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Pramlintide

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Pramlintide (Symlin), a synthetic version of amylin, is a 37-amino acid peptide that is co-secreted with insulin by pancreatic β-cells. It was developed and approved in 2005 by the FDA for use in US patients with type I and II diabetes in conjunction with the administration of prandial insulin to improve postprandial glycemic control

 

Pramlintide

 

Pramlintide (Symlin) is a relatively new adjunct for diabetes (both type 1 and 2), developed by Amylin Pharmaceuticals (now a wholly owned subsidiary of Bristol Myers-Squibb). Pramlintide is delivered as an acetate salt.

 

Pramlintide is an analogue of amylin, a small peptide hormone that is released into the bloodstream by the β-cells of the pancreas along with insulin, after a meal.[1] Like insulin, amylin is completely absent in individuals with Type I diabetes.[2]

Reduction in glycated hemoglobin and weight loss have been shown in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes taking pramlintide as an adjunctive therapy.[3]

By augmenting endogenous amylin, pramlintide aids in the absorption of glucose by slowing gastric emptying, promoting satiety via hypothalamic receptors (different receptors than for GLP-1), and inhibiting inappropriate secretion of glucagon, a catabolic hormone that opposes the effects of insulin and amylin. Pramlintide also has effects in raising the acute first-phase insulin response threshold following a meal.

Pramlintide has been approved by the FDA, for use by Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetics who use insulin.[4]Pramlintide allows patients to use less insulin, lowers average blood sugar levels, and substantially reduces what otherwise would be a large unhealthy rise in blood sugar that occurs in diabetics right after eating. Apart from insulin analogs, pramlintide is the only drug approved by the FDA to lower blood sugar in type 1 diabetics since insulin in the early 1920s.

Design and structure

Since native human amylin is highly amyloidogenic and potentially toxic, the strategy for designing pramlintide was to substitute residues from rat amylin, which is not amyloidogenic (but would presumably retain clinical activity). Proline residues are known to be structure-breaking residues, so these were directly grafted into the human sequence.

Amino acid sequences:

Pramlintide: KCNTATCATQRLANFLVHSSNNFGPILPPTNVGSNTY-(NH2)
Amylin:      KCNTATCATQRLANFLVHSSNNFGAILSSTNVGSNTY-(NH2)
Rat amylin:  KCNTATCATQRLANFLVRSSNNLGPVLPPTNVGSNTY-(NH2)

Pramlintide as protein is (positively charged).

  1.  Jones MC (2007). “Therapies for diabetes: pramlintide and exenatide” (pdf). American Family Physician 75 (12): 1831–5. PMID 17619527.
  2.  Edelman, Steve; Maier, Holly; Wilhelm, Ken (2008). “Pramlintide in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus”.BioDrugs 22 (6): 375–386. doi:10.2165/0063030-200822060-00004ISSN 1173-8804.
  3.  Hollander, Priscilla; Maggs, David G.; Ruggles, James A.; Fineman, Mark; Shen, Larry; Kolterman, Orville G.; Weyer, Christian (2004). “Effect of Pramlintide on Weight in Overweight and Obese Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patients” (pdf). Obesity 12 (4): 661–668. doi:10.1038/oby.2004.76.ISSN 1930-7381.
  4.  Ryan GJ, Jobe LJ, Martin R (2005). “Pramlintide in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Clinical therapeutics 27 (10): 1500–12. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2005.10.009PMID 16330288.

 

 

Pramlintide Acetate
Pramlintide acetate is a relatively new adjunct treatment for diabetes (both type 1 and 2).

Pramlintide Acetate, 196078-30-5,

Synonym Pramlintide Acetate,Pramlintide acetate hydrate
Molecular Formula C171H267N51O53S2.X(C2H4O2).X(H2O)
Molecular Weight 3949.39

 


3 Comments

  1. saminakhan2001 says:

    Reblogged this on MEDCHEMEGYPT.

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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