New Drug Approvals

Home » PROCESS » Ensuring Process Stability with Reactor Temperature Control Systems

Ensuring Process Stability with Reactor Temperature Control Systems

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Categories

Blog Stats

  • 4,186,861 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,792 other subscribers

add to any

Share

Temperature control plays an important role in industrial processes, pilot plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical laboratories. When controlling reactors, both exothermic and endothermic reactions must be offset with high speed and reliability. Therefore, different conditions and effects must be taken into account when specifying an optimum and highly dynamic temperature control system.

Temperature Control of Reactors

Most temperature control systems are used with chemical reactors made of either steel or glass. The former is more rugged and long-lasting, while the latter enables chemists to observe processes inside the reactor.

However, in the case of glass reactors, extensive precautions have to be followed for safe usage. Reactors usually include an inner vessel to hold the samples, which need temperature control. This inner vessel is enclosed by a jacket containing heat-transfer liquid. This reactor jacket is linked to the temperature control system.

In order to control the reactor’s temperature, the temperature control system pumps the heat-transfer liquid through the reactor’s jacket. Rapid temperature change inside the reactor is balanced by instant cool-down or heat-up, and the liquid is either cooled or heated inside the temperature control system. Figure 1 shows a schematic of a simple temperature control system.

Figure 1. Functional view of reactor temperature control

Process Stability

Both materials and reactor design can affect the temperature control of highly dynamic reactor systems. However, the heat transferred by a glass-walled vessel will be different than that transferred by a steel-walled vessel. In addition, both wall thickness and surface area can also affect accuracy. Therefore, proper mixing of the initial materials inside the reactor is important to obtain good uniformity, which in turn will guarantee optimal heat exchange.

For each type of reactor, maximum pressure values have been provided as per the specifications established by reactor manufacturers and in the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG. Regardless of any temperature control application, these limit values may not be surpassed during operation under any situations. Prior to starting a temperature control application, the applicable limits must be programmed within the temperature control unit.

Another important criterion in reactors is the maximum permissible temperature difference, which is referred to as Delta-T limit. It defines the highest difference between the temperature of the contents of the reactor and the actual thermal fluid temperature.

When compared to steel reactors, glass reactors are more susceptible to thermal stress. For that matter, any temperature control system should enable users to program reactor-specific values for the Delta-T limit per time unit. Within the temperature control equipment itself, three components considerably affect the stability of the process and these include heat exchanger, pump, and control electronics.

Heat Exchanger

It is important to ensure that a temperature control system has sufficient heating and cooling capacity, as this can significantly affect the speed to reach the preferred temperatures. In order to determine the preferred heating and cooling capacities, users must consider the essential differences in temperature, the volume of the samples, the preferred heat-up and cool-down times, and the specific heat capacity of the temperature control medium.

Highly dynamic temperature control solutions are commercially available in the market with water or air cooling. Air-cooled systems do not utilize water and may be deployed where there is sufficient air flow.

The heat thus removed from the reactor is eventually transferred to ambient air. Water-cooled systems need to be joined to a cooling water supply, but they operate more quietly and do not add surplus heat in small labs. These units could be completely enclosed by the application, if required.

Pump

The integrated pump of the temperature control unit equipment must be sufficiently strong to obtain the preferred flow rates at stable pressure. To ensure that pressure limit values mentioned above are not exceeded, the pump should provide the preferred pressure quickly and with maximum control.

Operating conditions and pressure specifications of the reactor must always be taken into account, and regulation of pump capacity must be done by presetting a limit value. Sophisticated temperature control solutions include pumps that balance the variations of the viscosity of the heat transfer liquid to make sure that energy efficiency is maintained continuously.

This is because viscosity influences flow and hence the heat transfer. An additional advantage provided by magnetically coupled pumps is that they guarantee a hydraulically-sealed thermal circuit. Also, self-lubricated pumps are beneficial as they require only minimum maintenance.

The closed loop circuit prevents contact between the ambient air and the heat transfer liquid. This not only prevents permeation of oxidation and moisture, bit also prevents oil vapors from entering into the work environment.

Additionally, an internal expansion vessel must permanently absorb temperature-induced volume variations inside the heat exchanger. Individual cooling of the expansion vessel will help in ensuring that the temperature control unit does not overheat and ultimately ensures operator safety.

A temperature control equipment should operate consistently even at high ambient temperatures. In majority of cases, the real work environment will diverge from the ideal temperature of 20°C. During hot summer months, temperature control solutions are exposed to adverse conditions. In laboratories, ambient temperatures are usually higher because of energy saving measures. These instances demonstrate the benefits of temperature control solutions that work consistently at temperatures as high as 35°C.

Control Electronics

Temperature control equipment includes advanced control electronics that monitor and control the process inside the reactor and also the internal processes of the system. When a control variable changes, the system is capable of readjusting the variable to the setpoint sans overshooting.

Accurate control electronics are needed to maintain the stability of a temperature control application. One option to assess control electronics is to look at the effort needed to set parameters. In a temperature control unit, users can enter a setpoint. Control electronics must be self-optimizing throughout the temperature control process to ensure optimum results.

Conclusion

To sum up, the process safety and stability during reactor temperature control relies on the effectiveness of heat transfer, the type of reactor, and the efficiency of the components within the temperature control unit. Therefore, different conditions and effects must be considered when specifying a highly dynamic temperature control system.


2 Comments

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

DR ANTHONY CRASTO

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,792 other subscribers
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

Personal Links

View Full Profile →

TWITTER

  • RT @IndiaDST: The 2nd SCO Young Scientists Conclave #SCO_YSC is being hosted @jncasr , an autonomous institute of @IndiaDST , at its campus… 1 day ago
  • RT @SciUp: Our Understanding Polymorphism online course is only a week away! This five-session course aims to give chemists and engineers a… 1 day ago
  • RT @SciUp: Join us in Boston, US in May to get up-to-date intel on #flowchemistry. Our '5th Flow Chemistry & Continuous Processing' Confer… 1 day ago
  • RT @SciUp: Join us online for our 'Work Up and Product Isolation' short course on 23-24 February & you will lean how to design simple and p… 1 day ago
  • RT @thomasraji: Happy Birthday Mummyji !! Thanks for all your support and your invaluable life lessons.😍😍🎂💐💐🤩 You're not getting older...… 1 day ago
  • RT @GuwahatiNiper: 74वें गणतंत्र दिवस कार्यक्रम की झलकियां। Glimpses of the 74th Republic Day programme. @Pharmadept @rajneeshtingal @bhagw1 day ago
  • RT @dst_neelima: DST supported NCoE on CCU at IITB was the knowledge partner in the parallel event organised by ETWG G20 on CCUS on 5 th Fe… 1 day ago
  • RT @dst_neelima: Glad to represent DST India In an International Conference on CCUS organised as a parallel event to Energy Transition Work… 2 days ago
  • Glimpse of 2nd National One Day Symposium on “Drug Discovery Research in India: Current State and Future Prospects… twitter.com/i/web/status/1… 2 days ago
  • RT @africureonline: World Cancer Day is observed annually on February 4th to raise awareness about the impact of cancer on individuals and… 3 days ago
  • RT @CSIRCIMAP: Activity 13: Dr N Kalaiselvi, DG CSIR & Secretary, DSIR under #CSIR_OneWeekOneLab inaugurated the ‘High Throughput Instrumen… 3 days ago
  • Career counseling to pharma students, At Govindrao Nikam College Of Pharmacy Sawarde,Tal - Chiplun, Ratnagiri, Mh 4… twitter.com/i/web/status/1… 3 days ago
  • RT @bluetech_media: We are proud to welcome Dr.@Anthony Melvin Crasto Advisor Africure Pharma, Global A WDT API INT RnD, Ex Glenmark LS, Wo… 4 days ago
  • Meet me at Global PHT 2023. as Guest of honor and speaker 𝐆𝐥𝐨𝐛𝐚𝐥 𝐏𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐦𝐚 𝐇𝐞𝐚𝐥𝐭𝐡𝐜𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐓𝐞𝐜𝐡𝐧𝐨𝐥𝐨𝐠𝐲 𝐄𝐱𝐩𝐨 & 𝐒𝐮𝐦𝐦𝐢𝐭 𝟐𝟎𝟐𝟑… twitter.com/i/web/status/1… 5 days ago
  • Lifetime achievement award nomination at GlobalPHT 2023 𝐆𝐥𝐨𝐛𝐚𝐥 𝐏𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐦𝐚 𝐇𝐞𝐚𝐥𝐭𝐡𝐜𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐓𝐞𝐜𝐡𝐧𝐨𝐥𝐨𝐠𝐲 𝐄𝐱𝐩𝐨 & 𝐒𝐮𝐦𝐦𝐢𝐭 (𝐆𝐥𝐨𝐛𝐚𝐥… twitter.com/i/web/status/1… 5 days ago

bloglovin

Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: