Molecular Formula: C18H21N3O5S2
Molecular Weight: 423.5064
CAS No: 192329-42-3
IUPAC Name: 2-[(Hydroxyamino)methyl]-5,6-dimethyl-4-(4-pyridin-4-yloxyphenyl)sulfonylmorpholine-3-thione
3-Thiomorpholinecarboxamide,N-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-[[4-(4-pyridinyloxy)phenyl]sulfonyl]-, (S)-; AG 3340;KB-R 9896; Prinomastat
Prinomastat, AG-3362(maleate), AG-3354(HCl), AG-3340
Prinomastat (AG-3340) is a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor with specific selectivity for MMPs 2, 3, 9, 13, and 14. Investigations have been carried out to determine whether the inhibition of these MMPs is able to block tumour metastasis by preventing MMP degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins and angiogenesis.
Prinomastat is a synthetic hydroxamic acid derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Prinomastat inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (specifically, MMP-2, 9, 13, and 14), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. As a lipophilic agent, prinomastat crosses the blood-brain barrier.
Prinomastat underwent a Phase III trial to investigate its effectiveness against non-small cell lung cancer (nsclc), in combination with gemcitabine chemotherapy. However, it was discovered that Prinomastat did not improve the outcome of chemotherapy in advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.  
Matrix metalloproteinases (“MMPs”) are a family of enzymes, including, collagenases, gelatinases, matrilysin, and stromelysins, that are involved in the degradation and remodeling of connective tissues. These enzymes are contained in a number of cell types that are found in or are associated with connective tissue, such as fibroblasts, monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and metastatic tumor cells. They also share a number of properties, including zinc and calcium dependence, secretion as zymogens, and, 40-50% amino acid sequence homology.
Matrix metalloproteinases degrade the protein components of the extracellular matrix, i.e., the protein components found in the linings of joints, interstitial connective tissue, basement membranes, cartilage and the like. These proteins include collagen, proteoglycan, fibronectin and lamanin.
In a number of pathological disease conditions, however, deregulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity leads to the uncontrolled breakdown of extracellular matrix. These disease conditions include arthritis (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis), periodontal disease, aberrant angiogenesis, tumor metastasis and invasion, tissue ulceration (e.g., comeal ulceration, gastric ulceration or epidermal ulceration), bone disease, HIV-infection and complications from diabetes.
Administration of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors has been found to reduce the rate of connective tissue degradation, thereby leading to a favorable therapeutic effect. For example, in Cancer Res., 53, 2087 (1993), a synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor was shown to have in vivo efficacy in a murine model for ovarian cancer with an apparent mode of action consistent with inhibition of matrix remodeling. The design and uses of MMP inhibitors are reviewed, for example, in J. Enzyme Inhibition, 2, 1-22 (1987); Progress in Medicinal Chemistry, 29, 271-334 (1992); Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2, 743-762 (1995); Exp. Opin. Ther. Patents, 5, 12871296 (1995); and Drug Discovery Today, 1, 16-26 (1996).
Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors are also the subject of numerous patents and patent applications, including: U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,189,178; 5,183,900; 5,506,242; 5,552,419; and 5,455,258; European Patent Application Nos. EP 0 438 223 and EP 0 276 436; International Publication Nos. WO 92/21360; WO 92/06966; WO 92/09563; WO 96/00214; WO 95/35276; and WO 96/27583.
Further, U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 6,153,757 and 5,753,653 relate to prinomistat and its synthesis, the disclosures of each are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.
Prinomastat, shown below, is a potent inhibitor of certain metalloproteinases (MMP), particularly matrix metalloproteinases and tumor necrosis factor-α convertase. International Publication No. WO 97/208824 discloses the chemical structure of prinomastat, its pharmaceutical composition, as well as pharmaceutical uses, methods of its preparation and intermediates useful in its synthesis.
Until now, metabolites of prinomastat have not been identified, isolated, purified or synthesized. Further, it is shown that some of these metabolites are potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors
The sulfonation of 4-chlorodiphenyl ether (I) with chlorosulfonic acid in dichloromethane gives the 4-(4-chlorophenoxy)benzenesulfonic acid (II), which is treated with oxalyl chloride and DMF in the same solvent yielding the sulfonyl chloride (III).
The reduction of (III) with trimethyl phosphite and KOH in toluene affords the methylsulfanyl derivative (IV), which is chlorinated with SO2Cl2 in dichloromethane to give the chloromethylsulfanyl derivative (V). The condensation of (V) with the silylated enol ether (VI) by means of ZnCl2 and KOH in refluxing dichloromethane yields 4-[4-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenylsulfanylmethyl]tetrahydropyran-4-carboxylic acid (VII), which is treated with oxalyl chloride affording the corresponding acyl chloride (VIII).
The reaction of (VIII) with NH2OH in dichloromethane provides the carbohydroxamic acid (IX), which is finally oxidized with oxone (potassium peroxymonosulfate) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/H2O to furnish the target sulfone.
The cyclization of D-penicillamine (I) with 1,2-dichloroethane by means of DBU and TMS-Cl in DMF gives 2,2-dimethylthiomorpholine-3(S)-carboxylic acid (XV), which is treated with isobutylene (XVI) and sulfuric acid in dioxane to yield the corresponding tert-butyl ester (XVII). The sulfonation of (XVII) with the sulfonyl chloride (VI) as before affords 2,2-dimethyl-4-[4-(4-pyridyloxy)phenylsulfonyl]thiomorpholine-3(S)-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (XVIII), which is finally treated with HCl in refluxing dioxane to give the previously reported free acid intermediate (XIV).
The cyclization of D-penicillamine methyl ester (XIX) with 1,2-dibromoethane by means of DBU in DMF gives 2,2-dimethylthiomorpholine-3(S)-carboxylic acid methyl ester (XX), which is sulfonated with the sulfonyl chloride (VI) as before, affording 2,2-dimethyl-4-[4-(4-pyridyloxy)phenylsulfonyl]thiomorpholine-3(S)-carboxylic acid methyl ester (XXI). Finally, this compound is hydrolyzed with refluxing aqueous HCl to yield the previously reported intermediate (XIV).
The silylation of D-penicillamine (I) with dimethylhexylsilyl chloride (Dmhs-Cl) and DBU gives the ester (XI), which is cyclized with 1,2-dichloroethane and DBU in DMF, yielding 2,2-dimethylthiomorpholine-3(S)-carboxylic acid dimethylhexylsilyl ester (XII).
The sulfonation of (XII) with the sulfonyl chloride (VI) as before affords 2,2-dimethyl-4-[4-(4-pyridyloxy)phenylsulfonyl]thiomorpholine-3(S)-carboxylic acid dimethylhexylsilyl ester (XIII), which is desilylated in refluxing methanol to give the free acid (XIV) Finally, this compound is treated with oxalyl chloride and hydroxylamine in dichloromethane.
- Hande, Kenneth R; Mary Collier, Linda Paradiso, Jill Stuart-Smith, Mary Dixon, Neil Clendeninn, Geoff Yeun, Donna Alberti, Kim Binger and George Wilding (2004). “Phase I and Pharmacokinetic Study of Prinomastat, a Matrix Metalloprotease Inhibitor”. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD 3 (4): 393–7. PMID 15303783.
- Bissett, K Donald; en J. O’Byrne, J. von Pawel, Ulrich Gatzemeier, Allan Price, Marianne Nicolson, Richard Mercier, Elva Mazabel, Carol Penning, Min H. Zhang, Mary A. Collier, Frances A. Shepherd (2005). “Phase III Study of Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitor Prinomastat in Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer”.Journal of Clinical Oncology 10: 909. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-0981-3.
clinical trial results
1. Phase II, prinomastat in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
All patients, regardless of treatment arm, were able to successfully undergo neoadjuvant combined modality therapy and esophagectomy. However, early closure of the study due to unexpected thrombo-embolic events precluded any conclusions regarding clinical activity of prinomastat in locally advanced esophageal cancer patients.
2. Phase III study of prinomastat in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Prinomastat does not improve the outcome of chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC.