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Skeletal formula of estetrol
Estetrol (USAN).png



Mol weight304.3808

FDA 4/15/2021, To prevent pregnancy, Nextstellis

New Drug Application (NDA): 214154

Label (PDF)
Letter (PDF)

Label (PDF)


Estrogenic substances are commonly used in methods of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) and methods of female contraception. These estrogenic substances can be divided in natural estrogens and synthetic estrogens. Examples of natural estrogens that have found pharmaceutical application include estradiol, estrone, estriol and conjugated equine estrogens. Examples of synthetic estrogens, which offer the advantage of high oral bioavailability include ethinyl estradiol and mestranol.Recently, estetrol has been found effective as an estrogenic substance for use in HRT, disclosure of which is given in the Applicant’s co-pending application WO 02/094276 . Estetrol is a biogenic estrogen that is endogeneously produced by the fetal liver during human pregnancy. Other important applications of estetrol are in the fields of contraception, therapy of auto-immune diseases, prevention and therapy of breast and colon tumors, enhancement of libido, skin care, and wound healing as described in the Applicant’s co-pending applications WO 02/094276 , WO 02/094279 , WO 02/094278 , WO 02/094275 , EP 1511496 A1 EP 1511498 A1 , WO 03/041718 , WO 03/018026 , EP 1526856 A1 and WO 04/0278032 .[0004]The synthesis of estetrol and derivatives thereof on a laboratory scale basis is known in the art: Fishman J., Guzik H., J. Org. Chem. 33, 3133 – 3135 (1968); Nambara T. et al., Steroids 27, 111 – 121 (1976); or Suzuki E. et al., Steroids 60, 277 – 284(1995).[0005]

Fishman J., Guzik H., J. Org. Chem. 33, 3133 – 3135 (1968) discloses a successful synthesis of estetrol from an estrone derivative (compound (III); cf. for a synthesis of compound (III) Cantrall, E.W., Littell, R., Bernstein, S. J. Org. Chem 29, 214 – 217 (1964)). In a first step, the carbonyl group at C17 of compound (III) was reduced with LiAlH4 to estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraene-3,17-diol (compound VIa) that was isolated as the diacetate (compound VIb). Compound VIb was subjected to cis-hydroxylation of the double bond of ring D by using OsO4 which resulted into the formation of estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,15α,16α,17β-tetraol-3,17-diacetate (compound Ib) that under heating with K2CO3 in methanol produces estetrol (Scheme 1).

Figure imgb0001


The overall yield of this three step process is, starting from estrone derivative III, only about 7%. It is worth noting that the protected derivative 17,17-ethylenedioxyestra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraene-3-ol-3-acetate (compound IV) could be cis-hydroxylated to its 15α,16α-diol derivative (compound Va), but that thereafter the dioxolane group could not be removed (p-toluene sulfonic acid in acetone at room temperature) or that the hydrolysis (aqueous sulfuric acid in warm dioxane) of the dioxolane group resulted in a mixture containing a multitude of products (Scheme 2).

Figure imgb0002

[0007]Nambara T. et al., Steroids 27, 111 – 121 (1976) discloses another synthesis of estetrol wherein estrone is the starting material. The carbonyl group of estrone is first protected by treatment with ethylene glycol and pyridine hydrochloride followed by acetylation of the hydroxy group at C3. The next sequence of steps involved a bromination/base catalyzed dehydrobromination resulting into the formation of 17,17-ethylenedioxyestra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraene-3-ol (compound IVa). This compound IVa was subsequently acetylated which produced 17,17-ethylenedioxyestra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraene-3-ol-3-acetate (compound IVb). In a next step, the dioxolane group of compound IVb was hydrolysed by using p-toluene sulfonic acid to compound Vb, followed subsequently by reduction of the carbonyl group at C17 (compound Vc) and oxidation of the double bond of ring D thereby forming estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,15α,16α,17β-tetraol-3,17-diacetate (compound VIb). See Scheme 3.[0008]

Suzuki E. et al., Steroids 60, 277 – 284 (1995) also discloses the synthesis of estetrol by using compound Vb of Nambara T. et al. as starting material. The carbonyl group at C17 of this compound was first reduced followed by acetylation yielding estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraene-3,17-diol-3,17-diacetate (compound 2b). The latter was subjected to oxidation with OsO4 which provided estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,15α,16α,17β-tetraol-3,17-diacetate (compound 3b) in 46% yield.

