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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Fosdenopterin hydrobromide


Fosdenopterin hydrobromide.png
FOSDENOPTERIN HYDROBROMIDE

Fosdenopterin hydrobromide

FDA APPR 2021/2/26, NULIBRY

BBP-870/ORGN001

a cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) substrate replacement therapy, for the treatment of patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) Type A.

ホスデノプテリン臭化水素酸塩水和物;
FormulaC10H14N5O8P. 2H2O. HBr
CAS2301083-34-9DIHYDRATE
Mol weight480.1631

2301083-34-9

(1R,10R,12S,17R)-5-amino-11,11,14-trihydroxy-14-oxo-13,15,18-trioxa-2,4,6,9-tetraza-14λ5-phosphatetracyclo[8.8.0.03,8.012,17]octadeca-3(8),4-dien-7-one;dihydrate;hydrobromide

1,3,2-DIOXAPHOSPHORINO(4′,5′:5,6)PYRANO(3,2-G)PTERIDIN-10(4H)-ONE, 8-AMINO-4A,5A,6,9,11,11A,12,12A-OCTAHYDRO-2,12,12-TRIHYDROXY-, 2-OXIDE, HYDROBROMIDE, HYDRATE (1:1:2), (4AR,5AR,11AR,12AS)-

CYCLIC PYRANOPTERIN MONOPHOSPHATE MONOHYDROBROMIDE DIHYDRATE

(4aR,5aR,11aR,12aS)-8-Amino-2,12,12-trihydroxy-4a,5a,6,7,11,11a,12,12aoctahydro-2H-2lambda5-(1,3,2)dioxaphosphinino(4′,5′:5,6)pyrano(3,2-g)pteridine-2,10(4H)-dione, hydrobromide (1:1:2)

1,3,2-Dioxaphosphorino(4′,5′:5,6)pyrano(3,2-g)pteridin-10(4H)-one, 8-amino-4a,5a,6,9,11,11a,12,12a-octahydro-2,12,12-trihydroxy-, 2-oxide, hydrobromide, hydrate (1:1:2), (4aR,5aR,11aR,12aS)-

1,3,2-Dioxaphosphorino(4′,5′:5,6)pyrano(3,2-g)pteridin-10(4H)-one, 8-amino-4a,5a,6,9,11,11a,12,12a-octahydro-2,12,12-trihydroxy-, 2-oxide,hydrobromide, hydrate (1:1:2), (4aR,5aR,11aR,12aS)-

ALXN1101 HBrUNII-X41B5W735TX41B5W735TD11780

Nulibry Approved for Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency Type A - MPR
Thumb
ChemSpider 2D Image | Cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate | C10H14N5O8P
Cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate.svg

C10H14N5O8P, Average: 363.223

150829-29-1

  • ALXN-1101
  • WHO 11150
  • Synthesis ReferenceClinch K, Watt DK, Dixon RA, Baars SM, Gainsford GJ, Tiwari A, Schwarz G, Saotome Y, Storek M, Belaidi AA, Santamaria-Araujo JA: Synthesis of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate, a biosynthetic intermediate in the molybdenum cofactor pathway. J Med Chem. 2013 Feb 28;56(4):1730-8. doi: 10.1021/jm301855r. Epub 2013 Feb 19.

Fosdenopterin (or cyclic pyranopterin monophosphatecPMP), sold under the brand name Nulibry, is a medication used to reduce the risk of death due to a rare genetic disease known as molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A (MoCD-A).[1]

Adverse effects

The most common side effects include complications related to the intravenous line, fever, respiratory infections, vomiting, gastroenteritis, and diarrhea.[1]

Mechanism of action

People with MoCD-A cannot produce cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) in their body.[1] Fosdenopterin is an intravenous medication that replaces the missing cPMP.[1][2] cPMP is a precursor to molybdopterin, which is required for the enzyme activity of sulfite oxidasexanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase and aldehyde oxidase.[3]

History

Fosdenopterin was developed by José Santamaría-Araujo and Guenter Schwarz at the German universities TU Braunschweig and the University of Cologne.[4][5]

The effectiveness of fosdenopterin for the treatment of MoCD-A was demonstrated in thirteen treated participants compared to eighteen matched, untreated participants.[1][6] The participants treated with fosdenopterin had a survival rate of 84% at three years, compared to 55% for the untreated participants.[1]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for fosdenopterin priority reviewbreakthrough therapy, and orphan drug designations along with a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher.[1] The FDA granted the approval of Nulibry to Origin Biosciences, Inc., in February 2021.[1] It is the first medication approved for the treatment of MoCD-A.[1]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j “FDA Approves First Treatment for Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency Type A”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ DrugBank DB16628 . Accessed 2021-03-05.
  3. ^ Santamaria-Araujo JA, Fischer B, Otte T, Nimtz M, Mendel RR, Wray V, Schwarz G (April 2004). “The tetrahydropyranopterin structure of the sulfur-free and metal-free molybdenum cofactor precursor”The Journal of Biological Chemistry279 (16): 15994–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311815200PMID 14761975.
  4. ^ Schwarz G, Santamaria-Araujo JA, Wolf S, Lee HJ, Adham IM, Gröne HJ, et al. (June 2004). “Rescue of lethal molybdenum cofactor deficiency by a biosynthetic precursor from Escherichia coli”Human Molecular Genetics13 (12): 1249–55. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddh136PMID 15115759.
  5. ^ Tedmanson S (5 November 2009). “Doctors risk untried drug to stop baby’s brain dissolving”TimesOnline.
  6. ^ Schwahn BC, Van Spronsen FJ, Belaidi AA, Bowhay S, Christodoulou J, Derks TG, et al. (November 2015). “Efficacy and safety of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate substitution in severe molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A: a prospective cohort study”. Lancet386 (10007): 1955–63. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00124-5PMID 26343839S2CID 21954888.

External links

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is an exceptionally rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting in a deficiency of three molybdenum-dependent enzymes: sulfite oxidase (SOX), xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase.1 Signs and symptoms begin shortly after birth and are caused by a build-up of toxic sulfites resulting from a lack of SOX activity.1,5 Patients with MoCD may present with metabolic acidosis, intracranial hemorrhage, feeding difficulties, and significant neurological symptoms such as muscle hyper- and hypotonia, intractable seizures, spastic paraplegia, myoclonus, and opisthotonus. In addition, patients with MoCD are often born with morphologic evidence of the disorder such as microcephaly, cerebral atrophy/hypodensity, dilated ventricles, and ocular abnormalities.1 MoCD is incurable and median survival in untreated patients is approximately 36 months1 – treatment, then, is focused on improving survival and maintaining neurological function.

The most common subtype of MoCD, type A, involves mutations in MOCS1 wherein the first step of molybdenum cofactor synthesis – the conversion of guanosine triphosphate into cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) – is interrupted.1,3 In the past, management strategies for this disorder involved symptomatic and supportive treatment,5 though efforts were made to develop a suitable exogenous replacement for the missing cPMP. In 2009 a recombinant, E. coli-produced cPMP was granted orphan drug designation by the FDA, becoming the first therapeutic option for patients with MoCD type A.1

Fosdenopterin was approved by the FDA on Februrary 26, 2021, for the reduction of mortality in patients with MoCD type A,5 becoming the first and only therapy approved for the treatment of MoCD. By improving the three-year survival rate from 55% to 84%,7 and considering the lack of alternative therapies available, fosdenopterin appears poised to become a standard of therapy in the management of this debilitating disorder.

Fosdenopterin replaces an intermediate substrate in the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor, a compound necessary for the activation of several molybdenum-dependent enzymes including sulfite oxidase (SOX).1 Given that SOX is responsible for detoxifying sulfur-containing acids and sulfites such as S-sulfocysteine (SSC), urinary levels of SSC can be used as a surrogate marker of efficacy for fosdenopterin.7 Long-term therapy with fosdenopterin has been shown to result in a sustained reduction in urinary SSC normalized to creatinine.7

Animal studies have identified a potential risk of phototoxicity in patients receiving fosdenopterin – these patients should avoid or minimize exposure to sunlight and/or artificial UV light.7 If sun exposure is necessary, use protective clothing, hats, and sunglasses,7 in addition to seeking shade whenever practical. Consider the use of a broad-spectrum sunscreen in patients 6 months of age or older.8

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder in which patients are deficient in three molybdenum-dependent enzymes: sulfite oxidase (SOX), xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase.1 The loss of SOX activity appears to be the main driver of MoCD morbidity and mortality, as the build-up of neurotoxic sulfites typically processed by SOX results in rapid and progressive neurological damage. In MoCD type A, the disorder results from a mutation in the MOCS1 gene leading to deficient production of MOCS1A/B,7 a protein that is responsible for the first step in the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor: the conversion of guanosine triphosphate into cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP).1,4

Fosdenopterin is an exogenous form of cPMP, replacing endogenous production and allowing for the synthesis of molybdenum cofactor to proceed.7

  1. Mechler K, Mountford WK, Hoffmann GF, Ries M: Ultra-orphan diseases: a quantitative analysis of the natural history of molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Genet Med. 2015 Dec;17(12):965-70. doi: 10.1038/gim.2015.12. Epub 2015 Mar 12. [PubMed:25764214]
  2. Schwahn BC, Van Spronsen FJ, Belaidi AA, Bowhay S, Christodoulou J, Derks TG, Hennermann JB, Jameson E, Konig K, McGregor TL, Font-Montgomery E, Santamaria-Araujo JA, Santra S, Vaidya M, Vierzig A, Wassmer E, Weis I, Wong FY, Veldman A, Schwarz G: Efficacy and safety of cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate substitution in severe molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2015 Nov 14;386(10007):1955-63. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00124-5. Epub 2015 Sep 3. [PubMed:26343839]
  3. Iobbi-Nivol C, Leimkuhler S: Molybdenum enzymes, their maturation and molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Aug-Sep;1827(8-9):1086-101. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.11.007. Epub 2012 Nov 29. [PubMed:23201473]
  4. Mendel RR: The molybdenum cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2013 May 10;288(19):13165-72. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R113.455311. Epub 2013 Mar 28. [PubMed:23539623]
  5. FDA News Release: FDA Approves First Treatment for Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency Type A [Link]
  6. OMIM: MOLYBDENUM COFACTOR DEFICIENCY, COMPLEMENTATION GROUP A (# 252150) [Link]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: Nulibry (fosdenopterin) for intravenous injection [Link]
  8. Health Canada: Sun safety tips for parents [Link]

SYN

Journal of Biological Chemistry (1995), 270(3), 1082-7.

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021925818829696

PATENT

WO 2005073387

PATENT

WO 2012112922

PAPER

 Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2013), 56(4), 1730-1738

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jm301855r

Abstract Image

Cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (1), isolated from bacterial culture, has previously been shown to be effective in restoring normal function of molybdenum enzymes in molybdenum cofactor (MoCo)-deficient mice and human patients. Described here is a synthesis of 1 hydrobromide (1·HBr) employing in the key step a Viscontini reaction between 2,5,6-triamino-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-4-one dihydrochloride and d-galactose phenylhydrazone to give the pyranopterin (5aS,6R,7R,8R,9aR)-2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3H,4H,5H,5aH,6H,7H,8H,9aH,10H-pyrano[3,2-g]pteridin-4-one (10) and establishing all four stereocenters found in 1. Compound 10, characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography, was transformed through a selectively protected tri-tert-butoxycarbonylamino intermediate into a highly crystalline tetracyclic phosphate ester (15). The latter underwent a Swern oxidation and then deprotection to give 1·HBr. Synthesized 1·HBr had in vitro efficacy comparable to that of 1 of bacterial origin as demonstrated by its enzymatic conversion into mature MoCo and subsequent reconstitution of MoCo-free human sulfite oxidase–molybdenum domain yielding a fully active enzyme. The described synthesis has the potential for scale up.

str1
str2
str3
str4

PAPER

 European Journal of Organic Chemistry (2014), 2014(11), 2231-2241.

https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ejoc.201301784

Abstract

The first synthesis of an oxygen‐stable analogue of the natural product cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) is reported. In this approach, the hydropyranone ring is annelated to pyrazine by a sequence comprising ortho‐lithiation/acylation of a 2‐halopyrazine, followed by nucleophilic aromatic substitution. The tetrose substructure is introduced from the chiral pool, from D‐galactose or D‐arabitol.

image

Abstract

Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) deficiency is a lethal hereditary metabolic disease. A recently developed therapy requires continuous intravenous supplementation of the biosynthetic Moco precursor cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP). The limited stability of the latter natural product, mostly due to oxidative degradation, is problematic for oral administration. Therefore, the synthesis of more stable cPMP analogues is of great interest. In this context and for the first time, the synthesis of a cPMP analogue, in which the oxidation‐labile reduced pterin unit is replaced by a pyrazine moiety, was achieved starting from the chiral pool materials D‐galactose or D‐arabitol. Our synthesis, 13 steps in total, includes the following key transformations: i) pyrazine lithiation, followed by acylation; ii) closure of the pyrane ring by nucleophilic aromatic substitution; and iii) introduction of phosphate.

Patent

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9260462B2/en

Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) deficiency is a pleiotropic genetic disorder. Moco consists of molybdenum covalently bound to one or two dithiolates attached to a unique tricyclic pterin moiety commonly referred to as molybdopterin (MPT). Moco is synthesized by a biosynthetic pathway that can be divided into four steps, according to the biosynthetic intermediates precursor Z (cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate; cPMP), MPT, and adenylated MPT. Mutations in the Moco biosynthetase genes result in the loss of production of the molybdenum dependent enzymes sulfite-oxidase, xanthine oxidoreductase, and aldehyde oxidase. Whereas the activities of all three of these cofactor-containing enzymes are impaired by cofactor deficiency, the devastating consequences of the disease can be traced to the loss of sulfite oxidase activity. Human Moco deficiency is a rare but severe disorder accompanied by serious neurological symptoms including attenuated growth of the brain, untreatable seizures, dislocated ocular lenses, and mental retardation. Until recently, no effective therapy was available and afflicted patients suffering from Moco deficiency died in early infancy.

It has been found that administration of the molybdopterin derivative precursor Z, a relatively stable intermediate in the Moco biosynthetic pathway, is an effective means of therapy for human Moco deficiency and associated diseases related to altered Moco synthesis (see U.S. Pat. No. 7,504,095). As with most replacement therapies for illnesses, however, the treatment is limited by the availability of the therapeutic active agent.

Scheme 3.

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00133

Scheme 4.

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00140

(I).

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00141

 Scheme 6.

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00142

 (I).

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00143

Scheme 8.

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00144

(I).

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00145

 Scheme 10.

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00146

EXAMPLESExample 1Preparation of Precursor Z (cPMP)

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00214
Figure US09260462-20160216-C00215

Experimental

Air sensitive reactions were performed under argon. Organic solutions were dried over anhydrous MgSOand the solvents were evaporated under reduced pressure. Anhydrous and chromatography solvents were obtained commercially (anhydrous grade solvent from Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals) and used without any further purification. Thin layer chromatography (t.l.c.) was performed on glass or aluminum sheets coated with 60 F254 silica gel. Organic compounds were visualized under UV light or with use of a dip of ammonium molybdate (5 wt %) and cerium(IV) sulfate 4H2O (0.2 wt %) in aq. H2SO(2M), one of I(0.2%) and KI (7%) in H2SO(1M), or 0.1% ninhydrin in EtOH. Chromatography (flash column) was performed on silica gel (40-63 μm) or on an automated system with continuous gradient facility. Optical rotations were recorded at a path length of 1 dm and are in units of 10−1 deg cmg−1; concentrations are in g/100 mL. 1H NMR spectra were measured in CDCl3, CD3OD (internal Me4Si, δ 0 ppm) or D2O(HOD, δ 4.79 ppm), and 13C NMR spectra in CDCl(center line, δ 77.0 ppm), CD3OD (center line, δ 49.0 ppm) or DMSO d(center line δ 39.7 ppm), D2O (no internal reference or internal CH3CN, δ 1.47 ppm where stated). Assignments of 1H and 13C resonances were based on 2D (1H—1H DQF-COSY, 1H—13C HSQC, HMBC) and DEPT experiments. 31P NMR were run at 202.3 MHz and are reported without reference. High resolution electrospray mass spectra (ESI-HRMS) were recorded on a Q-TOF Tandem Mass

Spectrometer. Microanalyses were performed by the Campbell Microanalytical Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

A. Preparation of (5aS,6R,7R,8R,9aR)-2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-8-(hydroxymethyl)-3H,4H,5H,5aH,6H,7H,8H,9aH,10H-pyrano[3,2-g]pteridin-4-one mono hydrate (1)

2,5,6-Triamino-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-4-one dihydrochloride (Pfleiderer, W.; Chem. Ber. 1957, 90, 2272; Org. Synth. 1952, 32, 45; Org. Synth. 1963, Coll. Vol. 4, 245, 10.0 g, 46.7 mmol), D-galactose phenylhydrazone (Goswami, S.; Adak, A. K. Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 221-224, 15.78 g, 58.4 mmol) and 2-mercaptoethanol (1 mL) were stirred and heated to reflux (bath temp 110° C.) in a 1:1 mixture of MeOH—H2O (400 mL) for 2 h. After cooling to ambient temperature, diethyl ether (500 mL) was added, the flask was shaken and the diethyl ether layer decanted off and discarded. The process was repeated with two further portions of diethyl ether (500 mL) and then the remaining volatiles were evaporated. Methanol (40 mL), H2O (40 mL) and triethylamine (39.4 mL, 280 mmol) were successively added and the mixture seeded with a few milligrams of 1. After 5 min a yellow solid was filtered off, washed with a little MeOH and dried to give 1 as a monohydrate (5.05 g, 36%) of suitable purity for further use. An analytical portion was recrystallized from DMSO-EtOH or boiling H2O. MPt 226 dec. [α]D 20 +135.6 (c1.13, DMSO). 1H NMR (DMSO d6): δ 10.19 (bs, exchanged D2O, 1H), 7.29 (d, J=5.0 Hz, slowly exchanged D2O, 1H), 5.90 (s, exchanged D2O, 2H), 5.33 (d, J=5.4 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 4.66 (ddd, J˜5.0, ˜1.3, ˜1.3 Hz, 1H), 4.59 (t, J=5.6 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 4.39 (d, J=10.3 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 3.80 (bt, J˜1.8 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 3.70 (m, 1H), 3.58 (dd, J=10.3, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.53 (dt, J=10.7, 6.4 Hz, 1H), 3.43 (ddd, J=11.2, 5.9, 5.9 Hz, 1H), 3.35 (t, J=6.4 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (br m, 1H). 13C NMR (DMSO dcenter line 6 39.7): δ 156.3 (C), 150.4 (C), 148.4 (C), 99.0 (C), 79.4 (CH), 76.5 (CH), 68.9 (CH), 68.6 (CH), 60.6 (CH2), 53.9 (CH). Anal. calcd. for C10H15N5O5H2O 39.60; C, 5.65; H, 23.09; N. found 39.64; C, 5.71; H, 22.83; N.

B. Preparation of Compounds 2 (a or b) and 3 (a, b or c)

Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (10.33 g, 47.3 mmol) and DMAP (0.321 g, 2.63 mmol) were added to a stirred suspension of 1 (1.5 g, 5.26 mmol) in anhydrous THF (90 mL) at 50° C. under Ar. After 20 h a clear solution resulted. The solvent was evaporated and the residue chromatographed on silica gel (gradient of 0 to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to give two product fractions. The first product to elute was a yellow foam (1.46 g). The product was observed to be a mixture of two compounds by 1H NMR containing mainly a product with seven Boc groups (2a or 2b). A sample was crystallized from EtOAc-hexanes to give 2a or 2b as a fine crystalline solid. MPt 189-191° C. [α]D 20 −43.6 (c 0.99, MeOH). 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 5.71 (t, J=1.7 Hz, 1H), 5.15 (dt, J=3.5, ˜1.0, 1H), 4.97 (t, J=3.8, 1H), 4.35 (br t, J=˜1.7, 1H), 4.09-3.97 (m, 3H), 3.91 (m, 1H), 1.55, 1.52, 1.51, 1.50, 1.45 (5s, 45H), 1.40 (s, 18H). 13C NMR (125.7 MHz, CDCl3): δ 152.84 (C), 152.78 (C), 151.5 (C), 150.9 (C), 150.7 (2×C), 150.3 (C), 149.1 (C), 144.8 (C), 144.7 (C), 118.0 (C), 84.6 (C), 83.6 (C), 83.5 (C), 82.7 (3×C), 82.6 (C), 76.3 (CH), 73.0 (CH), 71.4 (CH), 67.2 (CH), 64.0 (CH2), 51.4 (CH), 28.1 (CH3), 27.8 (2×CH3), 27.7 (CH3), 27.6 (3×CH3). MS-ESI+ for C45H72N5O19 +, (M+H)+, Calcd. 986.4817. found 986.4818. Anal. calcd. for C45H71N5O19H2O 54.39; C, 7.39; H, 6.34; N. found 54.66; C, 7.17; H, 7.05; N. A second fraction was obtained as a yellow foam (2.68 g) which by 1H NMR was a product with six Boc groups present (3a, 3b or 3c). A small amount was crystallized from EtOAc-hexanes to give colorless crystals. [α]D 2O −47.6 (c, 1.17, CHCl3). 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 11.10 (br s, exchanged D2O, 1H), 5.58 (t, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.17 (d, J=3.4 Hz, 1H), 4.97 (t, J=3.9 Hz, 1H), 4.62 (s, exchanged D2O, 1H), 4.16 (dd, J=11.3, 5.9 Hz, 1H), 4.12 (dd, J=11.3, 6.4 Hz, 1H), 3.95 (dt, J=6.1, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 3.76 (m, 1H), 1.51, 1.50, 1.49, 1.48, 1.46 (5s, 54H). 13C NMR (125.7 MHz, CDCl3): δ 156.6 (C), 153.0 (C), 152.9 (C), 151.9 (C), 150.6 (C), 149.4 (2×C), 136.2 (C), 131.8 (C), 116.9 (C), 85.0 (2×C), 83.3 (C), 82.8 (C), 82.49 (C), 82.46 (C), 73.3 (CH), 71.5 (CH), 67.2 (CH), 64.5 (CH2), 51.3 (CH), 28.0, 27.72, 27.68, 27.6 (4×CH3). MS-ESI+ for C40H64N5O17 +, (M+H)+calcd. 886.4287. found 886.4289.

C. Preparation of Compound 4a, 4b or 4c

Step 1—The first fraction from B above containing mainly compounds 2a or 2b (1.46 g, 1.481 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (29 mL) and sodium methoxide in MeOH (1M, 8.14 mL, 8.14 mmol) added. After leaving at ambient temperature for 20 h the solution was neutralized with Dowex 50WX8 (H+) resin then the solids filtered off and the solvent evaporated.

Step 2—The second fraction from B above containing mainly 3a, 3b or 3c (2.68 g, 3.02 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (54 mL) and sodium methoxide in MeOH (1M, 12.10 mL, 12.10 mmol) added. After leaving at ambient temperature for 20 h the solution was neutralized with Dowex 50WX8 (H+) resin then the solids filtered off and the solvent evaporated.

The products from step 1 and step 2 above were combined and chromatographed on silica gel (gradient of 0 to 15% MeOH in CHCl3) to give 4a, 4b or 4c as a cream colored solid (1.97 g). 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO d6): δ 12.67 (br s, exchanged D2O, 1H), 5.48 (d, J=5.2 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 5.43 (t, J=˜1.9 Hz, after D2O exchange became a d, J=1.9 Hz, 1H), 5.00 (br s, exchanged D2O, 1H), 4.62 (d, J=5.7 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 4.27 (d, J=6.0 Hz, exchanged D2O, 1H), 3.89 (dt, J=5.2, 3.8 Hz, after D2O became a t, J=3.9 Hz, 1H), 3.62 (dd, J=6.0, 3.7 Hz, after D2O exchange became a d, J=3.7 Hz, 1H), 3.52-3.39 (m, 4H), 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.41 (s, 18H). 13C NMR (125.7 MHz, DMSO d6): δ 157.9 (C), 151.1, (C), 149.8 (2×C), 134.6 (C), 131.4 (C), 118.8 (C), 83.5 (2×C), 81.3 (C), 78.2 (CH), 76.5 (CH), 68.1 (CH), 66.8 (CH), 60.6 (CH2), 54.4 (CH), 27.9 (CH3), 27.6 (2×CH3). MS-ESI+ for C25H40N5O11 +, (M+H)+ calcd. 586.2719. found 586.2717.

D. Preparation of Compound 5a, 5b or 5c

Compound 4a, 4b or 4c (992 mg, 1.69 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in anhydrous CH2Cl(10 mL) and pyridine (5 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere and the solution was cooled to −42° C. in an acetonitrile/dry ice bath. Methyl dichlorophosphate (187 μL, 1.86 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred for 2 h 20 min. Water (10 mL) was added to the cold solution which was then removed from the cold bath and diluted with ethyl acetate (50 mL) and saturated NaCl solution (30 mL). The organic portion was separated and washed with saturated NaCl solution. The combined aqueous portions were extracted twice further with ethyl acetate and the combined organic portions were dried over MgSOand concentrated. Purification by silica gel flash column chromatography (eluting with 2-20% methanol in ethyl acetate) gave the cyclic methyl phosphate 5a, 5b or 5c (731 mg, 65%). 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3,): δ 11.72 (bs, exchanged D2O, 1H), 5.63 (t, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.41 (s, exchanged D2O, 1H), 4.95 (d, J=3.2 Hz, 1H), 4.70 (dt, J=12.4, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 4.42 (dd, J=22.1, 12.1 Hz, 1H). 4.15 (q, J=3.7 Hz, 1H), 3.82 (s, 1H), 3.75 (s, 1H), 3.58 (d, J=11.7 Hz, 3H), 2.10 (bs, exchanged D20, 1H+H2O), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.46 (s, 18H). 13C NMR (125.7 MHz, CDCl3, centre line δ 77.0): δ 157.5 (C), 151.2 (C), 149.6 (2×C), 134.5 (C), 132.3 (C), 117.6 (C), 84.7 (2×C), 82.8 (C), 77.3 (CH), 74.8 (d, J=4.1 Hz, CH), 69.7 (CH2), 68.8 (d, J=4.1 Hz, CH), 68.6 (d, J=5.9 Hz, CH), 56.0 (d, J=7.4 Hz, CH3), 51.8 (CH), 28.1 (CH3), 27.8 (CH3). MS-ESI+ for C26H40N5NaO13P+ (M+Na)+, calcd. 684.2252. found 684.2251.

E. Preparation of Compound 6a, 6b or 6c

Compound 5a, 5b or 5c (223 mg, 0.34 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous CH2Cl(7 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. Anhydrous DMSO (104 μL, 1.46 mmol) was added and the solution was cooled to −78° C. Trifluoroacetic anhydride (104 μL, 0.74 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred for 40 min. N,N-diisopropylethylamine (513 μL, 2.94 mmol) was added and the stirring was continued for 50 min at −78° C. Saturated NaCl solution (20 mL) was added and the mixture removed from the cold bath and diluted with CH2Cl(30 mL). Glacial acetic acid (170 μL, 8.75 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred for 10 min. The layers were separated and the aqueous phase was washed with CH2Cl(10 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with 5% aqueous HCl, 3:1 saturated NaCl solution:10% NaHCOsolution and saturated NaCl solution successively, dried over MgSO4, and concentrated to give compound 6a, 6b or 6c (228 mg, quant.) of suitable purity for further use. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 5.86 (m, 1 H), 5.07 (m, 1 H), 4.70-4.64 (m, 2 H), 4.49-4.40 (m, 1 H), 4.27 (m, 1 H), 3.56, m, 4 H), 1.49 (s, 9 H), 1.46 (s, 18 H) ppm. 13C NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 157.5 (C), 151.1 (C), 150.6 (2 C), 134.6 (C), 132.7 (C), 116.6 (C), 92.0 (C), 84.6 (2 C), 83.6 (C), 78.0 (CH), 76.0 (CH), 70.4 (CH2), 67.9 (CH), 56.2 (CH3) δ6.0 (CH), 28.2 (3CH3), 26.8 (6 CH3) ppm. 31P NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ−6.3 ppm.

F. Preparation of compound 7: (4aR,5aR,11aR,12aS)-1,3,2-Dioxaphosphorino[4′,5′:5,6]pyrano[3,2-g]pteridin-10(4H)-one,8-amino-4-a,5a,6,9,11,11a,12,12a-octahydro-2,12,12-trihydroxy-2-oxide

Compound 6a, 6b or 6c (10 mg, 14.8 μmol was dissolved in dry acetonitrile (0.2 mL) and cooled to 0° C. Bromotrimethylsilane (19.2 μL, 148 μmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature and stirred for 5 h during which time a precipitate formed. HCl(aq) (10 μl, 37%) was added and the mixture was stirred for a further 15 min. The mixture was centrifuged for 15 min (3000 g) and the resulting precipitate collected. Acetonitrile (0.5 mL) was added and the mixture was centrifuged for a further 15 min. The acetonitrile wash and centrifugation was repeated a further two times and the resulting solid was dried under high vacuum to give compound 7 (4 mg, 75%). 1H NMR (500 MHz, D2O): δ 5.22 (d, J=1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.34 (dt, J=13, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 4.29-4.27 (m, 1H), 4.24-4.18 (m, 1H), 3.94 (br m, 1H), 3.44 (t, J=1.4 Hz, 1H). 31P NMR (500 MHz, D2O): δ −4.8 MS-ESI+ for C10H15N5O8P+, (M+H)+calcd. 364.0653. found 364.0652.

Example 2Comparison of Precursor Z (cPMP) Prepared Synthetically to that Prepared from E. Coli in the In vitro Synthesis of Moco

In vitro synthesis of Moco was compared using samples of synthetic precursor Z (cPMP) and cPMP purified from E. coli. Moco synthesis also involved the use of the purified components E. coli MPT synthase, gephyrin, molybdate, ATP, and apo-sulfite oxidase. See U.S. Pat. No. 7,504,095 and “Biosynthesis and molecular biology of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco)” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Mendel, Ralf R. and Schwarz, Gunter, Informa Plc, 2002, Vol. 39, pages 317-68. The assay is based on the conversion of cPMP into MPT, the subsequent molybdate insertion using recombinant gephyrin and ATP, and finally the reconstitution of human apo-sulfite oxidase.

As shown in FIG. 1, Moco synthesis from synthetic cPMP was confirmed, and no differences in Moco conversion were found in comparison to E. coli purified cPMP.

Example 3Comparison of Precursor Z (cPMP) Prepared Synthetically to that Prepared from E. coli in the In vitro Synthesis of MPT

In vitro synthesis of MPT was compared using samples of synthetic precursor Z (cPMP) and cPMP purified from E. coli. MPT synthesis also involved the use of in vitro assembled MPT synthase from E. coli. See U.S. Pat. No. 7,504,095 and “Biosynthesis and molecular biology of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco)” in Metal Ions in Biological Systems, Mendel, Ralf R. and Schwarz, Gunter, Informa Plc, 2002, Vol. 39, pages 317-68. Three repetitions of each experiment were performed and are shown in FIGS. 2 and 3.

As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, MPT synthesis from synthetic cPMP confirmed, and no apparent differences in MPT conversion were found when compared to E. coli purified cPMP. A linear conversion of cPMP into MPT is seen in all samples confirming the identity of synthetic cPMP (see FIG. 2). Slight differences between the repetitions are believed to be due to an inaccurate concentration determination of synthetic cPMP given the presence of interfering chromophores.

Example 4Preparation of Precursor Z (cPMP)

A. Preparation of Starting Materials

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00216

B. Introduction of the protected Phosphate

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00217


The formation of the cyclic phosphate using intermediate [10] (630 mg) gave the desired product [11] as a 1:1 mixture of diastereoisomers (494 mg, 69%).

Figure US09260462-20160216-C00218

C. Oxidation and Overall Deprotection of the Molecule

Oxidation of the secondary alcohol to the gem-diol did prove successful on intermediate [12], but the oxidized product [13] did show significant instability and could not be purified. For this reason, deprotection of the phosphate was attempted before the oxidation. However, the reaction of intermediate [11] with TMSBr led to complete deprotection of the molecule giving intermediate [14]. An attempt to oxidize the alcohol to the gem-diol using Dess-Martin periodinane gave the aromatized pteridine [15].

Oxidation of intermediate [11] with Dess-Martin periodinane gave a mixture of starting material, oxidized product and several by-products. Finally, intermediate [11] was oxidized using the method described Example 1. Upon treatment, only partial oxidation was observed, leaving a 2:1 mixture of [11]/[16]. The crude mixture was submitted to the final deprotection. An off white solid was obtained and analyzed by 1H-NMR and HPLC-MS. These analyses suggest that cPMP has been produced along with the deprotected precursor [11].

Because the analytical HPLC conditions gave a good separation of cPMP from the major impurities, this method will be repeated on a prep-HPLC in order to isolate the final material.

CLIP

BridgeBio Pharma And Affiliate Origin Biosciences Announces FDA Acceptance Of Its New Drug Application For Fosdenopterin For The Treatment Of MoCD Type A

Application accepted under Priority Review designation with Breakthrough Therapy Designation and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation previously grantedThere are currently no approved therapies for the treatment of MoCD Type A, which results in severe and irreversible neurological injury for infants and children.This is BridgeBio’s first NDA acceptanceSAN FRANCISCO, September 29, 2020 – BridgeBio Pharma, Inc. (Nasdaq: BBIO) and affiliate Origin Biosciences today announced the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted its New Drug Application (NDA) for fosdenopterin (previously BBP-870/ORGN001), a cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate (cPMP) substrate replacement therapy, for the treatment of patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) Type A.The NDA has been granted Priority Review designation. Fosdenopterin has previously been granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation and Rare Pediatric Disease Designation in the US and may be eligible for a priority review voucher if approved. It received Orphan Drug Designation in the US and Europe. This is BridgeBio’s first NDA acceptance.“We want to thank the patients, families, scientists, physicians and all others involved who helped us reach this critical milestone,” said BridgeBio CEO and founder Neil Kumar, Ph.D. “MoCD Type A is a devastating disease with a median survival of less than four years and we are eager for our investigational therapy to be available to patients, who currently have no approved treatment options. BridgeBio exists to help as many patients as possible afflicted with genetic diseases, no matter how rare. We are grateful that the FDA has accepted our first NDA for priority review and we look forward to submitting our second NDA later this year for infigratinib for second line treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.”About Fosdenopterin
Fosdenopterin is being developed for the treatment of patients with MoCD Type A. Currently, there are no approved therapies for the treatment of MoCD Type A, which results in severe and irreversible neurological injury with a median survival between 3 to 4 years. Fosdenopterin is a first-in-class cPMP hydrobromide dihydrate and is designed to treat MoCD Type A by replacing cPMP and permitting the two remaining MoCo synthesis steps to proceed, with activation of MoCo-dependent enzymes and elimination of sulfites.About Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency (MoCD) Type A
MoCD Type A is an ultra-rare, autosomal recessive, inborn error of metabolism caused by disruption in molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) synthesis which is vital to prevent buildup of s-sulfocysteine, a neurotoxic metabolite of sulfite. Patients are often infants with severe encephalopathy and intractable seizures. Disease progression is rapid with a high infant mortality rate.Those who survive beyond the first few month’s experience profuse developmental delays and suffer the effects of irreversible neurological damage, including brain atrophy with white matter necrosis, dysmorphic facial features, and spastic paraplegia. Clinical presentation that can be similar to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) or other neonatal seizure disorders may lead to misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. Immediate testing for elevated sulfite levels and S-sulfocysteine in the urine and very low serum uric acid may help with suspicion of MoCD.About Origin Biosciences
Origin Biosciences, an affiliate of BridgeBio Pharma, is a biotechnology company focused on developing and commercializing a treatment for Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency (MoCD) Type A. Origin is led by a team of veteran biotechnology executives. Together with patients and physicians, the company aims to bring a safe, effective treatment for MoCD Type A to market as quickly as possible. For more information on Origin Biosciences, please visit the company’s website at www.origintx.com.

About BridgeBio Pharma
BridgeBio is a team of experienced drug discoverers, developers and innovators working to create life-altering medicines that target well-characterized genetic diseases at their source. BridgeBio was founded in 2015 to identify and advance transformative medicines to treat patients who suffer from Mendelian diseases, which are diseases that arise from defects in a single gene, and cancers with clear genetic drivers. BridgeBio’s pipeline of over 20 development programs includes product candidates ranging from early discovery to late-stage development. For more information visit bridgebio.com.

Clinical data
Trade namesNulibry
Other namesPrecursor Z, ALXN1101
License dataUS DailyMedFosdenopterin
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number150829-29-1
PubChem CID135894389
DrugBankDB16628
ChemSpider17221217
UNII4X7K2681Y7
KEGGD11779
ChEMBLChEMBL2338675
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID90934067 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC10H14N5O8P
Molar mass363.223 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
hideSMILESNC1=NC(=O)C2=C(N[C@@H]3O[C@@H]4COP(=O)(O)O[C@@H]4C(O)(O)[C@@H]3N2)N1
hideInChIInChI=1S/C10H14N5O8P/c11-9-14-6-3(7(16)15-9)12-4-8(13-6)22-2-1-21-24(19,20)23-5(2)10(4,17)18/h2,4-5,8,12,17-18H,1H2,(H,19,20)(H4,11,13,14,15,16)/t2-,4-,5+,8-/m1/s1Key:CZAKJJUNKNPTTO-AJFJRRQVSA-N

//////////Fosdenopterin hydrobromide, ホスデノプテリン臭化水素酸塩水和物 , ALXN1101 HBrUNII-X41B5W735TX41B5W735TD11780, BBP-870/ORGN001, Priority Review designation, Breakthrough Therapy Designation, Rare Pediatric Disease Designation, Orphan Drug Designation, molybdenum cofactor deficiency, ALXN-1101, WHO 11150, FDA 2021, APPROVALS 2021

#Fosdenopterin hydrobromide, #ホスデノプテリン臭化水素酸塩水和物 , #ALXN1101 HBr, #UNII-X41B5W735TX41B5W735T, #D11780, #BBP-870/ORGN001, #Priority Review designation, #Breakthrough Therapy Designation, #Rare Pediatric Disease Designation, #Orphan Drug Designation, #molybdenum cofactor deficiency, #ALXN-1101, #WHO 11150, #FDA 2021, #APPROVALS 2021

C1C2C(C(C3C(O2)NC4=C(N3)C(=O)NC(=N4)N)(O)O)OP(=O)(O1)O.O.O.Br

NIROGACESTAT


Nirogacestat.png
img
Structure of NIROGACESTAT

NIROGACESTAT

(2S)-2-[[(2S)-6,8-difluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl]amino]-N-[1-[1-(2,2-dimethylpropylamino)-2-methylpropan-2-yl]imidazol-4-yl]pentanamide

489.6 g/mol, C27H41F2N5O

CAS 1290543-63-3

PF-03084014, 1290543-63-3, PF-3084014, 865773-15-5QZ62892OFJUNII:QZ62892OFJUNII-QZ62892OFJнирогацестат [Russian] [INN]نيروغاسيستات [Arabic] [INN]尼罗司他 [Chinese] [INN]ニロガセスタット;

orphan drug designation in June 2018 for the treatment of desmoid tumors, and with a fast track designation

 Nirogacestat, also known as PF-03084014, is a potent and selective gamma secretase (GS) inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. PF-03084014 binds to GS, blocking proteolytic activation of Notch receptors. Nirogacestat enhances the Antitumor Effect of Docetaxel in Prostate Cancer. Nirogacestat enhances docetaxel-mediated tumor response and provides a rationale to explore GSIs as adjunct therapy in conjunction with docetaxel for men with CRPC (castration-resistant prostate cancer).

Nirogacestat was disclosed to be a gamma-secretase inhibitor, which can inhibit Aβ-peptide production. SpringWorks Therapeutics (a spin-out of Pfizer ) is developing nirogacestat, as hydrobromide salt, a gamma-secretase inhibitor, for treating aggressive fibromatosis. In February 2021, nirogacestat was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

Nirogacestat is a selective gamma secretase (GS) inhibitor with potential antitumor activity. Nirogacestat binds to GS, blocking proteolytic activation of Notch receptors; Notch signaling pathway inhibition may follow, which may result in the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress Notch. The integral membrane protein GS is a multi-subunit protease complex that cleaves single-pass transmembrane proteins, such as Notch receptors, at residues within their transmembrane domains. Overexpression of the Notch signaling pathway has been correlated with increased tumor cell growth and survival.

Nirogacestat has been used in trials studying the treatment of Breast Cancer, HIV Infection, Desmoid Tumors, Advanced Solid Tumors, and Aggressive Fibromatosis, among others.

SpringWorks Therapeutics

Nirogacestat (Gamma Secretase Inhibitor)

Nirogacestat is an oral, selective, small molecule, gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) in Phase 3 clinical development for patients with desmoid tumors. Gamma secretase is a protease complex that cleaves, or divides, multiple transmembrane protein complexes, including Notch, which, when dysregulated, can play a role in activating pathways that contribute to desmoid tumor growth.

Gamma secretase has also been shown to directly cleave BCMA, a therapeutic target that is highly expressed on multiple myeloma cells. By inhibiting gamma secretase with nirogacestat, membrane-bound BCMA can be preserved, thereby increasing target density while simultaneously reducing levels of soluble BCMA, which may serve as decoy receptors for BCMA-directed therapies. Together, these mechanisms combine to potentially enhance the activity of BCMA therapies and improve outcomes for multiple myeloma patients. SpringWorks is seeking to advance nirogacestat as a cornerstone of multiple myeloma combination therapy in collaboration with industry leaders who are advancing BCMA therapies.

SpringWorks Therapeutics Announces Clinical Collaboration with Pfizer

By Satish  October 05, 2020 

SpringWorks Therapeutics today announced that the company has entered into a clinical trial collaboration agreement with Pfizer to evaluate SpringWorks Therapeutics’ investigational gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI), nirogacestat, in combination with Pfizer’s anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) CD3 bispecific antibody, PF‐06863135, in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Gamma secretase inhibition prevents the cleavage and shedding of BCMA from the surface of myeloma cells. In preclinical models, nirogacestat has been shown to increase the cell surface density of BCMA and reduce levels of soluble BCMA, thereby enhancing the activity of BCMA-targeted therapies, including CD3 bispecific antibodies.

