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TAVABOROLE, AN 2690, 他伐硼罗 Таваборол تافابورول

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TAVABOROLE

  • AN 2690
  • AN-2690
  • AN2690
  • UNII-K124A4EUQ3

5-Fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole

5-Fluoro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol;

1,3-Dihydro-5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole

MOLECULAR FORMULA C7H6BFO2

MOLECULAR WEIGHT 151.9

SPONSOR Anacor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 174671-46-6Fine

Mp 118-120° C…..US20070265226

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm) 4.95 (s, 2H), 7.15 (m, 1H), 7.24 (dd, J=9.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (dd, J=8.2, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 9.22 (s, 1H)

FDA APPROVED JULY 2 2014………..“FDA Approves Anacor Pharmaceuticals’ KERYDIN™ (Tavaborole) Topical Solution, 5% for the Treatment of Onychomycosis of the Toenails”. Market Watch. July 8, 2014.

Has antifungal activity.

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2014 JULY 8 ratified the Anacor’s Kerydin (5% Tavaborole solution) for the topical treatment of nail fungal infections. Tavaboroleindications of toenail fungus Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton rubrum infections.Instructions recommended once a day for toenail infections, treatment for 48 weeks, on the recommendation of Anacor, and do not need to nail debridement.

I tis an oxaborole antifungal used topically, as a 5% w/w solution, for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenails due to Trichophyton rubrumor T. mentagrophytes. It is applied to the affected toenail once daily for 48 weeks.

Ingrowing toenails and application site reactions including exfoliation, erythema, and dermatitis have been reported during use.Stock market

1H NMR FROM NET

tavaborole nmr 1h

CLICK ON IMAGE FOR CLEAR VIEW

COSY NMR PREDICT

COSY NMR prediction (14)

Tavaborole (AN2690, trade name Kerydin) is a topical antifungal medication for the treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infectionof the nail and nail bed. Tavaborole began its Phase 3 trials in December 2010[1] and was approved in July 2014.[2] Tavaborole inhibits an essential fungal enzyme, Leucyl-tRNA synthetase, or LeuRS, required for protein synthesis. The inhibition of protein synthesis leads to termination of cell growth and cell death, eliminating the fungal infection. No treatment-related systemic side effects were observed in any of its clinical trials.Passing

Tavaborole is the first oxygen boron used to treat toenail infections dioxolane (oxaborole) antifungal agents, located in Palo Alto, Anacor focuses on boron-based drug development and production, according to the latest news, Tavaborole future also be used to infect fingernails. Wedbush Securities analyst predicts that next year the drug sales in the United States for $ 16 million, by 2021 will reach peak sales of $ 347 million.

Gram-negative bacteria cause approximately 70% of the infections in intensive care units. A growing number of bacterial isolates responsible for these infections are resistant to currently available antibiotics and to many in development. Most agents under development are modifications of existing drug classes, which only partially overcome existing resistance mechanisms. Therefore, new classes of Gram-negative antibacterials with truly novel modes of action are needed to circumvent these existing resistance mechanisms. We have previously identified a new a way to inhibit an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), in fungi via the oxaborole tRNA trapping (OBORT) mechanism.Irrigation

Herein, we show how we have modified the OBORT mechanism using a structure-guided approach to develop a new boron-based antibiotic class, the benzoxaboroles, which inhibit bacterial leucyl-tRNA synthetase and have activity against Gram-negative bacteria by largely evading the main efflux mechanisms in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lead analogue,  is active against Gram-negative bacteria, including Enterobacteriaceaebearing NDM-1 and KPC carbapenemases, as well as P. aeruginosa. This novel boron-based antibacterial,  has good mouse pharmacokinetics and was efficacious against E. coli and P. aeruginosa in murine thigh infection models, which suggest that this novel class of antibacterials has the potential to address this unmet medical need.

Anacor continued development on that drug, tavaborole, and filed for FDA approval in July. The FDA will review the phase 3 trial data and issue a decision on July 29, 2014.