Figure imgb0003

[0009]According to the Nambara T. et al. and Suzuki E. et al., the synthesis of estetrol can be performed with a yield of approximately 8%, starting from estrone.0010]

Poirier D., et al., Tetrahedron 47, 7751 – 7766 (1991) discloses the following compounds which were prepared according to methods that have been used to prepare similar compounds:

Figure imgb0004

[0011]Dionne, P. et al., Steriods 62, 674 – 681 (1997) discloses the compound shown above wherein R is either methyl or t-butyldimethylsilyl.[0012]Magnus, P. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 12486 -12499 (1998) discloses that the main methods for the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated ketones from saturated ketones are (a) halogenation followed by dehydrohalogenation, (b) utilising sulphur or selenium derivatives, (c) DDQ and (d) utilizing palladium(II) complexes.[0013]Furthermore, it has also been found that by following the prior art methods mentioned above, estetrol of high purity was obtained only in low yield when using an acetyl group as a protecting group for the 3-hydroxy group of estra-1,3,5(10),15-tetraen-3-ol-17-one, in particular because its sensitivity to hydrolysis and solvolysis. In particular, the lability of the acetyl group lead not only to an increased formation of byproducts during the reactions, but also during chromatography and crystallisation for purification of intermediate products when protic solvents such as methanol were used. Therefore, it is difficult to isolate purified estetrol and intermediates thereof in good yield.

Example 7 3-Benzyloxy-estra-1,3,5 (10),15-tetraen-17-ol (compound 5; A = benzyl)

[0088]To a solution of 3-benzyl-dehydroestrone (compound 6; A = benzyl; 58 g, 162 mmol) in a mixture of MeOH (900 mL) and THF (200 mL) at room temperature was added CeCl3 heptahydrate (66.4 g, 178 mmol). After stirring for 1 h the mixture was cooled to 0-5°C using an ice/water bath. Then NaBH4 (12.2 g, 324 mmol) was added in small portions maintaining a temperature below 8°C. After stirring for 2 h at 0-5°C (TLC showed the reaction to be complete) 1 N NaOH (300 mL) and DCM (1 L) were added and the mixture was stirred for ½ h at room temperature. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (200 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo to give an off-white solid (55.0 g, 152.8 mmol, 94%) TLC: Rf = 0.25 (heptanes/ethyl acetate = 4:1); HPLC-MS: 93% β-isomer, 2% α-isomer; DSC: Mp. 149.7°C, purity 96.6%; 1H-NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.48 (m, 5H), 7.27 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 6.85 (dd, 1H, J1 = 2.8 Hz, J2 = 8.6 Hz), 6.81 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz), 6.10 (d, 1H, J = 5.8 Hz), 5.79 (dd, 1H, J1 = 1.8 Hz, J2 = 3.4 Hz), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.48 (d, 1H, J = 7.6), 2.96 (m, 2H), 2.46 – 1.64 (m, 9H), 0.93 (s, 3H) ppm.