Saqib Islam, Chief Executive Officer of SpringWorks Therapeutics Said: This collaboration is another important step in continuing to advance our goal of developing nirogacestat as a best-in-class BCMA potentiator, and we are pleased to work with Pfizer to study nirogacestat in combination with PF‐06863135, which has recently demonstrated promising monotherapy clinical data, We now have five collaborations with industry-leading BCMA developers to evaluate nirogacestat in combinations across modalities. We look forward to generating clinical data with our collaborators to further evaluate the ability of nirogacestat to improve outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma.

Under the terms of the agreement, Pfizer will sponsor and conduct the Phase 1b/2 study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of the combination, and will assume all costs associated with the study, other than expenses related to the manufacturing of nirogacestat and certain expenses related to intellectual property rights. Pfizer and SpringWorks Therapeutics will also form a joint development committee to manage the clinical study, which is expected to commence in the first half of 2021.

Chris Boshoff, MD, PhD, Chief Development Officer for Pfizer Oncology at Pfizer Said: Entering into this clinical collaboration is a proud milestone in our strong relationship with SpringWorks,We believe that studying nirogacestat in combination with PF-06863135 could hold significant therapeutic promise for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, and we look forward to working together to advance this important area of research.

In addition to its ongoing clinical collaborations with BCMA-directed therapies, SpringWorks is also currently conducting a global Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial (the DeFi Trial) to evaluate nirogacestat in adults with progressing desmoid tumors.

About Nirogacestat

Nirogacestat is an investigational, oral, selective, small molecule gamma secretase inhibitor in Phase 3 clinical development for desmoid tumors, which are rare and often debilitating and disfiguring soft-tissue tumors. Gamma secretase cleaves multiple transmembrane protein complexes, including Notch, which is believed to play a role in activating pathways that contribute to desmoid tumor growth.

In addition, gamma secretase has been shown to directly cleave membrane-bound BCMA, resulting in the release of the BCMA extracellular domain, or ECD, from the cell surface. By inhibiting gamma secretase, membrane-bound BCMA can be preserved, increasing target density while reducing levels of soluble BCMA ECD, which may serve as decoy receptors for BCMA-directed therapies. Nirogacestat’s ability to enhance the activity of BCMA-directed therapies has been observed in preclinical models of multiple myeloma. SpringWorks is evaluating nirogacestat as a BCMA potentiator and has five collaborations with industry-leading BCMA developers to evaluate nirogacestat in combinations across modalities, including with an antibody-drug conjugate, two CAR T cell therapies and two bispecific antibodies. In addition, SpringWorks and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have entered into a sponsored research agreement to further characterize the ability of nirogacestat to modulate BCMA and potentiate BCMA directed therapies using a variety of preclinical and patient-derived multiple myeloma models developed by researchers at Fred Hutch.

Nirogacestat has received Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of desmoid tumors (June 2018) and from the European Commission for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma (September 2019). The FDA also granted Fast Track and Breakthrough Therapy Designations for the treatment of adult patients with progressive, unresectable, recurrent or refractory desmoid tumors or deep fibromatosis (November 2018 and August 2019).

About PF‐06863135

PF‐06863135 is an anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) CD3 bispecific antibody being investigated in a Phase 1 clinical study to treat relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. This bispecific antibody can be administered subcutaneously and has been optimized for binding affinity to both BCMA and CD3, enabling more potent T-cell-mediated tumor cell toxicity.

Source: SpringWorks Therapeutics

FDA Grants Breakthrough Designation to Nirogacestat for Desmoid Tumors

The FDA has granted nirogacestat, an investigational gamma-secretase inhibitor, with a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of adult patients with progressive, unresectable, recurrent or refractory desmoid tumors or deep fibromatosis.

The FDA has granted nirogacestat (PF-03084014), an investigational gamma-secretase inhibitor, with a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of adult patients with progressive, unresectable, recurrent or refractory desmoid tumors or deep fibromatosis.1

The breakthrough designation was granted as a result of positive findings seen in phase I and II trials of nirogacestat monotherapy in patients with desmoid tumors. A phase III trial has also been initiated investigating nirogacestat in patients with desmoid tumors or aggressive fibromatosis (NCT03785964).

“We are committed to pursuing the rapid development of nirogacestat given the important need for new therapies for patients with desmoid tumors and are pleased to receive this breakthrough therapy designation,” Saqib Islam, CEO of SpringWorks, the company developing the small molecule inhibitor, said in a statement. “We are currently enrolling adult patients in our phase III DeFi trial and will continue to work closely with the FDA with the goal of bringing nirogacestat to patients as quickly as possible.”

The open-label, single-center phase II trial of nirogacestat enrolled 17 patients with desmoid tumors who were not eligible for surgical resection or definitive radiation therapy and who had experienced disease progression after at least 1 prior treatment regimen. Patients received 150 mg twice per day of continuous, oral nirogacestat in 21-day cycles.2

The median age of patients was 34 years (range, 19-69), 82% of the patients were female, and 53% of patients had aCTNNB1T41A somatic missense mutation. The median number of prior therapies was 4 (range, 1-9), which included cytotoxic chemotherapy in 71% and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in 59%.

Sixteen patients were evaluable for response. After a median follow-up of more than 25 months, 5 patients (29%) achieved a partial response and 11 (65%) had stable disease, for a disease control rate of 100%. Ten patients (59%) remained on treatment with nirogacestat for more than 2 years.

Grade 1/2 adverse events were observed in all patients, with diarrhea (76%) and skin disorders (71%) being the most common toxicities. The only treatment-related grade 3 event was reversible hypophosphatemia, which was reported in 8 patients (47%) and was considered to be a class effect of gamma-secretase inhibitors. Four patients met the criteria for dose reduction.

Findings from the phase I study also showed a disease control rate of 100% with nirogacestat. However, the median progression-free survival was not reached in either study due to a lack of patients progressing on treatment. Only 1 patient discontinued treatment due to an adverse event between the 2 studies.1

The FDA had previously granted nirogacestat with an orphan drug designation in June 2018 for the treatment of desmoid tumors, and with a fast track designation in November 2018 for the treatment of adult patients with progressive, unresectable, recurrent or refractory desmoid tumors or deep fibromatosis.

References

  1. SpringWorks Therapeutics Receives Breakthrough Therapy Designation for Nirogacestat for the Treatment of Adult Patients with Progressive, Unresectable, Recurrent or Refractory Desmoid Tumors [press release]. Stamford, CT: SpringWorks Therapeutics, Inc; August 29, 2019. https://bit.ly/30IV0Eb. Accessed September 3, 2019.
  2. Kummar S, O’Sullivan Coyne G, Do KT, et al. Clinical Activity of the γ-Secretase Inhibitor PF-03084014 in Adults With Desmoid Tumors (Aggressive Fibromatosis).J Clin Oncol.2017;35(14):1561-1569. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.71.1994.

PAPER

str1-png

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters (2011), 21(9), 2637-40.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960894X10018822

Design, synthesis, and in vivo characterization of a novel series of tetralin amino imidazoles as γ-secretase inhibitors: Discovery of PF-3084014 - ScienceDirect
Design, synthesis, and in vivo characterization of a novel series of tetralin amino imidazoles as γ-secretase inhibitors: Discovery of PF-3084014 - ScienceDirect
Design, synthesis, and in vivo characterization of a novel series of tetralin amino imidazoles as γ-secretase inhibitors: Discovery of PF-3084014 - ScienceDirect

PATENT

WO 2016089208

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016089208

PATENT

WO-2021029854

Novel, stable crystalline polymorphic (A to N) and amorphous forms of nirogacestat hydrobromide , useful for treating desmoid tumors such as multiple myeloma, a cancer having a mutation in a Notch pathway gene, adenoid cystic carcinoma and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

(S)-2-(((S)-6,8-difluoro-l,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)amino)-N-(l-(2- methyl- l-(neopentylamino) propan-2-yl)-lH-imidazol-4-yl)pentanamide (“Compound 1”) is a gamma-secretase inhibitor which can inhibit Ab-peptide production.

[0003] Not all compounds that are gamma-secretase inhibitors have characteristics affording the best potential to become useful therapeutics. Some of these characteristics include high affinity at the gamma-secretase, duration of gamma-secretase deactivation, oral bioavailability, tissue distribution, and stability (e.g., ability to formulate or crystallize, shelf life). Favorable characteristics can lead to improved safety, tolerability, efficacy, therapeutic index, patient compliance, cost efficiency, manufacturing ease, etc.

[0004] In addition, the isolation and commercial -scale preparation of a solid state form of hydrobromide salts of Compound 1 and corresponding pharmaceutical formulations having acceptable solid state properties (including chemical stability, thermal stability, solubility, hygroscopicity, and/or particle size), compound manufacturability (including yield, impurity rejection during crystallization, filtration properties, drying properties, and milling properties), and formulation feasibility (including stability with respect to pressure or compression forces during tableting) present a number of challenges.

[0005] Accordingly, there is a current need for one or more solid state forms of hydrobromide salts of Compound 1 that have an acceptable balance of these properties and can be used in the preparation of pharmaceutically acceptable solid dosage forms.

Crystalline Form A

[0147] In one aspect, the present disclosure relates to crystalline Form A of a hydrobromide salt of (S)-2-(((S)-6,8-difluoro-l,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)amino)- N-(l -(2 -methyl- l-(neopentylamino) propan-2-yl)-lH-imidazol-4-yl)pentanamide having Formula (I),

[0148] In one embodiment, crystalline Form A is anhydrous.

[0149] In another embodiment, the melting point of crystalline Form A is about 254 °C.

[0150] In another embodiment, Form A is characterized by an XRPD pattern having peaks at 8.8 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.2, and 23.3 ± 0.2 degrees two theta when measured by Cu Ka radiation. In another embodiment, Form A is characterized by an XRPD pattern having peaks at 8.8 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.2, 23.3 ± 0.2, 25.4 ± 0.2, 28.0 ± 0.2, and 29.3 ± 0.2 degrees two theta when measured by Cu Ka radiation. In another embodiment, Form A is characterized by an XRPD pattern having peaks at 8.8 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.2, 20.0 ± 0.2, 23.3 ± 0.2, 25.4 ± 0.2, 28.0 ± 0.2, 29.3 ± 0.2, and 32.5 ± 0.2 degrees two theta when measured by Cu Ka radiation.

Patent

Product case, WO2005092864 ,

hold protection in the EU states until March 2025, and expire in the US in February 2026 with US154 extension.

PATENT

WO2020208572 , co-assigned to GSK and SpringWorks, claiming a combination of nirogacestat with anti-BCMA antibody (eg belantamab mafodotin ), for treating cancer.

PATENT

US10590087 , for a prior filing from Pfizer, claiming crystalline forms of nirogacestat hydrobromide.

////////////NIROGACESTAT, orphan drug designation, esmoid tumors,  fast track designation, PF-03084014, PF 03084014, QZ62892OFJ , UNII:QZ62892OFJ ,UNII-QZ62892OFJ, ,нирогацестат , نيروغاسيستات , 尼罗司他 , ニロガセスタット, phase 3

CCCC(C(=O)NC1=CN(C=N1)C(C)(C)CNCC(C)(C)C)NC2CCC3=C(C2)C(=CC(=C3)F)F

Ansuvimab-zykl


Ebola Virus Treatment Ebanga Gets FDA Approval - MPR

Ansuvimab-zykl

FDA APPROVED, 12/21/2020, EBANGA

To treat ebola

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-approves-treatment-ebola-virus

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Ebanga (Ansuvimab-zykl), a human monoclonal antibody, for the treatment for Zaire ebolavirus (Ebolavirus) infection in adults and children. Ebanga blocks binding of the virus to the cell receptor, preventing its entry into the cell.

Zaire ebolavirus is one of four Ebolavirus species that can cause a potentially fatal human disease. It is transmitted through blood, body fluids, and tissues of infected people or wild animals, and through surfaces and materials, such as bedding and clothing, contaminated with these fluids. Individuals who care for people with the disease, including health care workers who do not use correct infection control precautions, are at the highest risk for infection.

During an Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 2018-2019, Ebanga was evaluated in a clinical trial (the PALM trial). The PALM trial was led by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the DRC’s Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale with contributions from several other international organizations and agencies.

In the PALM trial, the safety and efficacy of Ebanga was evaluated in a multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. 174 participants (120 adults and 54 pediatric patients) with confirmed Ebolavirus infection received Ebanga intravenously as a single 50 mg/kg infusion and 168 participants (135 adults and 33 pediatric patients) received an investigational control. The primary efficacy endpoint was 28-day mortality. The primary analysis population was all patients who were randomized and concurrently eligible to receive either Ebanga or the investigational control during the same time period of the trial. Of the 174 patients who received Ebanga, 35.1% died after 28 days, compared to 49.4% of the 168 patients who received a control.

The most common symptoms experienced while receiving Ebanga include: fever, tachycardia (fast heart rate), diarrhea, vomiting, hypotension (low blood pressure), tachypnea (fast breathing) and chills; however, these are also common symptoms of Ebolavirus infection. Hypersensitivity, including infusion-related events, can occur in patients taking Ebanga, and treatment should be discontinued in the event of a hypersensitivity reaction.

Patients who receive Ebanga should avoid the concurrent administration of a live virus vaccine against Ebolavirus. There is the potential for Ebanga to inhibit replication of a live vaccine virus and possibly reduce the efficacy of this vaccine.

Ebanga was granted an Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage drug development for rare diseases. Additionally, the agency granted Ebanga a Breakthrough Therapy designation.

FDA granted the approval to Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, LP.

Ansuvimab, sold under the brand name Ebanga, is a monoclonal antibody medication for the treatment of Zaire ebolavirus (Ebolavirus) infection.[1][2]

The most common symptoms include fever, tachycardia (fast heart rate), diarrhea, vomiting, hypotension (low blood pressure), tachypnea (fast breathing) and chills; however, these are also common symptoms of Ebolavirus infection.[1]

Ansuvimab was approved for medical use in the United States in December 2020.[1][2]

Chemistry

The drug is composed of a single monoclonal antibody (mAb) and was initially isolated from immortalized B-cells that were obtained from a survivor of the 1995 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in KikwitDemocratic Republic of Congo.[3] In work supported by the United States National Institutes of Health and the Defense Advanced Projects Agency, the heavy and light chain sequences of ansuvimab mAb was cloned into CHO cell lines and initial production runs were produced by Cook Phamica d.b.a. Catalent under contract of Medimmune.[4][5]

Mechanism of action

Neutralization

Ansuvimab is a monoclonal antibody therapy that is infused intravenously into patients with Ebola virus disease. Ansuvimab is a neutralizing antibody,[3] meaning it binds to a protein on the surface of Ebola virus that is required to infect cells. Specifically, ansuvimab neutralizes infection by binding to a region of the Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein that, in the absence of ansuvimab, would interact with virus’s cell receptor protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1).[6][7][8] This “competition” by ansuvimab prevents Ebola virus from binding to NPC1 and “neutralizes” the virus’s ability to infect the targeted cell.[6]

Effector function

Antibodies have antigen-binding fragment (Fab) regions and constant fragment (Fc) regions. The Neutralization of virus infection occurs when the Fab regions of antibodies binds to virus antigen(s) in a manner that blocks infection. Antibodies are also able to “kill” virus particles directly and/or kill infected cells using antibody-mediated “effector functions” such as opsonization, complement-dependent cytotoxicityantibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent phagocytosis. These effector functions are contained in the Fc region of antibodies, but is also dependent on binding of the Fab region to antigen. Effector functions also require the use of complement proteins in serum or Fc-receptor on cell membranes. Ansuvimab has been found to be capable of killing cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.[3] Other functional killing tests have not been performed.

History

Ansuvimab is a monoclonal antibody that is being evaluated as a treatment for Ebola virus disease.[9] Its discovery was led by the laboratory of Nancy Sullivan at the United States National Institute of Health Vaccine Research Center and J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum from the Institut National pour la Recherche Biomedicale (INRB) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, working in collaboration with the Institute of Biomedical Research and the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.[3][10] Ansuvimab was isolated from the blood of a survivor of the 1995 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in KikwitDemocratic Republic of Congo roughly ten years later.[3]

In 2018, a Phase 1 clinical trial of ansuvimab was conducted by Martin Gaudinski within the Vaccine Research Center Clinical Trials Program that is led by Julie E. Ledgerwood.[5][4][11] Ansuvimab is also being evaluated during the 2018 North Kivu Ebola outbreak.[12]

Ansuvimab has also shown success with lowering the mortality rate from ~70% to about 34%. In August 2019, Congolese health authorities, the World Health Organization, and the U.S. National Institutes of Health promoted the use of ansuvimab, alongside REGN-EB3, a similar Regeneron-produced monoclonal antibody treatment, over other treatments yielding higher mortality rates, after ending clinical trials during the outbreak.[13][14]

Discovery

A 2016 paper describes the efforts of how ansuvimab was originally developed as part of research efforts lead by Dr. Nancy Sullivan at the United States National Institute of Health Vaccine Research Center and Dr. J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum from the Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale (INRB) in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[3][10] This collaborative effort also involved researchers from Institute of Biomedical Research and the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases.[3][10] A survivor from the 1995 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in KikwitDemocratic Republic of Congo donated blood to the project that began roughly ten years after they had recovered.[3] Memory B cells isolated from the survivor’s blood were immortalized, cultured and screened for their ability to produce monoclonal antibodies that reacted with the glycoprotein of Ebola virus. Ansuvimab was identified from one of these cultures and the antibody heavy and light chain gene sequences were sequenced from the cells.[3] These sequences were then cloned into recombinant DNA plasmids and purified antibody protein for initial studies was produced in cells derived from HEK 293 cells.[3]

Ansuvimab and mAb100 combination

In an experiment described in the 2016 paper, rhesus macaques were infected with Ebola virus and treated with a combination of ansuvimab and another antibody isolated from the same subject, mAb100. Three doses of the combination were given once a day starting 1 day after the animals were infected. The control animal died and the treated animals all survived.[3]

Ansuvimab monotherapy

In a second experiment described in the 2016 paper, rhesus macaques were infected with Ebola virus and only treated with ansuvimab. Three doses of ansuvimab were given once a day starting 1 day or 5 days after the animals were infected. The control animals died and the treated animals all survived.[3] Unpublished data referred to in a publication of the 2018 Phase I clinical trial results of ansuvimab, reported that a single infusion of ansuvimab provided full protection of rhesus macaques and was the basis of the dosing used for human studies.[5][4]

Development

Ansuvimab was developed by the Vaccine Research Center with support of the United States National Institutes of Health and the Defense Advanced Projects Agency. The heavy and light chain sequences of ansuvimab mAb were cloned into CHO cell lines to enable large-scale production of antibody product for use in humans.[4][5]

Human safety testing

In early 2018,[9] a Phase 1 clinical trial of ansuvimab’s safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics was conducted by Dr. Martin Gaudinski within the Vaccine Research Center Clinical Trials Program that is led by Dr. Julie E. Ledgerwood.[5][4][11] The study was performed in the United States at the NIH Clinical Center and tested single dose infusions of ansuvimab infused over 30 minutes. The study showed that ansuvimab was safe, had minimal side effects and had a half-life of 24 days.[5][4]

Ridgeback Biotherapeutics

A license for ansuvimab was obtained by Ridgeback Biotherapeutics in 2018, from the National Institutes of HealthNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.[15] Ansuvimab was given orphan drug status in May 2019 and March 2020.[16][17][18]

Experimental use in the Democratic Republic of Congo

During the 2018 Équateur province Ebola outbreak, ansuvimab was requested by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Ministry of Public Health. Ansuvimab was approved for compassionate use by the World Health Organization MEURI ethical protocol and at DRC ethics board. Ansuvimab was sent along with other therapeutic agents to the outbreak sites.[19][20][11] However, the outbreak came to a conclusion before any therapeutic agents were given to patients.[11]

Approximately one month following the conclusion of the Équateur province outbreak, a distinct outbreak was noted in Kivu in the DRC (2018–20 Kivu Ebola outbreak). Once again, ansuvimab received approval for compassionate use by WHO MEURI and DRC ethic boards and has been given to many patients under these protocols.[11] In November 2018, the Pamoja Tulinde Maisha (PALM [together save lives]) open-label randomized clinical control trial was begun at multiple treatment units testing ansuvimab, REGN-EB3 and remdesivir to ZMapp. Despite the difficulty of running a clinical trial in a conflict zone, investigators have enrolled 681 patients towards their goal of 725. An interim analysis by the Data Safety and Monitoring Board (DSMB) of the first 499 patient found that ansuvimab and REGN-EB3 were superior to the comparator ZMapp. Overall mortality of patients in the ZMapp and remdesivir groups were 49% and 53% compared to 34% and 29% for ansuvimab and REGN-EB3. When looking at patients who arrived early after disease symptoms appeared, survival was 89% for ansuvimab and 94% for REGN-EB3. While the study was not powered to determine whether there is any difference between REGN-EB3 and ansuvimab, the survival difference between those two therapies and ZMapp was significant. This led to the DSMB halting the study and PALM investigators dropping the remdesivir and ZMapp arms from the clinical trial. All patients in the outbreak who elect to participate in the trial will now be given either ansuvimab or REGN-EB3.[21][22][13][12]

In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab (Inmazeb, formerly REGN-EB3) with an indication for the treatment of infection caused by Zaire ebolavirus.[23]

FDA approves ansuvimab-zykl for Ebola virus infection

DECEMBER 21, 2020 BY JANICE REICHERThttps://www.antibodysociety.org/antibody-therapeutic/fda-approves-ansuvimab-zykl-for-ebola-virus-infection/embed/#?secret=zWW0Sr0BdW

On December 21, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Ebanga (ansuvimab-zykl) for the treatment for Zaire ebolavirus (Ebolavirus) infection in adults and children. Ebanga had been granted US Orphan Drug designation and Breakthrough Therapy designations. Ansuvimab is a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds and neutralizes the virus.

The safety and efficacy of Ebanga were evaluated in the multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled PALM trial. In this study, 174 participants (120 adults and 54 pediatric patients) with confirmed Ebolavirus infection received Ebanga intravenously as a single 50 mg/kg infusion and 168 participants (135 adults and 33 pediatric patients) received an investigational control. The primary efficacy endpoint was 28-day mortality. Of the 174 patients who received Ebanga, 35.1% died after 28 days, compared to 49.4% of the 168 patients who received a control.

Ebanga is the 12th antibody therapeutic to be granted a first approval in the US or EU during 2020.

The Antibody Society maintains a comprehensive table of approved monoclonal antibody therapeutics and those in regulatory review in the EU or US. The table, which is located in the Web Resources section of the Society’s website, can be downloaded in Excel format.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d “FDA Approves Treatment for Ebola Virus”U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 21 December 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP Announces the Approval of Ebanga for Ebola” (Press release). Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP. 22 December 2020. Retrieved 23 December 2020– via Business Wire.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Corti D, Misasi J, Mulangu S, Stanley DA, Kanekiyo M, Wollen S, et al. (March 2016). “Protective monotherapy against lethal Ebola virus infection by a potently neutralizing antibody”Science351 (6279): 1339–42. Bibcode:2016Sci…351.1339Cdoi:10.1126/science.aad5224PMID 26917593.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e f Clinical trial number NCT03478891 for “Safety and Pharmacokinetics of a Human Monoclonal Antibody, VRC-EBOMAB092-00-AB (MAb114), Administered Intravenously to Healthy Adults” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f Gaudinski MR, Coates EE, Novik L, Widge A, Houser KV, Burch E, et al. (March 2019). “Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of the therapeutic monoclonal antibody ansuvimab targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein (VRC 608): an open-label phase 1 study”Lancet393 (10174): 889–898. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30036-4PMC 6436835PMID 30686586.
  6. Jump up to:a b Misasi J, Gilman MS, Kanekiyo M, Gui M, Cagigi A, Mulangu S, et al. (March 2016). “Structural and molecular basis for Ebola virus neutralization by protective human antibodies”Science351 (6279): 1343–6. Bibcode:2016Sci…351.1343Mdoi:10.1126/science.aad6117PMC 5241105PMID 26917592.
  7. ^ Côté M, Misasi J, Ren T, Bruchez A, Lee K, Filone CM, et al. (August 2011). “Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection”Nature477 (7364): 344–8. Bibcode:2011Natur.477..344Cdoi:10.1038/nature10380PMC 3230319PMID 21866101.
  8. ^ Carette JE, Raaben M, Wong AC, Herbert AS, Obernosterer G, Mulherkar N, et al. (August 2011). “Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1”Nature477 (7364): 340–3. Bibcode:2011Natur.477..340Cdoi:10.1038/nature10348PMC 3175325PMID 21866103.
  9. Jump up to:a b “NIH begins testing Ebola treatment in early-stage trial”National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2018-05-23. Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  10. Jump up to:a b c Hayden EC (2016-02-26). “Ebola survivor’s blood holds promise of new treatment”Naturedoi:10.1038/nature.2016.19440ISSN 1476-4687.
  11. Jump up to:a b c d e “NIH VideoCast – CC Grand Rounds: Response to an Outbreak: Ebola Virus Monoclonal Antibody (mAb114) Rapid Clinical Development”videocast.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  12. Jump up to:a b Kingsley-Hall A. “Congo’s experimental mAb114 Ebola treatment appears successful: authorities | Central Africa”http://www.theafricareport.com. Retrieved 2018-10-15.
  13. Jump up to:a b McNeil DG (12 August 2019). “A Cure for Ebola? Two New Treatments Prove Highly Effective in Congo”The New York Times. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  14. ^ Molteni M (12 August 2019). “Ebola is Now Curable. Here’s How The New Treatments Work”Wired. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  15. ^ “Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP announces licensing of mAb114, an experimental Ebola treatment, from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases” (Press release). Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP. Retrieved 2019-08-17 – via PR Newswire.
  16. ^ “Ansuvimab Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”accessdata.fda.gov. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  17. ^ “Ansuvimab Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”accessdata.fda.gov. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  18. ^ “Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP Announces Orphan Drug Designation for mAb114”(Press release). Ridgeback Biotherapeutics LP. Retrieved 2019-08-17 – via PR Newswire.
  19. ^ Check Hayden, Erika (May 2018). “Experimental drugs poised for use in Ebola outbreak”Nature557 (7706): 475–476. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..475Cdoi:10.1038/d41586-018-05205-xISSN 0028-0836PMID 29789732.
  20. ^ WHO: Consultation on Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered and Investigational Interventions for Ebola virus Disease. https://www.who.int/emergencies/ebola/MEURI-Ebola.pdf
  21. ^ Mole B (2019-08-13). “Two Ebola drugs boost survival rates, according to early trial data”Ars Technica. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  22. ^ “Independent monitoring board recommends early termination of Ebola therapeutics trial in DRC because of favorable results with two of four candidates”National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2019-08-12. Retrieved 2019-08-17.
  23. ^ “FDA Approves First Treatment for Ebola Virus”U.S. Food and Drug Administration(FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External links

  • “Ansuvimab”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Monoclonal antibody
TypeWhole antibody
SourceHuman
TargetZaire ebolavirus
Clinical data
Trade namesEbanga
Other namesAnsuvimab-zykl, mAb114
License dataUS DailyMedAnsuvimab
Routes of
administration
Intravenous
Drug classMonoclonal antibody
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
CAS Number2375952-29-5
DrugBankDB16385
UNIITG8IQ19NG2
KEGGD11875
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6368H9924N1724O1994S44
Molar mass143950.15 g·mol−1

//////////Ansuvimab-zykl , EBANGA, FDA 2020, 2020 APPROVALS, MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY, Orphan Drug designation, , Breakthrough Therapy designation , Ridgeback Biotherapeutics, 

CK-101


N-[3-[2-[2,3-Difluoro-4-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]anilino]quinazolin-8-yl]phenyl]prop-2-enamide.png

CK-101, RX-518

CAS 1660963-42-7

MF C29 H28 F2 N6 O2
MW 530.57
2-Propenamide, N-[3-[2-[[2,3-difluoro-4-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]amino]-8-quinazolinyl]phenyl]-

N-[3-[2-[[2,3-Difluoro-4-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]amino]quinazolin-8-yl]phenyl]acrylamide

N-(3-(2-((2,3-Difluoro-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)amino)quinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide

EGFR-IN-3

UNII-708TLB8J3Y

708TLB8J3Y

AK543910

Suzhou NeuPharma (Originator)
Checkpoint Therapeutics

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapy
Solid Tumors Therapy

PHASE 2 Checkpoint Therapeutics, Cancer, lung (non-small cell) (NSCLC), solid tumour

RX518(CK-101) is an orally available third-generation and selective inhibitor of certain epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, including the resistance mutation T790M, and the L858R and exon 19 deletion (del 19) mutations, with potential antineoplastic activity.

In August 2019, Suzhou Neupharma and its licensee Checkpoint Therapeutics are developing CK-101 (phase II clinical trial), a novel third-generation, covalent, EGFR inhibitor, as a capsule formulation, for the treatment of cancers including NSCLC and other advanced solid tumors. In September 2017, the FDA granted Orphan Drug designation to this compound, for the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC; in January 2018, the capsule was being developed as a class 1 chemical drug in China.

CK-101 (RX-518), a small-molecule inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is in early clinical development at Checkpoint Therapeutics and Suzhou NeuPharma for the potential treatment of EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other advanced solid malignancies.

In 2015, Suzhou NeuPharma granted a global development and commercialization license to its EGFR inhibitor program, excluding certain Asian countries, to Coronado Biosciences (now Fortress Biotech). Subsequently, Coronado assigned the newly acquired program to its subsidiary Checkpoint Therapeutics.

In 2017, the product was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC.

There are at least 400 enzymes identified as protein kinases. These enzymes catalyze the phosphorylation of target protein substrates. The phosphorylation is usually a transfer reaction of a phosphate group from ATP to the protein substrate. The specific structure in the target substrate to which the phosphate is transferred is a tyrosine, serine or threonine residue. Since these amino acid residues are the target structures for the phosphoryl transfer, these protein kinase enzymes are commonly referred to as tyrosine kinases or serine/threonine kinases.

[0003] The phosphorylation reactions, and counteracting phosphatase reactions, at the tyrosine, serine and threonine residues are involved in countless cellular processes that underlie responses to diverse intracellular signals (typically mediated through cellular receptors), regulation of cellular functions, and activation or deactivation of cellular processes. A cascade of protein kinases often participate in intracellular signal transduction and are necessary for the realization of these cellular processes. Because of their ubiquity in these processes, the protein kinases can be found as an integral part of the plasma membrane or as cytoplasmic enzymes or localized in the nucleus, often as components of enzyme complexes. In many instances, these protein kinases are an essential element of enzyme and structural protein complexes that determine where and when a cellular process occurs within a cell.

[0004] The identification of effective small compounds which specifically inhibit signal transduction and cellular proliferation by modulating the activity of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases to regulate and modulate abnormal or inappropriate cell proliferation, differentiation, or metabolism is therefore desirable. In particular, the identification of compounds that specifically inhibit the function of a kinase which is essential for processes leading to cancer would be beneficial.

[0005] While such compounds are often initially evaluated for their activity when dissolved in solution, solid state characteristics such as polymorphism are also important. Polymorphic forms of a drug substance, such as a kinase inhibitor, can have different physical properties, including melting point, apparent solubility, dissolution rate, optical and mechanical properties, vapor pressure, and density. These properties can have a direct effect on the ability to process or manufacture a drug substance and the drug product. Moreover, differences in these properties

can and often lead to different pharmacokinetics profiles for different polymorphic forms of a drug. Therefore, polymorphism is often an important factor under regulatory review of the ‘sameness’ of drug products from various manufacturers. For example, polymorphism has been evaluated in many multi-million dollar and even multi-billion dollar drugs, such as warfarin sodium, famotidine, and ranitidine. Polymorphism can affect the quality, safety, and/or efficacy of a drug product, such as a kinase inhibitor. Thus, there still remains a need for polymorphs of kinase inhibitors. The present disclosure addresses this need and provides related advantages as well.

PATENT

WO2015027222

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015027222

PATENT

WO-2019157225

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019157225&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P10-JZNKMN-12945-1

Crystalline form II-VIII of the compound presumed to be CK-101 (first disclosed in WO2015027222 ), for treating a disorder mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) eg cancer.

SCHEME A

Scheme B

General Procedures

Example 1: Preparation of the compound of Formula I (N-(3-(2-((2,3-difluoro-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)amino)quinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide)

[0253] To a solution of l,2,3-trifluoro-4-nitrobenzene (2.5 g, 14 mmol, 1.0 eq.) in DMF (20 mL) was added K2C03 (3.8 g, 28 mmol, 2.0 eq.) followed by 2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (1.8 g, 14 mmol, 1.0 eq.) at 0 °C and the mixture was stirred at r.t. overnight. The mixture was poured into ice-water (200 mL), filtered and dried in vacuo to afford 2-(4-(2,3-difluoro-4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (2.7 g, 67.5%).

[0254] To a solution of 2-(4-(2,3-difluoro-4-nitrophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (2.7 g, 9.0 mmol) in MeOH (30 mL) was added Pd/C (270 mg) and the resulting mixture was stirred at r.t.

overnight. The Pd/C was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to afford 2-(4-(4-amino-2,3-difluorophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (2.39 g, 99% yield) as off-white solid.

[0255] To a solution of 8-bromo-2-chloroquinazoline (15.4 g, 63.6 mmol, 1 eq. ) and (3-aminophenyl)boronic acid (8.7 g, 63.6 mmol, 1 eq.) in dioxane/H20 (200 mL/20 mL) was added Na2C03 (13.5 g, 127.2 mmol, 2 eq.), followed by Pd(dppf)Cl2 (2.6 g, 3.2 mmol, 0.05 eq.) under N2, then the mixture was stirred at 80 °C for 12 h. Then the solution was cooled to r.t.,

concentrated and the residue was purified via column chromatography (PE/EA=3 :2, v/v) to afford 3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)aniline as yellow solid (8.7 g, 53.7% yield).

[0256] To a solution of 3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)aniline (8.7 g, 34 mmol, 1 eq.) in DCM ( 200 mL ) cooled in ice-bath was added TEA (9.5 mL, 68 mmol, 2 eq. ), followed by acryloyl chloride (4.1 mL, 51 mmol, 1.5 eq.) dropwise. The resulting mixture was stirred at r.t. for 1 h, then washed with brine, dried over anhydrous N2S04 concentrated and the residue was purified via column chromatography (PE/EA=l : 1, v:v) to afford N-(3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acryl amide as yellow solid(6.6 g, 65% yield).

[0257] To a suspension of 2-(4-(4-amino-2,3-difluorophenyl)piperazin-l-yl)ethanol (83 mg,

0.32 mmol, 1 eq.) and N-(3-(2-chloroquinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide (100 mg, 0.32 mmol, 1 eq.) in n-BuOH (5 mL) was added TFA (68 mg, 0.64 mmol, 2 eq.) and the resulting mixture was stirred at 90 °C overnight. The mixture was concentrated, diluted with DCM (20 mL) , washed with Na2C03 solution (20 mL), dried over anhydrous Na2S04, concentrated and the residue was purified via column chromatography (MeOH/DCM=l/30, v:v) to afford N-(3-(2-((2,3-difluoro-4-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-l-yl)phenyl)amino)quinazolin-8-yl)phenyl)acrylamide as a yellow solid(l6.3 mg, 9.5% yield). LRMS (M+H+) m/z calculated 531.2, found 531.2. 1H NMR

(CD3OD, 400 MHz) d 9.21 (s, 1 H), 7.19-8.01 (m, 10 H), 8.90 (s, 1 H), 6.41-6.49 (m, 3 H), 5.86 (m, 1 H), 3.98-4.01 (m, 3 H), 3.70-3.76 (m, 3 H), 3.40-3.49 (m, 2 H), 3.37-3.39 (m, 4 H), 3.18 (m, 2H).

Example 2. Preparation of Form I of the compound of Formula I

[0258] Crude compound of Formula I (~30 g, 75% of weight based assay) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3 L) at 55-65 °C under nitrogen. The resulting solution was filtered via silica gel pad and washed with ethyl acetate (3 L><2) at 55-65 °C. The filtrate was concentrated via vacuum at 30-40 °C to ~2.4 L. The mixture was heated up to 75-85 °C and maintained about 1 hour.

Then cooled down to 50-60 °C and maintained about 2 hours. The heat-cooling operation was repeated again and the mixture was then cooled down to 20-30 °C and stirred for 3 hours. The resulting mixture was filtered and washed with ethyl acetate (60 mL><2). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 30-40 °C to get (about 16 g) of the purified Form I of the compound of Formula I.

Example 3. Preparation of Form III of the compound of Formula I

[0259] The compound of Formula I (2 g) was dissolved in EtOH (40 mL) at 75-85 °C under nitrogen. n-Heptane (40 mL) was added dropwise into reaction at 75-85 °C. The mixture was stirred at 75-85 °C for 1 hour. Then cooled down to 50-60 °C and maintained about 2 hours. The heat-cooling operation was repeated again and continued to cool the mixture down to 20-30 °C and stirred for 3 hours. The resulting mixture was filtered and washed with EtOH/n-Heptane (1/1, 5 mL><2). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 30-40 °C to get the purified Form III of the compound of Formula I (1.7 g).

Example 4. Preparation of Form IV of the compound of Formula I The crude compound of Formula I (15 g) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (600 mL) at 75-85 °C under nitrogen and treated with anhydrous Na2S04, activated carbon, silica metal scavenger for 1 hour. The resulting mixture was filtered via neutral Al203 and washed with ethyl acetate (300 mL><2) at 75-85 °C. The filtrate was concentrated under vacuum at 30-40 °C and swapped with DCM (150 mL). n-Heptane (75 mL) was added into this DCM solution at 35-45 °C, and then the mixture was cooled down to 20-30 °C slowly. The resulting mixture was filtered and washed with DCM/n-Heptane (2/1, 10 mL><3). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 35-40 °C to get the purified Form IV of the compound of Formula I (9.6 g).

Example 5. Preparation of Form V of the compound of Formula I

[0260] Polymorph Form III of the compound of Formula I was dried in oven at 80 °C for 2 days to obtain the polymorph Form V.

Example 6. Preparation of Form VI of the compound of Formula I

[0261] The compound of Formula I (1 g) was dissolved in IPA (20 mL) at 75-85 °C under nitrogen. n-Heptane (20 mL) was added dropwise into reaction at 75-85 °C. The mixture was stirred at 45-55 °C for 16 hours. Then heated up to 75-85 °C and maintained about 0.5 hour.

Then cooled down to 45-55 °C for 0.5 hour and continued to cool the mixture down to 20-30 °C and stirred for 3 hours. Filtered and washed with IPA/n-Heptane (1/1, 3 mL><2). The wet cake was dried via vacuum at 75-80 °C for 2 hours to get the purified Form VI of the compound of Formula I.

Example 7. Preparation of Form VIII of the compound of Formula I

[0262] The polymorph Form VI of the compound of Formula I was dried in oven at 80 °C for 2 days to obtain the polymorph Form VIII.

Example 8. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)

[0263] X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns were obtained on a Bruker D8 Advance. A CuK source (=1.54056 angstrom) operating minimally at 40 kV and 40 mA scans each sample between 4 and 40 degrees 2-theta. The step size is 0.05°C and scan speed is 0.5 second per step.

Example 9. Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA)

[0264] Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out on a TA Instrument TGA unit (Model TGA 500). Samples were heated in platinum pans from ambient to 300 °C at 10 °C/min with a nitrogen purge of 60mL/min (sample purge) and 40mL/min (balance purge). The TGA temperature was calibrated with nickel standard, MP=354.4 °C. The weight calibration was performed with manufacturer-supplied standards and verified against sodium citrate dihydrate desolvation.

Example 10. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

[0265] Differential scanning calorimetry analyses were carried out on a TA Instrument DSC unit (Model DSC 1000 or 2000). Samples were heated in non-hermetic aluminum pans from ambient to 300 °C at 10 °C/min with a nitrogen purge of 50mL/min. The DSC temperature was calibrated with indium standard, onset of l56-l58°C, enthalpy of 25-29J/g.

Example 11. Hygroscopicity (DVS)

[0266] The moisture sorption profile was generated at 25°C using a DVS Moisture Balance Flow System (Model Advantage) with the following conditions: sample size approximately 5 to 10 mg, drying 25°C for 60 minutes, adsorption range 0% to 95% RH, desorption range 95% to 0% RH, and step interval 5%. The equilibrium criterion was <0.01% weight change in 5 minutes for a maximum of 120 minutes.

Example 12: Microscopy

[0267] Microscopy was performed using a Leica DMLP polarized light microscope equipped with 2.5X, 10X and 20X objectives and a digital camera to capture images showing particle shape, size, and crystallinity. Crossed polars were used to show birefringence and crystal habit for the samples dispersed in immersion oil.

Example 13: HPLC

[0256] HPLCs were preformed using the following instrument and/or conditions.

///////////////CK-101 , CK 101 , CK101 , phase II , Suzhou Neupharma, Checkpoint Therapeutics ,  Orphan Drug designation, EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC, NSCLC, CANCER, SOLID TUMOUR,  China, RX-518, AK543910

OCCN1CCN(CC1)c5ccc(Nc2nc3c(cccc3cn2)c4cccc(NC(=O)C=C)c4)c(F)c5F

FDA approves third oncology drug Rozlytrek (entrectinib) that targets a key genetic driver of cancer, rather than a specific type of tumor


FDA approves third oncology drug Rozlytrek (entrectinib) that targets a key genetic driver of cancer, rather than a specific type of tumor 

FDA also approves drug for second indication in a type of lung cancer

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Rozlytrek (entrectinib), a treatment for adult and adolescent patients whose cancers have the specific genetic defect, NTRK (neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase) gene fusion and for whom there are no effective treatments.

