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Gemfibrozil

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Gemfibrozil
CAS: 25812-30-0
 5-(2,5-Dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid
2,2-dimethyl-5-(2,5-xylyloxy)valeric acid
Manufacturers’ Codes: CI-719
Trademarks: Decrelip (Ferrer); Genlip (Teofarma); Gevilon (Pfizer); Lipozid (Pfizer); Lipur (Pfizer); Lopid (Pfizer)
MF: C15H22O3
MW: 250.33
Percent Composition: C 71.97%, H 8.86%, O 19.17%
Properties: Crystals from hexane, mp 61-63°. bp0.02 158-159°. LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 3162, 4786 orally (Kurtz).
Melting point: mp 61-63°
Boiling point: bp0.02 158-159°
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice, rats (mg/kg): 3162, 4786 orally (Kurtz)
Therap-Cat: Antilipemic.
 

Gemfibrozil

5-(2,5-Dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethylpentanoic Acid

Gemfibrozil is classified as a fibric acid derivative and is used in the treatment of hyperlipidaemias. It has effects on plasma-lipid concentrations similar to those described under bezafibrate. The major effects of gemfibrozil have been a reduction in plasma-triglyceride concentrations and an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. A reduction in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride appears to be largely responsible for the fall in plasma triglyceride although reductions in HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-triglycerides have also been reported.
The effects of gemfibrozil on total cholesterol have been more variable: in general, LDL-cholesterol may be decreased in patients with pre-existing high concentrations and raised in those with low concentrations. The increase in HDL-cholesterol concentrations has resulted in complementary changes to the ratios of HDL-cholesterol to LDL-cholesterol and to total cholesterol. Gemfibrozil has successfully raised HDL-cholesterol concentrations in patients with isolated low levels of HDL-cholesterol but otherwise normal cholesterol concentrations.The Helsinki heart study assessed gemfibrozil for the primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men with hyperlipidaemia. The usual dose, by mouth, is 1.2 g daily in two divided doses given 30 min before the morning and evening meals. Gemfibrozil is available as tablets for oral administration (Lopid: USP).

IR (KBr, cm–1): 2959.03, 2919.78, 2877.65, 1709.42, 1613.44, 1586.60, 1511.07, 1473.81, 1414.01, 1387.89, 1317.61, 1286.34, 1271.91, 1214.39, 1159.26, 1048.83, 996.57, 803.75;

1H NMR (DMSO, 500 MHz, δ ppm): 1.12 (s, 6H), 1.60 and 1.67 (m, 4H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 3.90 (t, 2H), 6.62 (d, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 6.97 (d, 1H);

13C NMR and DEPT (DMSO, 500 MHz, δ ppm): 15.39 (CH3), 20.94 (CH3), 24.67 (CH2), 24.87 (CH3, CH3), 36.43 (CH2), 40.91 (C), 67.57 (CH2), 112.07 (CH), 120.45 (CH), 122.44 (C), 129.96 (CH), 135.93 (C), 156.43 (C), 178.56 (C);

MS M/Z (ESI): 251.16 [(MH)+].

STR1

Solvent:CDCl3Instrument Type:JEOLNucleus:1HFrequency:400 MHzChemical Shift Reference:TMS

 

1H NMR spectrum of C15H22O3 in CDCL3 at 400 MHz

Gemfibrozil is the generic name for an oral drug used to lower lipid levels. It belongs to a group of drugs known as fibrates. It is most commonly sold as the brand name, Lopid. Other brand names include Jezil and Gen-Fibro.

history

Gemfibrozil was selected from a series of related compounds synthesized in the laboratories of the American company Parke Davisin the late 1970s. It came from research for compounds that lower plasma lipid levels in humans and in animals.[1]

Actions

Therapeutic effects

Nontherapeutic effects and toxicities

Indications

Contraindications and precautions

  • Gemfibrozil should not be given to these patients:
    • Hepatic dysfunction
  • Gemfibrozil should be used with caution in these higher risk categories:
    • Biliary tract disease
    • Renal dysfunction
    • Pregnant women
    • Obese patients

Drug interactions

Environmental data

Gemfibrozil has been detected in biosolids (the solids remaining after wastewater treatment) at concentrations up to 2650 ng/g wet weight.[3] This indicates that it survives the wastewater treatment process.