Example 8 17-Acetyloxy-3-benzyloxy-estra-1,3,5 (10),15-tetraene (compound 4; A = benzyl, C = acetyl)

[0089]A solution of 3-Benzyloxy-estra-1,3,5 (10),15-tetraen-17-ol (compound 5; A = benzyl; 55.0 g, max. 153 mmol) in pyridine (400 mL) was treated with Ac2O (50 mL, 0.53 mol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (1.5 g, 12.3 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 2 h at room temperature (TLC showed the reaction to be complete). It was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (400 mL), washed with water (200 mL) and brine (150 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo to yield a yellow solid (54.0 g, 49.8 mmol, 88%). The product was purified by recrystallization from heptanes/ EtOAc/ EtOH (1:0.5:1) to afford a white solid (45.0 g, 112 mmol, 73%) TLC: Rf = 0.6 (heptanes/ethyl acetate = 4/1); HPLC-MS: 98% β-isomer, 1% α-isomer, 1.3% ß-estradiol; DSC: Mp. 122.8°C, purity 99.8%; 1H-NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.44 (m, 5H), 7.27 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 6.86 (dd, 1H, J1 = 2.6 Hz, J2 = 8.4 Hz), 6.80 (d, 1H, J = 2.6 Hz), 6.17 (d, 1H, J = 5.8 Hz), 5.78 (dd, 1H, J1 = 1.4 Hz, J2 = 3.2 Hz), 5.45 (m, 1H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 2.96 (m, 2H), 2.40 – 1.54 (m, 10H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 0.93 (s, 3H) ppm.

Example 9 17-Acetyl-3-Benzyl estetrol (compound 3; A = benzyl, C = acetyl)

[0090]OsO4 on PVP (9 g, ~5% w/w OsO4 on PVP, prepared according to Cainelli et al. Synthesis, 45 – 47 (1989) was added to a solution of 17-Acetyloxy-3-benzyloxy-estra-1,3,5 (10),15-tetraene (compound 4; A = benzyl, C = acetyl; 45 g, 112 mmol) in THF (450 mL) and the mixture was heated to 50°C. Trimethylamine-N-oxide dihydrate (24.9 g, 224 mmol) was added portion-wise over 2 h. After stirring for 36 h at 50°C (TLC showed the reaction to be complete) the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature. The solids were filtered off, washed with THF (100 mL) and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was taken up in EtOAc (250 mL) and water (250 mL) was added. The aqueous layer was acidified with 1 N HCl (ca. 10 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (150 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was triturated with heptanes/EtOAc (1:1, 100 mL), stirred for 2 h and the resulting white precipitate was filtered off to give the product as a white solid (41 g, 94 mmol, 84%). The product was purified by recrystallization from heptanes/ ethyl acetate/ EtOH (2:1:1) three times to afford a white solid (21 g, 48.2 mmol, 43%). HPLC-MS: 99.5% βαα-isomer; DSC: Mp. 159.3°C, purity 98.7%; 1H-NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.49 (m, 5H), 7.27 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 6.84 (dd, 1H, J1 = 2.6 Hz, J2 = 8.4 Hz), 6.81 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.45 (d, 1H, J = 4.4), 4.11 (m, 3H), 3.12 (m, 1H) 2.95 (m, 2H), 2.46 -1.64 (m, 10H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 0.93 (s, 3H) ppm.

Example 10 17-Acetyl estetrol (compound 2; C = acetyl)

[0091]To a solution of 17-acetyl-3-benzyl estetrol (compound 3; A = benzyl, C = acetyl; 21 g, 48.2 mmol) in MeOH (600 mL, HPLC-grade) was added a preformed suspension of 10% Palladium on activated carbon (2 g) in methanol (50 mL). The mixture was placed under an atmosphere of H2 at 1 atm and stirred for 24 h (TLC showed the reaction to be completed) at room temperature. It was filtered over Celite® and the filter cake was washed with MeOH (200 mL). The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to give 17-acetyl estetrol as a white solid (15 g, 43.4 mmol, 90%). TLC: Rf = 0.2 (heptanes/ethyl acetate = 1/1); HPLC-MS: 99.2%, DSC: Mp. 212.2°C, purity 98.9%; 1H-NMR (200 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.14 (d, 1H, J = 8.0 Hz), 6.60 (dd, 1H, J1 = 2.6 Hz, J2 = 8.8 Hz), 6.56 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz), 4.81 (dd, 1H, J1 = 3.4 Hz, J2 = 6.4 Hz), 4.07 (m, 3H), 3.12 (m, 1H), 2.85 (m, 2H), 2.37 – 1.37 (m, 10H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 0.91 (s, 3H) ppm.

Example 11 Estetrol

[0092]17-Acetyl-estetrol (compound 2; C = acetyl; 15 g, 43.4 mmol) and K2CO3 (6 g, 43.4 mmol) were suspended in MeOH (500 mL, HPLC-grade) and stirred for 4 h at room temperature (TLC showed the reaction to be complete). The solvents were evaporated in vacuo. Water (200 mL) and CHCl3 (70 mL) were added and the mixture was stirred and neutralized with 0.1 N HCl (50 mL). The product was collected by filtration, washed with water (100 mL) and CHCl3 (100 mL) to give estetrol as a white solid (12.2 g, 40.1 mmol, 92.5%, overall yield from estrone 10.8%) after drying at 40°C in an air-ventilated oven. TLC: Rf = 0.05 (heptanes/ethyl acetate = 1/1); HPLC-MS: 99.1%, DSC: Mp. 243.7°C, purity 99.5%; 1H-NMR (200 MHz, CD3OD) δ 7.14 (d, 1H, J = 8.6 Hz), 6.61 (dd, 1H, J1 = 2.6 Hz, J2 = 8.4 Hz), 6.56 (d, 1H, J = 2.4 Hz), 4.83 (m, 1H), 3.93 (m, 3H), 3.50 (d, 1H, J = 5.2), 3.38 (m, 2H), 2.84 (m, 2H), 2.32 (m, 3H), 1.97 (m, 1H), 1.68 – 1.24 (m, 5H), 0.86 (s, 3H) ppm.


Estetrol (E4), or oestetrol, is a weak estrogen steroid hormone, which is found in detectable levels only during pregnancy in humans.[1][2] It is produced exclusively by the fetal liver.[1] Estetrol is closely related to estriol (E3), which is also a weak estrogen that is found in high quantities only during pregnancy.[1][2] Along with estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and E3, estetrol (E4) is a major estrogen in the body, although only during pregnancy.[1]

In addition to its role as a natural hormone, estetrol is under clinical development for use as a medication, for instance in hormonal contraception (in combination with drospirenone) and as menopausal hormone therapy; for information on estetrol as a medication, see the estetrol (medication) article.

Biological function

Estetrol is an estrogen and has estrogenic effects in various tissues.[1] Estetrol interacts with nuclear Estrogen Receptor (ERα) in a manner identical to that of the other estrogens and distinct from that observed with Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs).[3][4] So far the physiological function of estetrol is unknown. The possible use of estetrol as a marker for fetal well-being has been studied quite extensively. However, due to the large intra- and inter-individual variation of maternal estetrol plasma levels during pregnancy this appeared not to be feasible.[5][6][7][8][9]

Biological activity

Estetrol is an agonist of the estrogen receptors (ERs), and hence is an estrogen.[10][11] It has moderate affinity for ERα and ERβ, with Ki values of 4.9 nM and 19 nM, respectively.[10][12] As such, estetrol has 4- to 5-fold preference for the ERα over the ERβ.[10][12] The estrogen has low affinity for the ERs relative to estradiol, and both estetrol and the related estrogen estriol require substantially higher concentrations than estradiol to produce similar effects to estradiol.[10] The affinity of estetrol for the ERs is about 0.3% (rat) to 6.25% (human) of that of estradiol, and its in vivo potency in animals is about 2 to 3% of that of estradiol.[10] Estetrol shows high selectivity for the ERs.[10][12]



Estetrol is synthesized during pregnancy only in the fetal liver from estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) by the two enzymes 15α- and 16α-hydroxylase.[13][14][15] Alternatively, estetrol is synthesized with 15α-hydroxylation of 16α-hydroxy-DHEA sulfate as an intermediate step.[16] It appears in maternal urine at around week 9 of pregnancy.[2] After birth the neonatal liver rapidly loses its capacity to synthesize estetrol because these two enzymes are no longer expressed.

Estetrol reaches the maternal circulation through the placenta and was already detected at nine weeks of pregnancy in maternal urine.[17][18] During the second trimester of pregnancy high levels were found in maternal plasma, with steadily rising concentrations of unconjugated estetrol to about 1 ng/mL (>3 nM) towards the end of pregnancy.[1]


In terms of plasma protein binding, estetrol is moderately bound to albumin, and is not bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG).[19][20]


Estetrol undergoes no phase I metabolism by CYP P450 enzymes.[10] It is conjugated via glucuronidation and to a lesser extent sulfation and then excreted.[10][21]


Estetrol is excreted mostly or completely in urine.[21][10]


See also: List of estrogens

vteStructures of major endogenous estrogensChemical structures of major endogenous estrogensEstrone (E1)Estradiol (E2)Estriol (E3)Estetrol (E4)The image above contains clickable linksNote the hydroxyl (–OH) groups: estrone (E1) has one, estradiol (E2) has two, estriol (E3) has three, and estetrol (E4) has four.

Estetrol, also known as 15α-hydroxyestriol or as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,15α,16α,17β-tetrol, is a naturally occurring estrane steroid and derivative of estrin (estratriene).[10][11] It has four hydroxyl groups, which explains the abbreviation E4.[10][11]


Chemical syntheses of estetrol have been published.[22]


Estetrol was discovered in 1965 by Egon Diczfalusy and coworkers at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, via isolation from the urine of pregnant women.[10][23]


  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f Holinka CF, Diczfalusy E, Coelingh Bennink HJ (May 2008). “Estetrol: a unique steroid in human pregnancy”. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol110 (1–2): 138–43. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.03.027PMID 18462934.
  2. Jump up to:a b c Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management, 3rd ed., SSC Yen and RB Jaffe (eds.), pp. 936–981, Copyright Elsevier/Saunders 1991
  3. ^ Abot, Anne; Fontaine, Coralie; Buscato, Mélissa; Solinhac, Romain; Flouriot, Gilles; Fabre, Aurélie; Drougard, Anne; Rajan, Shyamala; Laine, Muriel; Milon, Alain; Muller, Isabelle (2014). “The uterine and vascular actions of estetrol delineate a distinctive profile of estrogen receptor α modulation, uncoupling nuclear and membrane activation”EMBO Molecular Medicine6 (10): 1328–1346. doi:10.15252/emmm.201404112ISSN 1757-4676PMC 4287935PMID 25214462.
  4. ^ Foidart, JM; et al. (2019). “30th Annual Meeting of The North America Menopause Society September 25 – 28, 2019, Chicago, IL”Menopause26 (12): 1445–1481. doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000001456ISSN 1530-0374.
  5. ^ J. Heikkilä, T. Luukkainen, Urinary excretion of estriol and 15a-hydroxyestriol in complicated pregnancies, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 110 (1971) 509-521.
  6. ^ D. Tulchinsky, F.D. Frigoletto, K.J. Ryan, J. Fishman, Plasma estetrol as an index of fetal well-being, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 40 (1975) 560-567
  7. ^ A.D. Notation, G.E. Tagatz, Unconjugated estriol and 15a-hydroxyestriol in complicated pregnancies, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 128 (1977) 747-756.
  8. ^ N. Kundu, M. Grant, Radioimmunoassay of 15a-hydroxyestriol (estetrol) in pregnancy serum, Steroids 27 (1976) 785-796.
  9. ^ N. Kundu, M. Wachs, G.B. Iverson, L.P. Petersen, Comparison of serum unconjugated estriol and estetrol in normal and complicated pregnancies, Obstet. Gynecol. 58 (1981) 276-281.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Coelingh Bennink HJ, Holinka CF, Diczfalusy E (2008). “Estetrol review: profile and potential clinical applications”. Climacteric. 11 Suppl 1: 47–58. doi:10.1080/13697130802073425PMID 18464023.
  11. Jump up to:a b c Visser M, Coelingh Bennink HJ (March 2009). “Clinical applications for estetrol” (PDF). J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol114(1–2): 85–9. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.12.013PMID 19167495.
  12. Jump up to:a b c Visser M, Foidart JM, Coelingh Bennink HJ (2008). “In vitro effects of estetrol on receptor binding, drug targets and human liver cell metabolism”. Climacteric. 11 Suppl 1: 64–8. doi:10.1080/13697130802050340PMID 18464025.
  13. ^ J. Schwers, G. Eriksson, N. Wiqvist, E. Diczfalusy, 15a-hydroxylation: A new pathway of estrogen metabolism in the human fetus and newborn, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 100 (1965) 313-316
  14. ^ J. Schwers, M. Govaerts-Videtsky, N. Wiqvist, E. Diczfalusy, Metabolism of oestrone sulphate by the previable human foetus, Acta Endocrinol. 50 (1965) 597-610.
  15. ^ S. Mancuso, G. Benagiano, S. Dell’Acqua, M. Shapiro, N. Wiqvist, E. Diczfalusy, Studies on the metabolism of C-19 steroids in the human foeto-placental unit, Acta Endocrinol. 57 (1968) 208-227.
  16. ^ Jerome Frank Strauss; Robert L. Barbieri (2009). Yen and Jaffe’s Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 262–. ISBN 1-4160-4907-X.
  17. ^ J. Heikkilä, H. Adlercreutz, A method for the determination of urinary 15α-hydroxyestriol and estriol, J. Steroid Biochem. 1 (1970) 243-253
  18. ^ J. Heikkilä, Excretion of 15α-hydroxyestriol and estriol in maternal urine during normal pregnancy, J. Steroid Biochem. 2 (1971) 83-93.
  19. ^ Visser M, Holinka CF, Coelingh Bennink HJ (2008). “First human exposure to exogenous single-dose oral estetrol in early postmenopausal women”. Climacteric. 11 Suppl 1: 31–40. doi:10.1080/13697130802056511PMID 18464021.
  20. ^ Hammond GL, Hogeveen KN, Visser M, Coelingh Bennink HJ (2008). “Estetrol does not bind sex hormone binding globulin or increase its production by human HepG2 cells”. Climacteric. 11 Suppl 1: 41–6. doi:10.1080/13697130701851814PMID 18464022.
  21. Jump up to:a b Mawet M, Maillard C, Klipping C, Zimmerman Y, Foidart JM, Coelingh Bennink HJ (2015). “Unique effects on hepatic function, lipid metabolism, bone and growth endocrine parameters of estetrol in combined oral contraceptives”Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care20 (6): 463–75. doi:10.3109/13625187.2015.1068934PMC 4699469PMID 26212489.
  22. ^ Warmerdam EG, Visser M, Coelingh Bennink HJ, Groen M (2008). “A new route of synthesis of estetrol”. Climacteric. 11 Suppl 1: 59–63. doi:10.1080/13697130802054078PMID 18464024.
  23. ^ Hagen AA, Barr M, Diczfalusy E (June 1965). “Metabolism of 17-beta-oestradiol-4-14-C in early infancy”. Acta Endocrinol49: 207–20. doi:10.1530/acta.0.0490207PMID 14303250.
Preferred IUPAC name(1R,2R,3R,3aS,3bR,9bS,11aS)-11a-Methyl-2,3,3a,3b,4,5,9b,10,11,11a-decahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthrene-1,2,3,7-tetrol
Other namesOestetrol; E4; 15α-Hydroxyestriol; Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,15α,16α,17β-tetrol
CAS Number15183-37-6 
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
ECHA InfoCard100.276.707 
PubChem CID27125
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID50164888 
Chemical formulaC18H24O4
Molar mass304.386 g/mol
Solubility in water1.38 mg/mL
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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