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CAS 158876-82-5,
UNII-2AE8M83G3E, UR 12592
Molecular Formula: C26H26ClN3
Molecular Weight: 415.95774 g/mol
Percent Composition: C 75.07%, H 6.30%, Cl 8.52%, N 10.10%
Properties: Creamy solid, mp 58-61°.
Melting point: mp 58-61°

Platelet activating factor receptor antagonist; Histamine H1 receptor antagonist

Allergic rhinitis; Urticaria

J. Uriach & Cia. S.A.


Uriach developed and launched rupatadine for treating of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Family members of the product case EP577957, have SPC protection in the EU until 2016.


As of January 2015, Newport Premium™ reports that Cadila Pharmaceuticals is producing or capable of producing commercial quantities of rupatadine fumarate and holds an active USDMF since September 2012.


Rupatadine is a second generation antihistamine and PAF antagonist used to treat allergies. It was discovered and developed by J. Uriach y Cia, S. A.[1] and is marketed under several trade names such as Rupafin, Alergoliber, Rinialer, Pafinur, Rupax and Ralif.

Therapeutic indications approved

Rupatadine fumarate has been approved for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in adults and children over 12 years. The defined daily dose (DDD) is 10 mg orally.

Derivative Type: Fumarate
CAS Registry Number: 182349-12-8
Trademarks: Rupafin (Uriach)
Molecular Formula: C26H26ClN3.C4H4O4
Molecular Weight: 532.03
Percent Composition: C 67.73%, H 5.68%, Cl 6.66%, N 7.90%, O 12.03%
Derivative Type: Trihydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 156611-76-6
Molecular Formula: C26H26ClN3.3HCl
Molecular Weight: 525.34
Percent Composition: C 59.44%, H 5.56%, Cl 26.99%, N 8.00%
Properties: Crystals from ethyl acetate + ether, mp 213-217°.
Melting point: mp 213-217°.
Therap-Cat: Antihistaminic.
Keywords: Antihistaminic; Tricyclics; Other Tricyclics; Platelet Activating Factor Antagonist.

Available form

Rupatadine is available as round, light salmon coloured tablets containing 10 mg of rupatadine (as fumarate) to be administered orally, once a day.

Side effects

Rupatadine is a non-sedating antihistamine. However, as in other non sedating second-generation antihistamines, the most common side effects in controlled clinical studies were somnolence, headaches and fatigue.

Mechanism of action

Rupatadine is a second generation, non-sedating, long-acting histamine antagonist with selective peripheral H1 receptor antagonist activity. It further blocks the receptors of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) according to in vitro and in vivo studies.[2]

Rupatadine possesses anti-allergic properties such as the inhibition of the degranulation of mast cells induced by immunological and non-immunological stimuli, and inhibition of the release of cytokines, particularly of the TNF in human mast cells and monocytes.[3]


Rupatadine has several active metabolites such as desloratadine, 3-hydroxydesloratadine, 6-hydroxydesloratadine and 5-hydroxydesloratadine.


Rupatadine discovery, pre-clinical and clinical development was performed by J. Uriach y Cia, S. A., a Spanish pharmaceutical company. It was launched in 2003 in Spain by J. Uriach y Cia, S. A., with the brand name of Rupafin. The registration of the product is approved in 23 countries from the EU, 8 Central American countries, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Turkey and 14 African countries.

Efficacy in humans

The efficacy of rupatadine as treatment for allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) has been investigated in adults and adolescents (aged over 12 years) in several controlled studies, showing a rapid onset of action and a good safety profile even in prolonged treatment periods of a year.[3][4][5]



  • Rupatadine (I) is an authorized antihistaminic agent and has IUPAC name 8-Chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-[1-[(5-methyl-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-4-piperidinylidene]-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine, CAS number 158876-82-5 for the free base and the following chemical formula:

  • Rupatadine is currently marketed in 10 mg (rupatadine) tablets as rupatadine fumarate (CAS 182349-12-8 for the fumarate salt) for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria in adults and teenagers.
  • Rupatadine free base was first disclosed in EP0577957 .
  • Spanish patent application ES2087818 discloses the monofumarate salt of rupatadine (i.e. rupatadine fumarate) and aqueous liquid pharmaceutical compositions of rupatadine fumarate. In particular, this document discloses a syrup containing rupatadine fumarate at 4 g/L, sucrose, a flavouring agent, a sweetening agent and water; and a solution for injection which contains rupatadine fumarate at 20 g/L, benzyl alcohol, propyleneglycol and water.
  • EP0577957 discloses some liquid pharmaceutical compositions of rupatadine free base; compound 4 in EP0577957 is rupatadine free base. The formulations disclosed therein are identical to those disclosed in ES2087818 but rupatadine free base is used instead of rupatadine fumarate.
  • Despite the aqueous liquid pharmaceutical compositions disclosed in EP0577957 and ES2087818 , the inventors have found that the solubility in water of rupatadine fumarate is 2.9 g/L (see Reference example 1) and therefore these prior art formulations may have stability problems due to supersaturation of rupatadine free base or rupatadine fumarate and would not be suitable for use as a medicament.
  • CN101669901 and CN101669926 disclose liquid formulations of rupatadine free base using cyclodextrins to dissolve rupatadine.
  • CN101669901 is directed to liquid formulations of rupatadine free base for ophthalmic delivery comprising rupatadine, a solvent and a cyclodextrin.
  • CN10169926 is directed to liquid formulations of rupatadine free base for nasal delivery comprising rupatadine, a solvent and a cyclodextrin. It is stated that rupatadine has low solubility in water (1.39 mg/mL to 0.82 mg/mL at pH 3.0 to 7.0, table 9 in CN10169926 ) and the problem of its low solubility is solved using cyclodextrins (tables 10-12 of CN10169926 ) in order to obtain liquid formulations.



