New Drug Approvals

Home » Uncategorized » PIRACETAM

PIRACETAM

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Categories

Recent Posts

Blog Stats

  • 3,670,034 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,654 other followers

add to any

Share

Piracetam.svg

Piracetam

  • ATC:N06BX03
  • MW:142.16 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:7491-74-9
  • InChI Key:GMZVRMREEHBGGF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • InChI:InChI=1S/C6H10N2O2/c7-5(9)4-8-3-1-2-6(8)10/h1-4H2,(H2,7,9)
  • EINECS:231-312-7
  • LD50:9200 mg/kg (M, i.v.); 2 g/kg (M, p.o.)

CAS Registry Number: 7491-74-9 
CAS Name: 2-Oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide 
Additional Names: 2-pyrrolidoneacetamide; 2-pyrrolidinoneacetamide; 2-ketopyrrolidine-1-ylacetamide; 1-acetamido-2-pyrrolidinone 
Manufacturers’ Codes: UCB-6215 
Trademarks: Avigilen (Riemser); Axonyl (Pfizer); Cerebroforte (Azupharma); Encetrop (Alpharma); Gabacet (Sanofi-Synthelabo); Geram (UCB); Nootrop (UCB); Nootropil (UCB); Nootropyl (UCB); Norzetam (UCB); Normabraïn (UCB); Piracebral (Hexal); Piracetrop (Holsten); Sinapsan (Rodleben)Molecular Formula: C6H10N2O2 
Molecular Weight: 142.16 
Percent Composition: C 50.69%, H 7.09%, N 19.71%, O 22.51% 
Literature References: Prepn: H. Morren, NL6509994eidem,US3459738 (1966, 1969 both to U.C.B.). Pharmacology: Giurgea et al.,Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther.166, 238 (1967); Giurgea, Moyersoons, ibid.188, 401 (1970); Giurgea et al.,Psychopharmacologia20, 160 (1971). Metabolism and biochemical studies: Gobert, J. Pharm. Belg.27, 281 (1972). Clinical studies: W. J. Oosterveld, Arzneim.-Forsch.30, 1947 (1980); G. Chouinard et al.,Psychopharmacol. Bull.17, 129 (1981); in dyslexia: M. Di Ianni et al.,J. Clin. Psychopharmacol.5, 272 (1985).Properties: Crystals from isopropanol, mp 151.5-152.5°. 
Melting point: mp 151.5-152.5° 
Therap-Cat: Nootropic. 
Keywords: Nootropic.

Piracetam is in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide. It is a derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA[5] and shares the same 2-oxo-pyrrolidone base structure with pyroglutamic acid. Piracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Related drugs include the anticonvulsants levetiracetam and brivaracetam, and the putative nootropics aniracetam and phenylpiracetam.Piracetam is a drug marketed as a treatment for myoclonus[3] and a cognitive enhancer.[4] Evidence to support its use is unclear, with some studies showing modest benefits in specific populations and others showing minimal or no benefit.[5][6] Piracetam is sold as a medication in many European countries. Sale of piracetam is not illegal in the United States, although it is not regulated nor approved by the FDA so it must be marketed as a dietary supplement.[4]

wdt-16

join me on Linkedin

Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D – India | LinkedIn

join me on Researchgate

RESEARCHGATE

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is research.jpg

join me on Facebook

Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr. | Facebook

join me on twitter

Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr. | twitter

+919321316780 call whatsaapp

EMAIL. amcrasto@amcrasto

/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Efficacy

Dementia

A 2001 Cochrane review concluded that there was not enough evidence to support piracetam for dementia or cognitive problems.[6] A 2005 review found some evidence of benefit in older subjects with cognitive impairment.[5] In 2008, a working group of the British Academy of Medical Sciences noted that many of the trials of piracetam for dementia were flawed.[7]

There is no good evidence that piracetam is of benefit in treating vascular dementia.[8]

Depression and anxiety

Some sources suggest that piracetam’s overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety is higher than on improving memory.[9] However, depression is reported to be an occasional adverse effect of piracetam.[10]