“We are in an exciting era of innovation in cancer treatment as we continue to see development in tissue agnostic therapies, which have the potential to transform cancer treatment. We’re seeing continued advances in the use of biomarkers to guide drug development and the more targeted delivery of medicine,” said FDA Acting Commissioner Ned Sharpless, M.D. “Using the FDA’s expedited review pathways, including breakthrough therapy designation and accelerated approval process, we’re supporting this innovation in precision oncology drug development and the evolution of more targeted and effective treatments for cancer patients. We remain committed to encouraging the advancement of more targeted innovations in oncology treatment and across disease types based on our growing understanding of the underlying biology of diseases.”

This is the third time the agency has approved a cancer treatment based on a common biomarker across different types of tumors rather than the location in the body where the tumor originated. The approval marks a new paradigm in the development of cancer drugs that are “tissue agnostic.” It follows the policies that the FDA developed in a guidance document released in 2018. The previous tissue agnostic indications approved by the FDA were pembrolizumab for tumors with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) tumors in 2017 and larotrectinib for NTRK gene fusion tumors in 2018.

“Today’s approval includes an indication for pediatric patients, 12 years of age and older, who have NTRK-fusion-positive tumors by relying on efficacy information obtained primarily in adults. The FDA continues to encourage the inclusion of adolescents in clinical trials. Traditionally, clinical development of new cancer drugs in pediatric populations is not started until development is well underway in adults, and often not until after approval of an adult indication,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Efficacy in adolescents was derived from adult data and safety was demonstrated in 30 pediatric patients.”

The ability of Rozlytrek to shrink tumors was evaluated in four clinical trials studying 54 adults with NTRK fusion-positive tumors. The proportion of patients with substantial tumor shrinkage (overall response rate) was 57%, with 7.4% of patients having complete disappearance of the tumor. Among the 31 patients with tumor shrinkage, 61% had tumor shrinkage persist for nine months or longer. The most common cancer locations were the lung, salivary gland, breast, thyroid and colon/rectum.

Rozlytrek was also approved today for the treatment of adults with non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors are ROS1-positive (mutation of the ROS1 gene) and has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic). Clinical studies evaluated 51 adults with ROS1-positive lung cancer. The overall response rate was 78%, with 5.9% of patients having complete disappearance of their cancer. Among the 40 patients with tumor shrinkage, 55% had tumor shrinkage persist for 12 months or longer.

Rozlytrek’s common side effects are fatigue, constipation, dysgeusia (distorted sense of taste), edema (swelling), dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, dysesthesia (distorted sense of touch), dyspnea (shortness of breath), myalgia (painful or aching muscles), cognitive impairment (confusion, problems with memory or attention, difficulty speaking, or hallucinations), weight gain, cough, vomiting, fever, arthralgia and vision disorders (blurred vision, sensitivity to light, double vision, worsening of vision, cataracts, or floaters). The most serious side effects of Rozlytrek are congestive heart failure (weakening or damage to the heart muscle), central nervous system effects (cognitive impairment, anxiety, depression including suicidal thinking, dizziness or loss of balance, and change in sleep pattern, including insomnia and excessive sleepiness), skeletal fractures, hepatotoxicity (damage to the liver), hyperuricemia (elevated uric acid), QT prolongation (abnormal heart rhythm) and vision disorders. Health care professionals should inform females of reproductive age and males with a female partner of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Rozlytrek. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Rozlytrek because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or newborn baby.

Rozlytrek was granted accelerated approval. This approval commits the sponsor to provide additional data to the FDA. Rozlytrek also received Priority ReviewBreakthrough Therapy and Orphan Drug designation. The approval of Rozlytrek was granted to Genentech, Inc.

link http://s2027422842.t.en25.com/e/es?s=2027422842&e=244904&elqTrackId=376c7bc788024cd5a73d955f2e3dcbdc&elq=46563b1749694ceb96d9f79a6d5cd8a7&elqaid=9150&elqat=1

///////////////Rozlytrek, entrectinib, accelerated approval, priority ReviewBreakthrough Therapy,  Orphan Drug designation, fda 2019, Genentech, cancer

SELPERCATINIB


img

Selpercatinib.png

SELPERCATINIB

LOXO 292

CAS: 2152628-33-4
Chemical Formula: C29H31N7O3
Molecular Weight: 525.613

CEGM9YBNGD

UNII-CEGM9YBNGD

 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-{6-[(6-methoxypyridin- 3-yl)methyl]-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl}pyridin-3- yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

Selpercatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic properties.

A phase I/II trial is also under way in pediatric patients and young adults with activating RET alterations and advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.

Loxo Oncology (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly ), under license from Array , is developing selpercatinib, a lead from a program of RET kinase inhibitors, for treating cancer, including non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma

In 2018, the compound was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and in the E.U. for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Trk is a high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase activated by a group of soluble growth factors called neurotrophic factor (NT). The Trk receptor family has three members, namely TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Among the neurotrophic factors are (1) nerve growth factor (NGF) which activates TrkA, (2) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT4/5 which activate TrkB, and (3) NT3 which activates TrkC. Trk is widely expressed in neuronal tissues and is involved in the maintenance, signaling and survival of neuronal cells.
The literature also shows that Trk overexpression, activation, amplification and/or mutations are associated with many cancers including neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, astrocytoma. And medulloblastoma, glioma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, large cell neuroendocrine tumor and colorectal cancer. In addition, inhibitors of the Trk/neurotrophin pathway have been shown to be effective in a variety of preclinical animal models for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.
The neurotrophin/Trk pathway, particularly the BDNF/TrkB pathway, has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. The modulating neurotrophic factor/Trk pathway can be used to treat these and related diseases.
It is believed that the TrkA receptor is critical for the disease process in the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in human hosts. Therefore, TrkA inhibitors can be used to treat Chagas disease and related protozoal infections.
Trk inhibitors can also be used to treat diseases associated with imbalances in bone remodeling, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bone metastasis. Bone metastases are a common complication of cancer, up to 70% in patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer and about 15 in patients with lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterine, rectal, thyroid or kidney cancer Up to 30%. Osteolytic metastases can cause severe pain, pathological fractures, life-threatening hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, and other neurostress syndromes. For these reasons, bone metastases are a serious cancer complication that is costly. Therefore, an agent that can induce apoptosis of proliferating bone cells is very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, almost all osteoblast apoptosis agents are very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, localization of NGF was observed in almost all osteoblasts. Recently, it was demonstrated that pan-Trk inhibitors in human hFOB osteoblasts inhibit tyrosine signaling activated by neurotrophic factors that bind to all three Trk receptors. This data supports the theory of using Trk inhibitors to treat bone remodeling diseases, such as bone metastases in cancer patients.
Developed by Loxo Oncology, Larotrectinib (LOXO-101) is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent for all tumor patients expressing Trk, rather than tumors at an anatomical location. LOXO-101 chemical name is (S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)-pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a] Pyrimidin-3-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carboxamide, the structural formula is as follows. LOXO-101 began treatment of the first patient in March 2015; on July 13, 2016, the FDA granted a breakthrough drug qualification for the inoperable removal or metastatic solid tumor of adults and children with positive Trk fusion gene mutations; Key entry was completed in February 2017; in November 2018, the FDA approved the listing under the trade name Vitrakvi.
Poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and/or excretion (ADME) properties are known to be the primary cause of clinical trial failure in many drug candidates. Many of the drugs currently on the market also limit their range of applications due to poor ADME properties. The rapid metabolism of drugs can lead to the inability of many drugs that could be effectively treated to treat diseases because they are too quickly removed from the body. Frequent or high-dose medications may solve the problem of rapid drug clearance, but this approach can lead to problems such as poor patient compliance, side effects caused by high-dose medications, and increased treatment costs. In addition, rapidly metabolizing drugs may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.
Although LOXO-101 is effective as a Trk inhibitor in the treatment of a variety of cancers and the like, it has been found that a novel compound having a good oral bioavailability and a drug-forming property for treating a cancer or the like is a challenging task. Thus, there remains a need in the art to develop compounds having selective inhibitory activity or better pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics for Trk kinase mediated diseases useful as therapeutic agents, and the present invention provides such compounds.
SYN
WO 2018071447

PATENT

WO2018071447

PATENT

US 20190106438

PATENT

WO 2019075108

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019075108&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

Compounds of Formula I-IV, 4-(6-(4-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula I); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula II); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-(6-methoxynicotinoyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula III); and 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(4-hydroxy-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula IV) are inhibitors of RET kinase, and are useful for treating diseases such as proliferative diseases, including cancers.

[0007] Accordingly, provided herein is a compound of Formula I-IV:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, amorphous, and polymorph forms thereof.

PATENT

WO 2019075114

PATENT

WO-2019120194

Novel deuterated analogs of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds, particularly selpercatinib , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pain, inflammation, cancer and certain infectious diseases.

Example 2(S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl-2,3,3-d 3)-pyrazolo[ 1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) -3-hydroxypyrazole prepared pyrrolidine-1-carboxamide (compound L-2) a.

[0163]

[0164]
Use the following route for synthesis:

[0165]
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US10137124 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10172851 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10112942 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2017-12-29

/////////////SELPERCATINIB, non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, LOXO, ELI LILY,  ARRAY, LOXO 292, orphan drug designation

N#CC1=C2C(C3=CC=C(N4CC(C5)N(CC6=CC=C(OC)N=C6)C5C4)N=C3)=CC(OCC(C)(O)C)=CN2N=C1

FDA approves first treatment Ruzurgi (amifampridine) for children with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder


Diaminopyridine.png

FDA approves first treatment Ruzurgi (amifampridine)  for children with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, a rare autoimmune disorder

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Ruzurgi (amifampridine) tablets for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in patients 6 to less than 17 years of age. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment specifically for pediatric patients with LEMS. The only other treatment approved for LEMS is only approved for use in adults.

“We continue to be committed to facilitating the development and approval of treatments for rare diseases, particularly those in children,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval will provide a much-needed treatment option for pediatric patients with LEMS who have significant weakness and fatigue that can often cause great difficulties with daily activities.”

LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connection between nerves and muscles and causes weakness and other symptoms in affected patients. In people with LEMS, the body’s own immune system attacks the neuromuscular junction (the connection between nerves and muscles) and disrupts the ability of nerve cells to send signals to muscle cells. LEMS may be associated with …

May 06, 2019

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Ruzurgi (amifampridine) tablets for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) in patients 6 to less than 17 years of age. This is the first FDA approval of a treatment specifically for pediatric patients with LEMS. The only other treatment approved for LEMS is only approved for use in adults.

“We continue to be committed to facilitating the development and approval of treatments for rare diseases, particularly those in children,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “This approval will provide a much-needed treatment option for pediatric patients with LEMS who have significant weakness and fatigue that can often cause great difficulties with daily activities.”

LEMS is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connection between nerves and muscles and causes weakness and other symptoms in affected patients. In people with LEMS, the body’s own immune system attacks the neuromuscular junction (the connection between nerves and muscles) and disrupts the ability of nerve cells to send signals to muscle cells. LEMS may be associated with other autoimmune diseases, but more commonly occurs in patients with cancer such as small cell lung cancer, where its onset precedes or coincides with the diagnosis of cancer. LEMS can occur at any age. The prevalence of LEMS specifically in pediatric patients is not known, but the overall prevalence of LEMS is estimated to be three per million individuals worldwide.

Use of Ruzurgi in patients 6 to less than 17 years of age is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of the drug in adults with LEMS, pharmacokinetic data in adult patients, pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to identify the dosing regimen in pediatric patients and safety data from pediatric patients 6 to less than 17 years of age.

The effectiveness of Ruzurgi for the treatment of LEMS was established by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal study of 32 adult patients in which patients were taking Ruzurgi for at least three months prior to entering the study. The study compared patients continuing on Ruzurgi to patients switched to placebo. Effectiveness was measured by the degree of change in a test that assessed the time it took the patient to rise from a chair, walk three meters, and return to the chair for three consecutive laps without pause. The patients that continued on Ruzurgi experienced less impairment than those on placebo. Effectiveness was also measured with a self-assessment scale for LEMS-related weakness that evaluated the feeling of weakening or strengthening. The scores indicated greater perceived weakening in the patients switched to placebo.

The most common side effects experienced by pediatric and adult patients taking Ruzurgi were burning or prickling sensation (paresthesia), abdominal pain, indigestion, dizziness and nausea. Side effects reported in pediatric patients were similar to those seen in adult patients. Seizures have been observed in patients without a history of seizures. Patients should inform their health care professional immediately if they have signs of hypersensitivity reactions such as rash, hives, itching, fever, swelling or trouble breathing.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Fast Track designations. Ruzurgi also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Ruzurgi to Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-treatment-children-lambert-eaton-myasthenic-syndrome-rare-autoimmune-disorder?utm_campaign=050619_PR_FDA%20approves%20first%20treatment%20for%20children%20with%20LEMS&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Eloqua

/////////////////FDA 2019, Ruzurgi, amifampridine,  Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, LEMS,  RARE DISEASES, CHILDREN, Jacobus Pharmaceutical Company, Priority Review,  Fast Track designations, Orphan Drug designation

Cladribine, クラドリビン


Cladribine.svgChemSpider 2D Image | Cladribine | C10H12ClN5O3

Cladribine

クラドリビン

Leustatin

クラドリビン

RWJ 26251 / RWJ-26251

  • Molecular FormulaC10H12ClN5O3
  • Average mass285.687 Da
2-chloro-6-amino-9-(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)purine
2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine
4291-63-8 [RN]
6997
adenosine, 2-chloro-2′-deoxy- [ACD/Index Name]
AU7357560
CDA
(2R,3S,5R)-5-(6-Amino-2-chlor-9H-purin-9-yl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-ol
Leustatin (Trade name)
Litak (Trade name)
MLS000759397
Movectro (Trade name)
Mylinax
QA-1968
LAUNCHED, 1993, USA Ortho Biotech, Janssen Biotech

Cladribine, sold under the brand name Leustatin and Mavenclad among others, is a medication used to treat hairy cell leukemia(HCL, leukemic reticuloendotheliosis), B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.[4][5] Its chemical name is 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (2CdA).

Cladribine, a deoxyadenosine derivative developed by Ortho Biotech (currently Janssen), was first launched in the U.S. in 1993 as an intravenous treatment for hairy cell leukemia

Cladribine has been granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. in 1990 for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and hairy cell leukemia

As a purine analog, it is a synthetic chemotherapy agent that targets lymphocytes and selectively suppresses the immune system. Chemically, it mimics the nucleoside adenosine. However, unlike adenosine it is relatively resistant to breakdown by the enzyme adenosine deaminase, which causes it to accumulate in cells and interfere with the cell’s ability to process DNA. Cladribine is taken up cells via a transporter. Once inside a cell cladribine is activated mostly in lymphocytes, when it is triphosphorylated by the enzyme deoxyadenosine kinase (dCK). Various phosphatases dephosphorylate cladribine. Activated, triphosphorylated, cladribine is incorporated into mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, which triggers apoptosis. Non-activated cladribine is removed quickly from all other cells. This means that there is very little non-target cell loss.[4][6]

Medical uses

Cladribine is used for as a first and second-line treatment for symptomatic hairy cell leukemia and for B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is administered by intravenous or subcutaneous infusion.[5][7]

Since 2017, cladribine is approved as an oral formulation (10 mg tablet) for the treatment of RRMS in Europe, UAE, Argentina, Chile, Canada and Australia. Marketing authorization in the US was obtained in March 2019[8].

Some investigators have used the parenteral formulation orally to treat patients with HCL. It is important to note that approximately 40% of oral cladribine in bioavailable orally. It used, often in combination with other cytotoxic agents, to treat various kinds of histiocytosis, including Erdheim–Chester disease[9] and Langerhans cell histiocytosis,[10]

Cladribine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman and is listed by the FDA as Pregnancy Category D; safety and efficacy in children has not been established.[7]

Adverse effects

Injectable cladribine suppresses the body’s ability to make new lymphocytesnatural killer cells and neutrophils (called myelosuppression); data from HCL studies showed that about 70% of people taking the drug had fewer white blood cells and about 30% developed infections and some of those progressed to septic shock; about 40% of people taking the drug had fewer red blood cells and became severely anemic; and about 10% of people had too few platelets.[7]

At the dosage used to treat HCL in two clinical trials, 16% of people had rashes and 22% had nausea, the nausea generally did not lead to vomiting.[7]

In comparison, in MS, cladribine is associated with a 6% rate of severe lymphocyte suppression (lymphopenia) (levels lower than 50% of normal). Other common side effects include headache (75%), sore throat (56%), common cold-like illness (42%) and nausea (39%)[11]

Mechanism of Action

As a purine analogue, it is taken up into rapidly proliferating cells like lymphocytes to be incorporated into DNA synthesis. Unlike adenosine, cladribine has a chlorine molecule at position 2, which renders it partially resistant to breakdown by adenosine deaminase (ADA). In cells it is phosphorylated into its toxic form, deoxyadenosine triphosphate, by the enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (DCK). This molecule is then incorporated into the DNA synthesis pathway, where it causes strand breakage. This is followed by the activation of transcription factor p53, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and eventual programmed cell death (apoptosis).[12] This process occurs over approximately 2 months, with a peak level of cell depletion 4–8 weeks after treatment[13]

Within the lymphocyte pool, cladribine targets B cells more than T cells. Both HCL and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia are types of B cell blood cancers. In MS, its effectiveness may be due to its ability to effectively deplete B cells, in particular memory B cells[14] In the pivotal phase 3 clinical trial of oral cladribine in MS, CLARITY, cladribine selectively depleted 80% of peripheral B cells, compared to only 40-50% of total T cells.[15] More recently, cladribine has been shown to induce long term, selective suppression of certain subtypes of B cells, especially memory B cells.[16]

Another family of enzymes, the 5´nucleotidase (5NCT) family, is also capable of dephosphorylating cladribine, making it inactive. The most important subtype of this group appears to be 5NCT1A, which is cytosolically active and specific for purine analogues. When DCK gene expression is expressed as a ratio with 5NCT1A, the cells with the highest ratios are B cells, especially germinal centre and naive B cells.[16] This again helps to explain which B cells are more vulnerable to cladribine-mediated apoptosis.

Although cladribine is selective for B cells, the long term suppression of memory B cells, which may contribute to its effect in MS, is not explained by gene or protein expression. Instead, cladribine appears to deplete the entire B cell department. However, while naive B cells rapidly move from lymphoid organs, the memory B cell pool repopulates very slowly from the bone marrow.

History

Ernest Beutler and Dennis A. Carson had studied adenosine deaminase deficiency and recognized that because the lack of adenosine deaminase led to the destruction of B cell lymphocytes, a drug designed to inhibit adenosine deaminase might be useful in lymphomas. Carson then synthesized cladribine, and through clinical research at Scripps starting in the 1980s, Beutler tested it as intravenous infusion and found it was especially useful to treat hairy cell leukemia (HCL). No pharmaceutical companies were interested in selling the drug because HCL was an orphan disease, so Beutler’s lab synthesized and packaged it and supplied it to the hospital pharmacy; the lab also developed a test to monitor blood levels. This was the first treatment that led to prolonged remission of HCL, which was previously untreatable.[17]:14–15

In February 1991 Scripps began a collaboration with Johnson & Johnson to bring intravenous cladribine to market and by December of that year J&J had filed an NDA; cladrabine was approved by the FDA in 1993 for HCL as an orphan drug,[18] and was approved in Europe later that year.[19]:2

The subcutaneous formulation was developed in Switzerland in the early 1990s and it was commercialized by Lipomed GmbH in the 2000s.[19]:2[20]

Multiple sclerosis

In the mid-1990s Beutler, in collaboration with Jack Sipe, a neurologist at Scripps, ran several clinical trials exploring the utility of cladribine in multiple sclerosis, based on the drug’s immunosuppressive effects. Sipe’s insight into MS, and Beutler’s interest in MS due to his sister’s having had it, led a very productive collaboration.[17]:17[21] Ortho-Clinical, a subsidiary of J&J, filed an NDA for cladribine for MS in 1997 but withdrew it in the late 1990s after discussion with the FDA proved that more clinical data would be needed.[22][23]

Ivax acquired the rights for oral administration of cladribine to treat MS from Scripps in 2000,[24] and partnered with Serono in 2002.[23] Ivax was acquired by Teva in 2006,[25][26] and Merck KGaA acquired control of Serono’s drug business in 2006.[27]

An oral formulation of the drug with cyclodextrin was developed[28]:16 and Ivax and Serono, and then Merck KGaA conducted several clinical studies. Merck KGaA submitted an application to the European Medicines Agency in 2009, which was rejected in 2010, and an appeal was denied in 2011.[28]:4–5 Likewise Merck KGaA’s NDA with the FDA rejected in 2011.[29] The concerns were that several cases of cancer had arisen, and the ratio of benefit to harm was not clear to regulators.[28]:54–55 The failures with the FDA and the EMA were a blow to Merck KGaA and were one of a series of events that led to a reorganization, layoffs, and closing the Swiss facility where Serono had arisen.[30][31] However, several MS clinical trials were still ongoing at the time of the rejections, and Merck KGaA committed to completing them.[29] A meta-analysis of data from clinical trials showed that cladiribine did not increase the risk of cancer at the doses used in the clinical trials.[32]

In 2015 Merck KGaA announced it would again seek regulatory approval with data from the completed clinical trials in hand,[30] and in 2016 the EMA accepted its application for review.[33] On June 22, 2017, the EMA’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorisation for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.[34]

Finally, after all these problems it was approved in Europe on August 2017 for highly active RRMS.[35]

Efficacy

Cladribine is an effective treatment for relapsing remitting MS, with a reduction in the annual rate of relapses of 54.5%.[11] These effects may be sustained up to 4 years after initial treatment, even if no further doses are given.[36] Thus, cladribine is considered to be a highly effective immune reconstitution therapy in MS. Similar to alemtuzumab, cladribine is given as two courses approximately one year apart. Each course consists of 4-5 tablets given over a week in the first month, followed by a second dosing of another 4-5 tablets the following month[37] During this time and after the final dose patients are monitored for adverse effects and signs of relapse.

https://www.merckneurology.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/mavenclad-table-1.jpg

Safety

Compared to alemtuzumab, cladribine is associated with a lower rate of severe lymphopenia. It also appears to have a lower rate of common adverse events, especially mild to moderate infections[11][36] As cladribine is not a recombinant biological therapy, it is not associated with the development of antibodies against the drug, which might reduce the effectiveness of future doses. Also, unlike alemtuzumab, cladribine is not associated with secondary autoimmunity.[38]

This is probably due to the fact cladribine more selectively targets B cells. Unlike alemtuzumab, cladribine is not associated with a rapid repopulation of the peripheral blood B cell pool, which then ´overshoots´ the original number by up to 30%.[39] Instead, B cells repopulate more slowly, reaching near normal total B cells numbers at 1 year. This phenomenon and the relative sparing of T cells, some of which might be important in regulating the system against other autoimmune reactions, is thought to explain the lack of secondary autoimmunity.

Use in clinical practice

The decision to start cladribine in MS depends on the degree of disease activity (as measured by number of relapses in the past year and T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions on MRI), the failure of previous disease-modifying therapies, the potential risks and benefits and patient choice.

In the UK, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommends cladribine for treating highly active RRMS in adults if the persons has:

rapidly evolving severe relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, that is, at least 2 relapses in the previous year and at least 1 T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesion at baseline MRI or

relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis that has responded inadequately to treatment with disease-modifying therapy, defined as 1 relapse in the previous year and MRI evidence of disease activity.[40]

People with MS require counselling on the intended benefits of cladribine in reducing the risk of relapse and disease progression, versus the risk of adverse effects such as headaches, nausea and mild to moderate infections. Women of childbearing age also require counselling that they should not conceive while taking cladribine, due to the risk of harm to the fetus.

Cladribine, as the 10 mg oral preparation Mavenclad, is administered as two courses of tablets approximately one year apart. Each course consists of four to five treatment days in the first month, followed by an additional four to five treatment days in the second month. The recommended dose of Mavenclad is 3.5 mg/kg over 2 years, given in two treatment courses of 1.75 mg/kg/year. Therefore, the number of tablets administered on each treatment day depends on the person’s weight. A full guide to the dosing strategy can be found below:

https://www.merckneurology.co.uk/mavenclad/mavenclad-efficacy/

After treatment, people with MS are monitored with regular blood tests, looking specifically at the white cell count and liver function. Patients should be followed up regularly by their treating neurologist to assess efficacy, and should be able to contact their MS service in the case of adverse effects or relapse. After the first two years of active treatment no further therapy may need to be given, as cladribine has been shown to be efficacious for up to last least four years after treatment. However, if patients fail to respond, options include switching to other highly effective disease-modifying therapies such as alemtuzumab, fingolimod or natalizumab.

Research directions

Cladribine has been studied as part of a multi-drug chemotherapy regimen for drug-resistant T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.[41]

REF

A universal biocatalyst for the preparation of base- and sugar-modified nucleosides via an enzymatic transglycosylation
Helv Chim Acta 2002, 85(7): 1901

Synthesis of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine by microbiological transglycosylation
Nucleosides Nucleotides 1993, 12(3-4): 417

Synthesis of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine by washed cells of E. coli
Biotechnol Lett 1992, 14(8): 669

Efficient syntheses of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) from 2′-deoxyguanosine
J Org Chem 2003, 68(3): 989

WO 2004028462

Synthesis of 2′-deoxytubercidin, 2′-deoxyadenosine, and related 2′-deoxynucleosides via a novel direct stereospecific sodium salt glycosylation procedure
J Am Chem Soc 1984, 106(21): 6379

WO 2011113476

A stereoselective process for the manufacture of a 2′-deoxy-beta-D-ribonucleoside using the vorbruggen glycosylation
Org Process Res Dev 2013, 17(11): 1419

A new synthesis of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (Cladribine), CdA)
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 2011, 30(5): 353

A dramatic concentration effect on the stereoselectivity of N-glycosylation for the synthesis of 2′-deoxy-beta-ribonucleosides
Chem Commun (London) 2012, 48(56): 7097

CN 105367616

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/EP2891660A1/en

Previously Robins and Robins (Robins, M. J. and Robins, R. K., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1965, 87, 4934-4940) reported that acid-catalyzed fusion of 1,3,5-tri-O-acety-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose and 2,6-dichloropurine gave a 65% yield of an anomeric mixture 2,6-dichloro-9-(3′,5′-di-O-acetyl-2′-deoxy-α-,β-D-ribofuranosyl)-purines from which the α-anomer was obtained as a pure crystalline product by fractional crystallization from ethanol in 32% yield and the equivalent β-anomer remained in the mother liquor (see Scheme 1). The β-anomer, which could have been used to synthesize cladribine, wasn’t isolated further. The α-anomer was treated with methanolic ammonia which resulted in simultaneous deacetylation and amination to give 6-amino-2-chloro-9-(2′-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranosyl)-purine, which is a diastereomer of cladribine.

Figure imgb0001

[0004]

Broom et al. (Christensen, L. F., Broom, A. D., Robins, M. J., and Bloch, A., J. Med. Chem. 1972, 15, 735-739) adapted Robins et al.’s method by treating the acetylated mixture (viz., 2,6-dichloro-9-(3′,5′-di-O-acety-2′-deoxy-α,β-D-ribofuranosyl)-purine) with liquid ammonia and reacylating the resulting 2′-deoxy-α-and –β-adenosines with p-toluoyl chloride (see Scheme 2). The desired 2-chloro-9-(3′,5′-di-Op-toluoyl-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl)-adenine was then separated by chromatography and removal of the p-toluoyl group resulted in cladribine in 9% overall yield based on the fusion of 1,3,5-tri-O-acety-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose and 2,6-dichloropurine.

Figure imgb0002
[0005]

To increase the stereoselectivity in favour of the β-anomer, Robins et al.(Robins, R. L. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1984, 106, 6379-6382US4760137 EP0173059 ) provided an improved method in which the sodium salt of 2,6-dichloropurine was coupled with 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose in acetonitrile (MeCN) to give the protected β-nucleoside in 59% isolated yield, following chromatography and crystallisation, in addition to 13% of the undesired N-7 regioisomer (see Scheme 3). The apparently higher selectivity in this coupling reaction is attributed to it being a direct SN2 displacement of the chloride ion by the purine sodium salt. The protected N-9 2′-deoxy-β-nucleoside was treated with methanolic ammonia at 100°C to give cladribine in an overall 42% yield. The drawback of this process is that the nucleophilic 7- position nitrogen competes in the SN2 reaction against the nucleophilic 9- position, leading to a mixture of the N-7 and N-9 glycosyl isomers as well as the need for chromatography and crystallisation to obtain the pure desired isomer.

Figure imgb0003
[0006]

Gerszberg and Alonso (Gerszberg S. and Alonso, D. WO0064918 , and US20020052491 ) also utilised an SN2 approach with 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose but instead coupled it with the sodium salt of 2-chloroadenine in acetone giving the desired β-anomer of the protected cladribine in 60% yield following crystallisation from ethanol (see Scheme 4). After the deprotection step using ammonia in methanol (MeOH), the β-anomer of cladribine was isolated in an overall 42% yield based on the 1-chlorosugar, and 30% if calculated based on the sodium salt since this was used in a 2.3 molar excess.

Figure imgb0004
[0007]

To increase the regioselectivity towards glycosylation of the N-9 position, Gupta and Munk recently ( Gupta, P. K. and Munk, S. A., US20040039190 WO2004018490 and CA2493724 ) conducted an SN2 reaction using the anomerically pure α-anomer, 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose but coupling it with the potassium salt of a 6-heptanoylamido modified purine (see Scheme 5). The bulky alkyl group probably imparted steric hindrance around the N-7 position, resulting in the reported improved regioselectivity. Despite this, following deprotection, the overall yield of cladribine based on the 1-chlorosugar was 43%, showing no large improvement in overall yield on related methods. Moreover 2-chloroadenine required prior acylation with heptanoic anhydride at high temperature (130°C) in 72% yield, and the coupling required cryogenic cooling (-30°C) and the use of the strong base potassium hexamethyldisilazide and was followed by column chromatography to purify the product protected cladribine.

Figure imgb0005
[0008]

More recently Robins et al. (Robins, M. J. et al., J. Org. Chem. 2006, 71, 7773-7779US20080207891 ) published a procedure for synthesis of cladribine that purports to achieve almost quantitative yields in the N-9-regioselective glycosylation of 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)-purine sodium salts with 1-chloro-2-deoxy-3,5-di-Op-toluoyl-α-D-ribofuranose in MeCN/dichloromethane (DCM) mixtures to give small or no detectable amounts of the undesired α-anomer (see Scheme 6). In actuality this was only demonstrated on the multi-milligram to several grams scale, and whilst the actual coupling yield following chromatography of the desired N-9-β-anomer was high (83% to quantitative), the protected 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)-products were obtained in 55% to 76% yield after recrystallisation. Following this, toxic benzyl iodide was used to activate the 6-(imidazole-1-yl) groups which were then subsequently displaced by ammonia at 60-80°C in methanolic ammonia to give cladribine in 59-70% yield following ion exchange chromatography and multiple crystallisations, or following extraction with DCM and crystallisation. Although high anomeric and regioselective glycosylation was demonstrated the procedure is longer than the prior arts, atom uneconomic and not readily applicable to industrial synthesis of cladribine such as due to the reliance on chromatography and the requirement for a pressure vessel in the substitution of the 6-(substituted-imidazole-1-yl) groups.

Figure imgb0006
[0009]
Therefore, there is a need for a more direct, less laborious process, which will produce cladribine in good yield and high purity that is applicable to industrial scales.

EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine

  • [0052]
    2-Chloroadenine (75 g, 0.44 mol, 1.0 eq.), MeCN (900 mL, 12 P), and BSTFA (343.5 g, 1.33 mol, 3.0 eq.) were stirred and heated under reflux until the mixture was almost turned clear. The mixture was cooled to 60°C and TfOH (7.9 mL, 0.089 mol, 0.2 eq.) and then 1-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose (III; 200.6 g, 1.0 eq.) were added into the mixture, and then the mixture was stirred at 60°C. After 1 hour, some solid precipitated from the solution and the mixture was heated for at least a further 10 hours. The mixture was cooled to r.t. and stirred for 2 hours. The solid was filtered and dried in vacuo at 60°C to give 180.6 g in 64% yield of a mixture of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]-purine (IVa) with 95.4% HPLC purity and its non-silylated derivative 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb) with 1.1 % HPLC purity.

EXAMPLE 2 Preparation of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine by isomerisation of a mixture of 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-α,β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine mixture

  • [0053]
    50.0 g of 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-α,β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine as a 0.6:1.0 mixture of the β-anomer IVb and α-anomer Vb(83.16 mmol, assay of α-anomer was 58.6% (52.06 mmol) and β-anomer was 34.3% (31.10 mmol, 17.15 g)), 68.6 g BSTFA (266.5 mmol) and 180 mL of MeCN (3.6 P) were charged into a dried 4-necked flask. The mixture was heated to 60°C under N2 for about 3 h and then 2.67 g of TfOH (17.8 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at 60°C for 15 h and was then cooled to about 25°C and stirred for a further 2 h, and then filtered. The filter cake was washed twice with MeCN (20 mL each) and dried at 60°C in vacuo for 6 h to give 24 g of off-white solid (the assay of 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-α-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine was 1.4% (0.60 mmol, 0.34 g),
    2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine was 8.4% (3.18 mmol, 2.02 g) and
    2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine was 86.6% (32.73 mmol, 20.78 g)).
    Analysis of the 274.8 g of the mother liquor by assay showed that it in addition to the α-anomer it contained 0.5% (1.37 g, 2.43 mmol) of
    2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine and 0.01% (0.027 g, 0.05 mmol) of
    2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine.

EXAMPLE 3 Preparation of 2-chloro-2′-deoxy-adenosine (cladribine)

  • [0054]
    To the above prepared mixture of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]- purine (IVa) and 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb) (179 g, >95.4% HPLC purity) in MeOH (895 mL, 5 P) was added 29% MeONa/MeOH solution (5.25 g, 0.1 eq.) at 20-30°C. The mixture was stirred at 20-30°C for 6 hours, the solid was filtered, washed with MeOH (60 mL, 0.34 P) and then dried in vacuo at 50°C for 6 hour to give 72 g white to off-white crude cladribine with 98.9% HPLC purity in ca. 93% yield.

EXAMPLE 4 Recrystallisation

  • [0055]
    Crude cladribine (70 g), H2O (350 mL, 5 P), MeOH (350 mL, 5 P) and 29% MeONa/MeOH solution (0.17 g) were stirred and heated under reflux until the mixture turned clear. The mixture was stirred for 3 hour and was then filtered to remove the precipitates at 74-78°C. The mixture was stirred and heated under reflux until the mixture turned clear and was then cooled. Crystals started to form at ca. 45°C. The slurry was stirred for 2 hour at the cloudy point. The slurry was cooled slowly at a rate of 5°C/0.5 hour. The slurry was stirred at 10-20°C for 4-8 hours and then filtered. The filter cake was washed three times with MeOH (50 mL each) and dried at 50°C in vacuo for 6 hours to give 62.7 g of 99.9% HPLC pure cladribine in ca. 90% yield.

EXAMPLE 5 Preparation of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine

  • [0056]
    2-Chloroadenine (2.2 Kg, 13.0 mol, 1.0 eq.), MeCN (20.7 Kg, 12 P), and BSTFA (10.0 Kg, 38.9 mol, 3.0 eq.) were stirred and heated under reflux for 3 hours and then filtered through celite and was cooled to about 60°C. TfOH (0.40 Kg, 2.6 mol, 0.2 eq.) and 1-O-acetyl-3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose (III; 5.87 Kg, 13.0 mol, 1.0 eq.) were added into the filtrate and the mixture was stirred at about 60°C for 29.5 hours. The slurry was cooled to about 20°C and stirred for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeCN (2.8 Kg) twice and dried in vacuo at 60°C to give 5.17 Kg with a 96.5% HPLC purity in 62% yield of a mixture of 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]-purine (IVa), and non-silylated derivative 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb).

EXAMPLE 6 Preparation of 2-chloro-2′-deoxy-adenosine (cladribine)

  • [0057]
    To a mixture of 25% sodium methoxide in MeOH (0.11 Kg, 0.5 mol, 0.1 eq.) and MeOH (14.8 Kg, 5 P) at about at 25°C was added 2-chloro-6-trimethylsilylamino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-deoxy-β-D-ribofurano syl]-purine (IVa) and non-silylated derivative 2-chloro-6-amino-9-[3,5-di-O-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2′-deoxy-β-D-ribofuranosyl]-purine (IVb) (3.70 Kg, combined HPLC purity of >96.3%) and the mixture was agitated at about 25°C for 2 hours. The solids were filtered, washed with MeOH (1.11 Kg, 0.4 P) and then dried in vacuo at 60°C for 4 hours to give 1.43 Kg of a crude cladribine with 97.8% HPLC purity in ca. 87% yield.

EXAMPLE 7 Recrystallisation of crude cladribine

  • [0058]
    A mixture of crude cladribine (1.94 Kg, >96.0% HPLC purity), MeOH (7.77 Kg, 5 P), process purified water (9.67 Kg, 5 P) and 25% sodium methoxide in MeOH (32 g, 0.15 mol) were stirred and heated under reflux until the solids dissolved. The solution was cooled to about 70°C and treated with activated carbon (0.16 Kg) and celite for 1 hour at about 70°C, rinsed with a mixture of preheated MeOH and process purified water (W/W = 1:1.25, 1.75 Kg). The filtrate was cooled to about 45°C and maintained at this temperature for 1 hours, and then cooled to about 15°C and agitated at this temperature for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeOH (1.0 Kg, 0.7 P) three times and were then dried in vacuo at 60°C for 4 hours giving API grade cladribine (1.5 Kg, 5.2 mol) in 80% yield with 99.84% HPLC purity.

EXAMPLE 8 Recrystallisation of crude cladribine

  • [0059]
    A mixture of crude cladribine (1.92 Kg, >95.7% HPLC purity), MeOH (7.76 Kg, 5 P), process purified water (9.67 Kg, 5 P) and 25% sodium methoxide in MeOH (36 g, 0.17 mol) were stirred and heated under reflux until the solids dissolved. The solution was cooled to about 70°C and treated with activated carbon (0.15 Kg) and celite for 1 hour at about 70°C, rinsed with a mixture of preheated MeOH and process purified water (1:1.25, 1.74 Kg). The filtrate was cooled to about 45°C and maintained at this temperature for 1 hour, and then cooled to about 15°C and agitated at this temperature for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeOH (1.0 Kg, 0.7 P) three times and were giving damp cladribine (1.83 Kg). A mixture of this cladribine (1.83 Kg), MeOH (7.33 Kg, 5 P) and process purified water (9.11 Kg, 5 P) were stirred and heated under reflux until the solids dissolved and was then cooled to about 45°C and maintained at this temperature for 1 hours. The slurry was further cooled to about 15°C and agitated at this temperature for 2 hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MeOH (0.9 Kg, 0.7 P) three times and were then dried in vacuo at 60°C for 4 hours giving API grade cladribine (1.38 Kg, 4.8 mol) in 75% yield with 99.86% HPLC purity.

SYN

Image result for cladribine

Cladribine can be got from 2-Deoxy-D-ribose. The detail is as follows:

Production of Cladribine

SYN

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15257770.2015.1071848?journalCode=lncn20

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FDA approves new oral treatment for multiple sclerosis, Mavenclad (cladribine)
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mavenclad (cladribine) tablets to treat
relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults, to include relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease. Mavenclad is not recommended for MS patients with clinically isolated syndrome. Because of its safety profile, the use of Mavenclad is generally recommended for patients who have had an inadequate response to…

March 29, 2019

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mavenclad (cladribine) tablets to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults, to include relapsing-remitting disease and active secondary progressive disease. Mavenclad is not recommended for MS patients with clinically isolated syndrome. Because of its safety profile, the use of Mavenclad is generally recommended for patients who have had an inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, an alternate drug indicated for the treatment of MS.

“We are committed to supporting the development of safe and effective treatments for patients with multiple sclerosis,” said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “The approval of Mavenclad represents an additional option for patients who have tried another treatment without success.”

MS is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that disrupts communications between the brain and other parts of the body. Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40. MS is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults and occurs more frequently in women than in men.

For most people, MS starts with a relapsing-remitting course, in which episodes of worsening function (relapses) are followed by recovery periods (remissions). These remissions may not be complete and may leave patients with some degree of residual disability. Many, but not all, patients with MS experience some degree of persistent disability that gradually worsens over time. In some patients, disability may progress independent of relapses, a process termed secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). In the first few years of this process, many patients continue to experience relapses, a phase of the disease described as active SPMS. Active SPMS is one of the relapsing forms of MS, and drugs approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS can be used to treat active SPMS.

The efficacy of Mavenclad was shown in a clinical trial in 1,326 patients with relapsing forms of MS who had least one relapse in the previous 12 months. Mavenclad significantly decreased the number of relapses experienced by these patients compared to placebo. Mavenclad also reduced the progression of disability compared to placebo.

Mavenclad must be dispensed with a patient Medication Guide that describes important information about the drug’s uses and risks. Mavenclad has a Boxed Warning for an increased risk of malignancy and fetal harm. Mavenclad is not to be used in patients with current malignancy. In patients with prior malignancy or with increased risk of malignancy, health care professionals should evaluate the benefits and risks of the use of Mavenclad on an individual patient basis. Health care professionals should follow standard cancer screening guidelines in patients treated with Mavenclad. The drug should not be used in pregnant women and in women and men of reproductive potential who do not plan to use effective contraception during treatment and for six months after the course of therapy because of the potential for fetal harm. Mavenclad should be stopped if the patient becomes pregnant.

Other warnings include the risk of decreased lymphocyte (white blood cell) counts; lymphocyte counts should be monitored before, during and after treatment. Mavenclad may increase the risk of infections; health care professionals should screen patients for infections and treatment with Mavenclad should be delayed if necessary. Mavenclad may cause hematologic toxicity and bone marrow suppression so health care professionals should measure a patient’s complete blood counts before, during and after therapy. The drug has been associated with graft-versus-host-disease following blood transfusions with non-irradiated blood. Mavenclad may cause liver injury and treatment should be interrupted or discontinued, as appropriate, if clinically significant liver injury is suspected.

The most common adverse reactions reported by patients receiving Mavenclad in the clinical trials include upper respiratory tract infections, headache and decreased lymphocyte counts.