The reaction of 2-cyano-3-methylpyridine (I) with H2SO4 in t-BuOH gives the N-tert-butylamide (II), which is treated with two equivalents of BuLi and the corresponding dianion alkylated with 3-chlorobenzyl chloride to afford amide (III). The treatment of (III) with POCl3 gives nitrile (IV) which is cyclized to ketone (V) by subsequent treatment with CF3SO3H and aqueous HCl. Reaction of ketone (V) with the Grignard derivative prepared from chloride (VI) affords alcohol (VII) which is finally dehydrated by H2SO4 to give UR-12592 (1), as shown in Scheme 20491401a. The key intermediate (VI) is synthesized through the condensation of 5-methylnicotinic acid (VIII) with 4-hydroxypiperidine by means of DCC in DMF to give amide (IX), followed by reduction with POCl3 and NaBH4 to give the amino alcohol (X) which is treated with SOCl2. Scheme 20491402a. Description White crystals, m.p. 196-8 癈. References 1. Carceller, E., Jim閚ez, P.J., Salas, J. (J. Uriach & Cia SA). Process for the preparation of 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-[1-[(5-methyl-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-4 -piperidinylidene]-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine. ES 9602107.

The key intermediate (VI) is synthesized through the condensation of 5-methylnicotinic acid (VIII) with 4-hydroxypiperidine by means of DCC in DMF to give amide (IX), followed by reduction with POCl3 and NaBH4 to give the amino alcohol (X), which is treated with SOCl2.


  • To a solution of 1.7 mL (15 mmol) of 3,5-lutidine in 100 mL of CCl₄ was added 2.6 g (15 mmol) of NBS and the mixture was stirred at reflux under an argon atmosphere for 2 h. Then, the mixture was allowed to cool, the solid obtained was filtered off and to the filtrate was added 2.4 g (7.5 mmol) of the compound obtained in preparation 1 and 20 mg of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h and 1.68 mL of triethylamine was added. It was diluted with 100 mL of dichloromethane and washed with 0.5N NaHCO₃ solution and with water. The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate and the solvent was removed, to give 5.7 g of a residue that was chromatographed on silica gel (chloroform : methanol : ammonia, 60 : 2 : 0.2). 1.3 g of the title compound of the example was obtained as a white solid (yield: 40%).
    mp: 58-61°C;
    IR (KBr) ν: 3419, 3014, 1635, 1576, 1472 cm⁻¹;
    ¹H RMN (80 MHz, CDCl₃) δ (TMS): 8.39 (m, 3H, ar), 7.48 (m, 1H, ar), 7.37 (m, 1H, ar), 7.12 (m, 4H, ar), 3.45 (s, 2H, CH₂N), 3.36 (m, 2H), 3.1-2.1 (m, 13H). ¹³C RMN (20.15 MHz, CDCl₃) δ (TMS): 157.20 (C), 148.93 (CH), 147.46 (CH), 146.48 (CH), 139.50 (C), 138.56 (C), 137.06 (CH), 133.3 (C), 132.54 (C), 130.67 (CH), 128.80 (CH), 125.85 (CH), 121.92 (CH), 59.84 (CH₂), 54.63 (CH₂), 31.70 (CH₂), 31.32 (CH₂), 30.80 (CH₂), 30.56 (CH₂), 18.14 (CH₃).




Example 1

Preparation of3-bromomethyl-5-methylpyridine hydrochloride: A mixture of carbon tetrachloride (4000ml), azobisisobutyronitrile (45.96gm, 0.279mol), 3,5-lutidine (150gm, 1.399mol) and N-bromosuccinamide (299.4gm, 1.682mol) is refluxed for 2 hours. The reaction mixture is cooled to room temperature and solid is filtered. HCl gas is passed to the filtrate and solid obtained is separated and filtered. Yield is 196gm Yield is 67.66%. Example 2

Preparation of Rupatadine :

A mixture of desloratadine (5.0gm, 0.016mol), methylene chloride (15ml), tetrabutylammonium bromide (0.575gm, 0.0018mol) and sodium hydroxide solution (2.5gm, 0.064mol in 8ml water) is cooled to 0 to 50C. 3-bromomethyl-5- methylpyridine hydrochloride (7.18gm, 0.032mol) in methylene chloride (35ml) is added to above mixture. The reaction mixture is stirred at 0 to 50C for 1 hour and at room temperature for 12 hours. Layers are separated and organic layer is washed with dilute HCl solution and water. Methylene chloride is distilled. Yield = 9.5g %Yield =


Example 3

Preparation of Rupatadine fumarate:

A solution of fumaric acid (3.3gm) in methanol (46ml) is added to solution of

Rupatadine (4.5gm) in ethyl acetate (30ml) at room temperature. The reaction mass is cooled to -5 to O0C for 4 hours. Rupatadine fumarate is separated filtered and Washed with ethylacetate. Yield = 5.5 gm.



