and the interface and heptane layer were filtered to separate the solid (product). The aqueous layer was transferred back to the reactor, and the collected solid was placed back into the reactor and mixed with the aqueous layer. A dropping funnel was added to the reactor and loaded with acetic acid (1.474 kg, 1.396 L, 24.54 mol) and added dropwise. The jacket was set to 0 °C to absorb the quench exotherm. After the addition was complete (pH=5), the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h. The solid was collected by filtration and washed with water (7.150 L), and washed a second time with water (3.575 L). The crystalline solid was transferred into a 20L rotovap bulb, and heptane (7.150 L) was added. The mixture was slurried at 45 °C for 30 mins, and 1-2 volumes of solvent were distilled off The slurry in the rotovap flask was filtered, and the solids were washed with heptane (3.575 L). The solid was further dried in vacuo (50 °C, 15 mbar) to give tert-butyl 5-oxo-lH-pyrazole-2-carboxylate (2921 g, 71%) as a coarse, crystalline solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.95 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 5.90 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 1.54 (s, 9H).

[00246] Synthesis of 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethanol

[00247] To a solution of lithium aluminum hydride (293 mg, 7.732 mmol) in THF (10.00 mL) in an ice-bath, 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]acetic acid (1.002 g, 5.948 mmol) in THF (3.0 mL) was added dropwise over a period of 30 minutes keeping the reaction temperature below 20 ° C. The mixture was allowed to gradually warm to ambient temperature and was stirred for 18 h. The mixture was cooled with an ice-bath and sequentially quenched with water (294 mg, 295 μL, 16.36 mmol), NaOH (297 μL of 6 M, 1.784 mmol), and then water (884.0 μL, 49.07 mmol) to afford a granular solid in the mixture. The solid was filtered off using celite, and the precipitate was washed with ether. The filtrate was further dried with MgSO4 and filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the product with residual THF and ether. The mixture was taken directly into the next step without further purification.

[00248] Step 1: tert-Butyl 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazole-1-carboxylate

[00249] rerf-Butyl 5-oxo-lH-pyrazole-2-carboxylate (1.043 g, 5.660 mmol), 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethanol (916 mg, 5.943 mmol), and triphenyl phosphine (1.637 g, 6.243 mmol) were combined in THF (10.48 mL) and the reaction was cooled in an ice-bath. Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (1.288 g, 1.254 mL, 6.368 mmol) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture, and the reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature for 16 hours. The mixture was evaporated, and the resulting material was partitioned between ethyl acetate (30 mL) and IN sodium hydroxide (30 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (30 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a gradient of ethyl acetate in hexanes (0- 30%) to give tert-butyl 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazole-l-carboxylate (1.03 g, 57%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 320.13, found 321.1 (M+l) +; Retention time: 0.72 minutes.

[00250] Step 2: 3-[2-[l-(Trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole

[00251] terr-Butyl-3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazole-l-carboxylate (1.03 g, 3.216 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (10.30 mL) with trifluoroacetic acid (2.478 mL, 32.16 mmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction was evaporated, and the resulting oil was partitioned between ethyl acetate (10 mL) and a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution.

The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and evaporated to give 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (612 mg, 86%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 220.08, found 221.0 (M+1) +; Retention time: 0.5 minutes. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.86 (s, 1H), 7.50 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (t, J= 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.01 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 0.96 – 0.88 (m, 2H), 0.88 -0.81 (m, 2H).

[00252] Step 3: tert- Butyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate

[00253] tert-Butyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate (687 mg, 2.770 mmol), 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (610 mg, 2.770 mmol), and freshly ground potassium carbonate (459 mg, 3.324 mmol) were combined in anhydrous DMSO (13.75 mL). l,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), 62 mg, 0.5540 mmol) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (20 mL) and stirred for 15 minutes. The resulting solid was collected and washed with water. The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane and dried over magnesium sulfate. The mixture was filtered and concentrated to give ferf-butyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (1.01 g, 84%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 431.12, found 432.1 (M+1) +; Retention time: 0.88 minutes.

[00254] Step 4: 2-Chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

[00255] tert-Butyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (1.01 g, 2.339 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (1.8 mL, 23.39 mmol) were combined in dichloromethane (10 mL) and heated at 40 °C for 3 h. The reaction was concentrated. Hexanes were added, and the mixture was concentrated again to give 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (873 mg, 99%) ESI-MS m/z calc. 375.06, found 376.1 (M+l)+; Retention time: 0.69 minutes.

[00256] Step 5: N-(Benzenesulfonyl)-2-chloro-6-[3- [2- [1-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

[00257] A solution of 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l- (trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (0.15 g, 0.3992 mmol) and carbonyl diimidazole (77 mg, 0,4790 mmol) in THF (2.0 mL) was stirred for one hour, and benzenesulfonamide (81 mg, 0.5190 mmol) and DBU (72 μL, 0.4790 mmol) were added. The reaction was stirred for 16 hours, acidified with 1 M aqueous citric acid, and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a gradient of methanol in dichloromethane (0-5%) to give N-(benzenesulfonyl)-2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyndine-3-carboxamide (160 mg, 78%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 514.07, found 515.1 (M+l)+; Retention time: 0.74 minutes.

[00258] Step 6: N-(Benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy] pyrazol-l-yl] -2- [(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl] pyridine-3-carboxamide

[00259] A mixture of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l -(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (160 mg, 0.3107 mmol), (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride salt (139 mg, 0.9321 mmol), and potassium carbonate (258 mg, 1.864 mmol) in DMSO (1.5 mL) was stirred at 130 °C for 17 hours. The reaction mixture was acidified with 1 M aqueous citric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated to yield a crude product that was purified by reverse-phase HPLC utilizing a gradient of 10-99% acetonitrile in 5 mM aqueous HCI to yield N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (87 mg, 47%). ESI-MS mJz calc. 591.21, found 592.3 (M+l) +; Retention time: 2.21 minutes. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.48 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, J = 2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.04 – 7.96 (m, 2H), 7.81 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.77 – 7.70 (m, 1H), 7.70 – 7.62 (m, 2H), 6.92 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.10 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.31 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.42 (t, J = 10.5 Hz, 1H), 2.28 (dd, J = 10.2, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 2.17 – 2.01 (m, 3H), 1.82 (dd, J= 11.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 1.52 (d, .7= 9.4 Hz, 6H), 1.36 (t, J= 12.1 Hz, 1H), 1.01 – 0.92 (m, 2H), 0.92 – 0.85 (m, 2H), 0.65 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H). pKa: 4.95±0.06.

Alternate synthesis of 2-Chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

[00263] Step 1: ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate

[00264] A mixture of EtOH (20.00 L, 10 vol) and diethyl 2-(ethoxymethylene)propanedioate (2000 g, 9.249 mol, 1.0 equiv) was added under nitrogen purge a to a 50 L reactor equipped with a reflux condenser (10 °C) and the jacket set to 40 °C. The mixture was stirred, and then hydrazine hydrate (538.9 g of 55 %w/w, 523.7 mL of 55 %w/w, 9.249 mol, 1.00 equiv) was added in portions via an addition funnel. Once the addition was complete, the reaction was heated to 75 °C for 22 h to afford a solution of ethy l 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate that was used directly in the next step.

[00265] Step 2: l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate

[00266] The solution of ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate was cooled from 75 °C to 40 °C, then triethylamine (TEA) (46.80 g, 64.46 mL, 462.5 mmol, 0.05 eq.) was added. A solution of Boc anhydride (2.119 kg, 9.711 mol 1.05 equiv) in EtOH (2.000 L, 1 equiv) was added to the reactor over 35 min. The mixture was stirred for 4 hours to complete the reaction; then water (10.00 L, 5.0 vol) was added over 15 mins. The resulting mixture was cooled to 20 °C to complete crystallization of the product. The crystals were allowed to age for 1 hour, then the mixture was filtered. The solid was washed with a mixture of EtOH (4.000 L, 2.0 vol) and water (2.000 L, 1 0 vol) The solid was then dried in vacuo to afford l-(tert-butyl)-4-ethyl-3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-1,4-dicarboxylate (1530 g, 65%) as colorless, fine needle, crystalline solid. ‘H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.61 (s, 1H), 8.40 (s, 1H), 4.20 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.56 (s, 9H), 1.25 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H).

[00267] Step 3: l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate

[00268] A 5L reactor was started with the jacket set to 40 °C, stirring at 450 rpm, reflux condenser at room temperature and nitrogen purge. The vessel was charged with toluene (1.0L, 10.0 vol), 2-[l-(tnfluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethanol (lOO.Og, 648.8 mmol, 1.0 equiv), and l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate (166.3 g, 648.8 mmol), and the mixture was stirred. The reaction mixture was charged with triphenyl phosphine (195.7 g, 746.1 mmol, 1.15 equiv), then the reactor was set to maintain an internal temperature of 40 °C. Diisopropyl azoldicarboxylate (150.9 g, 746.1 mmol, 1.15 equiv) was added into an addition funnel and was added to the

reaction while maintaining the reaction temperature between 40 and 50 °C (addition was exothermic, exotherm addition controlled), and stirred for a total of 2.5 hours. Once the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC, heptane was added (400 mL, 4 vol), the solution was cooled to 20 °C over 60 minutes, and the bulk of tnphenylphosphine oxide-DIAD complex (TPPO-DIAD) crystallized out. Once at room temp, the mixture was filtered, and the solid was washed with heptane (400 mL, 4.0 vol) and pulled dry. The filtrate was used in the next step as a solution in toluene-heptane without further purification.

[00269] Step 4: ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate

[00270] A 500mL reactor was started with the jacket set to 40 °C, stirring at 450 rpm, reflux condenser at room temp, and nitrogen purge. The vessel was charged with a toluene solution consisting of approximately 160 mmol, 65.0 g of 1 -(tert-buty 1) 4-ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate in 3 vol of toluene (prepared by concentrating a 25% portion of filtrate from previous reaction down to 4 volumes in a rotovap). The reaction was set to maintain an internal temperature at 40 °C and KOH (33.1 g, 1.5 eq. of aqueous 45 % KOH solution) was added in one portion, resulting in a mild exothermic addition, while CO2 was generated upon removal of the protecting group. The reaction proceeded for 1.5 hr, monitored by HPLC, with the product partially crystallizing during the reaction. Heptane (160 mL, 2.5 vol) was added to the reaction mixture and the reaction was cooled to room temperature over 30 minutes. The resulting mixture was filtered, and the solid was washed with heptane (80.00 mL, 1.25 vol), pulled dry, then dried in vacuo (55 °C, vacuum). 52.3 g of ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate was obtained as a crude, colorless solid that was used without further purification.

[00271] Step 5: 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid

[00272] A 500mL reactor was started with the jacket set to 40 °C, stirring at 450 rpm, reflux condenser at room temp, and nitrogen purge. The vessel was charged with methanol (150.0 mL, 3.0 vol), a solution of ethyl 3-(2-(l-(triiluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (50.0 g, 171.1 mmol, 1.0 equiv), and the reaction was stirred to suspend the solids. The reactor was set to maintain internal temperature at 40 °C. To the mixture was added KOH (96 g of aqueous 45 % KOH, 1.71 mol, 10.0 equiv) in portions maintaining the internal temperature <50 °C. Once addition was complete, the reaction was set to maintain temperature at 50 °C, and the reaction proceeded for 23 hours, monitored by HPLC. Once complete the reaction was cooled to 10 °C then partially concentrated on a rotary evaporator to remove most of the MeOH. The resulting solution was diluted with water (250 mL, 5.0 vol) and 2-Me-THF (150 mL, 3.0 vol), and transferred to the reactor, stirred at room temp, then stopped, and layers were allowed to separate. The layers were tested, with remaining TPPO-DIAD complex in the organic layer and product in the aqueous layer. The aqueous layer was washed again with 2-Me-THF (100 mL, 2.0 vol), the layers separated, and the aqueous layer returned to the reactor vessel. The stirrer was started and set to 450 rpm, and the reactor jacket was set to 0 °C. The pH was adjusted to pH acidic by addition of 6M aqueous HC1 (427mL, 15 equiv) portion wise, maintaining the internal temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The product began to crystallize close to pH neutral and was accompanied with strong off-gassing, and so the acid was added slowly, and then further added to reach pH 1 once the off-gassing had ended. To the resulting suspension was added 2-Me-THF (400 mL, 8.0 vol), and the product was allowed to dissolve into the organic layer. Stirring was stopped, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was returned to the reactor, stirred and re-extracted with 2-Me-THF (100 mL, 2.0 vol). The organic lay ers were combined in the reactor and stirred at room temperature, washed with brine (lOOmL, 2 vols), dried over Na2S04, filtered through celite, and the solid was washed with 2-Me-THF (50 mL, 1.0 vol). The filtrate was transferred to a clean rotovap flask, stirred, warmed to 50 °C and heptane (200 mL, 4.0 vol) added, and then partially concentrated with the addition of heptane (300 mL, 6.0 vol) and then seeded with 50mg of 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid), and the product crystallized during solvent removal. The distillation was stopped when the bulk of the 2-Me-THF had distilled off. The bath heater was turned off, the vacuum removed, and the mixture was allowed to stir and cool to room temperature. The mixture was filtered (slow speed) and the solid was washed with heptane (100 mL, 2.0 vol), and the solid was collected and dried in vacuo (50 °C, rotovap). 22.47 g of 3-(2-(l-(triiluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid was obtained as an off-white solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d) δ 12.45 (s, 2H), 8.01 (s, 1H), 4.26 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.05 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 0.92 (m, 4H).

[00273] Step 6: 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole

[00274] A mixture of toluene (490.0 mL), 3-(2-(l- (triiluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (70.0 g, 264.9 mmol), and DMSO (70.00 mL) was placed in a reactor and heated to 100 °C with stirring. DBU (approximately 20.16 g, 19.80 mL, 132.4 mmol) was added to the reactor over 15 min. The mixture was stirred for 20 h to complete the reaction and then cooled to 20 °C. The mixture was washed with water (350.0 mL), then 0.5N aq HC1 (280.0 mL), then water (2 x 140.0 mL), and lastly with bnne (210.0 mL). The organic layer was dried with Na2S04, and then activated charcoal (5 g, Darco 100 mesh) was added to the stirred slurry. The dried mixture was filtered through celite, and the solid was washed with toluene (140.0 mL) and then pulled dry. The filtrate was concentrated in a rotovap (50 °C, vac) to afford 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-

pyrazole (30.89 g, 53%) as an amber oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-4,) δ 11.87 (s, 1H), 7.50 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (d, 7= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.23 – 4.06 (m, 2H), 2.01 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.00 – 0.77 (m, 4H).

[00275] Step 7: ethyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l- (trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate

[00276] A mixture of DMF (180.0 mL), ethyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate (approximately 29.97 g, 136.2 mmol), 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (30.0 g, 136.2 mmol), and K2CO3, (325 mesh, approximately 24.48 g, 177.1 mmol) was added to a stirred reactor at 20 °C. DABCO (approximately 2.292 g, 20.43 mmol) was then added to the reactor, and the mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 hour, and then the temperature was increased to 30 °C, and the mixture stirred for 24 hours to complete the reaction. The mixture was cooled to 20 °C; then water (360 mL) was added slowly. The mixture was then drained from the reactor and the solid was isolated by filtration. The solid was then washed with water (2 x 150 mL), and then the solid was dried under vacuum at 55 °C to afford ethyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (51.37 g, 93%) as a fine, beige colored solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-c4) δ 8.44 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (m, 4H), 2.09 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.34 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.00 – 0.84 (m, 4H).

[00277] Step 8: 2-Chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

[00278] A solution of ethyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l- (trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (50.0 g, 123.8 mmol) in THF (300.0 mL) was prepared in a reactor at 20 °C. EtOH (150.0 mL) was added, followed by aqueous NaOH (approximately 59.44 g of 10 %w/w, 148.6 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour to complete the reaction; then aq IN HCl (750.0 mL) was slowly added. The resulting suspension was stirred for 30 mm at 10 °C, and then the solid was isolated by filtration. The solid was washed with water (150 mL then 2 x 100 mL) and then pulled dry by vacuum. The solid was then further dried under vacuum with heating to afford 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (42.29 g, 91%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6) 5 13.63 (s, 1H), 8.48 – 8.35 (m, 2H), 7.73 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.20 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.09 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.01 – 0.82 (m, 4H).

PATENT

WO2018227049

Follows on from WO2018227049 , claiming a composition comprising this compound and at least one of tezacaftor, ivacaftor, deutivacaftor or lumacaftor, useful for treating CF.

PATENT

WO-2019079760

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019079760&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&maxRec=1000

Novel crystalline forms of the compound, the potassium salt of which is presumed to be VX-659 , Such as Forms A, B, C, D, E, H and M , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claimed are their use for treating cystic fibrosis, and compositions comprising VX-659, ivacaftoR,  lumacaftor and tezacaftor .

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No.

62/574,677, filed October 19, 2017; U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/574,670, filed October 19, 2017; and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/650,057, filed March 29, 2018, the entire contents of each of which are expressly incorporated herein by reference in their respective entireties.

[0002] Disclosed herein are crystalline forms of Compound I and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, which are modulators of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR), compositions comprising the same, methods of using the same, and processes for making the same.

[0003] Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease that affects approximately 70,000 children and adults worldwide. Despite progress in the treatment of CF, there is no cure.

[0004] In patients with CF, mutations in CFTR endogenously expressed in respiratory epithelia lead to reduced apical anion secretion causing an imbalance in ion and fluid transport. The resulting decrease in anion transport contributes to enhanced mucus accumulation in the lung and accompanying microbial infections that ultimately cause death in CF patients. In addition to respiratory disease, CF patients typically suffer from gastrointestinal problems and pancreatic insufficiency that, if left untreated, result in death. In addition, the majority of males with cystic fibrosis are infertile, and fertility is reduced among females with cystic fibrosis.

[0005] Sequence analysis of the CFTR gene has revealed a variety of disease-causing mutations (Cutting, G. R. et al. (1990) Nature 346:366-369; Dean, M. et al. (1990) Cell 61 :863 :870; and Kerem, B-S. et al. (1989) Science 245: 1073-1080; Kerem, B-S et al. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:8447-8451). To date, greater than 2000 mutations in the CF gene have been identified; currently, the CFTR2 database contains information on only 322 of these identified mutations, with sufficient evidence to define 281 mutations as disease causing. The most prevalent disease-causing mutation is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 of the CFTR amino acid sequence and is

commonly referred to as the F508del mutation. This mutation occurs in approximately 70% of the cases of cystic fibrosis and is associated with severe disease.

[0006] The deletion of residue 508 in CFTR prevents the nascent protein from folding correctly. This results in the inability of the mutant protein to exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and traffic to the plasma membrane. As a result, the number of CFTR channels for anion transport present in the membrane is far less than observed in cells expressing wild-type CFTR, i.e., CFTR having no mutations. In addition to impaired trafficking, the mutation results in defective channel gating.

Together, the reduced number of channels in the membrane and the defective gating lead to reduced anion and fluid transport across epithelia. (Quinton, P. M. (1990), FASEB J. 4: 2709-2727). The channels that are defective because of the F508del mutation are still functional, albeit less functional than wild-type CFTR channels. (Dalemans et al. (1991), Nature Lond. 354: 526-528; Pasyk and Foskett (1995), J. Cell. Biochem. 270: 12347-50). In addition to F508del, other disease-causing mutations in CFTR that result in defective trafficking, synthesis, and/or channel gating could be up-or down-regulated to alter anion secretion and modify disease progression and/or severity.

[0007] CFTR is a cAMP/ATP-mediated anion channel that is expressed in a variety of cell types, including absorptive and secretory epithelia cells, where it regulates anion flux across the membrane, as well as the activity of other ion channels and proteins. In epithelial cells, normal functioning of CFTR is critical for the maintenance of electrolyte transport throughout the body, including respiratory and digestive tissue. CFTR is composed of approximately 1480 amino acids that encode a protein which is made up of a tandem repeat of transmembrane domains, each containing six

transmembrane helices and a nucleotide binding domain. The two transmembrane domains are linked by a large, polar, regulatory (R)-domain with multiple

phosphorylation sites that regulate channel activity and cellular trafficking.

[0008] Chloride transport takes place by the coordinated activity of ENaC and CFTR present on the apical membrane and the Na+-K+-ATPase pump and CI- channels expressed on the basolateral surface of the cell. Secondary active transport of chloride from the luminal side leads to the accumulation of intracellular chloride, which can then passively leave the cell via CI channels, resulting in a vectorial transport. Arrangement of Na+/2C17K+ co-transporter, Na+-K+– ATPase pump and the basolateral membrane K+ channels on the basolateral surface and CFTR on the luminal side coordinate the secretion of chloride via CFTR on the luminal side. Because water is probably never actively transported itself, its flow across epithelia depends on tiny transepithelial osmotic gradients generated by the bulk flow of sodium and chloride.

[0009] Compound I and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof are potent CFTR modulators. Compound I is N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl) cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide, and has the following structure:

Example 1: Synthesis of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l- (trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy] pyrazol-l-yl]-2- [(4S)-2,2,4- trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Compound I)

Part A: Synthesis of (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride

° THF, Base

N02 1 “* N02 | -k/ B) HC

Step 1: Synthesis of methyl-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate

[00381] Tetrahydrofuran (THF, 4.5 L) was added to a 20 L glass reactor and stirred under N2 at room temperature. 2-Nitropropane (1.5 kg, 16.83 mol) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) (1.282 kg, 8.42 mol) were then charged to the reactor, and the jacket temperature was increased to 50 °C. Once the reactor contents were close to 50 °C, methyl methacrylate (1.854 kg, 18.52 mol) was added slowly over 100 minutes. The reaction temperature was maintained at or close to 50 °C for 21 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo then transferred back to the reactor and diluted with methyl fert-butyl ether (MTBE) (14 L). 2 M HC1 (7.5 L) was added, and this mixture was stirred for 5 minutes then allowed to settle. Two clear layers were visible – a lower yellow aqueous phase and an upper green organic phase. The aqueous layer was removed, and the organic layer was stirred again with 2 M HC1 (3 L). After separation, the HC1 washes were recombined and stirred with MTBE (3 L) for 5 minutes. The aqueous layer was removed, and all of the organic layers were combined in the reactor and stirred with water (3 L) for 5 minutes. After separation, the organic layers were concentrated in vacuo to afford a cloudy green oil. This was dried with MgS04 and filtered to afford methyl-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate as a clear green oil (3.16 kg, 99% yield). ¾ MR (400 MHz, Chloroform-i ) δ 3.68 (s, 3H), 2.56 – 2.35 (m, 2H), 2.11 – 2.00 (m, 1H), 1.57 (s, 3H), 1.55 (s, 3H), 1.19 (d, J= 6.8 Hz, 3H).

Step 2: Synthesis of methyl (2S)-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate

[00382] A reactor was charged with purified water (2090 L; 10 vol) and then potassium phosphate monobasic (27 kg, 198.4 moles; 13 g/L for water charge). The pH of the reactor contents was adjusted to pH 6.5 (± 0.2) with 20% (w/v) potassium carbonate solution. The reactor was charged with racemic methyl-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate (209 kg; 1104.6 moles), and Palatase 20000L lipase (13 L, 15.8 kg; 0.06 vol).

[00383] The reaction mixture was adjusted to 32 ± 2 °C and stirred for 15-21 hours, and pH 6.5 was maintained using a pH stat with the automatic addition of 20% potassium carbonate solution. When the racemic starting material was converted to >98% ee of the S-enantiomer, as determined by chiral GC, external heating was

switched off. The reactor was then charged with MTBE (35 L; 5 vol), and the aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE (3 times, 400-1000L). The combined organic extracts were washed with aqueous Na2CCb (4 times, 522 L, 18 % w/w 2.5 vol), water (523 L; 2.5 vol), and 10% aqueous NaCl (314 L, 1.5 vol). The organic layer was concentrated in vacuo to afford methyl (2,S)-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate as a mobile yellow oil (>98% ee, 94.4 kg; 45 % yield).

Step 3: Synthesis of (3S)-3,5,5-trimethylpyrrolidin-2-one

[00384] A 20 L reactor was purged with N2. The vessel was charged sequentially with DI water-rinsed, damp Raney® Ni (2800 grade, 250 g), methyl (2S)-2,4-dimethyl-4-nitro-pentanoate (1741g, 9.2 mol), and ethanol (13.9 L, 8 vol). The reaction was stirred at 900 rpm, and the reactor was flushed with H2 and maintained at -2.5 bar. The reaction mixture was then warmed to 60 °C for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and filtered to remove Raney nickel, and the solid cake was rinsed with ethanol (3.5 L, 2 vol). The ethanolic solution of the product was combined with a second equal sized batch and concentrated in vacuo to reduce to a minimum volume of ethanol (-1.5 volumes). Heptane (2.5 L) was added, and the suspension was concentrated again to -1.5 volumes. This was repeated 3 times; the resulting suspension was cooled to 0-5 °C, filtered under suction, and washed with heptane (2.5 L). The product was dried under vacuum for 20 minutes then transferred to drying trays and dried in a vacuum oven at 40 °C overnight to afford (3S)-3,5,5-trimethylpyrrolidin-2-one as a white crystalline solid (2.042 kg, 16.1 mol, 87 %). ¾ MR (400 MHz, Chloroform-i ) δ 6.39 (s, 1H), 2.62 (ddq, J = 9.9, 8.6, 7.1 Hz, 1H), 2.17 (dd, J = 12.4, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 1.56 (dd, J = 12.5, 9.9 Hz, 1H), 1.31 (s, 3H), 1.25 (s, 3H), 1.20 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H).

Step 4: Synthesis of (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride

[00385] A glass lined 120 L reactor was charged with lithium aluminium hydride pellets (2.5 kg, 66 mol) and dry THF (60 L) and warmed to 30 °C. The resulting suspension was charged with (¾)-3,5,5-trimethylpyrrolidin-2-one (7.0 kg, 54 mol) in THF (25 L) over 2 hours while maintaining the reaction temperature at 30 to 40 °C. After complete addition, the reaction temperature was increased to 60 – 63 °C and maintained overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to 22 °C, then cautiously quenched with the addition of ethyl acetate (EtOAc) (1.0 L, 10 moles), followed by a mixture of THF (3.4 L) and water (2.5 kg, 2.0 eq), and then a mixture of water (1.75 kg) with 50 % aqueous sodium hydroxide (750 g, 2 equiv water with 1.4 equiv sodium hydroxide relative to aluminum), followed by 7.5 L water. After the addition was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and the solid was removed by filtration and washed with THF (3 x 25 L). The filtrate and washings were combined and treated with 5.0 L (58 moles) of aqueous 37% HC1 (1.05 equiv.) while maintaining the temperature below 30°C. The resultant solution was concentrated by vacuum distillation to a slurry. Isopropanol (8 L) was added and the solution was concentrated to near dryness by vacuum distillation. Isopropanol (4 L) was added, and the product was slurried by warming to about 50 °C. MTBE (6 L) was added, and the slurry was cooled to 2-5 °C. The product was collected by filtration and rinsed with 12 L MTBE and dried in a vacuum oven (55 °C/300 torr/N2 bleed) to afford (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine»HCl as a white, crystalline solid (6.21 kg, 75% yield). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ 9.34 (br d, 2H), 3.33 (dd, J= 11.4, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.75 (dd, J = 11.4, 8.6 Hz, 1H), 2.50 – 2.39 (m, 1H), 1.97 (dd, J= 12.7, 7.7 Hz, 1H), 1.42 (s, 3H), 1.38 (dd, J= 12.8, 10.1 Hz, 1H), 1.31 (s, 3H), 1.05 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H).

Part B: Synthesis of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l- (trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4- trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

HO CF,

Synthesis of starting materials:

Synthesis of terf-Butyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate

[00386] A solution of 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylic acid (10 g, 52.08 mmol) in THF (210 mL) was treated successively with di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (17 g, 77.89 mmol) and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (3.2 g, 26.19 mmol) and stirred overnight at room temperature. At this point, HCI IN (400 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred vigorously for about 10 minutes. The product was extracted with ethyl acetate (2x300mL), and the combined organic layers were washed with water (300 mL) and brine (150 mL) and dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 12.94 g (96% yield) of tert-butyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate as a colorless oil. ESI-MS m/z calc. 247.02, found 248.1 (M+1) +; Retention time: 2.27 minutes. ¾ NMR (300 MHz, CDCh) ppm 1.60 (s, 9H), 7.30 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 8.05 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H).

Synthesis of terf-Butyl 3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrazole-l-carboxylate

[00387] A 50L reactor was started, and the jacket was set to 20 °C, with stirring at 150 rpm, reflux condenser (10 °C) and nitrogen purge. MeOH (2.860 L) and methyl (E)-3-methoxyprop-2-enoate (2.643 kg, 22.76 mol) were added, and the reactor was capped. The reaction was heated to an internal temperature of 40 °C, and the system was set to hold jacket temperature at 40 °C. Hydrazine hydrate (1300 g of 55 %w/w, 22.31 mol) was added portion wise via addition funnel over 30 min. The reaction was heated to 60 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and triethyamine (2.483 kg, 3.420 L, 24.54 mol) was added portion-wise, maintaining reaction

temperature <30 °C. A solution of Boc anhydride (di-tert-butyl dicarbonate) (4.967 kg, 5.228 L, 22.76 mol) in MeOH (2.860 L) was added portion-wise maintaining temperature <45 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 16 h. The reaction solution was partially concentrated to remove MeOH, resulting in a clear, light amber oil. The resulting oil was transferred to the 50L reactor, stirred and water (7.150 L) and heptane (7.150 L) were added. The additions caused a small amount of the product to precipitate. The aqueous layer was drained into a clean container, and the interface and heptane layer were filtered to separate the solid (product). The aqueous layer was transferred back to the reactor, and the collected solid was placed back into the reactor and mixed with the aqueous layer. A dropping funnel was added to the reactor and loaded with acetic acid (1.474 kg, 1.396 L, 24.54 mol) and added dropwise. The jacket was set to 0 °C to absorb the quench exotherm. After the addition was complete (pH=5), the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h. The solid was collected by filtration and washed with water (7.150 L) and washed a second time with water (3.575 L). The crystalline solid was transferred into a 20L rotovap bulb, and heptane (7.150 L) was added. The mixture was slurried at 45 °C for 30 mins, and 1-2 volumes of solvent were distilled off. The slurry in the rotovap flask was filtered, and the solids were washed with heptane (3.575 L). The solid was further dried in vacuo (50 °C, 15 mbar) to give tert-butyl 5-oxo-lH-pyrazole-2-carboxylate (2921 g, 71%) as a coarse, crystalline solid. ¾ MR

(400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.95 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 5.90 (d, J

1H), 1.54 (s, 9H).

Synthesis of 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethanol

[00388] To a solution of lithium aluminum hydride (293 mg, 7.732 mmol) in THF (10.00 mL) in an ice-bath, 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]acetic acid (1.002 g, 5.948 mmol) in THF (3.0 mL) was added dropwise over a period of 30 minutes keeping the reaction temperature below 20 0 C. The mixture was allowed to gradually warm to ambient temperature and was stirred for 18 h. The mixture was cooled with an ice-bath and sequentially quenched with water (294 mg, 295 μΐ., 16.36 mmol), NaOH (297 μΐ. of 6 M, 1.784 mmol), and then water (884.0 μΐ., 49.07 mmol) to afford a granular solid in the mixture. The solid was filtered off using celite, and the precipitate was washed with ether. The filtrate was further dried with MgS04 and filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford the product with residual THF and ether. The mixture was taken directly into the next step without further purification.

Step 1: tert-Butyl 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazole-l-carboxylate

[00389] tert-Butyl 5-oxo-lH-pyrazole-2-carboxylate (1.043 g, 5.660 mmol), 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethanol (916 mg, 5.943 mmol), and triphenyl phosphine (1.637 g, 6.243 mmol) were combined in THF (10.48 mL) and the reaction was cooled in an ice-bath. Diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (1.288 g, 1.254 mL, 6.368 mmol) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture, and the reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature for 16 hours. The mixture was evaporated, and the resulting material was partitioned between ethyl acetate (30 mL) and IN sodium hydroxide (30 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (30 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The crude material was purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a gradient of ethyl acetate in hexanes (0- 30%) to give tert-butyl 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazole-l-carboxylate (1.03 g, 57%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 320.13, found 321.1 (M+1) +; Retention time: 0.72 minutes.

Step 2: 3-[2-[l-(Trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole

[00390] tert-Butyl-3 -[2-[ 1 -(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazole- 1 -carboxylate (1.03 g, 3.216 mmol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (10.30 mL) with trifluoroacetic acid (2.478 mL, 32.16 mmol), and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction was evaporated, and the resulting oil was partitioned between ethyl acetate (10 mL) and a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and evaporated to give 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (612 mg, 86%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 220.08, found 221.0 (M+1) +; Retention time: 0.5 minutes. ¾ MR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.86 (s, 1H), 7.50 (t, J= 2.1 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (t, J= 2.3 Hz, 1H), 4.14 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.01 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 0.96 – 0.88 (m, 2H), 0.88 -0.81 (m, 2H).

Step 3: tert-Butyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate

[00391] tert-Butyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate (687 mg, 2.770 mmol), 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (610 mg, 2.770 mmol), and freshly ground potassium carbonate (459 mg, 3.324 mmol) were combined in anhydrous DMSO (13.75 mL). l,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DAB CO (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane), 62 mg, 0.5540 mmol) was added, and the mixture was

stirred at room temperature under nitrogen for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (20 mL) and stirred for 15 minutes. The resulting solid was collected and washed with water. The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane and dried over magnesium sulfate. The mixture was filtered and concentrated to give tert-butyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (1.01 g, 84%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 431.12, found 432.1 (M+l) +; Retention time: 0.88 minutes.

Step 4: 2-Chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

[00392] tert-Butyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (1.01 g, 2.339 mmol) and trifluoroacetic acid (1.8 mL, 23.39 mmol) were combined in dichloromethane (10 mL) and heated at 40 °C for 3 h. The reaction was concentrated. Hexanes were added, and the mixture was concentrated again to give 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (873 mg, 99%) ESI-MS m/z calc. 375.06, found 376.1 (M+l)+; Retention time: 0.69 minutes.

Step 5: N-(Benzenesulfonyl)-2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

[00393] A solution of 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]

ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (0.15 g, 0.3992 mmol) and carbonyl diimidazole (77 mg, 0.4790 mmol) in THF (2.0 mL) was stirred for one hour, and

benzenesulfonamide (81 mg, 0.5190 mmol) and DBU (72 μΐ^, 0.4790 mmol) were added. The reaction was stirred for 16 hours, acidified with 1 M aqueous citric acid, and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography eluting with a gradient of methanol in dichloromethane (0-5%) to give N-(benzenesulfonyl)-2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (160 mg, 78%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 514.07, found 515.1 (M+l)+; Retention time: 0.74 minutes.

Step 6: N-(Benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide

[00394] A mixture of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (160 mg, 0.3107 mmol), (4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride salt (139 mg, 0.9321 mmol), and potassium carbonate (258 mg, 1.864 mmol) in DMSO (1.5 mL) was stirred at 130 °C for 17 hours. The reaction mixture was acidified with 1 M aqueous citric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated to yield a crude product that was purified by reverse-phase HPLC utilizing a gradient of 10-99%) acetonitrile in 5 mM aqueous HC1 to yield N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (87 mg, 47%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 591.21, found 592.3 (M+l) +; Retention time: 2.21 minutes. 1H MR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 12.48 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.04 – 7.96 (m, 2H), 7.81 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.77 – 7.70 (m, 1H), 7.70 – 7.62 (m, 2H), 6.92 (d, J= 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.10 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 4.31 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.42 (t, J= 10.5 Hz, 1H), 2.28 (dd, J = 10.2, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 2.17 – 2.01 (m, 3H), 1.82 (dd, J= 11.9, 5.5 Hz, 1H), 1.52 (d, J = 9.4 Hz, 6H), 1.36 (t, J= 12.1 Hz, 1H), 1.01 – 0.92 (m, 2H), 0.92 – 0.85 (m, 2H), 0.65 (d, J = 6.3 Hz, 3H). pKa: 4.95±0.06.

Synthesis of sodium salt of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl) cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (sodium salt of Compound I)

[00395] N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide (1000 mg, 1.679 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (19.87 ml) under warming, filtered clear through a syringe filter (0.2 μπι), washed with warm ethanol (10 ml) and the warm solution was treated with 1M NaOH (1.679 ml, 1.679 mmol). The solution was evaporated at 30-35 °C, co-evaporated 3 times with ethanol (-20 ml), to give a solid, which was dried overnight under vacuum in a drying cabinet at 45 °C with a nitrogen bleed to give 951 mg of a cream colored solid. The solid was further dried under vacuum in a drying cabinet at 45 °C with a nitrogen bleed over the weekend. 930 mg (89%) of the sodium salt of N-(benzenesulfonyl)-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]-2-[(4S)-2,2,4-trimethylpyrrolidin-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxamide was obtained as an off-white amorphous solid. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d) δ 8.15 (d, J= 2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.81 (dd, J= 6.7, 3.1 Hz, 2H), 7.61 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (dd, J= 4.9, 2.0 Hz, 3H), 6.74 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.93 – 2.78 (m, 2H), 2.07 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.78 (dd, J= 11.8, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 1.52 (d, J= 13.6 Hz, 6H), 1.33 (t, J= 12.0 Hz, 1H), 1.00 – 0.92 (m, 2H), 0.89 (q, J= 5.3, 4.6 Hz, 2H), 0.71 (d, J= 6.3 Hz, 3H). EST-MS m/z calc. 591.2127, found 592.0 (M+l)+; Retention time: 3.28 minutes. XRPD (see FIG. 16).

Alternate synthesis of 2-Chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy] pyrazol-l-yl] pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

Step 1: ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate

[00396] A mixture of EtOH (20.00 L, 10 vol) and diethyl 2-(ethoxymethylene) propanedioate (2000 g, 9.249 mol, 1.0 equiv) was added under nitrogen purge a to a 50 L reactor equipped with a reflux condenser (10 °C) and the jacket set to 40 °C. The mixture was stirred, and then hydrazine hydrate (538.9 g of 55 %w/w, 523.7 mL of 55 %w/w, 9.249 mol, 1.00 equiv) was added in portions via an addition funnel. Once the addition was complete, the reaction was heated to 75 °C for 22 h to afford a solution of ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate that was used directly in the next step.

Step 2: l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate

[00397] The solution of ethyl 3 -hydroxy- lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate was cooled from 75 °C to 40 °C, then triethylamine (TEA) (46.80 g, 64.46 mL, 462.5 mmol, 0.05 eq.) was added. A solution of Boc anhydride (2.119 kg, 9.711 moll .05 equiv) in EtOH (2.000 L, 1 equiv) was added to the reactor over 35 min. The mixture was stirred for 4 hours to complete the reaction; then water (10.00 L, 5.0 vol) was added over 15 mins. The resulting mixture was cooled to 20 °C to complete crystallization of the product. The crystals were allowed to age for 1 hour, then the mixture was filtered. The solid was washed with a mixture of EtOH (4.000 L, 2.0 vol) and water (2.000 L, 1.0 vol). The solid was then dried in vacuo to afford l-(tert-butyl)-4-ethyl-3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-1,4-dicarboxylate (1530 g, 65%) as colorless, fine needle, crystalline solid. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 11.61 (s, 1H), 8.40 (s, 1H), 4.20 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.56 (s, 9H), 1.25 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 3H).

Step 3: l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-ΙΗ-pyr azole- 1 ,4-dicarboxylate

[00398] A 5L reactor was started with the jacket set to 40 °C, stirring at 450 rpm, reflux condenser at room temperature and nitrogen purge. The vessel was charged with toluene (1.0L, 10.0 vol), 2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethanol (lOO.Og, 648.8 mmol, 1.0 equiv), and l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-hydroxy-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate (166.3 g, 648.8 mmol), and the mixture was stirred. The reaction mixture was charged with triphenyl phosphine (195.7 g, 746.1 mmol, 1.15 equiv), then the reactor was set to maintain an internal temperature of 40 °C. Diisopropyl azoldicarboxylate (150.9 g, 746.1 mmol, 1.15 equiv) was added into an addition funnel and was added to the reaction while maintaining the reaction temperature between 40 and 50 °C (addition was exothermic, exotherm addition controlled), and stirred for a total of 2.5 hours. Once the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC, heptane was added (400 mL, 4 vol), the solution was cooled to 20 °C over 60 minutes, and the bulk of triphenylphosphine oxide-DIAD complex (TPPO-DIAD) crystallized out. Once at room temp, the mixture was filtered, and the solid was washed with heptane (400 mL, 4.0 vol) and pulled dry. The filtrate was used in the next step as a solution in toluene-heptane without further purification.

Step 4: ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate

[00399] A 500mL reactor was started with the jacket set to 40 °C, stirring at 450 rpm, reflux condenser at room temp, and nitrogen purge. The vessel was charged with a toluene solution consisting of approximately 160 mmol, 65.0 g of l-(tert-butyl) 4-ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-l,4-dicarboxylate in 3 vol of toluene (prepared by concentrating a 25% portion of filtrate from previous reaction down to 4 volumes in a rotovap). The reaction was set to maintain an internal temperature at 40 °C and KOH (33.1 g, 1.5 eq. of aqueous 45 % KOH solution) was added in one portion, resulting in a mild exothermic addition, while CO2 was generated upon removal of the protecting group. The reaction proceeded for 1.5 hr, monitored by HPLC, with the product partially crystallizing during the reaction. Heptane (160 mL, 2.5 vol) was added to the reaction mixture and the reaction was cooled to room temperature over 30 minutes. The resulting mixture was filtered, and the solid was

washed with heptane (80.00 mL, 1.25 vol), pulled dry, then dried in vacuo (55 °C, vacuum). 52.3 g of ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate was obtained as a crude, colorless solid that was used without further purification.

Step 5: 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid

[00400] A 500mL reactor was started with the jacket set to 40 °C, stirring at 450 rpm, reflux condenser at room temp, and nitrogen purge. The vessel was charged with methanol (150.0 mL, 3.0 vol), a solution of ethyl 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl) ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylate (50.0 g, 171.1 mmol, 1.0 equiv), and the reaction was stirred to suspend the solids. The reactor was set to maintain internal temperature at 40 °C. To the mixture was added KOH (96 g of aqueous 45 % KOH, 1.71 mol, 10.0 equiv) in portions maintaining the internal temperature <50 °C. Once addition was complete, the reaction was set to maintain temperature at 50 °C, and the reaction proceeded for 23 hours, monitored by HPLC. Once complete the reaction was cooled to 10 °C then partially concentrated on a rotary evaporator to remove most of the MeOH. The resulting solution was diluted with water (250 mL, 5.0 vol) and 2-Me-THF (150 mL, 3.0 vol), and transferred to the reactor, stirred at room temp, then stopped, and layers were allowed to separate. The layers were tested, with remaining TPPO-DIAD complex in the organic layer and product in the aqueous layer. The aqueous layer was washed again with 2-Me-THF (100 mL, 2.0 vol), the layers separated, and the aqueous layer returned to the reactor vessel. The stirrer was started and set to 450 rpm, and the reactor jacket was set to 0 °C. The pH was adjusted to pH acidic by addition of 6M aqueous HC1 (427mL, 15 equiv) portion wise, maintaining the internal temperature between 10 and 30 °C. The product began to crystallize close to pH neutral and was accompanied with strong off-gassing, and so the acid was added slowly, and then further added to reach pH 1 once the off-gassing had ended. To the resulting suspension was added 2-Me-THF (400 mL, 8.0 vol), and the product was allowed to dissolve into

the organic layer. Stirring was stopped, the layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was returned to the reactor, stirred and re-extracted with 2-Me-THF (100 mL, 2.0 vol). The organic layers were combined in the reactor and stirred at room temperature, washed with brine (lOOmL, 2 vols), dried over Na2S04, filtered through celite, and the solid was washed with 2-Me-THF (50 mL, 1.0 vol). The filtrate was transferred to a clean rotovap flask, stirred, warmed to 50 °C and heptane (200 mL, 4.0 vol) added, and then partially concentrated with the addition of heptane (300 mL, 6.0 vol) and then seeded with 50mg of 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid), and the product crystallized during solvent removal. The distillation was stopped when the bulk of the 2-Me-THF had distilled off. The bath heater was turned off, the vacuum removed, and the mixture was allowed to stir and cool to room temperature. The mixture was filtered (slow speed) and the solid was washed with heptane (100 mL, 2.0 vol), and the solid was collected and dried in vacuo (50 °C, rotovap). 22.47 g of 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid was obtained as an off-white solid. ¾ MR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ

12.45 (s, 2H), 8.01 (s, 1H), 4.26 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.05 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 0.92 (m,

4H).

Step 6: 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl)ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole

[00401] A mixture of toluene (490.0 mL), 3-(2-(l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl) ethoxy)-lH-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (70.0 g, 264.9 mmol), and DMSO (70.00 mL) was placed in a reactor and heated to 100 °C with stirring. DBU (approximately 20.16 g, 19.80 mL, 132.4 mmol) was added to the reactor over 15 min. The mixture was stirred for 20 h to complete the reaction and then cooled to 20 °C. The mixture was washed with water (350.0 mL), then 0.5N aq HC1 (280.0 mL), then water (2 x 140.0 mL), and lastly with brine (210.0 mL). The organic layer was dried with Na2S04, and then activated charcoal (5 g, Darco 100 mesh) was added to the stirred slurry. The dried mixture was filtered through celite, and the solid was washed with toluene (140.0 mL) and then pulled dry. The filtrate was concentrated in a rotovap (50 °C, vac) to afford 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (30.89 g, 53%) as an amber oil. 1H MR (400 MHz, DMSO-d) δ 11.87 (s, 1H), 7.50 (d, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.23 – 4.06 (m, 2H), 2.01 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.00 – 0.77 (m, 4H).

Step 7: ethyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy] pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate

[00402] A mixture of DMF (180.0 mL), ethyl 2,6-dichloropyridine-3-carboxylate (approximately 29.97 g, 136.2 mmol), 3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]-lH-pyrazole (30.0 g, 136.2 mmol), and K2CO3, (325 mesh, approximately 24.48 g, 177.1 mmol) was added to a stirred reactor at 20 °C. DABCO (approximately 2.292 g, 20.43 mmol) was then added to the reactor, and the mixture was stirred at 20 °C for 1 hour, and then the temperature was increased to 30 °C, and the mixture stirred for 24 hours to complete the reaction. The mixture was cooled to 20 °C; then water (360 mL) was added slowly. The mixture was then drained from the reactor and the solid was isolated by filtration. The solid was then washed with water (2 x 150 mL), and then the solid was dried under vacuum at 55 °C to afford ethyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (51.37 g, 93%) as a fine, beige colored solid. ¾ MR (400 MHz, DMSO-^e) δ 8.44 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (d, J= 8.5 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (m, 4H), 2.09 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.34 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 3H), 1.00 – 0.84 (m, 4H).

Step 8: 2-Chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid

[00403] A solution of ethyl 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl] ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylate (50.0 g, 123.8 mmol) in THF (300.0 mL) was prepared in a reactor at 20 °C. EtOH (150.0 mL) was added, followed by aqueous NaOH (approximately 59.44 g of 10 %w/w, 148.6 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour to complete the reaction; then aq IN HC1 (750.0 mL) was slowly added. The resulting suspension was stirred for 30 min at 10 °C, and then the solid was isolated by filtration. The solid was washed with water (150 mL then 2 x 100 mL) and then pulled dry by vacuum. The solid was then further dried under vacuum with heating to afford 2-chloro-6-[3-[2-[l-(trifluoromethyl)cyclopropyl]ethoxy]pyrazol-l-yl]pyridine-3-carboxylic acid (42.29 g, 91%). ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 13.63 (s, 1H), 8.48 -8.35 (m, 2H), 7.73 (d, J= 8.4 Hz, 1H), 6.20 (d, J= 2.9 Hz, 1H), 4.35 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.09 (t, J= 7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.01 – 0.82 (m, 4H).

Example 2: Preparation of a Spray Dried Dispersion (SDD) of Compound I

[00404] A spray dried dispersion of Compound I (free form) was prepared using Buchi Mini Spray Dryer B290. HPMCAS-HG (6.0 grams) was dissolved in 200 mL of MeOH/DCM (1/1), and Compound I (6.0 grams) was added and stirred for 30 minutes forming a clear solution. The resulting solution was spray dried under the following conditions resulting in a 50 wt% Compound 1/50 wt% HPMCAS- HG spray dried dispersion (Yield: 80%, Solid load: 6%). FIG. 14 shows the XRPD spectrum of a SDD of 50% Compound I in HPMCAS-HG. FIG. 15 is spectrum showing modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) spectrum of a spray dried dispersion (SDD) of 50% Compound I in HPMCAS-HG.

Table 64 SDD of Compound I

Example 3: Synthesis of Compound II: (R)-l-(2,2-Difluorobenzo[d][l,3]dioxol-5- yl)-N-(l-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(l-hydroxy-2- -2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide

Step 1: (R)-Benzyl 2-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate and ((S)-2,2-Dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl 2-(l-(((R)-2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate

[00405] Cesium carbonate (8.23 g, 25.3 mmol) was added to a mixture of benzyl 2-(6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (3.0 g, 8.4 mmol) and (S)-(2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (7.23 g, 25.3 mmol) in DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide) (17 mL). The reaction was stirred at 80 °C for 46 hours under a nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was then partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined ethyl acetate layers were washed with brine, dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated. The crude product, a viscous brown oil which contains both of the products shown above, was taken directly to the next step without further purification. (R)-Benzyl 2-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate, ESI-MS m/z calc. 470.2, found 471.5 (M+l)+. Retention time 2.20 minutes. ((S)-2,2-Dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl 2-(l-(((R)-2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropanoate, ESI-MS m/z calc. 494.5, found 495.7 (M+l)+. Retention time 2.01 minutes.

Step 2: (R)-2-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-l-ol

[00406] The crude reaction mixture obtained in step (A) was dissolved in THF (tetrahydrofuran) (42 mL) and cooled in an ice-water bath. LiAlH4 (16.8 mL of 1 M solution, 16.8 mmol) was added drop-wise. After the addition was complete, the

mixture was stirred for an additional 5 minutes. The reaction was quenched by adding water (1 mL), 15% NaOH solution (1 mL) and then water (3 mL). The mixture was filtered over Celite, and the solids were washed with THF and ethyl acetate. The filtrate was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (30-60% ethyl acetate-hexanes) to obtain (R)-2-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-l-ol as a brown oil (2.68g, 87 % over 2 steps). ESI-MS m/z calc. 366.4, found 367.3 (M+l)+. Retention time 1.68 minutes. 1H MR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ 8.34 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J = 13.4 Hz, 1H), 6.57 (s, 1H), 4.94 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 1H), 4.64 – 4.60 (m, 1H), 4.52 – 4.42(m, 2H), 4.16 – 4.14 (m, 1H), 3.76 – 3.74 (m, 1H), 3.63 – 3.53 (m, 2H), 1.42 (s, 3H), 1.38 – 1.36 (m, 6H) and 1.19 (s, 3H) ppm. (DMSO is dimethylsulfoxide).

Step 3: (R)-2-(5-amino-l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-l-ol

[00407] (R)-2-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-5-nitro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-l-ol (2.5 g, 6.82 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (70 mL) and the reaction was flushed with N2. Then Pd-C (250 mg, 5% wt) was added. The reaction was flushed with nitrogen again and then stirred under H2 (atm). After 2.5 hours only partial conversion to the product was observed by LCMS. The reaction was filtered through Celite and concentrated. The residue was re-subjected to the conditions above. After 2 hours LCMS indicated complete conversion to product. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated to yield the product (1.82 g, 79 %). ESI-MS m/z calc. 336.2, found 337.5 (M+l)+. Retention time 0.86 minutes. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ 7.17 (d, J = 12.6 Hz, 1H), 6.76 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H), 6.03 (s, 1H), 4.79 – 4.76 (m, 1H), 4.46 (s, 2H), 4.37 – 4.31 (m, 3H),4.06 (dd, J = 6.1, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 3.70 – 3.67 (m, 1H), 3.55 – 3.52 (m, 2H), 1.41 (s, 3H), 1.32 (s, 6H) and 1.21 (s, 3H) ppm.

Step 4: (R)-l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d] [l,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-2-(l-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide

[00408] DMF (3 drops) was added to a stirring mixture of l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][l,3]dioxol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (1.87 g, 7.7 mmol) and thionyl chloride (1.30 mL, 17.9 mmol). After 1 hour a clear solution had formed. The

solution was concentrated under vacuum and then toluene (3 mL) was added and the mixture was concentrated again. The toluene step was repeated once more and the residue was placed on high vacuum for 10 minutes. The acid chloride was then dissolved in dichloromethane (10 mL) and added to a mixture of (R)-2-(5 -amino- 1-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-lH-indol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-l-ol (1.8 g, 5.4 mmol) and triethylamine (2.24 mL, 16.1 mmol) in dichloromethane (45 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The reaction was washed with IN HC1 solution, saturated NaHCCb solution and brine, dried over MgSCb and concentrated to yield the product (3g, 100%). ESI-MS m/z calc. 560.6, found 561.7 (M+l)+. Retention time 2.05 minutes. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ 8.31 (s, 1H), 7.53 (s, 1H), 7.42 – 7.40 (m, 2H), 7.34 – 7.30 (m, 3H), 6.24 (s, 1H), 4.51 – 4.48 (m, 1H), 4.39 – 4.34 (m,2H), 4.08 (dd, J = 6.0, 8.3 Hz, 1H), 3.69 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.58 – 3.51 (m, 2H), 1.48 – 1.45 (m, 2H), 1.39 (s, 3H), 1.34 – 1.33 (m, 6H), 1.18 (s, 3H) and 1.14 -1.12 (m, 2H) ppm

Step 5: (R)-l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d] [l,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(l-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-6-fluoro-2-(l-hydroxy-2-methylpropan-2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide

[00409] (R)-l-(2,2-difluorobenzo[d][l,3]dioxol-5-yl)-N-(l-((2,2-dimethyl-l,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methyl)-6-fluoro-2-(l -hydroxy -2-methylpropan-2-yl)-lH-indol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide (3.0 g, 5.4 mmol) was dissolved in methanol (52 mL). Water (5.2 mL) was added followed by p-TsOH.H20 (p-toluenesulfonic acid hydrate) (204 mg, 1.1 mmol). The reaction was heated at 80 °C for 45 minutes. The solution was concentrated and then partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated NaHCCb solution. The ethyl acetate layer was dried over MgS04 and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (50-100 % ethyl acetate – hexanes) to yield the product. (1.3 g, 47 %, ee >98% by SFC). ESI-MS m/z calc. 520.5, found 521.7 (M+l)+. Retention time 1.69 minutes. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSC 6) δ 8.31 (s, 1H), 7.53 (s, 1H), 7.42 – 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.33 – 7.30 (m, 2H), 6.22 (s, 1H), 5.01 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 4.90 (t, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 4.75 (t, J = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 4.40 (dd, J = 2.6, 15.1 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (dd, J = 8.7, 15.1 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (s, 1H), 3.65 – 3.54 (m, 2H), 3.48 – 3.33 (m, 2H), 1.48 -1.45 (m, 2H), 1.35 (s, 3H), 1.32 (s, 3H) and 1.14 – 1.11 (m, 2H) ppm.

Example 4: Synthesis of Compound III: N-(2,4-di-terf-butyl-5-hydroxyphi oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide

Part A: Synthesis of 4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid

Step 1: 2-Phenylaminomethylene-malonic acid diethyl ester

[00410] A mixture of aniline (25.6 g, 0.275 mol) and diethyl 2-(ethoxymethylene)malonate (62.4 g, 0.288 mol) was heated at 140-150 °C for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and dried under reduced pressure to afford 2-phenylaminomethylene-malonic acid diethyl ester as a solid, which was used in the next step without further purification. ¾ MR (OMSO-de) δ 1 1.00 (d, 1H), 8.54 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H), 7.36-7.39 (m, 2H), 7.13-7.17 (m, 3H), 4.17-4.33 (m, 4H), 1.18-1.40 (m, 6H).

Step 2: 4-Hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester

[00411] A I L three-necked flask fitted with a mechanical stirrer was charged with 2-phenylaminomethylene-malonic acid diethyl ester (26.3 g, 0.100 mol), polyphosphoric acid (270 g) and phosphoryl chloride (750 g). The mixture was heated to 70 °C and stirred for 4 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered. The residue was treated with aqueous Na2CCb solution, filtered, washed with water and dried. 4-Hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester was obtained as a pale brown solid (15.2 g, 70%). The crude product was used in next step without further purification.

Step 3: 4-Oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid

[00412] 4-Hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (15 g, 69 mmol) was suspended in sodium hydroxide solution (2N, 150 mL) and stirred for 2 h at reflux. After cooling, the mixture was filtered, and the filtrate was acidified to pH 4 with 2N HCl. The resulting precipitate was collected via filtration, washed with water and dried under vacuum to give 4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid as a pale white solid (10.5 g, 92 %). ¾ MR (DMSO-^e) δ 15.34 (s, 1 H), 13.42 (s, 1 H), 8.89 (s, 8.28 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (m, 1H), 7.81 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (m, 1H).

Part B: Synthesis of N-(2,4-di-terf-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide

Step 1: Carbonic acid 2,4-di-ferf-butyl-phenyl ester methyl ester

[00413] Methyl chloroformate (58 mL, 750 mmol) was added dropwise to a solution of 2,4-di-fert-butyl-phenol (103.2 g, 500 mmol), Et3N (139 mL, 1000 mmol) and DMAP (3.05 g, 25 mmol) in dichloromethane (400 mL) cooled in an ice-water bath to 0 °C. The mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature while stirring overnight, then filtered through silica gel (approx. 1L) using 10% ethyl acetate – hexanes (~ 4 L) as the eluent. The combined filtrates were concentrated to yield carbonic acid 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenyl ester methyl ester as a yellow oil (132 g, quant.). ¾ MR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 7.35 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 1.30 (s, 9H), 1.29 (s, 9H).

Step 2: Carbonic acid 2,4-di-ferf-butyl-5-nitro-phenyl ester methyl ester and Carbonic acid 2,4-di-terf-butyl-6-nitro-phenyl ester methyl ester

[00414] To a stirring mixture of carbonic acid 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenyl ester methyl ester (4.76 g, 180 mmol) in cone, sulfuric acid (2 mL), cooled in an ice-water bath, was added a cooled mixture of sulfuric acid (2 mL) and nitric acid (2 mL). The addition was done slowly so that the reaction temperature did not exceed 50 °C. The reaction was allowed to stir for 2 h while warming to room temperature. The reaction mixture was then added to ice-water and extracted into diethyl ether. The ether layer was dried (MgS04), concentrated and purified by column chromatography (0 – 10% ethyl acetate – hexanes) to yield a mixture of carbonic acid 2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-nitro-phenyl ester methyl ester and carbonic acid 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-nitro-phenyl ester methyl ester as a pale yellow solid (4.28 g), which was used directly in the next step.