Other

Piracetam may facilitate the deformability of erythrocytes in capillary which is useful for cardiovascular disease.[5][3]

Peripheral vascular effects of piracetam have suggested its use potential for vertigodyslexiaRaynaud’s phenomenon and sickle cell anemia.[5][3] There is no evidence to support piracetam’s use in sickle cell crisis prevention[11] or for fetal distress during childbirth.[12] There is no evidence for benefit of piracetam with acute ischemic stroke,[13] though there is debate as to its utility during stroke rehabilitation.[14][15]

Anti-vasospasm

Piracetam has been found to diminish erythrocyte adhesion to vascular wall endothelium, making any vasospasm in the capillary less severe. This contributes to its efficacy in promoting microcirculation, including to the brain and kidneys.[5][3]

Side effects

Symptoms of general excitability, including anxietyinsomniairritabilityheadacheagitationnervousnesstremor, and hyperkinesia, are occasionally reported.[10][16][17] Other reported side effects include somnolenceweight gainclinical depressionweakness, increased libido, and hypersexuality.[10]

According to a 2005 review, piracetam has been observed to have the following side effects: hyperkinesia, weight gain, nervousness, somnolence, depression and asthenia.[5]

Piracetam reduces platelet aggregation as well as fibrinogen concentration, and thus is contraindicated to patients suffering from cerebral hemorrhage.[5][3]

Toxicity

Piracetam does not appear to be acutely toxic at the doses used in human studies.[6][18][19]

The LD50 for oral consumption in humans has not been determined.[20] The LD50 is 5.6 g/kg for rats and 20 g/kg for mice, indicating extremely low acute toxicity.[21] For comparison, in rats the LD50 of vitamin C is 12 g/kg and the LD50 of table salt is 3 g/kg.

Mechanisms of action

Piracetam’s mechanism of action, as with racetams in general, is not fully understood. The drug influences neuronal and vascular functions and influences cognitive function without acting as a sedative or stimulant.[5] Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor, although this action is very weak and its clinical effects may not necessarily be mediated by this action.[22] It is hypothesized to act on ion channels or ion carriers, thus leading to increased neuron excitability.[20] GABA brain metabolism and GABA receptors are not affected by piracetam[23]

Piracetam improves the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine via muscarinic cholinergic (ACh) receptors[citation needed], which are implicated in memory processes.[24] Furthermore, piracetam may have an effect on NMDA glutamate receptors, which are involved with learning and memory processes. Piracetam is thought to increase cell membrane permeability.[24][25] Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels (i.e., Na+, K+).[20] It has been found to increase oxygen consumption in the brain, apparently in connection to ATP metabolism, and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains.[26][27] Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis of cytochrome b5,[28] which is a part of the electron transport mechanism in mitochondria. But in the brain, it also increases the permeability of some intermediates of the Krebs cycle through the mitochondrial outer membrane.[26]

Piracetam inhibits N-type calcium channels. The concentration of piracetam achieved in central nervous system after a typical dose of 1200 mg (about 100 μM)[29] is much higher than the concentration necessary to inhibit N-type calcium channels (IC50 of piracetam in rat neurons was 3 μM).[30]

History

Piracetam was first made some time between the 1950s and 1964 by Corneliu E. Giurgea.[31] There are reports of it being used for epilepsy in the 1950s.[32]

Society and culture

In 2009 piracetam was reportedly popular as a cognitive enhancement drug among students.[33]

Legal status

Piracetam is an uncontrolled substance in the United States meaning it is legal to possess without a license or prescription.[34]

Regulatory status

In the United States, piracetam is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration.[1] Piracetam is not permitted in compounded drugs or dietary supplements in the United States.[35] Nevertheless, it is available in a number of dietary supplements.[4]

In the United Kingdom, piracetam is approved as a prescription drug Prescription Only Medicine (POM) number is PL 20636/2524[36] for adult with myoclonus of cortical origin, irrespective of cause, and should be used in combination with other anti-myoclonic therapies.[37]

In Japan piracetam is approved as a prescription drug.[38]

Piracetam has no DIN in Canada, and thus cannot be sold but can be imported for personal use in Canada.[39]

In Hungary, piracetam was a prescription-only medication, but as of 2020, no prescription is required and piracetam is available as an over-the-counter drug under the name Memoril Mite, and is available in 600 mg pills.