EP-02824103…An improved process for the preparation of rupatadine fumarate, Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd

Process for the preparing rupatadine intermediate (particularly 5-methylpyridine-3-methanol) comprises reduction of 5-methyl nicotinic acid alkyl ester using alkali metal borohydride is claimed. For a prior filing see WO2006114676, claiming the process for preparation of rupatadine fumarate.


J. Med. Chem., 1994, 37 (17), pp 2697–2703
DOI: 10.1021/jm00043a009


  1. Patents: EP 577957, US 5407941, US 5476856
  2. Merlos, M.; Giral, M.; Balsa, D.; Ferrando, R.; Queralt, M.; Puigdemont, A.; García-Rafanell, J.; Forn, J. (1997). “Rupatadine, a new potent, orally active dual antagonist of histamine and platelet-activating factor (PAF)”. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 280 (1): 114–121. PMID 8996188. edit
  3. Picado, C. S. (2006). “Rupatadine: Pharmacological profile and its use in the treatment of allergic disorders”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 7 (14): 1989–2001. doi:10.1517/14656566.7.14.1989. PMID 17020424. edit
  4. Keam, S. J.; Plosker, G. L. (2007). “Rupatadine: A review of its use in the management of allergic disorders”. Drugs 67 (3): 457–474. doi:10.2165/00003495-200767030-00008. PMID 17335300. edit
  5. Mullol, J.; Bousquet, J.; Bachert, C.; Canonica, W. G.; Gimenez-Arnau, A.; Kowalski, M. L.; Martí-Guadaño, E.; Maurer, M.; Picado, C.; Scadding, G.; Van Cauwenberge, P. (2008). “Rupatadine in allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria”. Allergy 63: 5–28. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01640.x. PMID 18339040. edit
Literature References: Dual antagonist of histamine H1 and platelet-activating factor receptors. Prepn: E. Carceller et al., ES 2042421; eidem, US 5407941 (1993, 1995 both to Uriach);
eidem,J. Med. Chem. 37, 2697 (1994).
Mechanism of action: M. Merlos et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 280, 114 (1997).
Clinical trial in seasonal allergic rhinitis: F. Saint-Martin et al., J. Invest. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 14, 34 (2004);
and comparison with ebastine: E. M. Guadaño et al., Allergy 59, 766 (2004).
Review of pharmacology and clinical development: N. Y. Van Den Anker-Rakhmanina, Curr. Opin. Anti-Inflam. Immunomod. Invest. Drugs 2, 127-132 (2000).
1 to 8 of 8
Patent Submitted Granted
8-chloro-11-[1-[(5-methyl-3-pyridyl)methyl]-4-piperidyliden]-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine [US5407941] 1995-04-18
Treatment of PAF and histamine-mediated diseases with 8-chloro-11-[1-[(5-methyl-3-pyridyl)methyl]-4-piperidyliden]-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine [US5476856] 1995-12-19
Process for the synthesis of n-(5-methylnicotinoyl)-4 hydroxypiperidine, a key intermediate of rupatadine [US6803468] 2004-03-04 2004-10-12
$g(b)2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS [EP1003540] 2000-05-31
8-Chloro-11-[1-[(5-methyl-3-pyridyl)methyl]-4-piperidyliden]-6,11-dihydro-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine. [EP0577957] 1994-01-12 1995-07-12
Systematic (IUPAC) name
8-Chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-[1-[(5-methyl-3-pyridinyl)methyl]-4-piperidinylidene]-5H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridine fumarate
Clinical data
Trade names Rupafin, Alergoliber, Rinialer, Pafinur, Rupax, Ralif
AHFS/ International Drug Names
Legal status
  • Prescription drug
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 98–99%
Metabolism Hepatic, CYP-mediated
Half-life 5.9 hours
Excretion 34.6% urine, 60.9% faeces
CAS number 158876-82-5  (free base)
182349-12-8 (fumarate)
ATC code R06AX28
PubChem CID 133017
ChemSpider 117388 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C26H26ClN3 
Molecular mass 415.958 g/mol

1 Comment

  1. Eris says:

    Hello from Oakland, California. I take anti-histamines daily to manage allergies and eczema. I recently stopped taking all 1st generation antihistamines and now take ceterzine and loradatine. I was taking hydroxyzine for a while but found it has a very short half life. Where can I get more information about Rupatadine?

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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