Step 3: 2,4-Di-terf-butyl-5-nitro-phenol and 2,4-Di-terf-butyl-6-nitro-phenol

[00415] The mixture of carbonic acid 2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-nitro-phenyl ester methyl ester and carbonic acid 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-nitro-phenyl ester methyl ester (4.2 g, 14.0 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (65 mL) before KOH (2.0 g, 36 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h. The reaction mixture was then made acidic (pH 2-3) by adding cone. HC1 and partitioned between water and diethyl ether. The ether layer was dried (MgS04), concentrated and purified by column

chromatography (0 – 5 % ethyl acetate – hexanes) to provide 2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-nitro-phenol (1.31 g, 29% over 2 steps) and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-nitro-phenol. 2,4-Oi-tert-butyl-5-nitro-phenol: ¾ MR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 10.14 (s, 1H, OH), 7.34 (s, 1H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 1.36 (s, 9H), 1.30 (s, 9H). 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-nitro-phenol: ¾ MR (400 MHz, CDCh) δ 11.48 (s, 1H), 7.98 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 1.47 (s, 9H), 1.34 (s, 9H).

Step 4: 5-Amino-2,4-di-terf-butyl-phenol

[00416] To a refluxing solution of 2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-nitro-phenol (1.86 g, 7.40 mmol) and ammonium formate (1.86 g) in ethanol (75 mL) was added Pd-5% wt. on activated carbon (900 mg). The reaction mixture was stirred at reflux for 2 h, cooled to room temperature and filtered through Celite. The Celite was washed with methanol and the combined filtrates were concentrated to yield 5-amino-2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol as a grey solid (1.66 g, quant.). ¾ MR (400 MHz, DMSO-^e) δ 8.64 (s, 1H, OH), 6.84 (s, 1H), 6.08 (s, 1H), 4.39 (s, 2H, H2), 1.27 (m, 18H); HPLC ret. time 2.72 min, 10-99 % CftCN, 5 min run; ESI-MS 222.4 m/z [M+H]+.

Step 5: N-(5-hydroxy-2,4-di-ieri-butyl-phenyl)-4-oxo-lH-quinoline-3-carboxamide

[00417] To a suspension of 4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinolin-3-carboxylic acid (35.5 g, 188 mmol) and HBTU (85.7 g, 226 mmol) in DMF (280 mL) was added Et3N (63.0 mL, 451 mmol) at ambient temperature. The mixture became homogeneous and was allowed to stir for 10 min before 5-amino-2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (50.0 g, 226 mmol) was added in small portions. The mixture was allowed to stir overnight at ambient temperature. The mixture became heterogeneous over the course of the reaction. After all of the acid was consumed (LC-MS analysis, MH+ 190, 1.71 min), the solvent was removed in vacuo. EtOH (ethyl alcohol) was added to the orange solid material to produce a slurry. The mixture was stirred on a rotovap (bath temperature 65 °C) for 15 min without placing the system under vacuum. The mixture was filtered and the captured solid was washed with hexanes to provide a white solid that was the EtOH crystalate. Et20

(diethyl ether) was added to the solid obtained above until a slurry was formed. The mixture was stirred on a rotovapor (bath temperature 25 °C) for 15 min without placing the system under vacuum. The mixture was filtered and the solid captured. This procedure was performed a total of five times. The solid obtained after the fifth precipitation was placed under vacuum overnight to provide N-(5-hydroxy-2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenyl)-4-oxo-lH-quinoline-3-carboxamide (38 g, 52%). HPLC ret. time 3.45 min, 10-99% CftCN, 5 min run; 1H MR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 12.88 (s, 1H), 11.83 (s, 1H), 9.20 (s, 1H), 8.87 (s, 1H), 8.33 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.83-7.79 (m, 1H), 7.76 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.54-7.50 (m, 1H), 7.17 (s, 1H), 7.10 (s, 1H), 1.38 (s, 9H), 1.37 (s, 9H); ESI-MS m/z calc’d 392.21; found 393.3 [M+H]+.

PAPER

The New England journal of medicine (2018), 379(17), 1599-1611

https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1807119

////////////VX-659, VX 659,  VX659, PHASE 2,  CYSTIC FIBRIOSIS , VERTEX, Bamocaftor potassium

[K+].C[C@@H]1CN(c2nc(ccc2C(=O)[N-]S(=O)(=O)c3ccccc3)n4ccc(OCCC5(CC5)C(F)(F)F)n4)C(C)(C)C1

C[C@@H]1CN(c2nc(ccc2C(=O)NS(=O)(=O)c3ccccc3)n4ccc(OCCC5(CC5)C(F)(F)F)n4)C(C)(C)C1

Rovafovir Etalafenamide


2D chemical structure of 912809-27-9

Rovafovir etalafenamide

GS-9131

UNII-U8S0IC8DY7

 ethyl ((S)-((((2R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)oxy)methyl)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate

L-Alanine, N-((S)-((((2R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydro-2-furanyl)oxy)methyl)phenoxyphosphinyl)-, ethyl ester
CAS: 912809-27-9
Chemical Formula: C21H24FN6O6P
Molecular Weight: 506.43

  • Originator Gilead Sciences
  • Class Antiretrovirals; Purine nucleosides; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Phase II HIV-1 infections
  • 03 Apr 2018 Phase-II clinical trials in HIV-1 infections (Treatment-experienced) in Uganda (PO) (NCT03472326)
  • 21 Mar 2018 Gilead Sciences plans a phase II study for HIV-1 infections in March 2018 (NCT03472326)
  • 26 Mar 2009 Preclinical pharmacokinetics data in HIV-1 infections presented at the 237th American Chemical Society National Meeting (237th-ACS-2009)

Rovafovir Etalafenamide, also known as GS-9131, is an anti-HIV Nucleoside Phosphonate prodrug.

POSTER

http://www.croiconference.org/sites/default/files/posters-2017/436_White.pdf

Patent

WO 2006110157

WO 2008103949

WO 2010005986

PATENT

WO 2012159047

 

PATENT

WO-2019027920

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019027920&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&maxRec=1000

As discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 7,871,991, 9,381,206, 8,951,986, and 8,658,617, ethyl ((S)-((((2R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)oxy)methyl)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor that blocks the replication of HIV viruses, in vivo and in vitro, and has limited undesirable side effects when administered to human beings. This compound has a favorable in vitro resistance profile with activity against Nucleoside RT Inhibitor (NRTI)-Resistance Mutations, such as Ml 84V, K65R, L74V, and one or more (e.g., 1, 2, 3, or 4) TAMs (thymidine analogue mutations). It has the following formula (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 7,871,991), which is referred to as Formula I:

[0004] Ethyl ((S)-((((2R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-yl)oxy)methyl)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate is difficult to isolate, purify, store for an extended period, and formulate as a pharmaceutical composition.

[0005] The compound of formula la was previously identified as the most chemically stable form of ethyl ((S)-((((2R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-fluoro-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-

yl)oxy)methyl)(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate. See, e.g. , U.S. Pat. Nos. 8,658,617,

8,951,986, and 9,381,206. However, a total degradation increase of 2.6% was observed when the compound of formula (la) was stored at 25 °C/60% RH over 6 months. Therefore, the compound of formula la requires refrigeration for long-term storage.

[0006] Accordingly, there is a need for stable forms of the compound of Formula I with suitable chemical and physical stability for the formulation, therapeutic use, manufacturing, and storage of the compound. New forms, moreover, can provide better stability for the active pharmaceutical substance in a pharmaceutical formulation.

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 18(10), 3606-3617.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968089610002452?via%3Dihub

Image result for Discovery of GS-9131: Design, synthesis and optimization of amidate prodrugs of the novel nucleoside phosphonate HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor GS-9148

Image result for Discovery of GS-9131: Design, synthesis and optimization of amidate prodrugs of the novel nucleoside phosphonate HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor GS-9148

PAPER

 RSC Drug Discovery Series (2011), 4(Accounts in Drug Discovery), 215-237.

PAPER

https://aac.asm.org/content/52/2/648

Image result for GS-9131

REFERENCES

1: Rai MA, Pannek S, Fichtenbaum CJ. Emerging reverse transcriptase inhibitors for HIV-1 infection. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2018 May 10:1-9. doi: 10.1080/14728214.2018.1474202. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 29737220.

2: Mackman RL. Anti-HIV Nucleoside Phosphonate GS-9148 and Its Prodrug GS-9131: Scale Up of a 2′-F Modified Cyclic Nucleoside Phosphonate and Synthesis of Selected Amidate Prodrugs. Curr Protoc Nucleic Acid Chem. 2014 Mar 26;56:14.10.1-21. doi: 10.1002/0471142700.nc1410s56. Review. PubMed PMID: 25606977.

3: De Clercq E. The clinical potential of the acyclic (and cyclic) nucleoside phosphonates: the magic of the phosphonate bond. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Jul 15;82(2):99-109. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.03.027. Epub 2011 Apr 8. Review. PubMed PMID: 21501598.

4: Mackman RL, Ray AS, Hui HC, Zhang L, Birkus G, Boojamra CG, Desai MC, Douglas JL, Gao Y, Grant D, Laflamme G, Lin KY, Markevitch DY, Mishra R, McDermott M, Pakdaman R, Petrakovsky OV, Vela JE, Cihlar T. Discovery of GS-9131: Design, synthesis and optimization of amidate prodrugs of the novel nucleoside phosphonate HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor GS-9148. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 May 15;18(10):3606-17. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.03.041. Epub 2010 Mar 27. PubMed PMID: 20409721.

5: Cihlar T, Laflamme G, Fisher R, Carey AC, Vela JE, Mackman R, Ray AS. Novel nucleotide human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase inhibitor GS-9148 with a low nephrotoxic potential: characterization of renal transport and accumulation. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jan;53(1):150-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01183-08. Epub 2008 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 19001108; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2612154.

6: Cihlar T, Ray AS, Boojamra CG, Zhang L, Hui H, Laflamme G, Vela JE, Grant D, Chen J, Myrick F, White KL, Gao Y, Lin KY, Douglas JL, Parkin NT, Carey A, Pakdaman R, Mackman RL. Design and profiling of GS-9148, a novel nucleotide analog active against nucleoside-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and its orally bioavailable phosphonoamidate prodrug, GS-9131. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Feb;52(2):655-65. Epub 2007 Dec 3. PubMed PMID: 18056282; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2224772.

7: Ray AS, Vela JE, Boojamra CG, Zhang L, Hui H, Callebaut C, Stray K, Lin KY, Gao Y, Mackman RL, Cihlar T. Intracellular metabolism of the nucleotide prodrug GS-9131, a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Feb;52(2):648-54. Epub 2007 Dec 3. PubMed PMID: 18056281; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2224749.

8: Birkus G, Wang R, Liu X, Kutty N, MacArthur H, Cihlar T, Gibbs C, Swaminathan S, Lee W, McDermott M. Cathepsin A is the major hydrolase catalyzing the intracellular hydrolysis of the antiretroviral nucleotide phosphonoamidate prodrugs GS-7340 and GS-9131. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Feb;51(2):543-50. Epub 2006 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 17145787; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1797775.

//////////////Rovafovir etalafenamide, GS-9131, PHASE 2

C[C@@H](C(OCC)=O)N[P@@](OC1=CC=CC=C1)(CO[C@H]2O[C@@H](N3C=NC4=C(N)N=CN=C34)C(F)=C2)=O

Golvatinib, ゴルバチニブ


Golvatinib.png

ChemSpider 2D Image | Golvatinib | C33H37F2N7O4

Golvatinib

E-7050, cas 928037-13-2

1-N’-[2-fluoro-4-[2-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl]amino]pyridin-4-yl]oxyphenyl]-1-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide

1,1-Cyclopropanedicarboxamide, N-[2-fluoro-4-[[2-[[[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl]carbonyl]amino]-4-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]-N’-(4-fluorophenyl)- [ACD/Index Name]
516Z3YP58E
928037-13-2 [RN]
9565
E7050, ゴルバチニブ
Molecular Formula: C33H37F2N7O4
Molecular Weight: 633.701 g/mol
  • N’-[2-fluoro-4-[2-[[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidine-1-carbonyl]amino]pyridin-4-yl]oxyphenyl]-N-(4-fluorophenyl)cyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxamide
    UNII:516Z3YP58E
  • Originator Eisai Co Ltd

  • Class Amides; Antineoplastics; Cyclopropanes; Fluorobenzenes; Piperazines; Piperidines; Pyridines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Angiogenesis inhibitors; Proto oncogene protein c met inhibitors; Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antagonists
  • Discontinued Gastric cancer; Glioblastoma; Head and neck cancer; Liver cancer; Malignant melanoma; Solid tumours
  • 15 Nov 2013Eisai completes enrolment in its phase Ib/II trial for Head and neck cancer (second-line combination therapy, late-stage disease) in USA, United Kingdom, South Korea & Ukraine (NCT01332266)
  • 14 Nov 2013Phase-I/II clinical trials in liver cancer (first-line combination therapy, late-stage disease) in Italy & Ukraine (PO)
  • 01 Jul 2013Eisai completes a phase I trial in Solid tumours in Japan (NCT01428141)

Golvatinib is an orally bioavailable dual kinase inhibitor of c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) tyrosinekinases with potential antineoplastic activity. c-Met/VEGFR kinase inhibitor E7050 binds to and inhibits the activities of both c-Met and VEGFR-2, which may inhibit tumor cell growth and survival of tumor cells that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases. c-Met and VEGFR-2 are upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and play important roles in tumor cell growth, migration and angiogenesis.

Golvatinib has been investigated for the treatment of Platinum-Resistant Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
PATENT
WO 2007023768
WO 2008023698
WO 2008102870
PATENT
WO 2012133416

Method for producing a phenoxy pyridine derivative (3)

The present invention, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Hepatocyte growth factor receptor; hereinafter, abbreviated as “HGFR”) inhibitory action, antitumor action, anti-tumor agents with such angiogenesis inhibitory activity and cancer metastasis inhibitory action, a cancer metastasis suppressing the method for producing a useful phenoxy pyridine derivatives as agents.

Patent Document 1 has a HGFR inhibitory activity, anti-tumor agents, useful phenoxy pyridine derivative as an angiogenesis inhibitor or cancer metastasis inhibitor has been disclosed.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000004


(In the formula, R 1, .R 2 and R 3 means such as 3-10 membered non-aromatic heterocyclic group, .R 4, R 5, R 6 and R 7 which represents a hydrogen atom, same or different, a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, .R 8 to mean a C 1-6 alkyl group, .R 9 to mean a hydrogen atom or the like is and 3-10 membered non-aromatic heterocyclic group meaning .n is .X to mean 1 to 2 integer, it refers to a group or a nitrogen atom represented by the formula -CH =.)

As a method for producing the phenoxy pyridine derivative, to the Example 48 of Patent Document 1, N, N-dimethylformamide, triethylamine and benzotriazol-1-yloxytris (dimethylamino) or lower in the presence of a phosphonium hexafluorophosphate discloses that perform the reaction.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000005

Patent Document 2, as a manufacturing method suitable for industrial mass synthesis of the phenoxy pyridine derivative in the presence a condensing agent, production method of reacting an aniline derivative with a carboxylic acid derivative.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000006


(In the formula, R 1, is .R 2, R 3, R 4 and R 5, which means such good azetidin-1-yl group which may have a substituent, the same or different and each represents a hydrogen atom or fluorine It refers to an atom .R 6 means a hydrogen atom or a fluorine atom.)

Patent Document 3, another manufacturing method of the phenoxy pyridine derivative, there is disclosed the manufacturing method shown in the following scheme.

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000007


(In the formula, R 1 means a 4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl group or a 3-hydroxy-1-yl group .R 2, R 3, R 4 and R 5 are the same or different, represents a hydrogen atom or a fluorine atom. However, among R 2, R 3, R 4 and R 5, 2 or 3 is a hydrogen atom .R 6 is a hydrogen atom or .R 7 to mean a fluorine atom, .Ar which means a protecting group for the amino group means a phenyl group.)

International Publication No. WO 2007/023768 International Publication No. WO 2008/026577 International Publication No. WO 2009/104520

PATENT
WO 2009104520
Example A-5: Preparation of N- (2-fluoro-4 – {[2 – ({[4- (4-methylpiperazin- 1 –yl) piperidin- 1 – yl] carbonyl} amino) pyridin- oxy} phenyl) -N ‘- (4-fluorophenyl) cyclopropane-1,1 dicarboxamide
[Formula
17] 4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidine-1-carboxylic acid [4- ( To a solution of N, N-dimethylformamide (1 ml) of 4-amino-3-fluorophenoxy) pyridin-2-yl] amide (100 mg) and 1- (4-fluorophenylcarbamoyl) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (78 mg) Triethylamine (71 mg) and O- (7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl) -N, N, N ‘, N’- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (222 mg) were added and stirred at room temperature for 21 hours. A 1 N sodium hydroxide aqueous solution (2 ml) was added to the reaction solution, and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (15 ml). After separation, the organic layer was washed with 5% brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and the solvent was distilled off to obtain a residue. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3 ml) and extracted with 2 N hydrochloric acid (3 ml × 1, 2 ml × 1). The aqueous layer was rendered alkaline with 5 N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (5.5 ml). After extraction with ethyl acetate and drying over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, the solvent was distilled off to give the title compound (87 mg).
1 H-NMR Spectrum (DMSO-d 6) .Delta. (Ppm): 1.22-1.33 (2H, m), 1.54-1.63 (4H, m), 1.68-1.78 (2H, m), 2.12 (3H , S), 2.12-2.40 (5H, m), 2.40-2.60 (4H, m), 2.68-2.78 (2H, m), 4.06-4.14 (2H, t, J = 8 Hz), 7.22 (2H, m), 6.60 (1H, dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 5.6 Hz), 7.00 (1 H, dd, J = 2.4 Hz, 11.2 Hz), 7.40 (1 H, s), 7.61 (2 H, dd, J = 5.2 Hz, 8 Hz), 7.93 J = 8.8 Hz), 8.13 (1 H, d, J = 5.6 Hz), 9.21 (1 H, s), 9.90 (1 H, brs), 10.55 (1 H, brs).

PAPER
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2017), 60(7), 2973-2982
Patent ID

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2012-03-27
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2010-12-09
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2013-10-09
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US9012458 Antitumor Agent Using Compounds Having Kinase Inhibitory Effect in Combination
2011-06-23
2013-05-16
US2009227556 RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS COMPRISING PYRIDINE AND PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES
2009-09-10
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US2017101683 Method for the Prognosis and Treatment of Cancer Metastasis
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2013-12-20
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US2016151406 COMBINATION CANCER THERAPY WITH C-MET INHIBITORS AND SYNTHETIC OLIGONUCLEOTIDES
2015-11-19
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US2014275183 AGENT FOR REDUCING SIDE EFFECTS OF KINASE INHIBITOR
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US2015297604 Combination Products with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and their Use
2013-04-03
2015-10-22
US2015051210 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Combinations and their Use
2013-04-01
2015-02-19
Patent ID

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Granted Date

US8481739 NOVEL 3, 5-DISUBSTITUTED-3H-IMIDAZO[4, 5-B]PYRIDINE AND 3, 5- DISUBSTITUTED -3H-[1, 2, 3]TRIAZOLO[4, 5-B] PYRIDINE COMPOUNDS AS MODULATORS OF PROTEIN KINASES
2011-11-17
US8288538 NOVEL PYRIDINE DERIVATIVES AND PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES (3)
2010-03-25
US8377938 PHENOXYPYRIDINE DERIVATIVE SALTS AND CRYSTALS THEREOF, AND PROCESS FOR PREPARING THE SAME
2008-12-25
US2012232049 PYRIDINE OR PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVE HAVING EXCELLENT CELL GROWTH INHIBITION EFFECT AND EXCELLENT ANTI-TUMOR EFFECT ON CELL STRAIN HAVING AMPLIFICATION OF HGFR GENE
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2011-04-29
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Granted Date

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2014-11-06
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2013-02-27
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2012-07-26
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2012-05-24
2012-10-04

///////////////Golvatinib, phase 2, ゴルバチニブ  ,

CN1CCN(CC1)C2CCN(CC2)C(=O)NC3=NC=CC(=C3)OC4=CC(=C(C=C4)NC(=O)C5(CC5)C(=O)NC6=CC=C(C=C6)F)F

Epitinib


str1

Epitinib succinate; HMPL-813; Huposuan yipitini

1203902-67-3, 430.50, C24 H26 N6 O2

1-Piperazinecarboxamide, 4-ethyl-N-[4-[(3-ethynylphenyl)amino]-7-methoxy-6-quinazolinyl]-

4-Ethyl-N-[4-[(3-ethynylphenyl)amino]-7-methoxy-6-quinazolinyl]-1-piperazinecarboxamide

Cancer; Glioblastoma; Non-small-cell lung cancer

Epitinib is in phase I clinical trials by Hutchison MediPharma for the treatment of solid tumours.

Epitinib succinate is an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in early clinical development at Hutchison China MediTech (Chi-Med) for the treatment of solid tumors and the treatment of glioblastoma patients with EGFR gene amplification.

  • Originator Hutchison MediPharma
  • Class Antineoplastics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists
  • Phase I/II Glioblastoma; Non-small cell lung cancer
  • No development reported Oesophageal cancer; Solid tumours
  • 28 May 2018 No recent reports of development identified for preclinical development in Oesophageal-cancer in China (PO)
  • 06 Mar 2018 Hutchison Medipharma plans a phase III pivotal study for Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis in China in 2018
  • 06 Mar 2018 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Glioblastoma (Second-line therapy or greater) in China (PO)

Image result for EPITINIB

PATENT

WO2018210255

https://patentscope2.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=42BB6AE0DA712D6A9C7C741E97BDE64C?docId=WO2018210255&tab=FULLTEXT&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=Pub+Date+Desc&queryString=&recNum=889&maxRec=71731866

Binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activates tyrosine kinase activity and thereby triggers reactions that lead to cellular proliferation. Overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR could result in uncontrolled cell division which may be a predisposition for cancer. Compounds that inhibit the overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR are therefore candidates for treating cancer.
The relevant compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide of the present invention has the effect of effectively inhibiting the overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR. Thus, it is useful in treating diseases associated with overexpression and/or overactivity of EGFR, such as the treatment of cancer.
The phenomenon that a compound could exist in two or more crystal structures is known as polymorphism. Many compounds may exist as various polymorph crystals and also in a solid amorphous form. Until polymorphism of a compound is discovered, it is highly unpredictable (1) whether a particular compound will exhibit polymorphism, (2) how to prepare any such unknown polymorphs, and (3) how are the properties, such as stability, of any such unknown polymorphs. See, e.g., J. Bernstein “Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals” , Oxford University Press, (2002)
Since the properties of a solid material depend on the structure as well as on the nature of the compound itself, different solid forms of a compound can and often do exhibit different physical and chemical properties as well as different biopharmaceutical properties. Differences in chemical properties can be determined, analyzed and compared through a variety of analytical techniques. Those differences may ultimately be used to differentiate among different solid forms. Furthermore, differences in physical properties, such as solubility, and biopharmaceutical properties, such as bioavailability, are also of importance when describing the solid state of a pharmaceutical compound. Similarly, in the development of a pharmaceutical compound, e.g., 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide, the new crystalline and amorphous forms of the pharmaceutical compound are also of importance.
The compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide as well as the preparation thereof was described in patent CN101619043A.
pon extensive explorations and researchs, we have found that compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide can be prepared into succinate salts, the chemical structure of its semisuccinate and monosuccinate being shown by Formula A. Studies have shown that, compared with its free base, the solubility of compound of Formula A is significantly increased, which is beneficial for improving the pharmacokinetic characteristics and in vivo bioavailability of the compound. We have also found that compound of Formula A can exist in different crystalline forms, and can form solvates with certain solvents. We have made extensive studies on the polymorphic forms of compound of Formula A and have finally prepared and determined the polymorphic forms which meet the requirement of pharmaceutical use. Based on these studies, the present invention provides the compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin -6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide succinate and the various crystalline forms thereof, solvates and the crystalline forms thereof, which are designated as Form I, Form IV and Form V respectively.
The compound 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide raw material used in the examples were prepared according to CN101619043A.
Example 1 Preparation of Form I of compound of Formula A
The 4-ethyl-N- (4- ( (3-ethynylphenyl) amino) -7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl) piperazine-1-carboxamide (60g, 0.139mol) was dissolved in 150 times (volume/weight ratio) of tetrahydrofuran (9L) under refluxing. Then the obtained solution was cooled to 50℃, and succinic acid (65.8g, 0.557mol, 4 equivalents) was added in one portion. Then the obtained mixed solution was cooled naturally under stirring. The white precipitate was appeared at about 28℃. After further stirring for 18 hours, the white solid was collected by filtration, and dried at 40℃ under vacuum. A powder sample of 56.7g was obtained (yield 83%) .
1H NMR (400 MHz, cd3od) δ 8.52 (s, 1H) , 8.45 (s, 1H) , 7.93 –7.89 (m, 1H) , 7.77 –7.73 (m, 1H) , 7.35 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 1H) , 7.24 (dd, J = 5.2, 3.8 Hz, 1H) , 7.19 (s, 1H) , 4.05 (s, 3H) , 3.69 –3.61 (m, 4H) , 3.49 (s, 1H) , 2.71 –2.64 (m, 4H) , 2.60 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H) , 2.53 (s, 2H) , 1.18 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H) .
The obtained powder sample is Form I of compound of Formula A, the X-ray powder diffractogram of which is shown in Figure 1. Peaks (2θ) chosen from the figure has the following values: 6.1, 7.9, 10.2, 11.6, 12.2, 13.6, 15.3, 15.9, 16.6, 17.8, 19.6, 20.4, 21.4, 21.7, 22.3, 23.5, 24.3, and 25.1 degrees, the measured 2θ values each having an error of about ± 0.2 degrees (2θ) , wherein characteristic peaks (2θ) are at 6.1, 7.9, 12.2, 15.3, 15.9, 16.6, and 20.4 degrees. DSC result is given in Figure 2, showing that the melting point range of Form I is about 193.4-197.3℃.
PATENT
PATENT
CN 108863951
PATENT
US 20100009958
PATENT
WO 2010002845

////////////Epitinib , PHASE 1, PHASE 2, Epitinib succinate, HMPL-813,  Huposuan yipitini, 1203902-67-3,

AKN 028


img

AKN-028
CAS 1175017-90-9
Chemical Formula: C17H14N6
Molecular Weight: 302.33

N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine

N2-(1H-indol-5-yl)-6-(pyridin-4-yl)pyrazine-2,3-diamine

  • Originator Swedish Orphan Biovitrum
  • Developer Akinion Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antineoplastics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitors; Proto oncogene protein c-kit inhibitors
  • Phase I/II Acute myeloid leukaemia
  • 01 Mar 2016 Akinion Pharmaceuticals terminates phase I/II trial in Acute myeloid leukaemia in Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden and United Kingdom (NCT01573247)
  • 17 Sep 2015 AKN 028 is still in phase I/II trials for Acute myeloid leukaemia in Czech Republic, Poland and Sweden
  • 09 Apr 2014 AKN 028 is still in phase I/II trials for Acute myeloid leukaemia in Czech Republic, Poland and Sweden

AKN-028, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is a potent FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor (IC(50)=6 nM), causing dose-dependent inhibition of FLT3 autophosphorylation. Inhibition of KIT autophosphorylation was shown in a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line overexpressing KIT. In a panel of 17 cell lines, AKN-028 showed cytotoxic activity in all five AML cell lines included. AKN-028 triggered apoptosis in MV4-11 by activation of caspase 3. In primary AML samples (n=15), AKN-028 induced a clear dose-dependent cytotoxic response (mean IC(50) 1 μM). However, no correlation between antileukemic activity and FLT3 mutation status, or to the quantitative expression of FLT3, was observed. Combination studies showed synergistic activity when cytarabine or daunorubicin was added simultaneously or 24 h before AKN-028. In mice, AKN-028 demonstrated high oral bioavailability and antileukemic effect in primary AML and MV4-11 cells, with no major toxicity observed in the experiment. (source: Blood Cancer J. 2012 Aug 3;2:e81. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2012.28.)

SYN

WO 2013/089636

Clip

Development of a Synthesis of Kinase Inhibitor AKN028

 R&D DepartmentMagle Chemoswed, P.O. Box 839, SE 201 80 Malmö, Sweden
 Recipharm OT ChemistryVirdings Allé 32 B, SE 754 50 Uppsala, Sweden
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00092
*Telephone: +46 704473035. E-mail: johan.docera@gmail.com
Abstract Image

The novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor AKN028 has demonstrated promising results in preclinical trials. An expedient protocol for the synthesis of the compound at kilogram scale is described, including an SNAr reaction with high regioselectivity and a Suzuki coupling. Furthermore, an efficient method for purification and removal of residual palladium is described.

yellow or faint-orange powder. Mp 300 °C (dec.);

IR 3133 broad, 1689, 1597, 1554, 1480 cm–11H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 11.01 (s, 1H), 8.62–8.50 (m, 2H), 8.22 (s, 1H), 8.15 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 7.89–7.82 (m, 2H), 7.39 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 2H), 7.32 (t, J = 2.7 Hz, 1H), 6.77 (s, 2H), 6.42 (dd, J1 = 8.7 Hz, J2 = 2.0 Hz, 1H);

13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 149.9, 145.2, 145.0, 139.6, 132.8, 132.4, 132.2, 128.4, 127.6, 125.6, 118.7, 116.1, 111.2, 111.0, 101.0.

PATENT

 WO 2009095399

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/ko/detail.jsf;jsessionid=074E97C06EF8C2088428DECCA2CD2EBA.wapp1nB?docId=WO2009095399&recNum=208&office=&queryString=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AWO%26fq%3DICF_M%3A%22C07D%22%26fq%3DDP%3A2009&sortOption=Pub+Date+Desc&maxRec=3425

PATENT

WO 2013089636

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2013089636A1/ko

Protein kinases are involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and survival. The FLT-3 (fms-like tyrosine kinase) receptor is a member of the class III subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases and has been shown to be involved in various disorders such as haematological disorders, proliferative disorders, autoimmune disorders and skin disorders.

In order to function effectively as an inhibitor, a kinase inhibitor needs to have a certain profile regarding its target specificity and mode of action. Depending on factors such as the disorder to be treated, mode of administration etc. the kinase inhibitor will have to be designed to exhibit suitable properties. For instance, compounds exhibiting a good plasma stability are desirable since this will provide a pharmacological effect of the compounds extending over time. Another example is oral administration of the inhibitor which may require that the inhibitor is transformed into a prodrug in order to improve the bioavailability.

WO 2009/095399 discloses pyrazine compounds acting as inhibitors of protein kinases, especially FTL3, useful in the treatment of haematological disorders, proliferative disorders, autoimmune disorders and skin disorders. This document discloses methods for manufacturing such compounds. However these methods are not suitable for large scale processes and the chemical yields are moderate. Furthermore, the compounds obtained by these methods are in amorphous form.

n one aspect of the invention, there is provided a process for preparing a compound of formula (I)

said process comprises the steps of:

a) reacting a compound of formula (1) with a compound of formula (2) in an inert solvent and in the presence of an (C1-6alkyl)3amine, providing a compound of formula (3):


, b) Suzuki coupling of a compound of formula (3) and a compound of formula (4) in an inert solvent and in the presence of a palladium catalyst and a base, providing a crude product comprising a compound of formula (I) and palladium

and

c) removing the palladium from the crude product in step b).

The compound of formula (I) may be obtained in amorphous or crystalline form using the processes outlined below.

Step 1:

Reaction of 2-amino-3,5-dibromopyrazine (1) and 5-aminoindole (2) in a

nucleophilic substitution reaction in the presence of a C1-6alkylamine and an inert polar solvent yields 3-bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (3). Examples of inert polar solvents are DMSO, water and NEP. Examples of (C1-6alkyl)3amine are triethylamine, trimethylamine and tributylamine. The reaction may be performed at reflux temperature or at about 100-130°C.

Step 2:

A Suzuki coupling of 3-bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine) (3) and 4- pyridyl-boronic acid (4) in an inert polar solvent in the presence of a palladium catalyst and a base yields N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (I) in amorphous form. Examples of inert solvents are DMF, water and DMA. Examples of palladium catalysts are Pd(dppf) and Pd(OAc)2-DTB-PPS. Example of a base is

K2CO3 The reaction may be performed under inert and oxygen-free atmosphere such as nitrogen or argon.

Heating may take place during step 1 and/or step 2. Steps 1 and 2 may be performed at reflux or in a temperature range of from 100 to 140°C, such as from 105 to 135°C, such as from 110 to 130°C, such as from 130-135°C, such as from 110-115ºC.

Step 3:

A compound of formula (I), also denominated N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine, in amorphous form may be dissolved in acetic acid (HOAc) after which potassium hydroxide (KOH) is added. The compound of formula (I) in amorphous form may be obtained from the process outlined in steps 1 and 2.

Alternatively, the compound of formula (I) may be obtained according to the process described in WO 2009/095399. The obtained crystalline form is removed from the slurry by, for instance, filtration. Step 3 may be repeated. Step 3 may be performed at a temperature of about 40°C followed by cooling to room temperature.

The process for preparing a compound according to formula (I) may comprise an additional step (step i) between step 2 and step 3 in order to remove palladium from the crude product of the compound of formula (I). The step comprises; forming a slurry comprising an acid and the compound according to formula (I) in a solvent, adding a siloxane compound to said slurry, removing the solvent from the slurry and adding an organic solvent, such as DMF and/or toluene, to the solid formed whereby a mixture is formed and then potassium hydroxide is added to the formed mixture, Alternatively, palladium may be removed from the crude product comprising (I) using a palladium scavenger such as TMT and/or 3-mercaptopropyl ethyl sulfide silica.

The crystalline form of the compound according to formula (I) may also be prepared from an amorphous form of the compound according to formula (I) by dissolving said amorphous form of the compound in a solvent mixture of

dichloromethane/methanol followed by evaporation of the solvent in a rotary evaporator. The amorphous form of the compound of formula (I) may obtained using the process disclosed in WO 2009/095399.

Example 1. Preparation of 5-Bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (compound 3)

DMSO (10 L, 11 kg), 2-amino-3,5-dibromopyrazine (1) (4.5 kg, 17.8 mol, 1 eq.), 5- amino indole (2) (3.06 kg, 23.15 mol, 1.3 eq.) and triethylamine (7.4 L, 5.4 kg, 53.36 mol, 3 eq.) were charged to a reactor. The reaction mixture was heated to 95°C while agitated. After 12 hours, the heating was discontinued and the conversion was 88% of 2-amino-3,5-dibromopyrazine. The reaction was heated again to 95°C and

agitated for an additional 2.5 hours. There was no improvement in conversion. The reaction mixture was agitated at ambient temperature overnight. Triethylamine (3.5 kg) was removed under vacuum and the remaining reaction mixture was transferred to a stainless steel container from which it was charged into another reactor.

Subsequently, 18.4 kg of 50% acetic acid (aq.) was introduced over a period of 20 minutes under agitation, followed by purified water (61 L) charged over a period time of 60 minutes. The slurry was then filtered and the isolated material was washed with 2 x 20 L of 1% acetic acid (aq.).

The isolated 3-bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine) (3) was transferred to a drying cabinet and dried to invariable weight at 40 ±3°C, (19 hours), to afford 4.36 kg, 14.34 mol, 81 % yield, with a purity of 96% by HPLC.

The reaction temperature in the batch record was set to be 130-135°C. However, at 95°C the reaction mixture was at reflux.

Example 2. Preparation of N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3- diamine (compound I)

To a reactor was charged N,N-dimethylformamide (46.7 L, 45 kg), 4-pyridylboronic acid (4) (2.64 kg, 21.5 mol, 1.5 eq.) and 5-bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3- diamine (3) (4.36 kg, 14.3 mol). The reactor was then flushed with nitrogen prior to the charging of Pd(dppf)Cl2-catalyst (0.47 kg, 0.55 mol, 0.04 eq.). To reactor was then charged, over a period of 20 minutes, 24.9 kg of a 2 M solution of potassium carbonate (aq.). The reactor was flushed with nitrogen and heated under agitation to 110-115°C for 1.5 hours, after which 98.3% conversion of (3) was showed. The reaction mixture was quenched by addition of purified water (180 L) under vigorous agitation. The precipitated material was isolated on a hastalloy filter and washed with purified water (50 L), The isolated material was transferred to a drying cabinet and dried to invariable weight at 40 ±3°C (18 hours), to afford a compound of formula (5), i.e. a compound of formula (!) also denominated N-3-(1H-lndol-5-yl)-5-pyhdin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine, (3.64 kg, 12.1 mol, 85 % yield).

During the process precipitated material was observed in the solutions, after the reactions, in both steps not previously seen in lab-scale. These impurities were not removed.

Example 3. Purification and crystallisation

In order to remove residual solvents from the material, two consecutive re-precipitations of the material from acetic acid were performed. This also gave crystallinity of the isolated substance. The purification is performed in order to remove palladium.

Purification

To a 1 L round bottomed flask was added 37.8 g of a compound according to formula (I) followed by 600 mL 2 M HOAc (aq.). The material was stirred at RT until a clear, dark red solution was obtained. To the solution was added 30 g Hyflo Super Celite and the slurry was filtered. The filter cake was washed with 25 mL 2 M HOAc

(aq) and 2×35 mL purified water. The obtained filtrate was transferred to a 2 L round bottomed flask containing 950 mL of Me-THF. The mixture was then stirred and heated to 40°C for 30 minutes. To the solution was then added 290 mL 8 M KOH (aq.) at 40°C and pH in the solution was 14.

The aqueous phase was removed and the organic phase washed with 2×100 mL of purified water. The remaining organic phase was then transferred to a 2 L round bottomed flask, followed by 95 mL of DMF, 20 g scavenger 3-Mercaptopropyl ethyl sulphide silica, Phosphonics LTD and 20 g scavenger 2-Mercaptoethyl ethyl sulfide silica purchased from Phosphonics LTD. The solution was vigorously stirred and heated at 60°C. A sample was withdrawn from the slurry after 12 hours, and showed 6 ppm of palladium remaining in the solution. The mixture was allowed to cool and was then filtered to remove the scavenger. The round bottomed flask and filter were rinsed with a mixture of 90 mL Me-THF and 10 mL DMF. Me-THF was then removed on a rotary evaporator and the remaining slurry was azeotropically dried with two portions of 100 mL toluene. To the remaining slurry was then added 85 mL of DMF to a total of 185 mL DMF (5ml DMF/g substance). To the clear solution was then added, slowly, while agitated, 1500 mL of toluene which produced a heavy precipitate. The slurry was filtered off and washed with 2×50 mL of toluene where after the material was dried overnight at 35°C under vacuum to afford 30.9 g of a compound according to formula (I) in a yield of 82%.

Crystallisation:

Example i

1. First re-precipitation

The N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine material (30.9 g) was added to a 1 L round bottomed flask and 450 mL 2 M HOAc (aq.) was added. The slurry was agitated and heated to 40°C for 1 hour, until the material had dissolved. To the solution was then added 158 mL 8 M KOH (aq.) at 40°C. The pH in the solution was 11.4. The slurry was then allowed to cool to 25°C and filtered. The filter cake was washed with 3x 80 mL of purified water and the material was dried overnight at 95°C under vacuum to afford 28.7g N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl- pyrazine-2,3-diamine in a yield of 93%.

2. Second re-precipitation

N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine material (28.7 g) was added to a 1L round bottomed flask and 430 mL 2 M HOAc (aq) was added. The slurry was agitated and heated to 40°C for 1 hour, until the material had dissolved. To the solution was then added 15 mL 8M KOH (aq) at 40°C. The pH in the solution was 12.3. The slurry was then allowed to cool to 25°C and filtered. The filter cake was washed with 5×50 mL of purified water, and the solid was then dried overnight at 95°C under vacuum to afford 28.3 g N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3- diamine in a yield of 99%.

Example ii

The N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine material (2.1 kg, 7 mol) was added to a reactor, followed by 2M HOAc (aq.) (59.6 L, 60.2 kg) . The solution in the reactor was then heated to 40°C and stirred for 20 minutes. To the clear solution was then charged, slowly, 30% KOH (aq.) (25 kg) under vigorous agitation. The slurry was agitated for 15 minutes. pH in the solution was 6.2, and a total of 1.5 kg 30% KOH (aq.) was then added to the solution to give pH 12.1. The precipitated material was isolated on a Hastelloy filter and washed with purified water (5×30 L). The solid was then transferred to a drying cabinet and dried to invariable weight at 85 ±3°C under vacuum (16 hours; a sample was withdrawn after 16 hours, showing 1400 ppm HOAc and 75 ppm DMF), to afford N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (2.0 kg, 7 mol, 95 % yield).

Hence, N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine is obtained in an uniform crystalline form, which was achieved by precipitating the product from aqueous acetic acid by introduction of aqueous potassium hydroxide.

Example 5. Synthesis of 5-Bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (compound 3)

2-Amino-3,5-dibromopyrazine (45 g, 1.0 eq.), 5-aminoindole (30,6 g, 1.3 eq.), 67.5 mL NEP, i.e. 1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone, and 74.5 mL triethylamine were added to a 250 mL reactor. The jacket temperature was set to 130°C and the reaction mixture was stirred for 22 h. HPLC after 22 h showed 87% conversion of the 2-amino-3,5-dibromopyrazine. After 24 h HPLC showed 92% conversion and the reaction slurry was cooled to 80°C and quenched by addition of addition of 50% HOAc(aq) and water. The obtained slurry was then allowed to cool to room temperature over night while agitated. The material was isolated on a glass filter funnel and was washed with water. The material was dried at 80 °C under vacuum until dry to afford 71% of the compound 5-bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine as a dark brown powder. The purity was 99.8% as measured by HPLC.

Example 6. Synthesis of N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (Compound I)

5-Bromo-N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (15.0 g, 49 mmol, 1.0 eq.), 4-pyridyl boronic acid (6.6 g, 59 mmol, 1.2 eq.), Pd(OAc)2 (166 mg, 0.74 mmol, 0.015 eq.), DTB-PPS, i.e. 3-(di-tert-butylphosphino)propane-1-sulfonic acid, (199 mg, 0.74 mmol, 0.015 eq.), and DMA, i.e. N,N-dimethylacetamide, (75 mL) were added to a three-necked round-bottomed flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer,

thermometer, and a nitrogen atmosphere. Through a septa was added 2M K2CO3 (aq) (27 ml, 54 mmol, 1.1 eq.) with a syringe. The temperature was increased to 100 °C. Samples for HPLC-analysis of the conversion were drawn and when the conversion had reached 100% the temperature was cooled to 25 °C. At that temperature a water solution of 0.5 M L-cysteine (150 ml) was added by a syringe pump over 1 hour with a rate of 2.5 mL/minute. After 3 hours maturing time at room temperature the material was isolated on a glass filter funnel and was washed with water. The material was dried at 40 °C under vacuum over the weekend, and 15 grams of N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (101%) were obtained as a brown powder.

Example 7. Purification of N-3-(1H-indol-5-yl)-5-pyridin-4-yl-pyrazine-2,3-diamine (Compound I)

The crude (7.0 g, 23 mmol) and 2M HOAc (98 mL) was added to a 250 mL round-bottomed flask. To this was added TMT, i.e. trithiocyanuric acid, (1.4 g) and SPM32, i.e. 3-mercaptopropyl ethyl sulfide silica, (1.4 g). The mixture was stirred in room temperature for 24 hours. After 24 hour a polish filtration through hyflo super cel was performed. To the clear filtrate was added 50 mL 5 M KOH(aq) under 15 minutes to precipitate the product. After 18 hours maturing time at room temperature the material was isolated on a glass filter funnel and was washed with 2×20 mL water. The first was being a slurry wash and the second a displacement wash. The material was dried at 40 °C under vacuum over the weekend, and 3.9 grams (56%) was obtained as a light yellow powder. The Pd content was 3.7 ppm.

PATENT

US 8436171

PATENT

WO 2016008433

PATENT

WO 2016015604

PATENT

WO 2016015597

PATENT

WO 2016015605

PATENT

WO 2016015598

PATENT

WO 2017146794

PATENT

WO 2017146795

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2017146795A1/en

PATENT

US 20180071302

REFERENCES

1: Eriksson A, Hermanson M, Wickström M, Lindhagen E, Ekholm C, Jenmalm Jensen A, Löthgren A, Lehmann F, Larsson R, Parrow V, Höglund M. The novel tyrosine kinase  inhibitor AKN-028 has significant antileukemic activity in cell lines and primary cultures of acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Cancer J. 2012 Aug 3;2:e81. doi: 10.1038/bcj.2012.28. PubMed PMID: 22864397; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3432483.

////////////AKN028 , AKN-028 , AKN 028, phase 2, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum,  Akinion Pharmaceuticals,  Acute myeloid leukaemia

NC1=NC=C(C2=CC=NC=C2)N=C1NC3=CC4=C(NC=C4)C=C3

Taladegib (LY-2940680),


Taladegib.png

Taladegib

LY2940680; 1258861-20-9; Taladegib; LY-2940680; UNII-QY8BWX1LJ5; QY8BWX1LJ5

CAS 1258861-20-9 FREE , CAS HCL 1258861-21-0
4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-{1-[4-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-1-phthalazinyl]-4-piperidinyl}-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide
Benzamide, 4-fluoro-N-methyl-N-[1-[4-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-1-phthalazinyl]-4-piperidinyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)-
LY 2940680

4-fluoro-N-methyl-N-[1-[4-(2-methylpyrazol-3-yl)phthalazin-1-yl]piperidin-4-yl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide

Molecular Formula: C26H24F4N6O
Molecular Weight: 512.513 g/mol

Taladegib is an orally bioavailable small molecule antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh)-ligand cell surface receptor smoothened (Smo) with potential antineoplastic activity. Taladegib inhibits signaling that is mediated by the Hh pathway protein Smo, which may result in a suppression of the Hh signaling pathway and may lead to the inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells in which this pathway is abnormally activated. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair; constitutive activation of this pathway is associated with uncontrolled cellular proliferation and has been observed in a variety of cancers.

Taladegib has been used in trials studying the treatment of Solid Tumor, COLON CANCER, BREAST CANCER, Advanced Cancer, and Rhabdomyosarcoma, among others.

Image result for Taladegib

  • Originator Eli Lilly
  • Developer Eli Lilly; Ignyta
  • Class Antineoplastics; Benzamides; Fluorobenzenes; Phthalazines; Piperidines; Pyrazoles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Hedgehog cell-signalling pathway inhibitors; SMO protein inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase I/II Oesophageal cancer; Small cell lung cancer
  • Phase I Ovarian cancer; Solid tumours
  • Preclinical Basal cell cancer
  • No development reported Cancer

Most Recent Events

  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Solid-tumours(Late-stage disease, Second-line therapy or greater) in Japan (PO, Tablet)
  • 02 Jun 2017 Adverse events data from a phase I/II trial in Ovarian cancer (Solid tumours) presented at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO-2017)
  • 23 Mar 2017 Ignyta amends its license, development and commercialisation agreement with Eli Lilly for taladegib

SYN

PATENT

WO 2010147917

Preparation 1 ter?-Butyl 1 -(4-chlorophthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-yl(methyl)carbamate

Heat a mixture of potassium carbonate (21.23 g, 153.6 mmol), 1,4-dichlorophthalazine (26 g, 128 mmol) and methyl-piperidin-4-yl carbamic acid ter?-butyl ester (30.01 g, 134.4 mmol) in N-methylpyrrolidine (200 mL) at 80 0C overnight. Pour the reaction mixture into water, extract with dichloromethane, dry over Na2SC”4, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Add diethylether and filter off the resulting solid (4-chlorophethalazin-1-ol from starting material impurity). Concentrate the filtrate. Purify the resulting residue by flash silica gel chromatography (hexane : ethyl acetate = 2 : 1) to X-18698

-9- provide the title compound as a white solid (17.66 g, 37%). ES/MS m/z (37Cl) 377.0 (M+ 1).

Preparation 2 fer?-Butyl 1 -(4-chlorophthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-ylcarbamate

Prepare the title compound by essentially following the procedure described in Preparation 1 , using piperidin-4-yl-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester. Cool the reaction mixture and pour into water (500 mL). Extract with ethyl acetate, wash with water, dry over Na2SC”4, and remove the solvents under reduced pressure to provide the title compound as a yellow solid (36 g, 97%). ES/MS m/z 363.0 (M+l).

Preparation 3 ter?-Butyl methyl( 1 -(4-( 1 -methyl- lH-pyrazol-5 -yl)phthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4- yl)carbamate

Place sodium carbonate (3.82 g, 36.09 mmol), tert-butyl 1 -(4-chlorophthalazin- 1-yl) piperidin-4-yl(methyl)carbamate (6.8 g, 18.04 mmol) and 1 -methyl- lH-pyrazole-5-boronic acid pinacol ester (5.63 g, 27.1 mmol) in a flask with a mixture of toluene (50 mL), ethanol (17 mL), and water (17 mL). Degas the mixture for 10 min with nitrogen gas. Add tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0.4 g, 0.35 mmol) and heat the mixture at 74 0C overnight. Cool the mixture to ambient temperature and dilute with dichloromethane. Wash the organic portion with brine, dry over Na2SC”4, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash silica gel chromatography X-18698

-10-

(hexane : ethyl acetate : 2 M NH3 in MeOH = 20 : 5 : 1) to provide the title compound as a yellow foam (5.33 g, 70%). ES/MS m/z 423.2 (M+ 1).

Alternate procedure to prepare tert-butyl methyl(l-(4-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-yl)carbamate: Preparations 4 – 6

Preparation 4

1 ,4-Dibromophthalazine


Charge a pressure tube with phosphorus pentabromide (24.5 g, 54.1 mmol) and

2,3-dihydro-phthalazine-l,4-dione (5.00 g, 30.8 mmol). Seal the tube and heat at 140 0C for 6-7 h. Allow to cool overnight. Carefully open the tube due to pressure. Chisel out the solid and pour into ice water. Allow to stir in ice water and collect the resulting solid by vacuum filtration. Dry in a vacuum oven to obtain the final product (8.31 g, 93%). ES/MS (79Br, 81Br) m/z 288.8 (M+). Ref: Can. J. Chem. 1965, 43, 2708.

Preparation 5 ter?-Butyl 1 -(4-bromophthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-yl(methyl)carbamate


Combine 1 ,4-dibromophthalazine (0.70 g, 2.38 mmol), N-methylpyrrolidone (7.0 mL), potassium carbonate (395 mg, 2.86 mmol), and methyl-piperidin-4-yl-carbamic acid ter?-butyl ester (532 mg, 2.38 mmol). Heat at 80 0C overnight. Cool and pour into water. Collect the solid and dry in a vacuum oven at ambient temperature overnight to obtain the final product (0.96 g, 95%). ES/MS m/z (81Br) 421.0 (M+ 1).

X-18698

-11-

Preparation 6 fer?-Butyl methyl (l-(4-(l -methyl- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4- yl)carbamate


Charge a reaction tube with fer?-butyl l-(4-bromophthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-yl(methyl)carbamate (500 mg, 1.2 mmol), 1 -methyl- lH-pyrazole-5-boronic acid pinacol ester (370 mg, 1.8 mmol), sodium carbonate (252 mg, 2.4 mmol), toluene (3.75 mL), ethanol (1.25 mL), and water (1.25 mL). Degas the reaction mixture with nitrogen for 10 min. Add tetrakis (triphenylphosphine) palladium (137.1 mg, 118.7 μmol). Bubble nitrogen through the reaction mixture for another 10 min. Cap the reaction vial and heat at 90 0C overnight. Cool the reaction and filter through a silica gel pad eluting with 5% MeOH : CΗ2CI2. Concentrate the fractions under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue using silica gel chromatography (2% 2 N NH3 in MeOHiCH2Cl2) to obtain the final product (345.6 mg, 69%). ES/MS m/z 423.2 (M+ 1).

Preparation 7 ter?-Butyl 1 -(4-( 1 H-pyrazol-5 -yl)phthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-yl(methyl)carbamate

Prepare the title compound by essentially following the procedure described in Preparation 3, using tert-buty\ l-(4-chlorophthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-yl(methyl)carbamate and lH-pyrazole-3-boronic acid pinacol ester to provide 580 mg,

(67%). ES/MS m/z 409.2 (M+ 1).

Preparation 8 X-18698

-12- tert- Butyl 1 -(4-(I -methyl- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-ylcarbamate

Prepare the title compound by essentially following the procedure described in Preparation 3, using tert-bυXy\ 1 -(4-chlorophthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-ylcarbamate to provide 5.92 g (94%). ES/MS m/z 308.8 (M+).

Preparation 9 iV-methyl- 1 -(4-( 1 -methyl- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin- 1 -yl)piperidin-4-amine


Dissolve tert-bvAyl methyl(l-(4-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-yl)carbamate (7.77 g, 18.39 mmol) in dichloromethane (100 mL). Add an excess of 1 M hydrogen chloride in diethyl ether (20 mL, 80 mmol) to the solution and stir at ambient temperature for 2 h. Concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash silica gel chromatography (dichloromethane : 2 M NΗ3 in MeOH = 10 : 1) to provide the title compound as a yellow foam (5.83 g, 98%). ES/MS m/z 323.2 (M+ 1).

Example 1

4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(l-(4-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-yl)-2- (trifluoromethyl)benzamide

Treat a solution of N-methyl-1 -(4-(I -methyl- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-amine (2.8 g, 8.68 mmol) and triethylamine (3.36 mL, 26.1 mmol) in CH2Cl2(30 mL) with 4-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl chloride (2.14 mL, 10.42 mmol). Stir for 3 h at ambient temperature. Concentrate the reaction mixture under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash silica gel chromatography (hexane : ethyl acetate : 2 M ΝH3 in MeOH = 20 : 5 : 1) to provide the free base as a yellow foam (3.83 g, 86%). ES/MS m/z 513.0 (M+ 1).

Example Ia

4-Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(l-(4-(l-methyl-lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l-yl)piperidin-4-yl)-2- (trifluoromethyl)benzamide hydrochloride X-18698

-14-

Dissolve 4-fluoro-N-methyl-N-(l -(4-(I -methyl- lH-pyrazol-5-yl)phthalazin-l- yl)piperidin-4-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (7.13 g, 13.91 mmol) in dichloromethane (100 mL) and add excess 1 N HCl in diethyl ether (30 mL, 30 mmol). Remove the solvents under reduced pressure to provide the title compound (7.05 g, 92%). ES/MS m/z 513.0 (M+ 1). NMR showed a 2:l mixture of amide rotamers. Major rotamer; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSOd6): δ 8.34 (m, IH), 8.26 (m, 2H), 7.95 (m, IH), 7.75 (m, IH), 7.64 (m, 2H), 7.55 (m, IH), 6.72 (d, IH, J=2Hz), 5.15 (br, IH), 4.71 (m, IH), 4.22 (m, 2H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.48 (m, 2H), 2.65 (s, 3H), 2.19 (m, 2H), 1.89 ( m, 2H). Minor rotamer; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSOd6): δ 8.27 (m, IH), 8.24 (m, 2H), 7.94 (m, IH), 7.73 (m, IH), 7.63 (m, 3H), 6.70 (d, IH, J=2Hz), 5.15 (br, IH), 4.71 (m, IH), 4.07 ( m, 2H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.16 (m, 2H), 2.92 (s, 3H), 1.90 (m, 2H), 1.62 ( m 2H).

PATENT

CN 106279114

Example 5 Preparation of title compound LY-2940680 [0061] Embodiment

[0062] Compound 10 (0.2g, 0.429mmo 1,1 eq.) Was dissolved in a mixed solution of 18mL of toluene, 6 mL of ethanol, 6 mL of water was added to a solution of 0.091g (0.858mmol, 2eq.) Sodium carbonate which ester (CAS No. 847818-74-0) and 0.098g (0.472mmol, 1 · leq.) in 1-methyl -1H- pyrazole-5-boronic acid, degassed with nitrogen for 20min after addition of 60mg of four (triphenylphosphine) palladium, degassed with nitrogen for lOmin, homogeneous reaction was stirred at reflux for 12h at 74 ° C; after completion the reaction was cooled to room temperature, diluted with methylene chloride, the organic phase washed three times with brine, dried no over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a crude product, purified by column chromatography (eluent dichloromethane / methanol, a volume ratio of 30: 1) to give the desired product as a pale yellow foam LY-2940680 (0 · 202g, 92% yield).

[0063] The title compound of detection data LY-2940680:

[0064] 1 ^: 951 ^ 4 ^^ (3001 ^, 0) (: 13) 38.09 ((1 (1,1 = 7.7 ^ 11 (17.74 ^, 210,7.85 (111,210, 7.65 (d, J = 1.80 hz, 1H), 7.47-7.28 (m, 3H), 6.59 (d, J = 1.77Hz, 1H), 4.93 (m, lH), 4.21-4.08 (m, 2H), 4.05 (s, 3H), 3.44 -3.35 (m, 2H), 2.76 (s, 3H), 2.35-2.11 (m, 2H), 2.04-1,88 (m, 2H) ppm; 13C NMR (300Mz, CDC13) S168.0,163.8,159.9,147.4 , 138.2,136.7,132.0,131.9, 131.5,129.4,129.0,128.0,126.3,124.6,121.4,119.5,114.5,109.1,56.9,51.4,38.3, 31.8,29.7,28.4ppm; MS (ESI) m / z: [M + H] + = 513.20181.

PATENT

CN 201610630493

PATENT

CN 106831718

str1

Paper

A novel and efficient route for synthesis of Taladegib

Taladegib (LY-2940680), a small molecule Hedgehog signalling pathway inhibitor, was obtained from N-benzyl-4-piperidone via Borch reductive amination, acylation with 4-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl chloride, debenzylation, substitution with 1,4-dichlorophthalazine and Suzuki cross-coupling reaction with 1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-boronic acid. The advantages of this synthesis route were the elimination of Boc protection and deprotection and the inexpensive starting materials. Furthermore, the debenzylation reaction was achieved with simplified operational procedure using ammonium formate as hydrogen source that provided high reaction yield. This synthetic procedure was suitable for large-scale production of the compound for biological evaluation and further study.

Synthesis of Taladegib (LY-2940680)

purified by flash silica gel chromatography (dichloromethane/MeOH, 30:1) to provide Taladegib as a yellow foam. Yield 0.20 g, 92%; m.p. 95 °C;

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3 ) δ 8.09 (dd, J = 7.6, 7.7 Hz, 2H), 7.90–7.80 (m, 2H), 7.65 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.47–7.28 (m, 3H), 6.59 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 4.97–4.89 (m, 1H), 4.21–4.08 (m, 2H), 4.05 (s, 3H), 3.44–3.35 (m, 2H), 2.76 (s, 3H), 2.35–2.11(m, 2H), 2.04–1.88 (m, 2H);

13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3 ) δ 168.0, 163.8, 159.9, 147.4, 138.2, 136.7, 132.0, 131.9, 131.5, 129.4, 129.0, 128.0, 126.3, 124.6, 121.4, 119.5, 114.5, 109.1, 56.9, 51.4, 38.3, 31.8, 29.7, 28.4; MS calcd for C26H24F4 N6 O [M + H]+: 513.2026; found: 513.2018.

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017209574 COMBINATION THERAPIES
2015-10-02
US8273742 DISUBSTITUTED PHTHALAZINE HEDGEHOG PATHWAY ANTAGONISTS
2010-12-23
US2016375142 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-04-26
US9000023 DISUBSTITUTED PHTHALAZINE HEDGEHOG PATHWAY ANTAGONISTS
2012-08-21
2012-12-13

////////////PHASE 2, Taladegib, LY-2940680,

CN1C(=CC=N1)C2=NN=C(C3=CC=CC=C32)N4CCC(CC4)N(C)C(=O)C5=C(C=C(C=C5)F)C(F)(F)F

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