According to the literature reports, the synthetic route of piracetam can be divided into four synthetic methods: α-pyrrolidone method, glycine method, succinic anhydride method and one-step synthesis method:[0009] I. α-pyrrolidone method, 2-pyrrolidone is a lactam, which can react with a strong base (sodium hydride or potassium hydride, sodium methoxide) to generate pyrrolidone metal salt, which can be further combined with halogenated ester or halogen Substitute amide reaction to generate N-alkylated product.[0010] In 1966, a method for preparing piracetam by reacting pyrrolidone and chloroacetamide in 1,4-dioxane with sodium hydrogen as a strong base was reported. The specific synthetic route is shown in Scheme 1:[0011]

Figure CN104478779AD00032

[0012] In this process, due to the high price of dioxane, industrial production is still difficult. On the basis of the above process, Xu Yungen used dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent and sodium methoxide as the acid binding agent to synthesize piracetam in the presence of the phase transfer catalyst benzyltriethylammonium chloride. Due to the difficulty of solvent recovery, the cost of this route is relatively high.[0013] In 1981, Zhou Renxing et al. used sodium methoxide as a strong base to extract methanol in toluene by fractional distillation to convert pyrrolidone into the corresponding sodium salt, and then react with ethyl chloroacetate. The resulting ethyl pyrrolidone ethyl acetate was subjected to ammonolysis. Piracetam can be produced. The specific synthetic route is shown in Scheme 2.[00141

Figure CN104478779AD00041

[0015] Because the ammonolysis is carried out in a methanol solution of ammonia, the calculated amount of ethanol generated during the ammonolysis contaminates the methanol solution of ammonia used, which affects the recycling of the methanol solution of ammonia, and is therefore not conducive to process production.[0016] 2. Glycine method, glycine and its derivatives can be used as starting materials for the synthesis of pyroacetamide. Glycine can be prepared by γ-chlorination butylation, amination and cyclization.[0017] According to a British patent report in 1979, glycine trimethylsilyl ester was first condensed with γ-chlorobutyryl chloride, and the corresponding acid chloride was subjected to ammonolysis, and finally cyclized to produce piracetam. The specific synthesis method is as Scheme 3 Shown[0018]

Figure CN104478779AD00042

[0019] In this type of synthesis route, some raw materials are not easily available, which restricts industrial production.[0020] 3. Succinic acid method, succinic acid is heated and dehydrated to generate succinic anhydride, succinic anhydride then reacts with glycine to generate an aminolysis product, and the aminolysis product is reduced by sodium tetrafluoroborate, and piracetam can be synthesized by aminolysis , The specific synthetic route is shown in SCheme4. [0021]

Figure CN104478779AD00043

[0022] Because sodium tetrafluoroborate is used as a reducing agent, it is expensive, and it is difficult to expand the scale of industrial production. Succinimide generates sodium salt under the action of metal sodium, and its sodium salt reacts with chloroacetamide to generate N-alkylated product. The alkylated product can be electrolytically reduced to obtain piracetam. Since electrolytic reduction is still in the research stage in our country, the production cost of this method is relatively high.[0023] 4. One-step synthesis method, using ethyl 4-chloro-n-butyrate in the presence of sodium bicarbonate, using anhydrous ethanol as a solvent, and glycinamide hydrochloride under heating and refluxing to obtain piracetam in one step, The specific synthetic route is shown in S Cheme5.[0024]

Figure CN104478779AD00044

[0025] In this route, glycinamide hydrochloride is very easy to absorb moisture and agglomerate to affect the reaction rate, and the reaction is not easy to control, so it is difficult to achieve industrial production.