The FDA granted approval of Mavenclad to EMD Serono, Inc.

References

  1. ^ Drugs.com International trade names for Cladribine Page accessed Jan 14, 2015
  2. Jump up to:a b c d “PRODUCT INFORMATION LITAK© 2 mg/mL solution for injection” (PDF)TGA eBusiness Services. St Leonards, Australia: Orphan Australia Pty. Ltd. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  3. ^ Liliemark, Jan (1997). “The Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Cladribine”. Clinical Pharmacokinetics32 (2): 120–131. doi:10.2165/00003088-199732020-00003PMID 9068927.
  4. Jump up to:a b “European Medicines Agency – – Litak”http://www.ema.europa.eu.
  5. Jump up to:a b “Leustat Injection. – Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) – (eMC)”http://www.medicines.org.uk.
  6. ^ Leist, TP; Weissert, R (2010). “Cladribine: mode of action and implications for treatment of multiple sclerosis”. Clinical Neuropharmacology34 (1): 28–35. doi:10.1097/wnf.0b013e318204cd90PMID 21242742.
  7. Jump up to:a b c d Cladribine label, last updated July 2012. Page accessed January 14, 2015
  8. ^ https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm634837.htm
  9. ^ Histiocytosis Association Erdheim-Chester Disease Page accessed Aug 20, 2016
  10. ^ Aricò M (2016). “Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children: from the bench to bedside for an updated therapy”. Br J Haematol173 (5): 663–70. doi:10.1111/bjh.13955PMID 26913480The combination of cytarabine and cladribine is the current standard for second-line therapy of refractory cases with vital organ dysfunction.
  11. Jump up to:a b c Giovannoni, G; Comi, G; Cook, S; Rammohan, K; Rieckmann, P; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Vermersch, P; Chang, P; Hamlett, A; Musch, B; Greenberg, SJ; CLARITY Study, Group. (4 February 2010). “A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis”. The New England Journal of Medicine362 (5): 416–26. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0902533PMID 20089960.
  12. ^ Johnston, JB (June 2011). “Mechanism of action of pentostatin and cladribine in hairy cell leukemia”. Leukemia & Lymphoma. 52 Suppl 2: 43–5. doi:10.3109/10428194.2011.570394PMID 21463108.
  13. ^ Beutler, E; Piro, LD; Saven, A; Kay, AC; McMillan, R; Longmire, R; Carrera, CJ; Morin, P; Carson, DA (1991). “2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA): A Potent Chemotherapeutic and Immunosuppressive Nucleoside”. Leukemia & Lymphoma5 (1): 1–8. doi:10.3109/10428199109068099PMID 27463204.
  14. ^ Baker, D; Marta, M; Pryce, G; Giovannoni, G; Schmierer, K (February 2017). “Memory B Cells are Major Targets for Effective Immunotherapy in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis”EBioMedicine16: 41–50. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.01.042PMC 5474520PMID 28161400.
  15. ^ Baker, D; Herrod, SS; Alvarez-Gonzalez, C; Zalewski, L; Albor, C; Schmierer, K (July 2017). “Both cladribine and alemtuzumab may effect MS via B-cell depletion”Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation4 (4): e360. doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000360PMC 5459792PMID 28626781.
  16. Jump up to:a b Ceronie, B; Jacobs, BM; Baker, D; Dubuisson, N; Mao, Z; Ammoscato, F; Lock, H; Longhurst, HJ; Giovannoni, G; Schmierer, K (May 2018). “Cladribine treatment of multiple sclerosis is associated with depletion of memory B cells”Journal of Neurology265 (5): 1199–1209. doi:10.1007/s00415-018-8830-yPMC 5937883PMID 29550884.
  17. Jump up to:a b Marshall A. Lichtman Biographical Memoir: Ernest Beutler 1928–2008 National Academy of Sciences, 2012
  18. ^ Staff, The Pink Sheet Mar 8, 1993 Ortho Biotech’s Leustatin For Hairy Cell Leukemia
  19. Jump up to:a b EMA 2004 Litak EMA package: Scientific Discussion
  20. ^ EMA 2004 Litak: Background Information one the Procedure
  21. ^ Eric Sauter and Mika Ono for Scripps News and Views. Vol 9. Issue 18. June 1, 2009 A Potential New MS Treatment’s Long and Winding Road
  22. ^ Tortorella C, Rovaris M, Filippi M (2001). “Cladribine. Ortho Biotech Inc”. Curr Opin Investig Drugs2 (12): 1751–6. PMID 11892941.
  23. Jump up to:a b Carey Sargent for Dow Jones Newswires in the Wall Street Journal. Oct. 31, 2002 Serono Purchases Rights To Experimental MS Drug
  24. ^ Reuters. Dec 4, 2000. Ivax to Develop Cladribine for Multiple Sclerosis
  25. ^ Jennifer Bayot for the New York Times. July 26, 2005 Teva to Acquire Ivax, Another Maker of Generic Drugs
  26. ^ Teva Press Release, 2006. Teva Completes Acquisition of Ivax
  27. ^ Staff, First Word Pharma. Sept 21, 2006 Merck KGaA to acquire Serono
  28. Jump up to:a b c EMA. 2011 Withdrawal Assessment Report for Movectro Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/001197
  29. Jump up to:a b John Gever for MedPage Today June 22, 2011 06.22.2011 0 Merck KGaA Throws in Towel on Cladribine for MS
  30. Jump up to:a b John Carroll for FierceBiotech Sep 11, 2015 Four years after a transatlantic slapdown, Merck KGaA will once again seek cladribine OK
  31. ^ Connolly, Allison (24 April 2012). “Merck KGaA to Close Merck Serono Site in Geneva, Cut Jobs”Bloomberg.
  32. ^ Pakpoor, J; et al. (December 2015). “No evidence for higher risk of cancer in patients with multiple sclerosis taking cladribine”Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation2 (6): e158. doi:10.1212/nxi.0000000000000158PMC 4592538PMID 26468472.
  33. ^ Press release
  34. ^ Merck. “Cladribine Tablets Receives Positive CHMP Opinion for Treatment of Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis”http://www.prnewswire.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-08-22.
  35. ^ Cladribine approved in Europe, Press Release
  36. Jump up to:a b Giovannoni, G; Soelberg Sorensen, P; Cook, S; Rammohan, K; Rieckmann, P; Comi, G; Dangond, F; Adeniji, AK; Vermersch, P (1 August 2017). “Safety and efficacy of cladribine tablets in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results from the randomized extension trial of the CLARITY study”. Multiple Sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England): 1352458517727603. doi:10.1177/1352458517727603PMID 28870107.
  37. ^ “Sustained Efficacy – Merck Neurology”Merck Neurology. Retrieved 28 September2018.
  38. ^ Guarnera, C; Bramanti, P; Mazzon, E (2017). “Alemtuzumab: a review of efficacy and risks in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis”Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management13: 871–879. doi:10.2147/TCRM.S134398PMC 5522829PMID 28761351.
  39. ^ Baker, D; Herrod, SS; Alvarez-Gonzalez, C; Giovannoni, G; Schmierer, K (1 August 2017). “Interpreting Lymphocyte Reconstitution Data From the Pivotal Phase 3 Trials of Alemtuzumab”JAMA Neurology74 (8): 961–969. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.0676PMC 5710323PMID 28604916.
  40. ^ “Cladribine tablets for treating relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis”National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  41. ^ Hasanali, Zainul S.; Saroya, Bikramajit Singh; Stuart, August; Shimko, Sara; Evans, Juanita; Shah, Mithun Vinod; Sharma, Kamal; Leshchenko, Violetta V.; Parekh, Samir (24 June 2015). “Epigenetic therapy overcomes treatment resistance in T cell prolymphocytic leukemia”Science Translational Medicine7 (293): 293ra102. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa5079ISSN 1946-6234PMC 4807901PMID 26109102.
Cladribine
Cladribine.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Leustatin, others[1]
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a693015
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU:D
  • US:D (Evidence of risk)
Routes of
administration
Intravenoussubcutaneous(liquid)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU:S4 (Prescription only)
  • CA℞-only
  • UK:POM (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100% (i.v.); 37 to 51% (orally)[3]
Protein binding 25% (range 5-50%)[2]
Metabolism Mostly via intracellularkinases; 15-18% is excreted unchanged[2]
Elimination half-life Terminal elimination half-life: Approximately 10 hours after both intravenous infusion an subcutaneous bolus injection[2]
Excretion Urinary[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChemCID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.164.726Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H12ClN5O3
Molar mass 285.687 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Cladribine
CAS Registry Number: 4291-63-8
CAS Name: 2-Chloro-2¢-deoxyadenosine
Additional Names: 2-chloro-6-amino-9-(2-deoxy-b-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl)purine; 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine; 2-CdA; CldAdo
Manufacturers’ Codes: NSC-105014-F
Trademarks: Leustatin (Ortho Biotech)
Molecular Formula: C10H12ClN5O3
Molecular Weight: 285.69
Percent Composition: C 42.04%, H 4.23%, Cl 12.41%, N 24.51%, O 16.80%
Literature References: Substituted purine nucleoside with antileukemic activity. Prepn as intermediate in synthesis of 2-deoxynucleosides: H. Venner, Ber. 93, 140 (1960); M. Ikehara, H. Tada, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85, 2344 (1963); eidem, ibid. 87, 606 (1965). Synthesis and biological activity: L. F. Christensen et al., J. Med. Chem. 15, 735 (1972). Stereospecific synthesis: Z. Kazimierczuk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 6379 (1984); R. K. Robins, G. R. Revankar, EP 173059eidem, US 4760137 (1986, 1988 both to Brigham Young Univ.). Specific toxicity to lymphocytes: D. A. Carson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77, 6865 (1980); eidem, Blood 62, 737 (1983). Mechanism of action: S. Seto et al., J. Clin. Invest. 75, 377 (1985). Clinical evaluation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: L. D. Piro et al., Blood 72, 1069 (1988); in hairy cell leukemia: eidem, N. Engl. J. Med. 322, 1117 (1990).
Properties: Crystals from water, softens at 210-215°, solidifies and turns brown (Christensen). Also reported as crystals from ethanol, mp 220° (softens), resolidifies, turns brown and does not melt below 300° (Kazimierczuk). [a]D25 -18.8° (c = 1 in DMF). uv max in 0.1N NaOH: 265 nm; in 0.1N HCl: 265 nm.
Melting point: mp 220° (softens), resolidifies, turns brown and does not melt below 300°
Optical Rotation: [a]D25 -18.8° (c = 1 in DMF)
Absorption maximum: uv max in 0.1N NaOH: 265 nm; in 0.1N HCl: 265 nm
Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic.
Keywords: Antineoplastic; Antimetabolites; Purine Analogs.
////////////fda 2019, Mavenclad, cladribine, multiple sclerosis, EMD Serono, クラドリビン , Leustatin, クラドリビン , orphan drug designation
NC1=C2N=CN([C@H]3C[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O3)C2=NC(Cl)=N1

Macimorelin acetate


Macimorelin.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Macimorelin | C26H30N6O3

Macimorelin.png

Macimorelin

  • Molecular FormulaC26H30N6O3
  • Average mass474.555 Da

CAS  381231-18-1

Chemical Formula: C26H30N6O3

Exact Mass: 474.23794

Molecular Weight: 474.55480

Elemental Analysis: C, 65.80; H, 6.37; N, 17.71; O, 10.11

2-Methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-formamido-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-D-tryptophanamide
381231-18-1 [RN]
8680B21W73
9073
D-Tryptophanamide, 2-methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-(formylamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-
Thumb

CAS 945212-59-9 (Macimorelin acetate)

(2R)-2-(2-amino-2-methylpropanamido)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-[(1R)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-formamidoethyl]propanamide; acetic acid

AEZS-130
ARD-07
D-87875
EP-01572
EP-1572
JMV-1843

USAN (ab-26)
MACIMORELIN ACETATE

AQZ1003RMG
ARD 07
D-87575
D-Tryptophanamide, 2-methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-(formylamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-, acetate (1:1) [ACD/Index Name]
EP 1572

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM
Diagnostic agent for adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD)
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. D-Tryptophanamide, 2-methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-(formylamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-, acetate (1:1)
2. N2-(2-amino-2-methylpropanoyl-N1-[(1R)-1-formamido-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]- D-tryptophanamide acetate

MOLECULAR FORMULA
C26H30N6O3.C2H4O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
534.6

SPONSOR
Aeterna Zentaris GmbH
CODE DESIGNATIONS
D-87575, EP 1572, ARD 07
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
945212-59-9

Macimorelin (also known as AEZS-130, EP-1572) is a novel synthetic small molecule, acting as a ghrelin agonist, that is orally active and stimulates the secretion of growth hormone (GH). Based on results of Phase 1 studies, AEZS-130 has potential applications for the treatment of cachexia, a condition frequently associated with severe chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and AIDS. In addition to the therapeutic application, a Phase 3 trial with AEZS-130 as a diagnostic test for growth hormone deficiencies in adults has been completed.

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/macimorelin-acetate.pdf

QUEBEC, Nov. 5, 2013 /PRNewswire/ – Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (the “Company”) today announced that it has submitted a New Drug Application (“NDA”) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) for its ghrelin agonist, macimorelin acetate (AEZS-130). Phase 3 data have demonstrated that the compound has the potential to become the first orally-approved product that induces growth hormone release to evaluate adult growth hormone deficiency (“AGHD”), with accuracy comparable to available intravenous and intramuscular testing procedures.  read at

http://www.drugs.com/nda/macimorelin_acetate_131105.html

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/macimorelin-acetate.pdf

macimorelin (JMV 1843), a ghrelin-mimetic growth hormone secretagogue in Phase III for adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD)

Macimorelin, a growth hormone modulator, is currently awaiting registration in the U.S. by AEterna Zentaris as an oral diagnostic test of adult growth hormone deficit disorder. The company is also developing the compound in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cancer related cachexia. The compound was being codeveloped by AEterna Zentaris and Ardana Bioscience; however, the trials underway at Ardana were suspended in 2008 based on a company strategic decision. AEterna Zentaris owns the worldwide rights of the compound. In 2007, orphan drug designation was assigned by the FDA for the treatment of growth hormone deficit in adults.

Macimorelin (INN), or Macrilen (trade name) is a drug being developed by Æterna Zentaris for use in the diagnosis of adult growth hormone deficiency. Macimorelin acetate, the salt formulation, is a synthetic growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonist.[1]Macimorelin acetate is described chemically as D-Tryptophanamide, 2-methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-(formylamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-acetate.

As of January 2014, it was in Phase III clinical trials.[2] The phase III trial for growth hormone deficiency is expected to be complete in December 2016.[3]

As of December 2017, it became FDA-approved as a method to diagnose growth hormone deficiency.[4] Traditionally, growth hormone deficiency was diagnosed via means of insulin tolerance test (IST) or glucagon stimulation test (GST). These two means are done parenterally, whereas Macrilen boasts an oral formulation for ease of administration for patients and providers.

Macimorelin is a growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor) agonist causing release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland.[5][6][7]

Macimorelin, a novel and orally active ghrelin mimetic that stimulates GH secretion, is used in the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency (AGHD). More specifically, macimorelin is a peptidomimetic growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) that acts as an agonist of GH secretagogue receptor, or ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) to dose-dependently increase GH levels [3]. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) represent a new class of pharmacological agents which have the potential to be used in numerous clinical applications. They include treatment for growth retardation in children and cachexia associated with chronic disease such as AIDS and cancer.

Growth hormone (GH) is classically linked with linear growth during childhood. In deficiency of this hormone, AGHD is commonly associated with increased fat mass (particularly in the abdominal region), decreased lean body mass, osteopenia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and/or glucose intolerance overtime. In addition, individuals with may be susceptible to cardiovascular complications from altered structures and function [5]. Risk factors of AGHD include a history of childhood-onset GH deficiency or with hypothalamic/pituitary disease, surgery, or irradiation to these areas, head trauma, or evidence of other pituitary hormone deficiencies [3]. While there are various therapies available such as GH replacement therapy, the absence of panhypopituitarism and low serum IGF-I levels with nonspecific clinical symptoms pose challenges to the detection and diagnosis of AGHD. The diagnosis of AGHD requires biochemical confirmation with at least 1 GH stimulation test [3]. Macimorelin is clinically useful since it displays good stability and oral bioavailability with comparable affinity to ghrelin receptor as its endogenous ligand. In clinical studies involving healthy subjects, macimorelin stimulated GH release in a dose-dependent manner with good tolerability [3].

Macimorelin, developed by Aeterna Zentaris, was approved by the FDA in December 2017 under the market name Macrilen for oral solution.

New active series of growth hormone secretagogues
J Med Chem 2003, 46(7): 1191

WO 2001096300

WO 2007093820

PAPER

J Med Chem 2003, 46(7): 1191

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm020985q

Abstract Image

Figure

Synthetic Pathway for JMV 1843 and Analoguesa

a Reagents and conditions:  (a) IBCF, NMM, DME, 0 °C; (b) NH4OH; (c) H2, Pd/C, EtOH, HCl; (d) BOP, NMM, DMF, Boc-(d)-Trp-OH; (e) Boc2O, DMAP cat., anhydrous CH3CN; (f) BTIB, pyridine, DMF/H2O; (g) 2,4,5-trichlorophenylformate, DIEA, DMF; (h) TFA/anisole/thioanisole (8:1:1), 0 °C; (i) BOP, NMM, DMF, Boc-Aib-OH; (j) TFA/anisole/thioanisole (8:1:1), 0 °C; (k) RP preparative HPLC.

TFA, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-CHO (7). 6 (1 g, 1.7 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid (8 mL), anisole (1 mL), and thioanisole (1 mL) for 30 min at 0 °C. The solvents were removed in vacuo, the residue was stirred in ether, and the precipitated TFA, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-CHO was filtered. 7 was purified by preparative HPLC and obtained in 52% yield. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) + correlation 1H−1H:  δ 1.21 (s, 3H, CH3 (Aib)), 1.43 (s, 3H, CH3(Aib)), 2.97 (m, 2H, (CH2)β), 3.1 (m, 2H, (CH2)β), 4.62 (m, 1H, (CH)αA and (CH)αB), 5.32 (q, 0.4H, (CH)α‘B), 5.71 (q, 0.6H, (CH)α‘A), 7.3 (m, 4H, H5 and H6(2 indoles)), 7.06−7.2 (4d, 2H, H2A and H2B (2 indoles)), 7.3 (m, 2H, H4 or H7 (2 indoles)), 7.6−7.8 (4d, 2H, H4A and H4B or H7A and H7B), 7.97 (s, 3H, NH2 (Aib) and CHO (formyl)), 8.2 (d, 0.4H, NH1B (diamino)), 8.3 (m,1H, NHA and NHB), 8.5 (d, 0.6H, NH1A (diamino)), 8.69 (d, 0.6H, NH2A (diamino)), 8.96 (d, 0.4H, NH2B(diamino)), 10.8 (s, 0.6H, N1H1A (indole)), 10.82 (s, 0.4H, N1H1B (indole)), 10.86 (s, 0.6H, N1H2A (indole)), 10.91 (s, 0,4H, N1H2B (indole)). MS (ES), m/z:  475 [M + H]+, 949 [2M + H]+. HPLC tR:  16.26 min (conditions A).

PATENTS

http://www.google.com/patents/US8192719

The inventors have now found that the oral administration of growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) EP 1572 and EP 1573 can be used effectively and reliably to diagnose GHD.

EP 1572 (Formula I) or EP 1573 (Formula II) are GHSs (see WO 01/96300, Example 1 and Example 58 which are EP 1572 and EP 1573, respectively) that may be given orally.

Figure US08192719-20120605-C00001

EP 1572 and EP 1573 can also be defined as H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO and H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-C(O)NHCH2CH3. Wherein, His hydrogen, Aib is aminoisobutyl, D is the dextro isomer, Trp is tryptophan and gTrp is a group of Formula III:

Figure US08192719-20120605-C00002

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/US6861409

H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO: Figure US06861409-20050301-C00007

Example 1 H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO

Total synthesis (percentages represent yields obtained in the synthesis as described below):

Figure US06861409-20050301-C00010

Z-D-Tr-NH2

Z-D-Trp-OH (8.9 g; 26 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in DME (25 ml) and placed in an ice water bath to 0° C. NMM (3.5 ml; 1.2 eq.), IBCF (4.1 ml; 1.2 eq.) and ammonia solution 28% (8.9 ml; 5 eq.) were added successively. The mixture was diluted with water (100 ml), and the product Z-D-Trp-NHprecipitated. It was filtered and dried in vacuo to afford 8.58 g of a white solid.

Yield=98%.

C19H19N3O3, 337 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.46 {Chloroform/Methanol/Acetic Acid (180/10/5)}.

1H NMR (250 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 2.9 (dd, 1H, Hβ, Jββ′=14.5 Hz; Jβα=9.8 Hz); 3.1 (dd, 1H, Hβ′, Jβ′β=14.5 Hz; Jβ′α=4.3 Hz); 4.2 (sextuplet, 1H, Hα); 4.95 (s, 2H, CH2(Z); 6.9-7.4 (m, 11H); 7.5 (s, 1H, H2); 7.65 (d, 1H, J=7.7 Hz); 10.8 (s, 1H, N1H).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 338 [M+H]+, 360 [M+Na]+, 675 [2M+H]+, 697 [2M+Na]+.