SYNTHESIS

STR1

The sodium isobutyrate (I) is metallated with lithium diisopropylamide, and the resulting compound is alkylated with 3- (2,5-dimethylphenoxy) propyl bromide.

PATENT

Paul, L. C. 2,2-Dimethyl-ω-aryloxy alkanoic acids and salts and ester thereof. U.S. 3,674,836, 1972.

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US3674836

CLIP

Production of Gemfibrozil
(1)2,5-Dimethylphenol and 1-Bromo-3-chloropropane reaction of 1-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-3-chloropropane. The reaction is carried out in toluene, adding new clean off reflux 5h. Just as follows:

Production of Gemfibrozil

(2)N/A can be used to manufacture Gemfibrozil.

Production of Gemfibrozil

PAPER

Improved Process for Preparation of Gemfibrozil, an Antihypolipidemic

Chemical Research and Development, Aurobindo Pharma Ltd., Survey No. 71 and 72, Indrakaran (V), Sangareddy (M), Medak District-502329, Andhra Pradesh, India
Engineering Chemistry Department, AU College of Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, Andhra Pradesh, India
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2013, 17 (7), pp 963–966

An improved process for the preparation of gemfibrozil, an antihypolipodimic drug substance, with an overall yield of 80% and ∼99.9% purity (including three chemical reactions) is reported. Formation and control of possible impurities are also described. Finally, gemfibrozil is isolated from water without any additional solvent purification.

STR1

Literature References:

Serum lipid regulating agent. Prepn: P. L. Creger, DE 1925423; eidem, US 3674836 (1969, 1972, both to Parke, Davis).

Production: O. P. Goel, US 4126637 (1978 to Warner-Lambert).

Pharmacology: A. H. Kissebach et al.,Atherosclerosis 24, 199 (1976); M. T. Kahonen et al., ibid. 32, 47 (1979).

Series of articles on metabolism, clinical pharmacology, kinetics and toxicology: Proc. R. Soc. Med. 69, Suppl 2, 1-120 (1976).

Toxicity data: S. M. Kurtz et al., ibid. 15.

Clinical trial in hyperlipidemia: J. E. Lewis et al., Pract. Cardiol. 9, 99 (1983).

Clinical reduction of cardiovascular risk in patients with low HDL levels: H. B. Rubins et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 341, 410 (1999).

References

External links

Gemfibrozil
Gemfibrozil.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)-2,2-dimethyl-pentanoic acid
Clinical data
Trade names Lopid
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a686002
Pregnancy
category
  • Category C
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
  • By Prescription
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Close to 100%
Protein binding 95%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP3A4)
Biological half-life 1.5 hours
Excretion Renal 94%
Feces 6%
Identifiers
CAS Number 25812-30-0 Yes
ATC code C10AB04 (WHO)
PubChem CID 3463
IUPHAR/BPS 3439
DrugBank DB01241 Yes
ChemSpider 3345 Yes
UNII Q8X02027X3 Yes
KEGG D00334 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:5296 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL457 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C15H22O3
Molar mass 250.333 g/mol

LOPID® (gemfibrozil tablets, USP) is a lipid regulating agent. It is available as tablets for oral administration. Each tablet contains 600 mg gemfibrozil. Each tablet also contains calcium stearate, NF; candelilla wax, FCC; microcrystalline cellulose, NF; hydroxypropyl cellulose, NF; hypromellose, USP; methylparaben, NF; Opaspray white; polyethylene glycol, NF; polysorbate 80, NF; propylparaben, NF; colloidal silicon dioxide, NF; pregelatinized starch, NF. The chemical name is 5-(2,5-dimethylphenoxy)2,2-dimethylpentanoic acid, with the following structural formula:

 

LOPID® (gemfibrozil) Structural Formula Illustration

The empirical formula is C15H22O3 and the molecular weight is 250.35; the solubility in water and acid is 0.0019% and in dilute base it is greater than 1%. The melting point is 58° –61°C. Gemfibrozil is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.

/////////Gemfibrozil,  Antilipemic,  Fibrates, 25812-30-0,

CC1=CC(OCCCC(C)(C)C(O)=O)=C(C)C=C1


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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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