Biotechnology giant Amgen has filed its investigational cancer immunotherapy blinatumomab in the US for the treatment of certain forms of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
Specifically, the Biologic License Application seeks approval to market the drug for patients with Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) relapsed/refractory B-precursor forms of the aggressive blood/bone marrow cancer.
Blinatumomab (AMG103) is a drug that has anti-cancer properties. It belongs to a new class of constructed monoclonal antibodies, bi-specific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), that exert action selectively and direct the human immune system to act against tumor cells. Blinatumomab specifically targets the CD19 antigen present on B cells.
Structure and mechanism of action
Blinatumomab enables a patient’s T cells to recognize malignant B cells. A molecule of blinatumomab combines two binding sites: a CD3 site for T cells and a CD19 site for the target B cells. CD3 is part of the T cell receptor. The drug works by linking these two cell types and activating the T cell to exert cytotoxic activity on the target cell.
In a phase 1 clinical study with blinatumomab, patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma showed tumor regression, and in some cases completeremission. There are ongoing phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials of blinatumomab in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL),lung or gastrointestinal cancers. One phase II trial for ALL reported good results in 2010 and another is starting.
|Type||Bi-specific T-cell engager|
|Mol. mass||54.1 kDa|
- Statement on a Nonproprietary Name adopted by the USAN Council: Blinatumomab
- Mølhøj, M; Crommer, S; Brischwein, K; Rau, D; Sriskandarajah, M; Hoffmann, P; Kufer, P; Hofmeister, R; Baeuerle, PA (March 2007). “CD19-/CD3-bispecific antibody of the BiTE class is far superior to tandem diabody with respect to redirected tumor cell lysis”. Mol Immunol 44 (8): 1935–43. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2006.09.032. PMID 17083975.
- Bargou, R; et al. (2008). “Tumor regression in cancer patients by very low doses of a T cell-engaging antibody”. Science 321 (5891): 974–977. doi:10.1126/science.1158545.PMID 18703743.
- ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00560794 Phase II Study of the BiTE Blinatumomab (MT103) in Patients With Minimal Residual Disease of B-precursor Acute ALL
- “Micromet initiates MT103 phase 2 trial in adult ALL patients”. 20 Sep 2010.