Boc-D-Trp-D-Trp-NH2

Z-D-Trp-NH(3 g; 8.9 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in DMF (100 ml). HCl 36% (845 μl; 1.1 eq.), water (2 ml) and palladium on activated charcoal (95 mg, 0.1 eq.) were added to the stirred mixture. The solution was bubbled under hydrogen for 24 hr. When the reaction went to completion, the palladium was filtered on celite. The solvent was removed in vacuo to afford HCl, H-D-Trp-NH2as a colorless oil.

In 10 ml of DMF, HCl, H-D-Trp-NH(8.9 mmol; 1 eq.), Boc-D-Trp-OH (2.98 g; 9.8 mmol; 1.1 eq.), NMM (2.26 ml; 2.1 eq.) and BOP (4.33 g; 1.1 eq.) were added successively. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (100 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo to afford 4.35 g of Boc-D-Trp-D-Trp-NHas a white solid.

Yield=85%.

C27H31N5O4, 489 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.48 {Chloroform/Methanol/Acetic Acid (85/10/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.28 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.75-3.36 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β; 4.14 (m, 1H, CHα); 4.52 (m, 1H, CHα′); 6.83-7.84 (m, 14H, 2 indoles (10H), NH2, NH (urethane) and NH (amide)); 10.82 (d, 1H, J=2 Hz, N1H); 10.85 (d, 1H, J=2 Hz, N1H).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 490 [M+H]+, 512 [M+Na]+, 979 [2M+H]+.

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-(NiBoc)Trp-NH2

Boc-D-Trp-D-Trp-NH(3 g; 6.13 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in acetonitrile (25 ml).

To this solution, di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate (3.4 g; 2.5 eq.) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (150 mg; 0.2 eq.) were successively added. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate/hexane {5/5} to afford 2.53 g of Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-(NiBoc)Trp-NHas a white solid.

Yield=60%.

C37H47N5O8, 689 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.23 {ethyl acetate/hexane (5/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.25 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.58 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.61 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.75-3.4 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.2 (m, 1H, CHα′); 4.6 (m, 1H, CHα); 7.06-8 (m, 14H, 2 indoles (10H), NH (urethane), NH and NH(amides)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 690 [M+H]+, 712 [M+Na]+, 1379 [2M+H]+, 1401 [2M+Na]+.

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-H

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-(NiBoc)Trp-NH2 (3 g; 4.3 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in the mixture DMF/water (18 ml/7 ml). Then, pyridine (772 μl; 2.2 eq.) and Bis(Trifluoroacetoxy)IodoBenzene (2.1 g; 1.1 eq.) were added. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and aqueous saturated sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. Boc-D-NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-H was used immediately for the next reaction of formylation.

Rf=0.14 {ethyl acetate/hexane (7/3)}.

C36H47N5O7, 661 g.mol−1.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.29 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.61 (s, 18H, 2 Boc); 2.13 (s, 2H, NH(amine)); 3.1-2.8 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.2 (m, 1H, CHα′); 4.85 (m, 1H, CHα); 6.9-8 (m, 12H, 2 indoles (10H), NH (urethane), NH (amide)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 662 [M+H]+, 684 [M+Na]+.

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-CHO

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-H (4.3 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in DMF (20 ml). Then, N,N-diisopropylethylamine (815 μl; 1.1 eq.) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenylformate (1.08 g; 1.1 eq.) were added. After 30 minutes, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate/hexane {5/5} to afford 2.07 g of Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-CHO as a white solid.

Yield=70%.

C37H47N5O8, 689 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.27 {ethyl acetate/hexane (5/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.28 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.6 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.61 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.75-3.1 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.25 (m, 1H, (CH)αA&B); 5.39 (m, 0.4H, (CH)α′B); 5.72 (m, 0.6H, (CH)α′A); 6.95-8.55 (m, 14H, 2 indoles (10H), NH (urethane), 2 NH (amides), CHO (formyl)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 690 [M+H]+, 712 [M+Na]+, 1379 [2M+H]+.

Boc-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-CHO (1.98 g; 2.9 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in a -mixture of trifluoroacetic acid (16 ml), anisole (2 ml) and thioanisole (2 ml) for 30 minutes at 0° C. The solvents were removed in vacuo, the residue was stirred with ether and the precipitated TFA, H-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO was filtered.

TFA, H-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO (2.9 mmol; 1 eq.), Boc-Aib-OH (700 mg; 1 eq.), NMM (2.4 ml; 4.2 eq.) and BOP (1.53 g; 1.2 eq.) were successively added in 10 ml of DMF. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate to afford 1.16 g of Boc-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO as a white solid.

Yield=70%.

C31H38N6O5, 574 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.26 {Chloroform/Methanol/Acetic Acid (180/10/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.21 (s, 6H, 2 CH3(Aib)); 1.31 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.98-3.12 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.47 (m, 1H, (CH)αA&B); 5.2 (m, 0.4H, (CH)α′B); 5.7 (m, 0.6H, (CH)α′A); 6.95-8.37 (m, 15H, 2 indoles (10H), 3 NH (amides), 1 NH (urethane) CHO (formyl)); 10.89 (m, 2H, 2 N1H (indoles)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), ml/z 575 [M+H]+, 597 [M+Na]+, 1149 [2M+H]+, 1171 [2M+Na]+.

H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrT-CHO

Boc-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO (1 g; 1.7 nmmol) was dissolved in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid (8 ml), anisole (1 ml) and thioanisole (1 ml) for 30 minutes at 0° C. The solvents were removed in vacuo, the residue was stirred with ether and the precipitated TFA, H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO was filtered.

The product TFA, H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO was purified by preparative HPLC (Waters, delta pak, C18, 40×100 mm, 5 μm, 100 A).

Yield=52%.

C26H30N6O3, 474 g.mol−1.

1H NMR (400 MHZ, DMSO-d6)+1H/1H correlation: δ 1.21 (s, 3H, CH(Aib)); 1.43 (s, 3H, CH(Aib)); 2.97 (m, 2H, (CH2)β); 3.1 (m, 2H, (CH2)β′); 4.62 (m, 1H, (CH)αA&B); 5.32 (q, 0.4H, (CH)α′B); 5.71 (q, 0.6H, (CH)α′A); 7.3 (m, 4Hand H6(2 indoles)); 7.06-7.2 (4d, 2H, H2A et H2B (2 indoles)); 7.3 (m, 2H, Hor H(2 indoles)); 7.6-7.8 (4d, 2H, H4A and H4B or H7A et H7B); 7.97 (s, 3H, NH(Aib) and CHO (Formyl));8.2 (d, 0.4H, NH1B (diamino)); 8.3 (m,1H, NHA&B); 8.5 (d, 0.6H, NH1A (diamino)); 8.69 (d, 0.6H, NH2A (diamino)); 8.96 (d, 0.4H, NH2B (diamino)); 10.8 (s, 0.6H, N1H1A (indole)); 10.82 (s, 0.4H, N1H1B (indole)); 10.86 (s, 0.6H, N1H2A (indole)); 10.91 (s, 0.4, N1H2B (indole)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 475 [M+H]+, 949 [2M+H]+.

CLIP

CLIP

CLIP

UPDATED INFO AS ON JAN 6 2014

Aeterna Zentaris NDA for Macimorelin Acetate in AGHD Accepted for Filing by the FDA

Quebec City, Canada, January 6, 2014 – Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ: AEZS) (TSX: AEZS) (the “Company”) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has accepted for filing the Company’s New Drug Application (“NDA”) for its ghrelin agonist, macimorelin acetate, in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (“AGHD”). The acceptance for filing of the NDA indicates the FDA has determined that the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review.

The Company’s NDA, submitted on November 5, 2013, seeks approval for the commercialization of macimorelin acetate as the first orally-administered product that induces growth hormone release to evaluate AGHD. Phase 3 data have demonstrated the compound to be well tolerated, with accuracy comparable to available intravenous and intramuscular testing procedures. The application will be subject to a standard review and will have a Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”) date of November 5, 2014. The PDUFA date is the goal date for the FDA to complete its review of the NDA.

David Dodd, President and CEO of Aeterna Zentaris, commented, “The FDA’s acceptance of this NDA submission is another significant milestone in our strategy to commercialize macimorelin acetate as the first approved oral product for AGHD evaluation. We are finalizing our commercial plan for this exciting new product. We are also looking to broaden the commercial application of macimorelin acetate in AGHD for use related to traumatic brain injury victims and other developmental areas, which would represent significant benefit to the evaluation of growth hormone deficiency, while presenting further potential revenue growth opportunities for the Company.”

About Macimorelin Acetate

Macimorelin acetate, a ghrelin agonist, is a novel orally-active small molecule that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone. The Company has completed a Phase 3 trial for use in evaluating AGHD, and has filed an NDA to the FDA in this indication. Macimorelin acetate has been granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for use in AGHD. Furthermore, macimorelin acetate is in a Phase 2 trial as a treatment for cancer-induced cachexia. Aeterna Zentaris owns the worldwide rights to this novel patented compound.

About AGHD

AGHD affects about 75,000 adults across the U.S., Canada and Europe. Growth hormone not only plays an important role in growth from childhood to adulthood, but also helps promote a hormonally-balanced health status. AGHD mostly results from damage to the pituitary gland. It is usually characterized by a reduction in bone mineral density, lean mass, exercise capacity, and overall quality of life.

About Aeterna Zentaris

Aeterna Zentaris is a specialty biopharmaceutical company engaged in developing novel treatments in oncology and endocrinology. The Company’s pipeline encompasses compounds from drug discovery to regulatory approval.

References

  1. ^ “Macrilen Prescribing Information” (PDF). Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  2. ^ “Aeterna Zentaris NDA for Macimorelin Acetate in AGHD Accepted for Filing by the FDA”. Wall Street Journal. January 6, 2014.
  3. ^ https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02558829
  4. ^ Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. “Drug Approvals and Databases – Drug Trials Snapshots: Marcrilen”http://www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-25.
  5. ^ “Macimorelin”NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute.
  6. ^ Koch, Linda (2013). “Growth hormone in health and disease: Novel ghrelin mimetic is safe and effective as a GH stimulation test”. Nature Reviews Endocrinology9 (6): 315. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2013.89.
  7. ^ Garcia, J. M.; Swerdloff, R.; Wang, C.; Kyle, M.; Kipnes, M.; Biller, B. M. K.; Cook, D.; Yuen, K. C. J.; Bonert, V.; Dobs, A.; Molitch, M. E.; Merriam, G. R. (2013). “Macimorelin (AEZS-130)-Stimulated Growth Hormone (GH) Test: Validation of a Novel Oral Stimulation Test for the Diagnosis of Adult GH Deficiency”Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism98 (6): 2422. doi:10.1210/jc.2013-1157PMC 4207947.
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Macimorelin
Macimorelin.svg
Names
IUPAC name

2-Amino-N-[(2R)-1-[[(1R)-1-formamido-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]-3-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]-2-methylpropanamide
Other names

Aib-Trp-gTrp-CHO; AEZS-130; JMV 1843; Macimorelin acetate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
KEGG
PubChem CID
UNII
Properties
C26H30N6O3
Molar mass 474.565 g·mol−1
Pharmacology
V04CD06 (WHO)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

FDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2017/205598Orig1s000ChemR.pdf

///////////macimorelin, FDA 2017, Aeterna Zentaris, AEZS-130, ARD-07, D-87875, EP-01572, EP-1572, JMV-1843, USAN (ab-26), MACIMORELIN ACETATE, orphan drug designation

CC(O)=O.CC(C)(N)C(=O)N[C@H](CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C12)C(=O)N[C@H](CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C12)NC=O

Caplacizumab-yhdp, カプラシズマブ


FDA approves first therapy Cablivi (caplacizumab-yhdp) カプラシズマブ  , for the treatment of adult patients with a rare blood clotting disorder

FDA

February 6, 2019

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Cablivi (caplacizumab-yhdp) injection, the first therapy specifically indicated, in combination with plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy, for the treatment of adult patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP), a rare and life-threatening disorder that causes blood clotting.

“Patients with aTTP endure hours of treatment with daily plasma exchange, which requires being attached to a machine that takes blood out of the body and mixes it with donated plasma and then returns it to the body. Even after days or weeks of this treatment, as well as taking drugs that suppress the immune system, many patients will have a recurrence of aTTP,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Cablivi is the first targeted treatment that inhibits the formation of blood clots. It provides a new treatment option for patients that may reduce recurrences.”

Patients with aTTP develop extensive blood clots in the small blood vessels throughout the body. These clots can cut off oxygen and blood supply to the major organs and cause strokes and heart attacks that may lead to brain damage or death. Patients can develop aTTP because of conditions such as cancer, HIV, pregnancy, lupus or infections, or after having surgery, bone marrow transplantation or chemotherapy.

The efficacy of Cablivi was studied in a clinical trial of 145 patients who were randomized to receive either Cablivi or a placebo. Patients in both groups received the current standard of care of plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy. The results of the trial demonstrated that platelet counts improved faster among patients treated with Cablivi, compared to placebo. Treatment with Cablivi also resulted in a lower total number of patients with either aTTP-related death and recurrence of aTTP during the treatment period, or at least one treatment-emergent major thrombotic event (where blood clots form inside a blood vessel and may then break free to travel throughout the body).The proportion of patients with a recurrence of aTTP in the overall study period (the drug treatment period plus a 28-day follow-up period after discontinuation of drug treatment) was lower in the Cablivi group (13 percent) compared to the placebo group (38 percent), a finding that was statistically significant.

Common side effects of Cablivi reported by patients in clinical trials were bleeding of the nose or gums and headache. The prescribing information for Cablivi includes a warning to advise health care providers and patients about the risk of severe bleeding.

Health care providers are advised to monitor patients closely for bleeding when administering Cablivi to patients who currently take anticoagulants.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review designation. Cablivi also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Cablivi to Ablynx.

 EU

Cablivi is the first therapeutic approved in Europe, for the treatment of a rare blood-clotting disorder

On September 03, 2018, the European Commission has granted marketing authorization for Cablivi™ (caplacizumab) for the treatment of adults experiencing an episode of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP), a rare blood-clotting disorder. Cablivi is the first therapeutic specifically indicated for the treatment of aTTP   1. Cablivi was designated an ‘orphan medicine’ (a medicine used in rare diseases) on April 30, 2009. The approval of Cablivi in the EU is based on the Phase II TITAN and Phase III HERCULES studies in 220 adult patients with aTTP. The efficacy and safety of caplacizumab in addition to standard-of-care treatment, daily PEX and immunosuppression, were demonstrated in these studies. In the HERCULES study, treatment with caplacizumab in addition to standard-of-care resulted in a significantly shorter time to platelet count response (p<0.01), the study’s primary endpoint; a significant reduction in aTTP-related death, recurrence of aTTP, or at least one major thromboembolic event during study drug treatment (p<0.0001); and a significantly lower number of aTTP recurrences in the overall study period (p<0.001). Importantly, treatment with caplacizumab resulted in a clinically meaningful reduction in the use of PEX and length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the hospital, compared to the placebo group. Cablivi was developed by Ablynx, a Sanofi company. Sanofi Genzyme, the specialty care global business unit of Sanofi, will work with relevant local authorities to make Cablivi available to patients in need in countries across Europe.

About aTTP aTTP is a life-threatening, autoimmune blood clotting disorder characterized by extensive clot formation in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to severe thrombocytopenia (very low platelet count), microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (loss of red blood cells through destruction), ischemia (restricted blood supply to parts of the body) and widespread organ damage especially in the brain and heart. About Cablivi Caplacizumab blocks the interaction of ultra-large von Willebrand Factor (vWF) multimers with platelets and, therefore, has an immediate effect on platelet adhesion and the ensuing formation and accumulation of the micro-clots that cause the severe thrombocytopenia, tissue ischemia and organ dysfunction in aTTP   2.

Note – Caplacizumab is a bivalent anti-vWF Nanobody that received Orphan Drug Designation in Europe and the United States in 2009, in Switzerland in 2017 and in Japan in 2018. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for priority review the Biologics License Application for caplacizumab for treatment of adults experiencing an episode of aTTP. The target action date for the FDA decision is February 6, 2019

http://hugin.info/152918/R/2213684/863478.pdf

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Summary_for_the_public/human/004426/WC500255075.pdf

Image result for Caplacizumab

More………….

EVQLVESGGG LVQPGGSLRL SCAASGRTFS YNPMGWFRQA PGKGRELVAA ISRTGGSTYY
PDSVEGRFTI SRDNAKRMVY LQMNSLRAED TAVYYCAAAG VRAEDGRVRT LPSEYTFWGQ
GTQVTVSSAA AEVQLVESGG GLVQPGGSLR LSCAASGRTF SYNPMGWFRQ APGKGRELVA
AISRTGGSTY YPDSVEGRFT ISRDNAKRMV YLQMNSLRAE DTAVYYCAAA GVRAEDGRVR
TLPSEYTFWG QGTQVTVSS
(disulfide bridge: 22-96, 153-227)

Sequence:

1EVQLVESGGG LVQPGGSLRL SCAASGRTFS YNPMGWFRQA PGKGRELVAA
51ISRTGGSTYY PDSVEGRFTI SRDNAKRMVY LQMNSLRAED TAVYYCAAAG
101VRAEDGRVRT LPSEYTFWGQ GTQVTVSSAA AEVQLVESGG GLVQPGGSLR
151LSCAASGRTF SYNPMGWFRQ APGKGRELVA AISRTGGSTY YPDSVEGRFT
201ISRDNAKRMV YLQMNSLRAE DTAVYYCAAA GVRAEDGRVR TLPSEYTFWG
251QGTQVTVSS

EU 2018/8/31 APPROVED, Cablivi

Treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, thrombosis

Immunoglobulin, anti-(human von Willebrand’s blood-coagulation factor VIII domain A1) (human-Lama glama dimeric heavy chain fragment PMP12A2h1)

Other Names

  • 1: PN: WO2011067160 SEQID: 1 claimed protein
  • 98: PN: WO2006122825 SEQID: 98 claimed protein
  • ALX 0081
  • ALX 0681
  • Caplacizumab
FORMULA
C1213H1891N357O380S10
CAS
915810-67-2
MOL WEIGHT
27875.8075

Caplacizumab (ALX-0081) (INN) is a bivalent VHH designed for the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and thrombosis.[1][2]

This drug was developed by Ablynx NV.[3] On 31 August 2018 it was approved in the European Union for the “treatment of adults experiencing an episode of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP), in conjunction with plasma exchange and immunosuppression”.[4]

It is an anti-von Willebrand factor humanized immunoglobulin.[5] It acts by blocking platelet aggregation to reduce organ injury due to ischemia.[5] Results of the phase II TITAN trial have been reported.[5]

In February 2019, caplacizumab-yhdp (CABLIVI, Ablynx NV) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of adult patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP). The drug is used in combination with plasma exchange and immunosuppressive therapy. [6]

PATENTS

WO 2006122825

WO 2009115614

WO 2011067160

WO 2011098518

WO 2011162831

WO 2013013228

WO 2014109927

WO 2016012285

WO 2016138034

WO 2016176089

WO 2017180587

WO 2017186928

WO 2018067987

Image result for Caplacizumab

Caplacizumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type Single domain antibody
Source Humanized
Target VWF
Clinical data
Synonyms ALX-0081
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank
ChemSpider
  • none
UNII
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C1213H1891N357O380S10
Molar mass 27.88 kg/mol

CLIP

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19420862.2016.1269580

Caplacizumab (ALX-0081) is a humanized single-variable-domain immunoglobulin (Nanobody) that targets von Willebrand factor, and thereby inhibits the interaction between von Willebrand factor multimers and platelets. In a Phase 2 study (NCT01151423) of 75 patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura who received SC caplacizumab (10 mg daily) or placebo during plasma exchange and for 30 d afterward, the time to a response was significantly reduced with caplacizumab compared with placebo (39% reduction in median time, P = 0.005).39Peyvandi FScully MKremer Hovinga JACataland SKnöbl PWu HArtoni AWestwood JPMansouri Taleghani MJilma B, et al. Caplacizumab for acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. N Engl J Med 2016; 374(6):51122; PMID:26863353; http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1505533[Crossref][PubMed][Web of Science ®][Google Scholar] The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized Phase 3 HERCULES study (NCT02553317) study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of caplacizumab treatment in more rapidly curtailing ongoing microvascular thrombosis when administered in addition to standard of care treatment in subjects with an acute episode of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Patients will receive an initial IV dose of either caplacizumab or placebo followed by daily SC injections for a maximum period of 6 months. The primary outcome measure is the time to platelet count response. The estimated enrollment is 92 patients, and the estimated primary completion date of the study is October 2017. A Phase 3 follow-up study (NCT02878603) for patients who completed the HERCULES study is planned.

References

///////////////caplacizumab, Cablivi,  Ablynx, Priority Review, Orphan Drug designation,  fda 2019, eu 2018, Caplacizumab, nti-vWF Nanobody, Orphan Drug Designation, aTTP, Cablivi, Ablynx, Sanofi , ALX-0081, カプラシズマブ  , PEPTIDE, ALX 0081

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