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DESLORATADINE, デスロラタジン

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Desloratadine

  • Molecular FormulaC19H19ClN2
  • Average mass310.821 Da
100643-71-8 [RN]
5H-Benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine, 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-(4-piperidinylidene)-
7817
Desloratadine, Descarboethoxyloratadine, Sch-34117, DCL, Denosin, Clarinex RediTabs, Allex, Desalex, Opulis, Clarinex, Neoclarityn, Aerius, MK-4117

Desloratadine (trade name Clarinex and Aerius) is a tricyclic H1-antihistamine that is used to treat allergies. It is an active metaboliteof loratadine.

It was patented in 1984 and came into medical use in 2001.[1]

Medical uses

Desloratadine is used to treat allergic rhinitisnasal congestion and chronic idiopathic urticaria (hives).[2] It is the major metabolite of loratadine and the two drugs are similar in safety and effectiveness.[2] Desloratadine is available in many dosage forms and under many trade names worldwide.[3]

An emerging indication for desloratadine is in the treatment of acne, as an inexpensive adjuvant to isotretinoin and possibly as maintenance therapy or monotherapy.[4][5]

Side effects

The most common side-effects are fatiguedry mouth, and headache.[2]

Interactions

A number of drugs and other substances that are prone to interactions, such as ketoconazoleerythromycin and grapefruit juice, have shown no influence on desloratadine concentrations in the body. Desloratadine is judged to have a low potential for interactions.[6]

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Desloratadine is a selective H1antihistamine which functions as an inverse agonist at the histamine H1 receptor.[7]

At very high doses, is also an antagonist at various subtypes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. This effect is not relevant for the drug’s action at therapeutic doses.[8]

Pharmacokinetics

Desloratadine is well absorbed from the gut and reaches highest blood plasma concentrations after about three hours. In the bloodstream, 83 to 87% of the substance are bound to plasma proteins.[6]

Desloratadine is metabolized to 3-hydroxydesloratadine in a three-step sequence in normal metabolizers. First, n-glucuronidation of desloratadine by UGT2B10; then, 3-hydroxylation of desloratadine N-glucuronide by CYP2C8; and finally, a non-enzymatic deconjugation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine N-glucuronide.[9] Both desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine are eliminated via urine and feces with a half-life of 27 hours in normal metabolizers.[6][10]

3-Hydroxydesloratadine, the main metabolite

It exhibits only peripheral activity since it does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier; hence, it does not normally cause drowsiness because it does not readily enter the central nervous system.[11]

Desloratadine does not have a strong effect on a number of tested enzymes in the cytochrome P450 system. It was found to weakly inhibit CYP2B6CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/CYP3A5, and not to inhibit CYP1A2CYP2C8CYP2C9, or CYP2C19. Desloratadine was found to be a potent and relatively selective inhibitor of UGT2B10, a weak to moderate inhibitor of UGT2B17UGT1A10, and UGT2B4, and not to inhibit UGT1A1UGT1A3UGT1A4UGT1A6UGT1A9UGT2B7UGT2B15UGT1A7, and UGT1A8.[9]

Pharmacogenomics

2% of Caucasian people and 18% of people from African descent are desloratadine poor metabolizers. In these people, the drug reaches threefold highest plasma concentrations six to seven hours after intake, and has a half-life of about 89 hours. However, the safety profile for these subjects is not worse than for extensive (normal) metabolizers.[6][10]

Clip

https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/articles/9/265

The value of substituted 3-picoline precursors is illustrated in the synthesis of clarinex (1.22, Desloratadine, Scheme 5), a dual antagonist of platelet activating factor (PAF) and of histamine used in the treatment of allergies. This compound consists of a highly functional tricyclic core with an unsaturated linkage to a pendant piperidine ring. The picoline derivative 1.23 is first treated with two equivalents of n-butyllithium (n-BuLi) followed by alkylation with benzyl chloride to give the chain elongated adduct [27]. The tert-butylamide 1.24 is then dehydrated with phosphorous oxychloride at elevated temperatures to yield the nitrile derivative 1.25. Introduction of the piperidine ring is achieved by utilisation of the appropriately substituted Grignard reagent 1.26. A Friedel–Crafts type acylation promoted by either triflic acid or polyphosphoric acid (PPA) furnishes the tricyclic structure 1.28 which upon N-demethylation affords clarinex (1.22).

CLIP

Image result for desloratadine

FTIR

Image result for desloratadine

SYN

Alcoholysis of 3-methylpyridine-2-carbonitrile (I) with hot tert-butanol and H2SO4 gives the N-tert-butylcarboxamide (II), which is alkylated with 3-chlorobenzyl chloride (III) and BuLi in THF, yielding N-tert-butyl-3-[2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethyl]pyridine-2-carboxamide (IV). The reaction of (IV) with refluxing POCl3 and then with NaOH affords the corresponding nitrile (V), which is condensed with 1-methylpiperidin-4-ylmagnesium chloride (VI) in THF to give the ketone (VII). Cyclization of (VII) by means of either BF3 in HF or trifluoromethanesulfonic acid yields 8-chloro-11-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine (VIII), which is reacted with cyanogen bromide in benzene to give the N-cyano compound (IX). Finally, this compound is treated with HCl in refluxing acetic acid/water. Alternatively, 8-chloro-11-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine (VIII) is treated with ethyl chloroformate in hot toluene, affording the carbamate (X) (2), which is finally decarboxylated with KOH or NaOH in refluxing ethanol/water.

SYN

Condensation of ethyl nicotinate (XI) with 3-chlorophenylacetonitrile (XII) by means of sodium ethoxide in ethanol gives 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-3-(3-pyridyl)propionitrile (XIII), which by refluxing with concentrated HBr yields 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-(3-pyridyl)ethanone (XIV). The reduction of (XIV) with hydrazine hydrate and NaOH in diethylene glycol at 235-40 C affords 3-(2-phenylethyl) pyridine (XV), which is oxidized with H2O2 in hot acetic acid to provide the corresponding N-oxide (XVI). Reaction of (XVI) with NaCN and dimethyl sulfate in water affords the previously described 3-(2-phenylethyl)pyridine-2-carbonitrile (V), which can be worked up as previously described or cyclized with polyphosphoric acid (PPA) at 180 C to give 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-11-one (XVII). The condensation of (XVII) with 1-methylpiperidin-4-ylmagnesium chloride (VI) in THF yields the corresponding carbinol (XVIII), which is dehydrated with PPA at 170 C to afford the previously reported 8-chloro-11-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine (VIII).

SYN

Condensation of ethyl nicotinate (XI) with 3-chlorophenylacetonitrile (XII) by means of sodium ethoxide in ethanol gives 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-oxo-3-(3-pyridyl)propionitrile (XIII), which by refluxing with concentrated HBr yields 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-(3-pyridyl)ethanone (XIV). The reduction of (XIV) with hydrazine hydrate and NaOH in diethylene glycol at 235-40 C affords 3-(2-phenylethyl) pyridine (XV), which is oxidized with H2O2 in hot acetic acid to provide the corresponding N-oxide (XVI). Reaction of (XVI) with NaCN and dimethyl sulfate in water affords the previously described 3-(2-phenylethyl)pyridine-2-carbonitrile (V), which can be worked up as previously described or cyclized with polyphosphoric acid (PPA) at 180 C to give 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-11-one (XVII). The condensation of (XVII) with 1-methylpiperidin-4-ylmagnesium chloride (VI) in THF yields the corresponding carbinol (XVIII), which is dehydrated with PPA at 170 C to afford the previously reported 8-chloro-11-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylidene)-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine (VIII).

Syn

2) By reaction of 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-11-one (III) with the Grignard reagent (IV) to give the tertiary carbinol (V), which is dehydrated with 85% H2SO4 affording 8-chloro-11-piperidinylidene derivative (VI). Finally, cornpound (VI) is treated with ethyl chloroformate (II) in toluene.

SYN

1) By carboxylation of 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-(4-piperidylidene)-5H-benzo[5,6]cyctohepta[1,2-b]pyridine (I) with ethyl chloroformate (II) in refluxing benzene.

SYN

The condensation of S-methylisothiourea (I) with trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (II) by means of NaOH in water gives trans-4-(guanidinomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (III) (I), which is esterified with benzyl salicylate (IV) by means of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) or SOCl2 yielding 2-benzyloxycarbonylphenyl trans-4-(guanidinomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (V). Finally, this compound is treated with cyclodextrin in aqueous solution to afford the corresponding complex.

SPECTROSCOPY

Figure CN103755682AD00061

[0052] Table 1, desloratadine sample IH-NMR data of the DMS0_d6

Figure CN103755682AD00062

[0055] The desloratadine 1H spectra of the samples were assigned:
[0056] (I) 1H spectra show that there are 10 groups of hydrogen from low field to high field integral hydrogen ratio was 1: 1: 1: 1: 1: 1: 2: 4:
2: 4, and desloratadine structure match.
[0057] (2) δ 8.334 处 hydrogen as a set of double doublet, number of protons is I, attributed to two hydrogen;
[0058] (3) δ 7.560 处 hydrogen as a set of double doublet, number of protons is I, attributed to four hydrogen;
[0059] (4) δ 7.282 处 doublet hydrogen as a group, the number of protons is I, 12 attributed to hydrogen.
[0060] (5) δ 7.198 处 hydrogen as a set of double doublet, number of protons is I, 14 attributed to hydrogen;
[0061] (6) δ 7.174 处 hydrogen as a set of double doublet, number of protons is I, attributed to three hydrogen;
[0062] (7) δ 7.064 处 doublet hydrogen as a group, the number of protons is I, 15 attributed to hydrogen;
[0063] (8) δ 3.314 处 hydrogen as a group multiplet, 2 protons attributable to 10 hydrogen;
[0064] (9) δ 2.831,2.554 hydrogen groups at multiplet, protons of 4, 18, 20, the home position is hydrogen;
[0065] (10) δ 2.819 处 hydrogen as a group multiplet, 2 protons attributable to 11 hydrogen;
[0066] (11) δ 2.108 处 hydrogen as a single peak, the number of protons is I, home to 19 active hydrogen;
[0067] (12) δ 2.205, 2.002 处 two hydrogen multiplet, protons of 4, 17, 21 bits attributed to hydrogen; [0068] From the foregoing, 1H-NMR spectrum data and the resulting product in this embodiment is of he will be loratadine same structure as the target product.

 http://www.google.com/patents/CN103755682A?cl=en

References

  1. ^ Fischer, Jnos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 549. ISBN 9783527607495.
  2. Jump up to:a b c See S (2003). “Desloratadine for allergic rhinitis”Am Fam Physician68 (10): 2015–6. PMID 14655812.
  3. ^ Drugs.com Desloratadine entry at drugs.com international Page accessed May 4, 2015
  4. ^ Lee HE, Chang IK, Lee Y, Kim CD, Seo YJ, Lee JH, Im M (2014). “Effect of antihistamine as an adjuvant treatment of isotretinoin in acne: a randomized, controlled comparative study”. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol28 (12): 1654–60. doi:10.1111/jdv.12403PMID 25081735.
  5. ^ Layton AM (2016). “Top Ten List of Clinical Pearls in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris”. Dermatol Clin34 (2): 147–57. doi:10.1016/j.det.2015.11.008PMID 27015774.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d “Aerius: EPAR – Product Information” (PDF)European Medicines Agency. 2017-06-07.
  7. ^ Canonica GW, Blaiss M (2011). “Antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic properties of the nonsedating second-generation antihistamine desloratadine: a review of the evidence”World Allergy Organ J4 (2): 47–53. doi:10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182093e19PMC 3500039PMID 23268457.
Desloratadine
Desloratadine.svg
Desloratadine 3D ball-and-stick.png
Clinical data
Trade names Clarinex (US), Aerius, Dasselta, Deslordis (EU), others
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a602002
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B1
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral (tablets, solution)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Rapidly absorbed
Protein binding 83 to 87%
Metabolism UGT2B10CYP2C8
Metabolites 3-Hydroxydesloratadine
Onset of action within 1 hour
Elimination half-life 27 hours
Duration of action up to 24 hours
Excretion 40% as conjugated metabolites into urine
Similar amount into the feces
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.166.554 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H19ClN2
Molar mass 310.82 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////Desloratadine, Descarboethoxyloratadine, Sch-34117, DCL, Denosin, Clarinex RediTabs, Allex, Desalex, Opulis, Clarinex, Neoclarityn, Aerius, MK-4117

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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