If approved, Anacor hopes tavaborole’s ability to clear onychomycosis in 10% of treated patients will be enough to win market share away from generic Lamisil and generic topical Pentac. While Lamisil cleared the fungus in 38% of patients, it’s been associated with rare cases of liver failure. And Pentac requires frequent debridement of the nail and only clears the fungus in 5.5% to 8.5% of patients.

Tavaborole is a novel, topical antifungal medication being developed for the topical treatment of onychomycosis, a nail fungus infection, which affects seven to ten percent of the U.S. population. Early studies show AN-2690 penetrates the nail effectively and has robust activity against dermatophytes, which cause onychomycosis.Top

1H NMR PREDICTYou do not buy

Predict 1H proton NMR spectra (11)

Predict 1H proton NMR spectra VALUES

……………………………………………………………………………

13 C NMR PREDICTStock market

Predict 13C carbon NMR spectra (8)

Predict 13C proton NMR spectra VALUES

ARTICLEGrab spaces

July 18, 2013

Anacor Pharmaceuticals to Present Pivotal Phase 3 Data of Tavaborole for the Topical Treatment of Toenail Onychomycosis
Abstract Accepted for Oral Presentation at the 2013 American Podiatric Medical Association Annual Scientific Meeting

PALO ALTO, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Anacor Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:ANAC) announced today that its abstract “Pivotal Phase 3 Safety and Efficacy Results of Tavaborole (Formerly AN2690), a Novel Boron-Based Molecule for the Topical Treatment of Toenail Onychomycosis” was accepted for oral presentation at the 2013 APMA Annual Scientific Meeting (The National) to be held in Las Vegas, Nevada. Max Weisfeld, DPM, will present the data from tavaborole’s Phase 3 studies on Monday, July 22, 2013 during the Evidence-Based Medicine and Oral Abstracts session.

As announced earlier this year, tavaborole achieved statistically significant and clinically meaningful results on all primary and secondary endpoints in two Phase 3 pivotal studies without concomitant debridement. Anacor is seeking approval for tavaborole from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and will file a New Drug Application imminently. Currently, there is only one FDA-approved topical treatment for onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the nail and nail bed, which affects approximately 35 million people in the United States.Mildew

“I’m impressed with tavaborole’s safety and efficacy data. There is no FDA-approved topical treatment for onychomycosis with tavaborole’s range of efficacy and ability to penetrate the nail to reach the site of the infection,” said Dr. Weisfeld. “Tavaborole’s Phase 3 results demonstrate its ability to clear the nail and eliminate the infection which is important to both patients and the physicians who treat them. In addition, tavaborole is easy to apply and dries quickly which makes it convenient for patients to use.”

“We are pleased to present these positive data at the APMA’s Annual Scientific Meeting, the leading annual meeting of podiatrists. As we seek FDAapproval for tavaborole, we look forward to developing relationships with podiatrists to potentially offer them a new treatment option for the large number of patients who seek treatment for onychomycosis,” said David Perry, Chief Executive Officer of Anacor Pharmaceuticals.

About the StudiesHappy

Anacor conducted two separate Phase 3 studies of tavaborole on patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20 to 60 percent of the target great toenail. Approximately 600 patients aged 18 years and older with no upper age limit (the oldest subject was 88 years old) were enrolled in each study and randomized two-to-one to receive either tavaborole or the vehicle control. Patients were instructed to apply tavaborole solution or the vehicle to the toenail once daily for 48 weeks.

A copy of the presentation will be available on Anacor’s website following the oral session.

About Anacor Pharmaceuticals

Anacor is a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel small-molecule therapeutics derived from its boron chemistry platform. Anacor has discovered eight compounds that are currently in development. Its two lead product candidates are topically administered dermatologic compounds — tavaborole, a topical antifungal for the treatment of onychomycosis, and AN2728, a topical anti-inflammatory PDE-4 inhibitor for the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In addition to its two lead programs, Anacor has discovered three other wholly-owned clinical product candidates — AN2718 and AN2898, which are backup compounds to tavaborole and AN2728, respectively, and AN3365 an antibiotic for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. We have discovered three other compounds that we have out-licensed for further development — two compounds for the treatment of animal health indications that are licensed to Eli Lilly and Company and AN5568, also referred to as SCYX-7158, for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, or sleeping sickness), which is licensed to Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, or DNDi. We also have a pipeline of other internally discovered topical and systemic boron-based compounds in development. For more information, visit http://www.anacor.com.

 

Patents赞

WO 1995033754

WO 2004009578….

WO 2006089067

WO 2008025543

…………………………..

SYNTHESIS

APX1

 

APX1

APX1

 

 

 

Stock market

Reference:

ELI LILLY AND COMPANY Patent: WO2004/9578 A2, 2004 ; Location in patent: Page 36-37 ; WO 2004/009578 A2

 

APX1

 

PATENT

Anacor Pharmaceuticals Patent: US2007/265226 A1, 2007 ; Location in patent: Page/Page column 59 ;

http://www.google.com/patents/US20070265226

Figure US20070265226A1-20071115-C00072

1,3-Dihydro-5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaborole (19b)

To a solution of 5b (73.2 g, 293 mmol) in dry THF (400 mL) was added n-butyllithium (1.6 M in hexanes; 200 mL) over 45 min at −78° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. Anion precipitated. After 5 min, (i-PrO)3B (76.0 mL, 330 mmol) was added over 10 min, and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature over 1.5 h. Water and 6 N HCl (55 mL) were added, and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to about a half volume. The mixture was poured into ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. To a solution of the residue in tetrahydrofuran (360 mL) was added 6 N HCl (90 mL), and the mixture was stirred at 30° C. overnight. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to about a half volume. The mixture was poured into ethyl acetate and water. The organic layer was washed with brine and dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residue was treated with i-Pr2O/hexane to give 19b (26.9 g, 60%) as a white powder:

mp 118-120° C.;

1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm) 4.95 (s, 2H), 7.15 (m, 1H), 7.24 (dd, J=9.7, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (dd, J=8.2, 6.2 Hz, 1H), 9.22 (s, 1H);

ESI-MS m/z 151 (M−H);

HPLC purity 97.8%; Anal (C7H6BFO2) C, H.

Stock market

…………………

Gunasekera, Dinara S.; Gerold, Dennis J.; Aalderks, Nathan S.; Chandra, J. Subash; Maanu, Christiana A.; Kiprof, Paul; Zhdankin, Viktor V.; Reddy, M. Venkat Ram Tetrahedron, 2007 , vol. 63, # 38 p. 9401 – 9405

…………………….

Baker, Stephen J.; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Akama, Tsutomu; Lau, Agnes; Zhou, Huchen; Hernandez, Vincent; Mao, Weimin; Alley; Sanders, Virginia; Plattner, Jacob J. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2006 , vol. 49, # 15 p. 4447 – 4450

………………..

Ding, Charles Z.; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Li, Xianfeng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Suoming; Zhou, Yasheen; Plattner, Jacob J.; Baker, Stephen J.; Liu, Liang; Duan, Maosheng; Jarvest, Richard L.; Ji, Jingjing; Kazmierski, Wieslaw M.; Tallant, Matthew D.; Wright, Lois L.; Smith, Gary K.; Crosby, Renae M.; Wang, Amy A.; Ni, Zhi-Jie; Zou, Wuxin; Wright, Jon Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2010 , vol. 20, # 24 p. 7317 – 7322

…………..

PATENT

US20050261277

PREPARATION 13 5-Fluoro-3H-benzo[c][1,2)oxaborol-1-ol

Figure US20050261277A1-20051124-C00027
Dissolve 1-bromo-2-(1-ethoxy-ethoxymethyl)-4-fluoro-benzene(5.4 g, 19.5 mmol) in dry THF (100 mL) and cool to −78° C. under nitrogen. Add butyl lithium (2.5M in Hexanes, 10.2 mL, 25.4 mmol) dropwise at −78° C. Upon complete addition, stir the reaction at −78° C. for 10 minutes and then add trimethyl borate (4.4 mL, 39 mmol) and warm the reaction to room temperature. Pour the reaction into 1N HCl (100 mL) and stir for 1 hour. Extract the biphasic mixture with ether three times. Dry the combined organic layers with sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate in vacuo. Triturate the oily residue with cold hexanes to yield 2.1 g (70%) of the title compoud as a white solid.

1H NMR (d6-DMSO)

9.18 (s, 1H),

7.70 (dd, J=8.2, 5.8 Hz, 1H),

7.20 (dd, J=9.5, 2.7 Hz, 1H),

7.11 (m, 1H), 4.92 (s, 1H).

…………………

SEE

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2012/11/28/jpet.112.200030.full.pdf

………………………………..

SEETop

Discovery of a new boron-containing antifungal agent, 5-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1- benzoxaborole (AN2690), for the potential treatment of onychomycosis.

Baker SJ, Zhang YK, Akama T, Lau A, Zhou H, Hernandez V, Mao W, Alley MR, Sanders V, Plattner JJ.

J Med Chem. 2006 Jul 27;49(15):4447-50.

Boron-containing inhibitors of synthetases.

Baker SJ, Tomsho JW, Benkovic SJ.

Chem Soc Rev. 2011 Aug;40(8):4279-85. doi: 10.1039/c0cs00131g. Epub 2011 Feb 7. Review.

Benzoxaborole antimalarial agents. Part 2: Discovery of fluoro-substituted 7-(2-carboxyethyl)-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1-benzoxaboroles.

Zhang YK, Plattner JJ, Freund YR, Easom EE, Zhou Y, Ye L, Zhou H, Waterson D, Gamo FJ, Sanz LM, Ge M, Li Z, Li L, Wang H, Cui H.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012 Feb 1;22(3):1299-307. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.12.096. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

Tavaborole Market Opportunity

Anacor is developing tavaborole specifically to address the current limitations of existing treatment options for onychomycosis. This includes designed leaps forward in both the potential safety and efficacy profile aimed to make the drug a best-in-class therapy. Additionally, management has used the company’s expertise in medicinal chemistry to improve delivery of the compound through the nail plate to the nail bed, the site of onychomycosis infection. For example, preclinical studies indicate that tavaborole is able to penetrate the nail plate 250 times more effectively than ciclopirox.

Tavaborole novel mechanism of action inhibits an essential fungal enzyme, leucyl transfer RNA synthetase, or LeuRS required for protein synthesis. The inhibition of protein synthesis leads to termination of cell growth and cell death, eliminating the fungal infection.

Likewise, the topical dosing was designed to eliminate systemic absorption. Previous preclinical and clinical data shows topical treatment with tavaborole resulted in little or no detectable levels of drug in the blood or urine. No treatment related systemic side effects have been observed in any clinical trials to date. Safety data from the company’s studies to date was recently presented at the 100th National APMA meeting in Washington, DC.

Anacor’s topical solution currently in two phase III trials for onychomycosis. Phase II data with tavaborole suggests efficacy superior to ciclopirox with little to no systemic exposure.Top

Data from an open-label phase 2 program with tavaborole showed 50% patients using a 7.5% solution saw 2 mm clear nail growth and negative fungal cultures after six months. Roughly 25% of the patients saw 5 mm clear nail growth and negative fungal cultures after six months.

Anacor and partner Merck (NYSE:MRK) met with the U.S. FDA in 2009 to discuss the phase II data. Merck has since returned the rights to tavaborole to Anacor. The original deal was with Schering-Plough in 2007. Merck most likely felt as though tavaborole clashed with existing products or did not have peak sales potential large enough to continue the partnership with Anacor. We see tavaborole as a specialty promoted product, into podiatrists and dermatologists. For a company like Anacor, it’s an attractive first product.

Anacor’s first phase III trial completed enrollment in November 2011. The second phase III trial completed enrollment in December 2011. Data from these trials are expected around the middle of January 2013. Data from the second study is expected six weeks later. Given the positive phase II data noted above, we think odds favor a positive outcome. A benchmark for the trial is the efficacy of Lamisil, which is a complete cure rate of around 35% to 40%, and a mycological cure of around 70% after a typical course of treatment.

I note that on Anacor’s third quarter conference call management noted that they are pleased with the conduct of the trial to date. Specifically, the compliance rate appears to better than management had expected. The trial was designed with a 20% drop-out rate. It looks as though the drop-out rate is only around 13%, at a minimum suggestive of good safety and tolerability, but potentially also a sign that the drug is working.

I see onychomycosis as a significant market opportunity for Anacor. An estimated 35 million Americans have nail fungus, with about 95% of the infections in the toenail. With efficacy similar to Lamisil, we think Anacor can capture 20% of the market. With a price per course of treatment at around   $1,200, I think peak sales of tavaborole are $500 million.Fine

ChemSpider 2D Image | Tavaborole | C7H6BFO2

Conclusion

I’ll note two more important pieces of information for investors. Firstly, besides optimism for tavaborole, Anacor has apipeline of anti-infectant drugs. For this article I discussed only tavaborole. A second article can be dedicated entirely to AN2728 for the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Anacor also has an animal health collaboration with Eli Lilly (NYSE:LLY).

The second important thing to note is Anacor’s cash position. The company reported financial results on November 7, 2012. The company held $36.6 million in cash on the balance sheet as of September 30, 2012. However, in October 2012, the company completed an underwritten public offering of 4.0 million shares of common stock at $6.00 per share to raise net proceeds of $22.7 million. I view the current cash position as sufficient to report data from both phase 3 trials and, if positive, file the new drug application (NDA) around the middle of 2013.

With phase 3 data expected in less than two months, good prior evidence of both safety and efficacy, and a solid cash position, I think Anacor could be an attractive investment at today’s price. The stock is down meaningfully over the past month and investors can buy sizably below the October offering.

Fine赞顶顶顶路过顶灌水顶顶开心顶赞灌水路过

SYNTHESIS

ReferencesFine

Tavaborole
Tavaborole.svg
Tavaborole ball-and-stick model.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-Fluoro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1(3H)-ol
Clinical data
Trade names Kerydin
Legal status
  • (Prescription only)
Routes of
administration
Topical use only
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number 174671-46-6
ATC code None
PubChem CID: 11499245
ChemSpider 9674047
Synonyms AN2690
Chemical data
Formula C7H6BFO2
Molecular mass 151.93 g/mol

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NMR PREDICT

H-NMR spectral analysis
5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-3H-2,1-benzoxaborole NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 174671-46-6 NMR spectral analysis, 5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-3H-2,1-benzoxaborole H-NMR spectrum
CAS NO. 174671-46-6, 5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-3H-2,1-benzoxaborole H-NMR spectral analysis
C-NMR spectral analysis
5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-3H-2,1-benzoxaborole NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 174671-46-6 NMR spectral analysis, 5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-3H-2,1-benzoxaborole C-NMR spectrum
CAS NO. 174671-46-6, 5-fluoro-1-hydroxy-3H-2,1-benzoxaborole C-NMR spectral analysis

more

GSK2251052

BIG TEAM Hernandez, front row, fifth from left, poses during a research meeting at Naeja’s headquarters.Anacor

BIG TEAM Hernandez, front row, fifth from left, poses during a research meeting at Naeja’s headquarters.

Anacor Pharmaceuticals is out to change that. The Palo Alto, Calif.-based biotechnology company is developing a family of boron-containing small-molecule drugs. And with the assistance of Naeja Pharmaceutical, a Canadian contract research organization, Anacor has licensed one of those molecules to GlaxoSmithKline and taken another one into Phase III clinical trials.

Anacor was founded in 2002 to develop technology created by Lucy Shapiro, a Stanford University bacterial geneticist, and Stephen J. Benkovic, a Pennsylvania State University organic chemist. Through a long-standing scientific collaboration, the two researchers had discovered boron-containing compounds that inhibited specific bacterial targets………..https://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/89/8912cover3.html

 UPDATED………….

http://www.apexbt.com/downloader/document/A3177/NMR.pdf

mp 118-120….http://www.syninnova.com/catalog/product/SL-264

http://www.apexbt.com/downloader/document/A3177/HPLC.pdf

antifugal AN2690 by Anacor

Tavaborole inhibits an essential fungal enzyme, Leucyl-tRNA synthetase, or LeuRS, required for protein synthesis.
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration: 1, 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25 μg/mL for T.rubrum, T.mentagrophytes, C.albicans, C.neoformans, A.fumigatus, respectivley.

AN2690 is a new boron-containing antifungal agent for the potential treatment of onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is caused mainly by dermatophytes, a class of fungus that dwells on skin, hair, and nails and is the cause of other cutaneous fungal infections such as athlete’s foot.

In vitro: AN2690 showed the most active against fungi and especially against the dermatophytes T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, the primary fungal pathogens causing onychomycosis. In addition, AN2690 was identified as having a unique profile of in vitro antidermatophyte activity, maintenance of this activity in the presence of keratin, and exceedingly good penetration of human nails [1].

Ex vivo: AN2690 was found to have superior penetration compared to ciclopirox, and achieves levels within and under the nail plate that suggest it has the potential to be an effective topical treatment for onychomycosis [2].

Clinical trial: The efficacy of tavaborole as a topical treatment for onychomycosis has been evaluated in two identical randomised, double-blind phase III studies, NCT01270971 (301) and NCT01302119 (302), enrolling 593 and 601 patients, respectively. Completely or almost clear nail and negative mycology was achieved in 15.3 and 17.9 % of tavaborole recipients compared with 1.5 and 3.9 % of vehicle recipients [3]

References:
[1] Baker SJ, Zhang YK, Akama T, Lau A, Zhou H, Hernandez V, Mao W, Alley MR, Sanders V, Plattner JJ. Discovery of a new boron-containing antifungal agent, 5-fluoro-1,3-dihydro-1-hydroxy-2,1- benzoxaborole (AN2690), for the potential treatment of onychomycosis. J Med Chem. 2006;49(15):4447-50.
[2] Hui X, Baker SJ, Wester RC, Barbadillo S, Cashmore AK, Sanders V, Hold KM, Akama T, Zhang YK, Plattner JJ, Maibach HI. In Vitro penetration of a novel oxaborole antifungal (AN2690) into the human nail plate. J Pharm Sci. 2007;96(10):2622-31.
[3] Markham A. Tavaborole: first global approval. Drugs. 2014;74(13):1555-8.

UPDATE

 

http://www.google.im/patents/EP1976536A2?cl=en

EXAMPLE 23

Alternative Preparation of 4 from 3

A 22.0 L 3-neck flask was equipped with a stir motor, N2 inlet, addition funnel, heating mantle, and condenser. The flask was charged with 3500 g (17.1 moi) of 2-bromo-5-fluorobenzyl alcohol followed by the addition of 3556 g of tetrahydrofuran and 16.4 g (0.17 mol) of methanesulfonic acid. Next, 400 g (4.7 mol) of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran was added at 100C. This step is exothermic so no additional charges should be made until exotherm subsides. The temperature was increased to 27°C, stirred for 15 min and then charged with 400 g (4.7 mol) of 3,4-dihydro-2H- pyran at 240C. Again the temperature increased (24°C to 380C). The mixture was stirred for 15 min. Once the exotherm subsided, the flask was again charged with 40Og (4.7 mol) of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran at 350C. The temperature again increased to 470C over a 20 min period. Once the exotherm subsided, the mixture was stirred for 15 min. Finally the remaining 400 g (4.7 mol) of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran was added at 440C. The temperature increased to 510C. After stirring for one hour, a sample was removed to check for removal of starting material. Upon reaction completion, contents were cooled to 20 ± 5 0C.

EXAMPLE 24

Figure imgf000215_0001

Alternative Preparation of 5 from 4

To a 22.0 L 3-neck flask equipped with a stir motor, N2 inlet, addition funnel, cooling bath, and condenser was charged 436 g (17.96 mol) of magnesium turnings. 5334 g of tetrahydrofuran was then added followed by 291 g (0.51 mol) of diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL) (25%wt) in toluene. The mixture was stirred for 60 min at 20 ± 5 0C. Some gas evolution was seen. Next, 260-430 g -3-5% (by weight if solution of 4 was dropped to drums) of 4 in THF was added. The mixture was stirred for 15-30 min at which time a slight exotherm should be seen (ΔT = 10- 150C). Once the exotherm was observed, the reaction mixture was cooled to 5 ± 5 0C. To this mixture, the remaining 8.22-8.39 kg of 4 in THF was added at a rate such that the temperature was kept below 300C (t = 3h). The reaction was stirred at 20-25 0C for 30 min, at which time an aliquot was removed, quench with 3 N HCl (10 mL), and analyzed.

Upon completion, the contents were cooled to -25 ± 5°C. A solution of trimethylborate in THF was prepared by mixing 2665 g (25.7 mol) of trimethyl borate and 6666 g of tetrahydrofuran. This solution can be prepared in a drum with stirring. [0618] Next, the 9331 g of trimethyl borate in THF was added at a rate such that the temperature was kept between -35 and -20 °C (t = 2.5h). The mixture became very thick so THF was added. After stirring at -25 ± 5°C for 10 min, 50 mL aliquot was removed, quenched with 25 mL of 3N HCl, and submitted for CoR. Stirring continued at -25 ± 50C for Ih, and then the mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature, where it was stirred for at least 12h. Pull two samples (one at 6h and the other at 12h).

Results:

1H-NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ (ppm) 1.45-1.75 (m, 6H), 3.53 (s, 6H), 3.45 (m, IH), 3.75 (m, IH), 4.69 (t, J=3 Hz, IH), 4.97 (d, J=14.1 Hz, IH), 5.14 (d, J=14.1 Hz, IH), 7.03 ((td, J=8.4, 2.7 Hz, IH), 7.24 (dd, J=10.8, 2.1 Hz, IH), 7.89 (t, J=7.8 Hz, IH), 8.76 (s, IH).

EXAMPLE 25

Alternative Preparation of I from 5

Figure imgf000216_0001

To the reaction mixture above was added 5.3 kg of USP water. After stirring for 30 min, the mixture was charged 5.3 kg of acetic acid. Gas evolution was seen. After stirring for 30 min, an aliquot was removed for analysis. Mixture was then heated to reflux for 36-48 hours. During the reflux period, 12-13 L of THF were removed.

When the reaction was complete, the contents were cooled by the reactor to <40°C by setting jacket and by charging 10.5 kg of USP water. THF was removed until distillate did not remain. Contents of the reactor were transferred to Rosenmund filter dryer and allowed to cool to 20 ± 5°C. Reactor was rinsed with water, filtered, and then washed again with 10.5 kg of USP water. The flask was charged with 10.5 kg of 10% ACN in water (v/v) and agitated for Ih. After filtering, the cake was washed with 10.5 kg of 10% ACN in water (v/v), and then charged with 10.5 kg 10% ACN in water (v/v). The contents were agitated for Ih. The contents were subsequently washed with 10.5 kg of USP water, charged with 7.0 L of 5% Methyl t- Butyl Ether (MTBE)/Heptane (v/v), agitated for Ih, filtered, charged with 7.0 L of 5% MTBE/Heptanes (v/v) and again agitated for Ih. After filtering, the contents were charged again with 7.0 L of heptane and filtered. Solids were dried at <45°C to constant weight. Solids were recrystallized from toluene :heptane 75:25.

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2 Comments

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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