SYN

File:Piracetam synthesis02.svg - Wikimedia Commons
File:Piracetam synthesis01.svg

SYN

http://www.cjph.com.cn/EN/abstract/abstract373.shtml

With absolute ethanol as the solvent, ethyl 4-chloro-n-butanoate and glycinamide hydrochloride were refluxed for 20 h in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to obtain central stimulant piracetam. After recrystallization from isopropanol, the yield was about 58% with a purity of 99.6%.

CN104478779A - 促智药吡拉西坦的合成新方法 - Google Patents

SYN

CAS-RNFormulaChemical NameCAS Index Name
79-07-2C2H4ClNO2-chloroacetamideAcetamide, 2-chloro-
105-39-5C4H7ClO2ethyl chloroacetateAcetic acid, chloro-, ethyl ester
61516-73-2C8H13NO3ethyl 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetate1-Pyrrolidineacetic acid, 2-oxo-, ethyl ester
616-45-5C4H7NO2-pyrrolidone2-Pyrrolidinone

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN104478779A/zh

Figure CN104478779AD00051

Example 1[0036] A method for synthesizing piracetam, which includes the following steps:[0037] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionation column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 500mL receiving flask. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 70°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w); 114.0 g; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the dropwise addition is completed, the temperature is increased, and the normal pressure is distilled until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is completed.[0038] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. When the temperature of the reaction system drops to 60°C, a toluene solution of 58 mL (0.66 mol) of methyl chloroacetate is slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature is controlled to 80-100°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1 . OmL/min; detection wavelength is 205nm; injection volume is 20yL][0039] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 500 mL three-necked flask, and vent ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 100. Og α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 10 h, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0040] The purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 100mL isopropanol were sequentially added in a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, activated carbon was added, reflux stirring, hot filtration, and the resulting properties were all white As a powdery solid, the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 20.85 g of a white solid with a yield of 81.76% (calculated as α-pyrrolidone, the same below).Example 2[0042] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionation column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 500mL receiving flask. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 100°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w)); 114. Og; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the addition is complete, add toluene, increase the temperature, and distill at normal pressure until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is complete.[0043] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. When the temperature of the reaction system drops to 60°C, a mixed solution of 63 mL (0.72 mol) of methyl chloroacetate and 30 mL of toluene is slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature is controlled to 80-100°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain methyl α-pyrrolidone acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1 .OmL/ min; detection wavelength is 205nm; injection volume is 20 μL][0044] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 250 mL three-necked flask, and ventilate ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 50.0 g of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 12 hours, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0045] Purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 75mL methanol were sequentially added to a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, added activated carbon 0.5g, refluxed for 1h, hot filtered, magnetically stirred Under the conditions, the activated carbon was filtered out, and the properties were all white powdery solids, and the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 21.02g of white solids with a yield of 82.42%.Embodiment 3[0047] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionating column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 1000 mL receiving bottle. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 70°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w)); 114. Og; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the dropwise addition is completed, the temperature is increased, and the normal pressure is distilled until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is completed.[0048] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. A mixed solution of 79 mL (0.90 mol) of methyl chloroacetate and 50 mL of toluene was slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature was controlled to 70-90°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain methyl α-pyrrolidone acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C 18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1.0mL/min; The detection wavelength is 205nm; The injection volume is 20 μL)[0049] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 250 mL three-necked flask, and vent ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 100. Og α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 14h, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0050] Purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 125mL ethanol were sequentially added in a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, added activated carbon 0.5g, refluxed for 1h, hot filtered, magnetically stirred Activated carbon was filtered off under conditions to obtain white powdery solids in all properties, and the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 20.24 g of white solids with a yield of 79.37%.Example 4[0052] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone sodium salt: A 1000 mL three-necked flask was equipped with mechanical stirring, a constant pressure dropping funnel and a thorn-shaped fractionating column. The upper end of the fractionation column is connected with a thermometer, a condenser and a 500mL receiving flask. Under mechanical stirring, 46 mL (0.60 mol) of α-pyrrolidone and 250 mL of toluene were sequentially added to the three-necked flask. When the temperature of the reaction system reached 60°C, a methanol solution of sodium methoxide (28.4% (w/w); 114.0 g; 0.60 mol) was added dropwise under reduced pressure, and the distillate was collected. After the dropwise addition is completed, the temperature is increased, and the normal pressure is distilled until the distillate is completely distilled out, and the reaction is completed.[0053] Preparation of α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate: remove the fractionation device, connect a thermometer and a condenser, and connect a dropping funnel above the condenser. A mixed solution of 105 mL (1.20 mol) of methyl chloroacetate and 70 mL of toluene was slowly added dropwise, and the reaction temperature was controlled to be 60~70°C. Oh。 After the addition is complete, the insulation reaction is 5. Oh. Cool to room temperature, filter with suction, and distill the filtrate under reduced pressure. Collect the fraction (18mmHg) at 100~105°C to obtain methyl α-pyrrolidone acetate, and measure its content by HPLC (area normalization method). [C 18 column (4.6mmX 200mm, 5 μm) was used for purity determination; acetonitrile-dipotassium hydrogen phosphate/phosphate buffer solution (10:90) was used as the mobile phase (the pH value of phosphoric acid was adjusted to 6.0); the flow rate was 1.0mL/min; The detection wavelength is 205nm; The injection volume is 20 μL)[0054] Preparation of Piracetam: Put about 130 mL of methanol in a 500 mL three-necked flask, and ventilate ammonia to saturation. The obtained ammonia/methanol solution was mixed with 100. Og α-pyrrolidone methyl acetate and placed in a reaction kettle, reacted at 50~65°C for 16h, allowed to cool, filtered with suction, and the filter cake was dried.[0055] The purification of piracetam: 25.50g crude piracetam and 100mL methanol were sequentially added into a 500mL three-necked flask, heated to reflux for 40min, added activated carbon, refluxed for dissolution, hot filtered, and the properties were all white powders The solid, the filter cake was dried overnight at 50°C in a vacuum drying oven to obtain 20.69 g of a white solid, with a yield of 81. 13%.[0056] Chemical analysis of the white crystals synthesized in each of the foregoing examples, and the obtained physical property values are as follows, thereby confirming that the synthesized product is piracetam.[0057] Melting point: 151.6-152. (TC[0058] ESI-MS m / z: 165. 06 [M + Na] +[0059] 1H-NMR (400MHz, DMS〇-d6, ppm) δ : 7. 38 (s, 1H), 7. 09 (s, 1H), 3. 74 (s, 2H), 3. 36 (t, J =7. 08Hz, 2H), 2. 23 (t, J = 7. 84Hz, 2H), I. 93 (m, 2H).[0060] 13C-NMR(100MHz, DMS0-d6, ppm) δ : 17. 80, 30. 42, 45. 28, 47. 74, 170. 21,174. 90. 
PATENTCN110903230A *2019-12-042020-03-24Beijing Yuekang Kechuang Pharmaceutical Technology Co., Ltd.An industrialized preparation method of Pramiracetam sulfate 
PATENTCN104478779A2015-04-01New synthetic method of nootropic drug Piracetam

