New Drug Approvals

Home » CORONAVIRUS » AZD1222 (ChAdOx1), Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, COVISHIELD

AZD1222 (ChAdOx1), Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, COVISHIELD

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Categories

Recent Posts

Blog Stats

  • 3,668,238 hits

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,655 other followers

add to any

Share

covishild

AZD1222 (ChAdOx1)

Identifiers
CAS Number2420395-83-9

ChAdOx1 nCoV- 19 Corona Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) COVISHIELD™

  • DNA (recombinant simian adenovirus Ox1 ΔE1E3 vector human cytomegalovirus promoter plus human tissue plasminogen activator signal peptide fusion protein with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 isolate Wuhan-​Hu-​1 spike glycoprotein codon optimized-​specifying)

The University of Oxford, AstraZeneca vaccine is a vaccine that aims to protect against COVID-19.

serum institute

Manufacturer/developer: AstraZenecaUniversity of OxfordResearch name: AZD1222 (ChAdOx1)Vaccine type: Non-Replicating Viral VectorAdministration method: Intramuscular injection

Biological Components:

Covishield is a viral vector vaccine. It uses a weakened, non-replicating strain of Chimpanzee cold virus (adenovirus) to carry genetic material of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells

Vial of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (marketed as Covishield in India and in a few other countries).[5]

COVISHIELD INGREDIENTS

L-Histidine Ethanol

L-Histidine Hydrochloride Monohydrate,Magnesium Chloride

Hexahydrate Polysorbate 80*, Sucrose, Sodium Chloride

Disodium Edetate Dihydrate (EDTA) ,   Water for injection

Polysorbate 80 which is an ingredient of Covishield is known to cause anaphylactic reactions in patients as can be read here whereas Covaxin has no such component.

NAMEDOSAGESTRENGTHROUTELABELLERMARKETING STARTMARKETING END  
Astrazeneca Covid-19 VaccineInjection, suspension50000000000 {VP}/0.5mLIntramuscularAstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP2020-12-22Not applicableUS flag 
FORMROUTESTRENGTH
Injection, suspensionIntramuscular50000000000 {VP}/0.5mL

Storage Conditions:  can be stored at 2 to 8 degrees Celsius making them convenient to store and transport.

Mechanism of Immunization: Covishield – This vaccine produces antibodies against only a specific region of the virus. It contains a portion of the DNA that codes for the spike protein (S-protein). Once inside the cells, the DNA part first needs to enter the nucleus to create its mirror image (complementary RNA). Then this RNA comes out in the cytoplasm as a messenger and starts making S-protein through a machine available for this purpose called ribosome. Since it is S-protein that provokes immunity it may not be as close to natural immunity as created by Covaxin. If there are any long-term side effects of the DNA material remaining inside the nucleus (e.g. integration in human DNA) is not yet known. So far, DNA vaccines were only being tried out for treating cancer patients and never used for preventing infections in normal subjects.

Clinical Development: Covishield has been developed by AstraZeneca with Oxford university in the UK and is being manufactured by the Serum Institute India (SII) in Pune. Covishield has completed phase 3 trials in S. Africa, Brazil and UK. 90% of the subjects in these studies were under the age of 55 making the efficacy and safety data applicable to this age group. The company has presented bridging study results in Indian population to the regulatory authorities based on which the approval was granted by DCGI. This data is not yet available in the public domain

Dosage Regimen: Covishield has been recommended to be taken in 2 doses. Observation of data from the UK shows improved protection with a gap of 12 weeks between 2 doses; though currently the expert committee set up by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) has recommended a gap of 4 weeks. Covaxin has been recommended to be taken in 2 doses 4 weeks apart.

Efficacy: Covishield has an average efficacy of 70% when 2 doses are administered 4 weeks apart. This data is from a meta-analysis (pooled analysis of multiple studies) of 4 Covishield trials in 11,636 patients out of which 3 trials were single blind and one double blind in 3 different countries. The efficacy of Covishield was published in The Lancet (link to the article). Observation of data has shown that the efficacy improves as the gap between the 2 doses is increased reaching a reported efficacy of 82.4% with a 12-week gap. Since, the phase-3 trials were conducted with a 4-week interval, it has become the standard.

Protection against Mutations: Preliminary research shows both vaccines are effective against the variant of the novel coronavirus first detected in the UK but there is no data on their efficacy against the mutants found in South Africa and Brazil. Data against these 2 variants is yet to be generated for both these vaccines.

str1

. Consent: Covishield does not require any consent form as it has completed the phase-3 clinical trials

Who should not take Covishield?

Serum Institute of India’s factsheet said one should not get the Covishield vaccine if the person had a severe allergic reaction after a previous dose of this vaccine. Like Bharat Biotech, the SII factsheet also says that if a person is pregnant or plans to become pregnant or is breastfeeding she should tell the healthcare provider before taking the jab. People who have taken another anti-Covid vaccine should not take Covishield.

The ingredients of the Covishield vaccine are “L-Histidine, L-Histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, Magnesium chloride hexahydrate, Polysorbate 80, Ethanol, Sucrose, Sodium chloride, Disodium edetate dihydrate (EDTA), Water for injection,” it pointed out.

Side-effects of Covishield

Some of the very common side effects of the vaccines are tenderness, pain, warmth, redness, itching, swelling or bruising where the injection is given, generally feeling unwell, chills or feeling feverish, headache or joint aches.

Covishield is made by Serum Institute of India (SII) and Covaxin is manufactured by Bharat Biotech.

Over 50 lakh people have registered themselves on the Co-WIN portal since the window opened on Monday morning, the Centre said. Nearly 5 lakh beneficiaries above 60 or those aged 45-60 with comorbidities have received the first jab of Covid-19 vaccine till Tuesday evening.

Meanwhile, the govt has permitted all private hospitals to give Covid-19 vaccine if they adhere to the laid down norms and also asked the states and union territories to utilise the optimum capacity of private medical facilities empanelled under three categories. The states and Union Territories were also urged not to store, reserve, conserve or create a buffer stock of the COVID-19 vaccines, the Union Health Ministry said in a statement.

Sources:  https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-55748124

The Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, codenamed AZD1222,[7] is a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca given by intramuscular injection, using as a vector the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1.[18][19][20][21] One dosing regimen showed 90% efficacy when a half-dose was followed by a full-dose after at least one month, based on mixed trials with no participants over 55 years old.[6] Another dosing regimen showed 62% efficacy when given as two full doses separated by at least one month.[6]

The research is being done by the Oxford University’s Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group with the collaboration of the Italian manufacturer Advent Srl located in Pomezia, which produced the first batch of the COVID-19 vaccine for clinical testing.[22] The team is led by Sarah GilbertAdrian HillAndrew PollardTeresa Lambe, Sandy Douglas and Catherine Green.[23][22]

On 30 December 2020, the vaccine was first approved for use[11][24] in the UK’s vaccination programme,[25] and the first vaccination outside of a trial was administered on 4 January 2021.[26] The vaccine has since been approved by several medicine agencies worldwide, such as the European Medicines Agency,[12][14] and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA),[9] and has been approved for an Emergency Use Listing (EUL) by the World Health Organization.[27]

Vaccine platform

The AZD1222 vaccine is a replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector, containing the full‐length codon‐optimised coding sequence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein along with a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence.[28][29].

The adenovirus is said replication-deficient because some of its essential genes were deleted and replaced by a gene coding for the spike. Following vaccination, the adenovirus vector enters the cells, releases its genes, those are transported to the cell nucleus, thereafter the cell’s machinery does the transcription in mRNA and the translation in proteins.

The one of interest is the spike protein, an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through the enzymatic domain of ACE2.[30] Producing it following vaccination will prompt the immune system to attack the coronavirus through antibodies and T-cells if it later infects the body.[6]

History

2020 development

In February 2020, the Jenner Institute agreed a collaboration with the Italian company Advent Srl for the production of the first batch of a vaccine candidate for clinical trials.[31]

In March 2020,[32][33] after the Gates Foundation urged the University of Oxford to find a large company partner to get its COVID-19 vaccine to market, the university backed off from its earlier pledge to donate the rights to any drugmaker.[34] Also, the UK government encouraged the University of Oxford to work with AstraZeneca instead of Merck & Co., a US based company over fears of vaccine hoarding under the Trump administration.[35]

In June 2020, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) confirmed that the third phase of testing for potential vaccines developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca would begin in July 2020.[36]

Clinical trials

In July 2020, AstraZeneca partnered with IQVIA to speed up US clinical trials.[37]

On 31 August 2020, AstraZeneca announced that it had begun enrolling adults for a US-funded, 30,000-subject late-stage study.[38]

On 8 September 2020, AstraZeneca announced a global halt to the vaccine trial while a possible adverse reaction in a participant in the United Kingdom was investigated.[39][40][41] On 13 September, AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford resumed clinical trials in the United Kingdom after regulators concluded it was safe to do so.[42] AstraZeneca was criticised for vaccine safety after concerns from experts noting the company’s refusal to provide details about serious neurological illnesses in two participants who received the experimental vaccine in Britain.[43] While the trial resumed in the UK, Brazil, South Africa, Japan[44] and India, it remained on pause in the US till 23 October 2020[45] while the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated a patient illness that triggered the clinical hold, according to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Alex Azar.[46]

On 15 October 2020, Dr João Pedro R. Feitosa, a 28-year-old doctor from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who received a placebo instead of the test vaccine in a clinical trial of AZD1222, died from COVID-19 complications.[47][48][49] The Brazilian health authority Anvisa announced that the trial would continue in Brazil.[50]

Results of Phase III trial

On 23 November 2020, Oxford University and AstraZeneca announced interim results from the vaccine’s ongoing Phase III trials.[6][51] There was some criticism of the methods used in the report, which combined results of 62% and 90% from different groups of test subjects given different dosages to arrive at a 70% figure.[52][53][54] AstraZeneca said it would carry out a further multi-country trial using the lower dose which had led to a 90% claim.[55]

The full publication of the interim results from four ongoing Phase III trials on 8 December 2020 clarified these reports.[56] In the group who received the first dose of active vaccine more than 21 days earlier, there were no hospitalisations or severe disease, unlike those receiving the placebo. Serious adverse events were balanced across the active and control arms in the studies, i.e. the active vaccine did not have safety concerns. A case of transverse myelitis was reported 14 days after booster vaccination as being possibly related to vaccination, with an independent neurological committee considering the most likely diagnosis to be of an idiopathic, short segment, spinal cord demyelination. The other two cases of transverse myelitis, one in the vaccine group and the other in the control group, were considered to be unrelated to vaccination.[56]

A subsequent analysis, published on 19 February, has shown an efficacy of 76% 22 days after the first dose and increase to 81.3% when the second dose is given 12 weeks or more after the first.[57]

2021 development

In February 2021, Oxford–AstraZeneca indicated developments to adapt the vaccine to target new variants of the coronavirus,[58] with expectation of a modified vaccine being available “in a few months” as a “booster jab”.[59] A key area of concern is whether the E484K mutation could impact the immune response and, possibly, current vaccine effectiveness.[60] The E484K mutation is present in the South African (B.1.351) and Brazilian (B.1.1.28) variants, with a small number of cases of the mutation also detected in infections by the original SARS-CoV-2 virus and the UK/Kent (B.1.1.7) variant.[60]

Scottish Study

A study was carried out by universities across Scotland of the effectiveness of first dose of Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines against hospital admissions in Scotland, based on a national prospective cohort study of 5.4 million people. Between 8 December 2020 to 15 February 2021, 1,137,775 patients were vaccinated in the study, 490,000 of which were with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. The first dose of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine was associated with a vaccine effect of 94% for COVID-19 related hospitalisation at 28–34 days post-vaccination. Results for both vaccines combined showed a vaccine effect for prevention of COVID-19 related hospitalisation which was comparable when restricting the analysis to those aged ≥80 years (81%). The majority of the patients over the age of 65 were given the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. As of 22 February 2021, the study had not been peer-reviewed.[61][62]

Approvals

On 27 November 2020, the UK government asked the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency to assess the AZD1222 vaccine for temporary supply,[63] and it was approved for use on 30 December 2020, as their second vaccine to enter the national rollout.[64]

On 4 January 2021, Brian Pinker, 82, became the first person to receive the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine outside of clinical trials.[26]

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) received an application for a conditional marketing authorisation (CMA) for the vaccine on 12 January 2021. A press release stated that a recommendation on this could be issued by the agency by 29 January, with the European Commission then making a decision on the CMA within days.[3] The Hungarian regulator unilaterally approved the vaccine instead of waiting for EMA approval.[65]

On 29 January 2021, the EMA recommended granting a conditional marketing authorisation for AZD1222 for people 18 years of age and older,[12][13] and the recommendation was accepted by the European Commission the same day.[14][66]

On 30 January 2021, the Vietnamese Ministry of Health approved the AstraZeneca vaccine for domestic inoculation, the first to be approved in Vietnam.[67]

The vaccine has also been approved by Argentina,[68] Bangladesh,[69] Brazil,[70] the Dominican Republic,[71] El Salvador,[72] India,[73][74] Malaysia,[75] Mexico,[76] Nepal,[77] Pakistan,[78] the Philippines,[79] Sri Lanka,[80] and Taiwan[81] regulatory authorities for emergency usage in their respective countries.

On 7 February 2021, the vaccine roll out in South Africa was suspended. Researchers from the University of the Witwatersrand said in a prior-to-peer analysis that the AstraZeneca vaccine provided minimal protection against mild or moderate disease infection among young people.[82][83] The BBC reported on 8 February 2021 that Katherine O’Brien, director of immunisation at the World Health Organization, indicated she felt it was “really plausible” the AstraZeneca vaccine could have a “meaningful impact” on the South African variant particularly in preventing serious illness and death.[84] The same report also indicated the Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England Jonathan Van-Tam said the (Witwatersrand) study did not change his opinion that the AstraZeneca vaccine was “rather likely” to have an effect on severe disease from the South African variant.[84]

On 10 February 2021, South Korea granted its first approval of a COVID-19 vaccine to AstraZeneca, allowing the two-shot regimen to be administered to all adults, including the elderly. The approval came with a warning, however, that consideration is needed when administering the vaccine to individuals over 65 years of age due to limited data from that demographic in clinical trials.[85][86]

On 10 February 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued interim guidance and recommended the AstraZeneca vaccine for all adults, its Strategic Advisory Group of Experts also having considered use where variants were present and concluded there was no need not to recommend it.[87]

On 16 February 2021, the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) granted provisional approval for COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca.[9][1]

On 26 February 2021, the vaccine was authorized with terms and conditions by Health Canada.[88]

Production and supply

The vaccine is stable at refrigerator temperatures and costs around US$3 to US$4 per dose.[89] On 17 December, a tweet by the Belgian Budget State Secretary revealed the European Union (EU) would pay €1.78 (US$2.16) per dose.[90]

According to AstraZeneca’s vice-president for operations and IT, Pam Cheng, the company would have around 200 million doses ready worldwide by the end of 2020, and capacity to produce 100 million to 200 million doses per month once production is ramped up.[52]

In June 2020, further to making 100 million doses available to the UK’s NHS for their vaccination programme,[91] AstraZeneca and Emergent BioSolutions signed a US$87 million deal to manufacture doses of the vaccine specifically for the US market. The deal was part of the Trump administration’s Operation Warp Speed initiative to develop and rapidly scale production of targeted vaccines before the end of 2020.[92] Catalent will be responsible for the finishing and packaging process.[93] The majority of manufacturing work will be done in the UK.[citation needed]

On 4 June 2020, the World Health Organization‘s (WHO) COVAX facility made initial purchases of 300 million doses from the company for low- to middle-income countries.[94] Also, AstraZeneca and Serum Institute of India reached a licensing agreement to supply 1 billion doses of the Oxford University vaccine to middle- and low-income countries, including India.[95][96]

On 29 September 2020, a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation allowed COVAX to secure an additional 100 million COVID-19 vaccine doses either from AstraZeneca or from Novavax at US$3 per dose.[97]

On 13 June 2020, AstraZeneca signed a contract with the Inclusive Vaccines Alliance, a group formed by France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, to supply up to 400 million doses to all European Union member states.[98][99][100] However, the European Commission intervened to stop the deal being formalised. It took over negotiations on behalf of the whole EU, signing a deal at the end of August.[101]

In August 2020, AstraZeneca agreed to provide 300 million doses to the USA for US$1.2 billion, implying a cost of US$4 per dose. An AstraZeneca spokesman said the funding also covers development and clinical testing.[102] It also reached technology transfer agreement with Mexican and Argentinean governments and agreed to produce at least 400 million doses to be distributed throughout Latin America. The active ingredients would be produced in Argentina and sent to Mexico to be completed for distribution.[103]

In September 2020, AstraZeneca agreed to provide 20 million doses to Canada.[104][105]

In October 2020, Switzerland signed an agreement with AstraZeneca to pre-order up to 5.3 million doses.[106][107]

On 5 November 2020, a tripartite agreement was signed between the government of Bangladesh, Serum Institute of India and Beximco Pharma of Bangladesh. Under the agreement Bangladesh ordered 30 million doses of Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine from Serum through Beximco for $4 per shot.[108]

In November 2020, Thailand ordered 26 million doses of vaccine from AstraZeneca.[109] It would cover 13 million people,[110] approximately 20% of the population, with the first lot expected to be delivered at the end of May.[111][112][113] The public health minister indicated the price paid was $5 per dose;[114] AstraZeneca (Thailand) explained in January 2021 after a controversy that the price each country paid depended on production cost and differences in supply chain, including manufacturing capacity, labour and raw material costs.[115] In January 2021, the Thai cabinet approved further talks on ordering another 35 million doses[116] and the Thai FDA approved the vaccine for emergency use for 1 year.[117][118] Siam Bioscience, a company owned by Vajiralongkorn, will received technological transfer,[119] and has the capacity to manufacture up to 200 million doses a year for export to ASEAN.[120]

Also in November, the Philippines agreed to buy 2.6 million doses,[121] reportedly worth around ₱700 million (approximately $5.6/dose).[122]

In December 2020, South Korea signed a contract with AstraZeneca to secure 20 million doses of its vaccine, reportedly worth equivalently to those signed by Thailand and the Philippines,[123] with the first shipment expected as early as January 2021. As of January 2021, the vaccine remains under review by the South Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency.[124][125] AstraZeneca signed a deal with South Korea’s SK Bioscience to manufacture its vaccine products. The collaboration calls for the SK affiliate to manufacture AZD1222 for local and global markets.[126]

On 7 January 2021, the South African government announced that they had secured an initial 1 million doses from the Serum Institute of India, to be followed by another 500,000 doses in February.[127]

Myanmar signed a contract with Serum Institute of India to secure 30 million doses of its vaccine in December 2020. Myanmar will get doses for 15 million people from February 2021.[128]

On 22 January 2021, AstraZeneca announced that in the event the European Union approved the COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca, initial supplies would be lower than expected due to production issues at Novasep in Belgium. Only 31 million of the previously predicted 80 million doses would be delivered to the European Union by March 2021.[129] In an interview with Italian newspaper La Repubblica, AstraZeneca’s CEO Pascal Soriot said the delivery schedule for the doses in the European Union was two months behind schedule. He mentioned low yield from cell cultures in one large-scale European site.[130] Analysis published in The Guardian also identified an apparently low yield from bioreactors in the Belgium plant and noted the difficulties in setting up this form of process, with variable yields often occurring.[131] As a result, the European Union imposed export controls on vaccine doses; controversy erupted as to whether doses were being diverted to the UK, and whether or not deliveries to Northern Ireland would be disrupted.[132]

On 24 February 2021, Ghana became the first country in Africa to receive the Covid-19 vaccine through the COVAX initiative, where the facility sent six hundred thousand doses of AstraZeneca/Oxford jabs to Accra.[133]

Summary

Background

A safe and efficacious vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), if deployed with high coverage, could contribute to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a pooled interim analysis of four trials.

Methods

This analysis includes data from four ongoing blinded, randomised, controlled trials done across the UK, Brazil, and South Africa. Participants aged 18 years and older were randomly assigned (1:1) to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or control (meningococcal group A, C, W, and Y conjugate vaccine or saline). Participants in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group received two doses containing 5 × 1010 viral particles (standard dose; SD/SD cohort); a subset in the UK trial received a half dose as their first dose (low dose) and a standard dose as their second dose (LD/SD cohort). The primary efficacy analysis included symptomatic COVID-19 in seronegative participants with a nucleic acid amplification test-positive swab more than 14 days after a second dose of vaccine. Participants were analysed according to treatment received, with data cutoff on Nov 4, 2020. Vaccine efficacy was calculated as 1 - relative risk derived from a robust Poisson regression model adjusted for age. Studies are registered at ISRCTN89951424 and ClinicalTrials.govNCT04324606NCT04400838, and NCT04444674.

Findings

Between April 23 and Nov 4, 2020, 23 848 participants were enrolled and 11 636 participants (7548 in the UK, 4088 in Brazil) were included in the interim primary efficacy analysis. In participants who received two standard doses, vaccine efficacy was 62·1% (95% CI 41·0–75·7; 27 [0·6%] of 4440 in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group vs71 [1·6%] of 4455 in the control group) and in participants who received a low dose followed by a standard dose, efficacy was 90·0% (67·4–97·0; three [0·2%] of 1367 vs 30 [2·2%] of 1374; pinteraction=0·010). Overall vaccine efficacy across both groups was 70·4% (95·8% CI 54·8–80·6; 30 [0·5%] of 5807 vs 101 [1·7%] of 5829). From 21 days after the first dose, there were ten cases hospitalised for COVID-19, all in the control arm; two were classified as severe COVID-19, including one death. There were 74 341 person-months of safety follow-up (median 3·4 months, IQR 1·3–4·8): 175 severe adverse events occurred in 168 participants, 84 events in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and 91 in the control group. Three events were classified as possibly related to a vaccine: one in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, one in the control group, and one in a participant who remains masked to group allocation.

Interpretation

ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 has an acceptable safety profile and has been found to be efficacious against symptomatic COVID-19 in this interim analysis of ongoing clinical trials.

Funding

UK Research and Innovation, National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR), Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Lemann Foundation, Rede D’Or, Brava and Telles Foundation, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Thames Valley and South Midland’s NIHR Clinical Research Network, and AstraZeneca.

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca”Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 16 February 2021. Retrieved 16 February2021.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Information for Healthcare Professionals on COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca”Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). 30 December 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  3. Jump up to:a b “EMA receives application for conditional marketing authorisation of COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 12 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January2021.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Regulatory Decision Summary – AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine”Health Canada. 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  5. Jump up to:a b “Already produced 40–50 million dosages of Covishield vaccine, says Serum Institute”The Hindu. 28 December 2020.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e “AZD1222 vaccine met primary efficacy endpoint in preventing COVID-19”Press Release (Press release). AstraZeneca. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  7. Jump up to:a b “AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (AZD1222)” (PDF). AstraZeneca. 27 January 2021.
  8. ^ “AstraZeneca and Oxford University announce landmark agreement for COVID-19 vaccine”AstraZeneca (Press release). 30 April 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  9. Jump up to:a b c d e “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca PI”Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
  10. ^ “AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine monograph” (PDF). AstraZeneca. 26 February 2021.
  11. Jump up to:a b “Conditions of Authorisation for COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca”Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). 30 December 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  12. Jump up to:a b c “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca EPAR”European Medicines Agency (EMA).
  13. Jump up to:a b “EMA recommends COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca for authorisation in the EU”European Medicines Agency (EMA)(Press release). 29 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  14. Jump up to:a b c “European Commission authorises third safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19”European Commission (Press release). Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  15. ^ “아스트라제네카社 코로나19 백신 품목허가”식품의약품안전처(in Korean). 식품의약품안전처. 10 February 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  16. ^ “BPOM Terbitkan Izin Penggunaan Darurat Vaksin Covid-19 AstraZeneca”Kompas.com. 10 March 2021. Retrieved 10 March2021.
  17. ^ “150,000 doses of AstraZeneca vaccine arrive in Serbia”Government of Serbia. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  18. ^ Walsh N, Shelley J, Duwe E, Bonnett W (27 July 2020). “The world’s hopes for a coronavirus vaccine may run in these health care workers’ veins”São PauloCNNArchived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  19. ^ “Investigating a Vaccine Against COVID-19”ClinicalTrials.gov(Registry). United States National Library of Medicine. 26 May 2020. NCT04400838. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  20. ^ “A Phase 2/3 study to determine the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the candidate Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19”EU Clinical Trials Register(Registry). European Union. 21 April 2020. EudraCT 2020-001228-32. Archived from the original on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  21. ^ O’Reilly P (26 May 2020). “A Phase III study to investigate a vaccine against COVID-19”ISRCTN (Registry). doi:10.1186/ISRCTN89951424. ISRCTN89951424.
  22. Jump up to:a b “Oxford team to begin novel coronavirus vaccine research”. University of Oxford. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 28 November2020.
  23. ^ “COVID-19 Oxford Vaccine Trial”. COVID-19 Oxford Vaccine Trial. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  24. ^ “Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine approved for use in UK”. BBC News Online. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  25. ^ “Second COVID-19 vaccine authorised by medicines regulator”GOV.UK (Press release). 30 December 2020. Retrieved 6 March2021.
  26. Jump up to:a b “Covid: Brian Pinker, 82, first to get Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine”. BBC News Online. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  27. ^ “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Vaccines”World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  28. ^ Arashkia A, Jalilvand S, Mohajel N, Afchangi A, Azadmanesh K, Salehi-Vaziri M, et al. (2020). “Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future prospects”Reviews in Medical Virologyn/a(n/a): e2183. doi:10.1002/rmv.2183PMC 7646037PMID 33594794.
  29. ^ Watanabe, Y.; Mendonça, L.; Allen, E. R.; Howe, A.; Lee, M.; Allen, J. D.; Chawla, H.; Pulido, D.; Donnellan, F.; Davies, H.; Ulaszewska, M.; Belij-Rammerstorfer, S.; Morris, S.; Krebs, A. S.; Dejnirattisai, W.; Mongkolsapaya, J.; Supasa, P.; Screaton, G. R.; Green, C. M.; Lambe, T.; Zhang, P.; Gilbert, S. C.; Crispin, M. (2021), “Native-like SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein expressed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccine”, bioRxiv : The Preprint Server for Biology: 2021.01.15.426463, doi:10.1101/2021.01.15.426463PMC 7836103PMID 33501433
  30. ^ Wang H, Yang P, Liu K, Guo F, Zhang Y, Zhang G, Jiang C (February 2008). “SARS coronavirus entry into host cells through a novel clathrin- and caveolae-independent endocytic pathway”Cell Research18 (2): 290–301. doi:10.1038/cr.2008.15PMC 7091891PMID 18227861.
  31. ^ “Oxford team to begin novel coronavirus vaccine research”. University of Oxford. Retrieved 2 January 2021.
  32. ^ “Covid Vaccine Front-Runner Is Months Ahead of Her Competition”Bloomberg Businessweek. 15 July 2020.
  33. ^ “Bill Gates, the Virus and the Quest to Vaccinate the World”The New York Times. 23 November 2020.
  34. ^ “They Pledged to Donate Rights to Their COVID Vaccine, Then Sold Them to Pharma”Kaiser Health News. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  35. ^ Strasburg J, Woo S (21 October 2020). “Oxford Developed Covid Vaccine, Then Scholars Clashed Over Money”The Wall Street Journal.
  36. ^ Coleman J (10 June 2020). “Final testing stage for potential coronavirus vaccine set to begin in July”The Hill. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
  37. ^ “AZN, IQV Team Up To Accelerate COVID-19 Vaccine Work, RIGL’s ITP Drug Repurposed, IMV On Watch”RTTNews. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  38. ^ “Phase 3 Clinical Testing in the US of AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Begins”National Institutes of Health (NIH). 30 August 2020. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  39. ^ “AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine study is put on hold”Stat. 8 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  40. ^ “AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine study is put on hold”. 8 September 2020.
  41. ^ Wu KJ, Thomas K (8 September 2020). “AstraZeneca Pauses Vaccine Trial for Safety Review”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  42. ^ Loftus P (13 September 2020). “AstraZeneca Covid-19 Vaccine Trials Resume in U.K.”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  43. ^ Grady D, Wu KJ, LaFraniere S (19 September 2020). “AstraZeneca, Under Fire for Vaccine Safety, Releases Trial Blueprints”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  44. ^ “AstraZeneca resumes vaccine trial in talks with US”. Japan Today. 3 October 2020.
  45. ^ “FDA authorises restart of the COVID-19 AZD1222 vaccine US Phase III trial”AstraZeneca (Press release). Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  46. ^ “U.S. health secretary says AstraZeneca trial in United States remains on hold: CNBC”Reuters. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  47. ^ “‘What’s the deal?’ Researchers in paused vaccine trial search for answers”NBC News.
  48. ^ “Volunteer in AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine trial dies in Brazil”NBC News.
  49. ^ Voluntário brasileiro que participava dos testes da vacina de Oxford e morreu com a Covid era médico e ex-aluno da UFRJ, Globo
  50. ^ Simões E, Burger L (22 October 2020). “AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine trial Brazil volunteer dies, trial to continue”Reuters. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  51. ^ “Oxford University breakthrough on global COVID-19 vaccine”(Press release). University of Oxford. 23 November 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  52. Jump up to:a b Callaway E (23 November 2020). “Why Oxford’s positive COVID vaccine results are puzzling scientists”Nature588(7836): 16–18. Bibcode:2020Natur.588…16Cdoi:10.1038/d41586-020-03326-wPMID 33230278S2CID 227156970.
  53. ^ “Oxford/AstraZeneca Covid vaccine ‘dose error’ explained”BBC News. 27 November 2020. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  54. ^ Robbins R, Mueller B (25 November 2020). “After Admitting Mistake, AstraZeneca Faces Difficult Questions About Its Vaccine”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 27 November 2020.
  55. ^ Boseley S (26 November 2020). “Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine to undergo new global trial”The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November2020.
  56. Jump up to:a b Voysey M, Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. (January 2021). “Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK”Lancet397 (10269): 99–111. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1PMC 7723445PMID 33306989.
  57. ^ Voysey M, Costa Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. (February 2021). “Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials”Lancet397(10277): 881–891. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00432-3PMC 7894131PMID 33617777.
  58. ^ Ellyatt H (8 February 2021). “AstraZeneca races to adapt Covid vaccine as South Africa suspends rollout”. CNBC. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  59. ^ Triggle N (8 February 2021). “Covid: Are fears over Oxford-AstraZeneca jab justified?”. BBC. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  60. Jump up to:a b Wise J (February 2021). “Covid-19: The E484K mutation and the risks it poses”BMJ372: n359. doi:10.1136/bmj.n359PMID 33547053.
  61. ^ “Covid-19: First doses of vaccines in Scotland led to a substantial fall in hospital admissions”the BMJ. Retrieved 25 February2021.
  62. ^ “scotland first vaccine data preprint” (PDF). Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  63. ^ “Government asks regulator to approve supply of Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine”. Government of the United Kingdom. 27 October 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
  64. ^ “Oxford University/AstraZeneca vaccine authorised by UK medicines regulator”. Government of the United Kingdom. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  65. ^ “Everything You Need to Know About the Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine”. 23 January 2021.
  66. ^ “COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca”Union Register of medicinal products. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  67. ^ Nikkei staff writers. “Coronavirus: Week of Jan. 24 to Jan. 30, Vietnam approves AstraZeneca vaccine”Nikkei Asia.
  68. ^ Laing A (30 December 2020). “Argentine regulator approves AstraZeneca/Oxford COVID-19 vaccine -AstraZeneca”Reuters.
  69. ^ “Oxford University-Astrazeneca vaccine: Bangladesh okays it for emergency use”The Daily Star. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  70. ^ Sabóia G, Mazieiro G, de Andrade H, Adorno L (17 January 2021). “Anvisa aprova uso emergencial das vacinas CoronaVac e AstraZeneca no Brasil” [Anvisa approves emergency use of the CoronaVac and AstraZeneca vaccines in Brazil]. UOL (in Portuguese). Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  71. ^ “La República Dominicana aprueba la vacuna de AstraZeneca contra la covid-19”Agencia EFE (in Spanish). 31 December 2020.
  72. ^ “El Salvador greenlights AstraZeneca, Oxford University COVID-19 vaccine”Reuters. 30 December 2020.
  73. ^ Gaurav K (1 January 2021). “Govt’s expert panel approves AstraZeneca/Oxford Covid-19 vaccine for emergency use”Hindustan Times.
  74. ^ Prusty N, Jamkhandikar S (1 January 2021). “India drug regulator approves AstraZeneca COVID vaccine, country’s first – sources”Reuters.
  75. ^ “Malaysia’s NPRA Approves AstraZeneca, Sinovac Covid-19 Vaccines”. CodeBlue. 2 March 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  76. ^ Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios. “AUTORIZACIÓN PARA USO DE EMERGENCIA A VACUNA ASTRAZENECA COVID-19”gob.mx (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  77. ^ “Nepal approves AstraZeneca COVID vaccine for emergency use – government statement”Reuters. 15 January 2021.
  78. ^ Shahzad A (16 January 2021). “Pakistan approves AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use”Reuters. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  79. ^ “Philippine regulator approves emergency use of AstraZeneca vaccine”Reuters. 28 January 2021. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  80. ^ “Sri Lanka approves vaccine amid warnings of virus spread”AP NEWS. 22 January 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  81. ^ “Taiwan grants emergency authorisation for AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine”. MSN. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  82. ^ “Latest – Oxford Covid-19 vaccine trial results – Wits University”wits.ac.za. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  83. ^ “South Africa halts AstraZeneca vaccinations after data shows little protection against mutation”. CNBC. 7 February 2021. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  84. Jump up to:a b “Covid: Boris Johnson ‘very confident’ in vaccines being used in UK”BBC News. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  85. ^ Kim HJ (10 February 2021). “S. Korea approves AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine for all adults”. Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  86. ^ Maresca T (10 February 2021). “South Korea approves AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine”. United Press International. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  87. ^ “AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine can be used for people aged over 65 – WHO”RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 10 February 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  88. ^ Canada, Health. “COVID-19 vaccines and treatments portal: AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (ChAdOx1-S [recombinant])”Health Canada. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  89. ^ Belluz J (23 November 2020). “Why the AstraZeneca-Oxford Covid-19 vaccine is different”Vox. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  90. ^ Stevis-Gridneff M, Sanger-Katz M, Weiland N (18 December 2020). “A European Official Reveals a Secret: The U.S. Is Paying More for Coronavirus Vaccines”The New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  91. ^ AstraZeneca to begin making vaccine. BBC. 5 June 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  92. ^ “AstraZeneca, Emergent BioSolutions sign $87M deal to produce U.S. supply of COVID-19 vaccine”FiercePharma. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  93. ^ “AstraZeneca taps Catalent for COVID-19 vaccine finishing, packaging at Italian plant”FiercePharma. Retrieved 16 June2020.
  94. ^ So AD, Woo J (December 2020). “Reserving coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines for global access: cross sectional analysis”BMJ371: m4750. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4750PMC 7735431PMID 33323376. cited “Agreements with CEPI and Gavi and the Serum Institute of India will bring vaccine to low and middle-income countries and beyond” (Press release). AstraZeneca. 4 June 2020.
  95. ^ Rajagopal D (4 June 2020). “AstraZeneca & Serum Institute of India sign licensing deal for 1 billion doses of Oxford vaccine”The Economic Times.
  96. ^ Kumar M (7 August 2020). “Covid-19 vaccine: Serum Institute signs up for 100 million doses of vaccines for India, low and middle-income countries”The Financial Express.
  97. ^ So & Woo (2020), p. 3 cited “New collaboration makes further 100 million doses of COVID-19 vaccine available to low- and middle- income countries” (Press release). Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. 29 September 2020.[permanent dead link]
  98. ^ “Covid-19: France, Italy, Germany and Netherlands sign vaccine deal for Europe”. France 24. 13 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June2020.
  99. ^ “AstraZeneca agrees to supply Europe with 400 mil doses of COVID-19 vaccine”Japan Today. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  100. ^ Calatayud A. “AstraZeneca to supply Europe with Covid-19 vaccine”MarketWatch. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  101. ^ Peston R (26 January 2021). “What is the dispute between the EU and AstraZeneca over Covid jabs?”ITV News. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  102. ^ Roland D (21 May 2020). “U.S. to Invest $1.2 Billion to Secure Potential Coronavirus Vaccine From AstraZeneca, Oxford University”The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  103. ^ “AstraZeneca set to start making 400 million COVID-19 vaccines for Latam early in 2021”Reuters. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  104. ^ “With no successful vaccine candidates yet, Canada signs deal to secure 20M more COVID-19 vaccine doses”. CBC News. 25 September 2020.
  105. ^ Health Canada (2 October 2020). “Health Canada begins first authorization review of a COVID-19 vaccine submission”gcnws. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  106. ^ “Swiss sign next vaccine agreement with AstraZeneca”SWI swissinfo.ch. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  107. ^ “COVID-19 vaccine: Swiss federal government signs agreement with AstraZeneca”admin.ch. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  108. ^ “Dhaka to have 330 vaccination points”The Daily Star. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  109. ^ “เรื่องน่ารู้ของวัคซีนโควิด-19 ที่ไทยสั่งซื้อ”BBC ไทย (in Thai). Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  110. ^ “ทำความรู้จัก ออกซ์ฟอร์ด-แอสทราเซเนกา วัคซีนที่ไทยเลือก”มติชนออนไลน์ (in Thai). 2 January 2021. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  111. ^ “ครม.ไฟเขียวงบซื้อวัคซีนโควิดเพิ่ม35ล้านโดส ฉีดให้คนไทย66ล้าน”โพสต์ทูเดย์ (in Thai). Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  112. ^ “ข่าวดี ไทยเริ่มผลิตวัคซีน ‘โควิด-19’ ในประเทศ รอบที่ 2 แล้ว”ไทยรัฐออนไลน์. 3 January 2021.
  113. ^ “สธ. แจง AstraZeneca เป็นผู้คัดเลือก Siam Bioscience ผลิตวัคซีนราคาทุน ขายถูกสุดในตลาด โต้ธนาธร ไม่ได้แทงม้าตัวเดียว”THE STANDARD. 19 January 2021.
  114. ^ “ข่าวดี! ไทยจองซื้อวัคซีนโควิด-19 แอสตราเซเนกา “ราคาต้นทุน”” (in Thai). hfocus.org. 23 November 2020. Archived from the original on 23 November 2020.
  115. ^ “วัคซีนโควิด: แอสตร้าเซเนก้าชี้แจงเหตุผลเลือกสยามไบโอไซเอนซ์เป็นผู้ผลิต”BBC News ไทย. 26 January 2021.
  116. ^ “โควิด-19: ทำไมรัฐบาลเลือก สยามไบโอไซเอนซ์ ผลิตวัคซีนเพื่อคนไทยและเพื่อนบ้าน”BBC News ไทย. 15 January 2021.
  117. ^ “AstraZeneca vaccine approved, 50,000 doses due in February”Bangkok Post. 21 January 2021.
  118. ^ “FDA approves AstraZeneca”Bangkok Post. 22 January 2021.
  119. ^ “นายกฯ สำนึกในพระมหากรุณาธิคุณ ร.10 ทรงให้ “สยามไบโอไซเอนซ์” รองรับวัคซีนโควิด-19″BBC ไทย (in Thai). 27 November 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  120. ^ “35m more shots to be bought in 2021”Bangkok Post. 5 January 2021.
  121. ^ “Philippines, AstraZeneca Sign Deal for 2.6 Million Doses”Bloomberg. 27 November 2020.
  122. ^ “Over 200 firms to ink deal for more COVID vaccines with gov’t, AstraZeneca”Philippine Daily Inquirer. 11 January 2021.
  123. ^ “Korea signs agreement with AstraZeneca for COVID vaccine”The Korea Times. 30 November 2020.
  124. ^ Shin H (3 December 2020). “South Korea reaches deal to buy AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine candidate: media”Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  125. ^ Cha S (4 January 2021). “S.Korea reviews AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, expands ban on gatherings”Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  126. ^ Kim YC (30 November 2020). “Korea signs agreement with AstraZeneca for COVID vaccine”The Korea Times. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  127. ^ Felix J (7 January 2021). “SA will get 1 million doses of Covid-19 vaccine from India this month”News24.com. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  128. ^ “Myanmar will get doses for 15 million people this February”7day.news. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  129. ^ Agencies (22 January 2021). “Covid: Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine delivery to EU to be cut by 60%”The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  130. ^ “Pascal Soriot: “There are a lot of emotions on vaccines in EU. But it’s complicated””la Repubblica (in Italian). 26 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  131. ^ Boseley S (26 January 2021). “Why has AstraZeneca reduced promised vaccine supply to EU and is UK affected?”The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  132. ^ “EU tightens vaccine export rules, creates post-Brexit outcry”. 30 January 2021.
  133. ^ “Ghana receives first historic shipment of COVID-19 vaccinations from international COVAX facility”UN News. Retrieved 24 February 2021.

External links

Scholia has a profile for AZD1222 (Q95042269).
Box containing 100 AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine doses
Vaccine description
TargetSARS-CoV-2
Clinical data
Trade namesCOVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca,[1][2][3] AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine,[4] Covishield[5]
Other namesAZD1222,[6][7]
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19,[8]
ChAdOx1-S,[9]
License dataEU EMAby INN
Pregnancy
category
AU: B2[9][1]
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusAU: S4 (Prescription only) [9]CA: Schedule D; Authorized by interim order [4][10]UK: Conditional and temporary authorisation to supply [2][11]EU: Conditional marketing authorisation [12][13][14]KR – Approved[15]INDINA[16]BDAGSVDOMMEXNEBRSLSRB[17]: Emergency Authorization only
Identifiers
CAS Number2420395-83-9
DrugBankDB15656
UNIIB5S3K2V0G8

////////AZD1222, ChAdOx1, Oxford–AstraZeneca,  COVID 19 vaccine,  COVISHIELD, CORONA, COVID 19, CORONA VIRUS

#AZD1222, #ChAdOx1, #Oxford–AstraZeneca,  #COVID 19 vaccine,  #COVISHIELD, #CORONA, #COVID 19, #CORONA VIRUS


1 Comment

  1. #AZD1222, #ChAdOx1, #Oxford–AstraZeneca, #COVID 19 vaccine, #COVISHIELD, #CORONA, #COVID 19, #CORONA VIRUS

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

DR ANTHONY CRASTO

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,655 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

View Full Profile →

TWITTER

bloglovin

Follow my blog with Bloglovin The title of your home page You could put your verification ID in a comment Or, in its own meta tag Or, as one of your keywords Your content is here. The verification ID will NOT be detected if you put it here.
%d bloggers like this: