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GSK launches huge Phase III trial for heart drug losmapimod (GW856553)



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Losmapimod is a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor.

Glaxosmithkline Llc

Smithkline Beecham Corporation


GW856553X, 585543-15-3, Losmapimod (USAN/INN), UNII-F2DQF16BXE, AGN-PC-00BFXU,
Molecular Formula: C22H26FN3O2
 Molecular Weight: 383.459143

cas 585543-15-3 

Synonym: Losmapimod; GW856553; GW-856553; GW 856553) 

IUPAC/Chemical name: 


GlaxoSmithKline has begun a Phase III study cardiovascular outcomes study of its investigational compound losmapimod in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

The trial will assess whether losmapimod can reduce the risk of a subsequent cardiac event when administered orally twice a day for three months immediately after presentation with an ACS, such as heart attack. GSK says that some 25,500 patients will be enrolled over the study period across 39 countries.
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Losmapimod, also know as GW856553 or GW856553X,  is a drug developed by GlaxoSmithKline which acts as a selective inhibitor of the enzyme family known as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are mediators of inflammation. A Phase II human clinical trial for the treatment of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is underway. Inhibiting these enzymes has been shown to produce antidepressant and antipsychotic effects in animal studies, with the mechanism thought to involve increased neurogenesis probably related to BDNF release. Losmapimod has completed Phase II human clinical trials for the treatment of depression although its safety and efficacy have yet to be proven in further trials. Losmapimod is also being studied for cardiovascular disease. A Phase II trial to study its effects in myocardial infarction (heart attack) is ongoing.



Losmapimod (GW856553X) is a drug developed by GlaxoSmithKline which acts as a selective inhibitor of the enzyme family known as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases.[1]

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are mediators of inflammation. A Phase II human clinical trial for the treatment of COPD(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)[2] is underway. Inhibiting these enzymes has been shown to produce antidepressant andantipsychotic effects in animal studies, with the mechanism thought to involve increased neurogenesis[3] probably related to BDNFrelease. Losmapimod has completed Phase II human clinical trials for the treatment of depression although its safety and efficacy have yet to be proven in further trials.[4]

Losmapimod is also being studied for cardiovascular disease.[5] A Phase II trial to study its effects in myocardial infarction (heart attack) is ongoing.[6]




Figure US08252818-20120828-C00015


Example 36 6-(5- Cyclopropylcarbamoyl- 3-fluoro-2-methyl- phenyl)-N-(2,2- dimethylpropyl)- nicotinamide
Figure US08252818-20120828-C00052
6-Chloro-N-(2,2- dimethylpropyl))nicotin- amide (Intermediate 24) 384 3.01




General Method A

6-Bromonicotinic acid (100 mg, 0.5 mmol) was heated at 95° C. in thionyl chloride (0.63 ml) for 2 hours. The excess thionyl chloride was evaporated under vacuum and the residue dissolved in DCM (2 ml). To this solution, amine (0.5 mmol) and sodium carbonate (100 mg) were added and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction was filtered and the residue washed with DCM. The combined filtrate and washings were reduced to dryness to give the desired 6-chloronicotinamide.


Retention time
Compound Amine MH+ (minutes)
Intermediate 22: 6-Chloro-N-(3- 3-methylbutylamine 227 2.92
Intermediate 23: 6-Chloro-N-(1- 1-cyclopropylethylamine 225 2.65
Intermediate 24: 6-Chloro-N-(2,2- 2,2-dimethylpropylamine 227 2.82
Intermediate 25: 6-Chloro-N-(2,2- 2,2- 225 2.67


Nicotinamide derivatives useful as P38 inhibitors
Use of a p38 Kinase Inhibitor for Treating Psychiatric Disorders
3-Aminocarbonyl, 6-phenyl substituted pyridine-1-oxides as p38 kinase inhibitors
Nicotinamide Derivatives Useful as p38 Inhibitors
Nicotinamide Derivatives Useful as p38 Inhibitors
Nicotinamide derivatives useful as p38 inhibitors.


  1.  Aston N, Bamborough P, Buckton J, Edwards C, Holmes D, Jones K, Patel V, Smee P, Somers D, Vitulli G, Walker A. p38α Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Optimization of a Series of Biphenylamides to Give a Molecule Suitable for Clinical Progression.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2009, 52(20), 6257. doi:10.1021/jm9004779
  2.  Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Multi-centre, Dose Ranging Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Losmapimod Tablets Administered Twice Daily Compared With Placebo for 24 Weeks in Adult Subjects With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  3.  Noh JS, Kang HJ, Kim YE, Sohn S, Chung YK, Kim SU, Gwag BJ. Haloperidol-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis: role of p38 and c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal protein kinase. Journal of Neurochemistry 2000, 75(6), 2327. PMID 11080184 doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.0752327.x
  4.  A Study of GW856553X For the Treatment of Depression
  5.  Cheriyan et al., Circulation 2011, 123(5), 515-523. Inhibition of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Improves Nitric Oxide–Mediated Vasodilatation and Reduces Inflammation in Hypercholesterolemia doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971986
  6.  A Study to Evaluate the Safety of 12 Weeks of Dosing With GW856553 and Its Effects on Inflammatory Markers, Infarct Size, and Cardiac Function in Subjects With Myocardial Infarction Without ST-segment Elevation (Solstice)

more References

1: Yang S, Beerahee M. Losmapimod concentration-QT relationship in healthy volunteers: meta-analysis of data from six clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;69(6):1261-7. doi: 10.1007/s00228-012-1469-1. Epub 2013 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 23325437.

2: Yang S, Lukey P, Beerahee M, Hoke F. Population pharmacokinetics of losmapimod in healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2013 Mar;52(3):187-98. doi: 10.1007/s40262-012-0025-6. PubMed PMID: 23254770.

3: Dewenter M, Vettel C, El-Armouche A. [Losmapimod: a novel drug against cardiovascular diseases?]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2013 Jan;138(1-2):39-42. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1327368. Epub 2012 Dec 18. Review. German. PubMed PMID: 23250695.

4: Ostenfeld T, Krishen A, Lai RY, Bullman J, Baines AJ, Green J, Anand P, Kelly M. Analgesic efficacy and safety of the novel p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, losmapimod, in patients with neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Pain. 2013 Jul;17(6):844-57. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2012.00256.x. Epub 2012 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 23239139.

5: Barbour AM, Sarov-Blat L, Cai G, Fossler MJ, Sprecher DL, Graggaber J, McGeoch AT, Maison J, Cheriyan J. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of losmapimod following a single intravenous or oral dose in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Jul;76(1):99-106. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12063. PubMed PMID: 23215699; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3703232.

6: Melloni C, Sprecher DL, Sarov-Blat L, Patel MR, Heitner JF, Hamm CW, Aylward P, Tanguay JF, DeWinter RJ, Marber MS, Lerman A, Hasselblad V, Granger CB, Newby LK. The study of LoSmapimod treatment on inflammation and InfarCtSizE (SOLSTICE): design and rationale. Am Heart J. 2012 Nov;164(5):646-653.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.07.030. Epub 2012 Oct 16. PubMed PMID: 23137494.

7: Elkhawad M, Rudd JH, Sarov-Blat L, Cai G, Wells R, Davies LC, Collier DJ, Marber MS, Choudhury RP, Fayad ZA, Tawakol A, Gleeson FV, Lepore JJ, Davis B, Willette RN, Wilkinson IB, Sprecher DL, Cheriyan J. Effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition on vascular and systemic inflammation in patients with atherosclerosis. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Sep;5(9):911-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2012.02.016. PubMed PMID: 22974804.

8: Lomas DA, Lipson DA, Miller BE, Willits L, Keene O, Barnacle H, Barnes NC, Tal-Singer R; Losmapimod Study Investigators. An oral inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase reduces plasma fibrinogen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Mar;52(3):416-24. doi: 10.1177/0091270010397050. Epub 2011 Nov 16. PubMed PMID: 22090363.

9: Cheriyan J, Webb AJ, Sarov-Blat L, Elkhawad M, Wallace SM, Mäki-Petäjä KM, Collier DJ, Morgan J, Fang Z, Willette RN, Lepore JJ, Cockcroft JR, Sprecher DL, Wilkinson IB. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase improves nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation and reduces inflammation in hypercholesterolemia. Circulation. 2011 Feb 8;123(5):515-23. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.971986. Epub 2011 Jan 24. PubMed PMID: 21262998.

10: Welchman R. Advances and Progress in Drug Design – SMi’s ninth annual meeting. IDrugs. 2010 Apr;13(4):239-42. PubMed PMID: 20373252.

11: Willette RN, Eybye ME, Olzinski AR, Behm DJ, Aiyar N, Maniscalco K, Bentley RG, Coatney RW, Zhao S, Westfall TD, Doe CP. Differential effects of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors in a model of cardiovascular disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Sep;330(3):964-70. doi: 10.1124/jpet.109.154443. Epub 2009 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 19556450.


GSK Announces Phase III Cardiovascular Outcomes Study with Losmapimod in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

GlaxoSmithKline plc Thursday 5 June 2014, London UK (LSE/NYSE: GSK) today announced the start of a pivotal phase III study, LATITUDE-TIMI 60, to evaluate the effects of losmapimod in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome. The global, phase III study will assess whether losmapimod can reduce the risk of a subsequent cardiac event when administered…

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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