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Piracetam”DrugBank database.
  2. ^ Leaflet of Piracetam.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e “Nootropil Tablets 1200 mg”(emc). 15 February 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  4. Jump up to:a b c Cohen, Pieter A.; Zakharevich, Igor; Gerona, Roy (25 November 2019). “Presence of Piracetam in Cognitive Enhancement Dietary Supplements”JAMA Internal Medicine180 (3): 458–459. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.5507PMC 6902196PMID 31764936.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Winblad B (2005). “Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses”CNS Drug Reviews11 (2): 169–82. doi:10.1111/j.1527-3458.2005.tb00268.xPMC 6741724PMID 16007238.
  6. Jump up to:a b c Flicker, L; Grimley Evans, G (2001). “Piracetam for dementia or cognitive impairment”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD001011. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001011PMID 11405971.
  7. ^ Horne G, et al. (May 2008). Brain science, addiction and drugs(PDF) (Report). Academy of Medical Sciences. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-903401-18-7.
  8. ^ Farooq MU, Min J, Goshgarian C, Gorelick PB (September 2017). “Pharmacotherapy for Vascular Cognitive Impairment”. CNS Drugs(Review). 31 (9): 759–776. doi:10.1007/s40263-017-0459-3PMID 28786085S2CID 23271739Other medications have been considered or tried for the treatment of VCI or VaD. These include […] piracetam. There is no convincing evidence about the efficacy of these medications in the treatment of VCI.
  9. ^ Malykh AG, Sadaie MR (February 2010). “Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders”. Drugs70 (3): 287–312. doi:10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000PMID 20166767S2CID 12176745.
  10. Jump up to:a b c Nootropil®. Arzneimittel-Kompendium der Schweiz. 2013-09-12. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  11. ^ Al Hajeri A, Fedorowicz Z (February 2016). “Piracetam for reducing the incidence of painful sickle cell disease crises”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2: CD006111. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006111.pub3PMC 7390168PMID 26869149.
  12. ^ Hofmeyr, GJ; Kulier, R (13 June 2012). “Piracetam for fetal distress in labour”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD001064. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001064.pub2PMC 7048034PMID 22696322.
  13. ^ Ricci S, Celani MG, Cantisani TA, Righetti E (September 2012). “Piracetam for acute ischaemic stroke”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (9): CD000419. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000419.pub3PMC 7034527PMID 22972044.
  14. ^ Zhang J, Wei R, Chen Z, Luo B (July 2016). “Piracetam for Aphasia in Post-stroke Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials”. CNS Drugs30 (7): 575–87. doi:10.1007/s40263-016-0348-1PMID 27236454S2CID 22955205.
  15. ^ Yeo SH, Lim ZI, Mao J, Yau WP (October 2017). “Effects of Central Nervous System Drugs on Recovery After Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Clinical Drug Investigation37 (10): 901–928. doi:10.1007/s40261-017-0558-4PMID 28756557S2CID 6520934.
  16. ^ Chouinard G, Annable L, Ross-Chouinard A, Olivier M, Fontaine F (1983). “Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment”. Psychopharmacology81 (2): 100–106. doi:10.1007/BF00429000PMID 6415738S2CID 32702769.
  17. ^ Hakkarainen H, Hakamies L (1978). “Piracetam in the treatment of post-concussional syndrome. A double-blind study”. European Neurology17 (1): 50–55. doi:10.1159/000114922PMID 342247.
  18. ^ Koskiniemi M, Van Vleymen B, Hakamies L, Lamusuo S, Taalas J (March 1998). “Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo”Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry64 (3): 344–348. doi:10.1136/jnnp.64.3.344PMC 2169975PMID 9527146.
  19. ^ Fedi M, Reutens D, Dubeau F, Andermann E, D’Agostino D, Andermann F (May 2001). “Long-term efficacy and safety of piracetam in the treatment of progressive myoclonus epilepsy”Archives of Neurology58 (5): 781–786. doi:10.1001/archneur.58.5.781PMID 11346373.
  20. Jump up to:a b c Gouliaev AH, Senning A (May 1994). “Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics”. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews19 (2): 180–222. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(94)90011-6PMID 8061686S2CID 18122566.
  21. ^ “Piracetam Material Safety Sheet” (PDF). Spectrum.
  22. ^ Ahmed AH, Oswald RE (March 2010). “Piracetam defines a new binding site for allosteric modulators of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors”Journal of Medicinal Chemistry53 (5): 2197–203. doi:10.1021/jm901905jPMC 2872987PMID 20163115.
  23. ^ Giurgea CE (January 1982). “The nootropic concept and its prospective implications”. Drug Development Research2 (5): 441–446. doi:10.1002/ddr.430020505ISSN 1098-2299S2CID 145059666.
  24. Jump up to:a b Winnicka K, Tomasiak M, Bielawska A (2005). “Piracetam–an old drug with novel properties?”. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica62(5): 405–9. PMID 16459490.
  25. ^ Müller WE, Eckert GP, Eckert A (March 1999). “Piracetam: novelty in a unique mode of action”. Pharmacopsychiatry32 (Suppl 1): 2–9. doi:10.1055/s-2007-979230PMID 10338102.
  26. Jump up to:a b Grau M, Montero JL, Balasch J (1987). “Effect of Piracetam on electrocorticogram and local cerebral glucose utilization in the rat”. General Pharmacology18 (2): 205–11. doi:10.1016/0306-3623(87)90252-7PMID 3569848.
  27. ^ Nickolson VJ, Wolthuis OL (October 1976). “Effect of the acquisition-enhancing drug piracetam on rat cerebral energy metabolism. Comparison with naftidrofuryl and methamphetamine”. Biochemical Pharmacology25 (20): 2241–4. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(76)90004-6PMID 985556.
  28. ^ Tacconi MT, Wurtman RJ (1986). “Piracetam: physiological disposition and mechanism of action”. Advances in Neurology43: 675–85. PMID 3946121.
  29. ^ Yeh HH, Yang YH, Ko JY, Chen SH (July 2006). “Rapid determination of piracetam in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sample direct injection”. J Chromatogr A1120 (1–2): 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.11.071PMID 16343512.
  30. ^ Bravo-Martínez J, Arenas I, Vivas O, Rebolledo-Antúnez S, Vázquez-García M, Larrazolo A, García DE (October 2012). “A novel CaV2.2 channel inhibition by piracetam in peripheral and central neurons”. Exp Biol Med (Maywood)237 (10): 1209–18. doi:10.1258/ebm.2012.012128PMID 23045722.
  31. ^ Li JJ, Corey EJ (2013). Drug Discovery: Practices, Processes, and Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons. p. 276. ISBN 9781118354469.
  32. ^ Schmidt D, Shorvon S (2016). The End of Epilepsy?: A History of the Modern Era of Epilepsy Research 1860-2010. Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780198725909.
  33. ^ Medew J (1 October 2009). “Call for testing on ‘smart drugs'”. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  34. ^ “Erowid Piracetam Vault: Legal Status”.
  35. ^ Jann Bellamy (26 September 2019). “FDA proposes ban on curcumin and other naturopathic favorites in compounded drugs”Science-Based Medicine.
  36. ^http://www.mhra.gov.uk/home/groups/spcpil/documents/spcpil/con1547788739542.pdf
  37. ^ “Nootropil Tablets 800 mg”(emc).
  38. ^ “UCB’s piracetam approved in Japan”The Pharma Letter. 25 November 1999.
  39. ^ “Guidance Document on the Import Requirements for Health Products under the Food and Drugs Act and its Regulations (GUI-0084)”. Health Canada / Health Products and Food Branch Inspectorate. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 15 December 2019.

External links

Gouliaev AH, Senning A (May 1994). “Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics”. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews19 (2): 180–222. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(94)90011-6PMID 8061686S2CID 18122566.

Clinical data
Trade namesBreinox, Dinagen, Lucetam, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Oikamid, Piracetam and many others
AHFS/Drugs.comInternational Drug Names
Routes of
administration
By mouth, parenteral, or vaporized
ATC codeN06BX03 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only)CA: UnscheduledUK: POM (Prescription only)US: Unscheduled (Not permitted as drug or supplement[1])
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability~100%
Onset of actionSwiftly following administration. Food delays time to peak concentration by 1.5 h approximately to 2–3 h since dosing.[2]
Elimination half-life4–5 h
ExcretionUrinary
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number7491-74-9 
PubChem CID4843
IUPHAR/BPS4288
DrugBankDB09210
ChemSpider4677 
UNIIZH516LNZ10
KEGGD01914 
ChEMBLChEMBL36715 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID5044491 
ECHA InfoCard100.028.466 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6H10N2O2
Molar mass142.158 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
Melting point152 °C (306 °F)
showSMILES
showInChI
  (verify)

///////////UCB 6215, Nootropic, PIRACETAM

wdt-8

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

DR ANTHONY CRASTO

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,654 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

View Full Profile →

TWITTER

bloglovin

Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: