New Drug Approvals

Home » Posts tagged 'orphan'

Tag Archives: orphan

Advertisements
DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

Blog Stats

  • 2,532,031 hits

Flag and hits

Flag Counter

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,367 other followers

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Categories

Flag Counter

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,367 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Categories

Flag Counter
Advertisements

TAFENOQUINE タフェノキン


Tafenoquine(RS)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Tafenoquine | C24H28F3N3O3

Tafenoquine

タフェノキン

N-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinolin-8-yl]pentane-1,4-diamine

1,4-Pentanediamine, N4-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-8-quinolinyl]-
106635-80-7 [RN]
262P8GS9L9
7835
N4-{2,6-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluormethyl)phenoxy]-8-chinolinyl}-1,4-pentandiamin
WR-238605, WR 238605, cas no 106635-80-7, Tafenoquine succinate, Etaquine, SB-252263, WR-238605
N(4)-(2,6-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-((3-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)-8-quinolinyl)-1,4-pentanediamine
Molecular Formula: C24H28F3N3O3
Molecular Weight: 463.49263

Medicines for Malaria Venture
Walter Reed Army Institute (Originator)

PATENT  US 4617394

Synonyms

  • Etaquine[5]
  • WR 238605 [5]
  • SB-252263

New Drug Application (NDA): 210795
Company: GLAXOSMITHKLINE

FDA approved on July 20, 2018

FDA

Orphan

This new drug application provides for the use of KRINTAFEL (tafenoquine) tablets for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria in patients aged 16 years and older who are receiving appropriate antimalarial therapy for acute P. vivax infection….https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/2018/210795Orig1s000Ltr.pdf

Tafenoquine under the commercial name of Krintafel is an 8-aminoquinoline drug manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline that is being investigated as a potential treatment for malaria, as well as for malaria prevention.[2][3]

The proposed indication for tafenoquine is for treatment of the hypnozoite stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale that are responsible for relapse of these malaria species even when the blood stages are successfully cleared. This is only now achieved by administration of daily primaquine for 14 days. The main advantage of tafenoquine is that it has a long half-life (2–3 weeks) and therefore a single treatment may be sufficient to clear hypnozoites. The shorter regimen has been described as an advantage.[4]

Like primaquine, tafenoquine causes hemolysis in people with G6PD deficiency.[2] Indeed, the long half-life of tafenoquine suggests that particular care should be taken to ensure that individuals with severe G6PD deficiency do not receive the drug.

The dose of tafenoquine has not been firmly established, but for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, a dose of 800 mg over three days has been used.[5]

Image result for TAFENOQUINE IR

In 2018 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved single dose tafenoquine for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria[6].

Tafenoquine is used for the treatment and prevention of relapse of Vivax malaria in patients 16 years and older. Tafenoquine is not indicated to treat acute vivax malaria.[1]

Malaria is a disease that remains to occur in many tropical countries. Vivax malaria, caused by Plasmodium vivax, is known to be less virulent and seldom causes death. However, it causes a substantive illness-related burden in endemic areas and it is known to present dormant forms in the hepatocytes named hypnozoites which can remain dormant for weeks or even months. This dormant form produces ongoing relapses

FDA Approves Tafenoquine, First New P VivaxMalaria Treatment in 60 Years

JUL 23, 2018

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved, under Priority Review, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)’s tafenoquine (Krintafel), which is the first single-dose medicine for the prevention of  Plasmodium vivax (P vivax) malaria relapse in patients over the age of 16 years who are receiving antimalarial therapy. This is the first drug to be approved for the treatment of P vivax in over 60 years.

“[The] approval of Krintafel, the first new treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in over 60 years, is a significant milestone for people living with this type of relapsing malaria.” Hal Barron, MD, chief scientific officer and president of research and development of  GSK, said in the announcement, “Together with our partner, Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV), we believe Krintafel will be an important medicine for patients with malaria and contribute to the ongoing effort to eradicate this disease.”

Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline derivative with activity against all stages of the P vivax lifecycle, including hypnozoites. It was first synthesized by scientists at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in 1978, and in 2008, GSK entered into a collaboration with MMV, to develop tafenoquine as an anti-relapse medicine.

After an infected mosquito bite, the P vivax parasite infects the blood and causes an acute malaria episode and can also lie dormant in the liver (in a form known as hypnozoite) from where it periodically reactivates to cause relapses, which can occur weeks, months, or years after the onset of the initial infection. The dormant liver forms cannot be readily treated with most anti-malarial treatments. Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinolone, has been the only FDA-approved medicine that targeted the dormant liver stage to prevent relapse; however, effectiveness only occurs after 14 days and the treatment has shown to have poor compliance.

“The US FDA’s approval of Krintafel is a major milestone and a significant contribution towards global efforts to eradicate malaria,” commented David Reddy, PhD, chief executive officer of MMV in a recent statement, “The world has waited decades for a new medicine to counter P vivax malaria relapse. Today, we can say the wait is over. Moreover, as the first ever single-dose for this indication, Krintafel will help improve patient compliance.”

Approval for tafenoquine was granted based on the efficacy and safety data gleaned from a comprehensive global clinical development program for P vivaxprevention of relapse which has been designed by GSK and MMV in agreement with the FDA. The program consisted of 13 studies assessing the safety of a 300 mg single-dose of tafenoquine, including 3 double-blind studies referred to as DETECTIVE Parts 1 and 2 and GATHER.

With the approval of tafenoquine, GSK has also been awarded a tropical disease priority review voucher by the FDA. Additionally, GSK is waiting for a decision from Australian Therapeutics Good Administration regarding the regulatory submission for the drug.

P vivax malaria has caused around 8.5 million clinical infections each year, primarily in South Asia, South-East Asia, Latin America, and the Horn of Africa, a peninsula in East Africa. Symptoms include fever, chills, vomiting, malaise, headache and muscle pain, and can lead to death in severe cases.

Tafenoquine should not be administered to: patients who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or have not been tested for G6PD deficiency, patients who are breastfeeding a child known to have G6PD deficiency or one that has not been tested for G6PD deficiency, or patients who are allergic to tafenoquine or any of the ingredients in tafenoquine or who have had an allergic reaction to similar medicines containing 8-aminoquinolines

Stereochemistry

Tafenoquine contains a stereocenter and consists of two enantiomers. This is a mixture of (R) – and the (S) – Form:

Enantiomers of tafenoquine
(R)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg
(R)-Form
(S)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg
(S)-Form

CLIP

US 4431807

Nitration of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene (XXIX) with HNO3/AcOH gives 4,5-dimethoxy-1,2-dinitrobenzene (XXX), which is treated with ammonia in hot methanol to yield 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitroaniline (XXXI). Cyclization of compound (XXXI) with buten-2-one (XXXII) by means of H3PO4 and H3AsO4 affords 5,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-8-nitroquinoline (XXXIII), which is selectively mono-demethylated by means of HCl in ethanol to provide 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-methyl-8-nitroquinoline (XXXIV). Reaction of quinoline (XXXIV) with POCl3 gives the corresponding 5-chloro derivative (XXXV), which is condensed with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of KOH to yield the diaryl ether (XXXVI). Finally, the nitro group of (XXXVI) is reduced by means of H2 over PtO2 in THF or H2 over Raney nickel.

Nitration of 2-fluoroanisole (XXXVII) with HNO3/Ac2O gives 3-fluoro-4-methoxynitrobenzene (XXXVIII), which is reduced to the corresponding aniline (XXXIX) with SnCl2/HCl. Reaction of compound (XXXIX) with Ac2O yields the acetanilide (XL), which is nitrated with HNO3 to afford 5-fluoro-4-methoxy-2-nitroacetanilide (XLI). Hydrolysis of (XLI) with NaOH provides 5-fluoro-4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline (XLII), which is cyclized with buten-2-one (XXXII) by means of As2O5 and H3PO4 to furnish 5-fluoro-6-methoxy-4-methyl-8-nitroquinoline (XLIII). Condensation of quinoline (XLIII) with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of K2CO3 gives the diaryl ether (XXXIV), which is finally reduced by means of H2 over PtO2 in THF.

CLIP

US 4617394

Reaction of 8-amino-6-methoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinoline (XIV) with phthalic anhydride (XV) affords the phthalimido derivative (XVI), which is oxidized with MCPBA to yield the quinoline N-oxide (XVII). Treatment of compound (XVII) with neutral alumina gives the quinolone derivative (XVIII), which by reaction with POCl3 in refluxing CHCl3 provides the 2-chloroquinoline derivative (XIX). Alternatively, reaction of the quinoline N-oxide (XVII) with POCl3 as before also gives the 2-chloroquinoline derivative (XIX) The removal of the phthalimido group of compound (XIX) by means of hydrazine in refluxing ethanol gives the chlorinated aminoquinoline (XX), which is finally treated with MeONa in hot DMF.

CLIP

US 6479660; WO 9713753

Chlorination of 6-methoxy-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I) with SO2Cl2 in hot acetic acid gives the 5-chloro derivative (II), which is nitrated with HNO3 in H2SO4 to yield the 8-nitroquinolinone (III). Condensation of compound (III) with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of KOH in NMP provides the diaryl ether (V), which is treated with refluxing POCl3 to afford the 2-chloroquinoline (VI). Reaction of compound (VI) with MeONa in refluxing methanol results in the 2,6-dimethoxyquinoline derivative (VII), which is reduced with hydrazine over Pd/C to give the 8-aminoquinoline derivative (VIII). Condensation of aminoquinoline (VIII) with N-(4-iodopentyl)phthalimide (IX) by means of diisopropylamine in hot NMP yields the phthalimido precursor (X), which is finally cleaved with hydrazine in refluxing ethanol.

Reaction of 1,4-dibromopentane (XI) with potassium phthalimide (XII) gives N-(4-bromopentyl)phthalimide (XIII), which is then treated with NaI in refluxing acetone.

Reaction of 4-methoxyaniline (XXI) with ethyl acetoacetate (XXII) by means of triethanolamine in refluxing xylene gives the acetoacetanilide (XXIII), which is cyclized by means of hot triethanolamine and H2SO4 to yield 6-methoxy-4-methylquinolin-2(1H)-one (I), which is treated with refluxing POCl3 to provide 2-chloro-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXIV). Reaction of compound (XXIV) with SO2Cl2 in hot AcOH affords 2,5-dichloro-6-methoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXV), which is treated with MeONa in refluxing methanol to furnish 5-chloro-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXVI). Alternatively, the reaction of compound (XXIV) with MeONa as before gives 2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXVII), which is treated with SO2Cl2 in hot AcOH to give the already described 5-chloro-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methylquinoline (XXVI). Nitration of compound (XXVI) with KNO3 and P2O5 gives the 8-nitroquinoline derivative (XXVIII), which is condensed with 3-(trifluoromethyl)phenol (IV) by means of KOH in hot NMP to yield the diaryl ether (VII). Finally, the nitro group of compound (VII) is reduced with hydrazine over Pd/C.

PAPER

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2017/RA/C7RA04867J#!divAbstract

An antimalarial drug, tafenoquine, as a fluorescent receptor for ratiometric detection of hypochlorite

 Author affiliations

Abstract

Tafenoquine (TQ), a fluorescent antimalarial drug, was used as a receptor for the fluorometric detection of hypochlorite (OCl). TQ itself exhibits a strong fluorescence at 476 nm, but OCl-selective cyclization of its pentan-1,4-diamine moiety creates a blue-shifted fluorescence at 361 nm. This ratiometric response facilitates rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of OCl in aqueous media with physiological pH. This response is also applicable to a simple test kit analysis and allows fluorometric OCl imaging in living cells.

Graphical abstract: An antimalarial drug, tafenoquine, as a fluorescent receptor for ratiometric detection of hypochlorite

1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3, TMS) d (ppm): 7.32 (q, 1H, J ¼ 18 Hz), 7.21 (d, 1H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 7.07 (s, 1H), 6.94 (d, 1H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 6.64 (s, 1H), 6.50 (s, 1H), 5.84 (d, 1H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 4.00 (s, 3H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 3.66 (s, 1H), 2.78 (d, 2H, J ¼ 6 Hz), 2.55 (s, 3H), 1.69 (dd, 6H, J ¼ 6 Hz, J ¼ 9 Hz), 1.35 (d, 3H, J ¼ 6 Hz).

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3, TMS) d (ppm): 159.64, 148.961, 146.339, 142.010, 132.085, 131.760, 131.007, 129.968, 126.917, 125.344, 122.636, 120.681, 118.006, 115.256, 112.052, 94.996, 56.989, 52.870, 48.446, 42.248, 34.439, 30.130, 23.103, 20.833.

MS (m/z): M+ calcd for C24H28F3N3O3: 463.2083; found (ESI): 464.17 (M + H)+ .

PAPER

J Med Chem 1989,32(8),1728-32

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm00128a010

Synthesis of the intermediate diazepinone (IV) is accomplished by a one-pot synthesis. Condensation of 2-chloro-3-aminopyridine (I) with the anthranilic ester (II) is effected in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide as a catalyst. The resulting anthranilic amide (III) is cyclized under the influence of catalytic amounts of sulfuric acid. Treatment of (IV) with chloroacetylchloride in toluene yields the corresponding choroacetamide (V). The side chain of AQ-RA 741 is prepared starting from 4-picoline, which is alkylated by reaction with 3-(diethylamino)propylchloride in the presence of n-butyllithium. Hydrogenation of (VIII) using platinum dioxide as a catalyst furnishes the diamine (IX), which is coupled with (V) in the presence of catalytic amounts of sodium iodide in acetone leading to AQ-RA 741 as its free base.

Image result for tafenoquine DRUG FUTURE

Image result for tafenoquine DRUG FUTURE

CLIP

Image result for TAFENOQUINE IR

Image result for TAFENOQUINE IR

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Peters W (1999). “The evolution of tafenoquine–antimalarial for a new millennium?”J R Soc Med92 (7): 345–352. PMC 1297286Freely accessiblePMID 10615272.
  2. Jump up to:a b Shanks GD, Oloo AJ, Aleman GM, et al. (2001). “A New Primaquine Analogue, Tafenoquine (WR 238605), for prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria”. Clin Infect Dis33 (12): 1968–74. doi:10.1086/324081JSTOR 4482936PMID 11700577.
  3. Jump up^ Lell B, Faucher JF, Missinou MA, et al. (2000). “Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study”. Lancet355 (9220): 2041–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02352-7PMID 10885356.
  4. Jump up^ Elmes NJ, Nasveld PE, Kitchener SJ, Kocisko DA, Edstein MD (November 2008). “The efficacy and tolerability of three different regimens of tafenoquine versus primaquine for post-exposure prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Southwest Pacific”Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene102 (11): 1095–101. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.04.024PMID 18541280.
  5. Jump up^ Nasveld P, Kitchener S (2005). “Treatment of acute vivax malaria with tafenoquine”. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg99 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2004.01.013PMID 15550254.
  6. Jump up^ “Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products”http://www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
  1.  Shanks GD, Oloo AJ, Aleman GM et al. (2001). “A New Primaquine Analogue, Tafenoquine (WR 238605), for prophylaxis against Plasmodium falciparum malaria”. Clin Infect Dis 33 (12): 1968–74. doi:10.1086/324081JSTOR 4482936.PMID 11700577.
  2. Lell B, Faucher JF, Missinou MA et al. (2000). “Malaria chemoprophylaxis with tafenoquine: a randomised study”.Lancet 355 (9220): 2041–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02352-7PMID 10885356.
  3.  Elmes NJ, Nasveld PE, Kitchener SJ, Kocisko DA, Edstein MD (November 2008). “The efficacy and tolerability of three different regimens of tafenoquine versus primaquine for post-exposure prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Southwest Pacific”Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102 (11): 1095–101.doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.04.024PMID 18541280.
  4.  Nasvelda P, Kitchener S. (2005). “Treatment of acute vivax malaria with tafenoquine”. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99 (1): 2–5. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2004.01.013PMID 15550254.
  5.  Peters W (1999). “The evolution of tafenoquine–antimalarial for a new millennium?”. J R Soc Med 92 (7): 345–352.PMID 10615272.
  6. J Med Chem 1982,25(9),1094
8-3-2007
Methods and compositions for treating diseases associated with pathogenic proteins
12-6-2006
Process for the preparation of quinoline derivatives
3-14-2002
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF ANTI-MALARIAL DRUGS
4-2-1998
MULTIDENTATE METAL COMPLEXES AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THEREOF
4-18-1997
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF ANTI-MALARIAL DRUGS
12-20-1996
MULTIDENTATE METAL COMPLEXES AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THEREOF
12-15-1993
Use of interferon and a substance with an antimalarial activity for the treatment of malaria infections
10-15-1986
4-methyl-5-(unsubstituted and substituted phenoxy)-2,6-dimethoxy-8-(aminoalkylamino) quinolines
Title: Tafenoquine
CAS Registry Number: 106635-80-7
CAS Name: N4[2,6-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-8-quinolinyl]-1,4-pentanediamine
Additional Names: 8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)amino]-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinoline
Manufacturers’ Codes: WR-238605
Molecular Formula: C24H28F3N3O3
Molecular Weight: 463.49
Percent Composition: C 62.19%, H 6.09%, F 12.30%, N 9.07%, O 10.36%
Literature References: Analog of primaquine, q.v. Prepn: P. Blumbergs, M. P. LaMontagne, US 4617394 (1986 to U.S. Sec. Army); M. P. LaMontagne et al., J. Med. Chem. 32, 1728 (1989). HPLC determn in blood and plasma: D. A. Kocisko et al., Ther. Drug Monit. 22, 184 (2000). Metabolism: O. R. Idowu et al., Drug Metab. Dispos. 23, 1 (1995). Clinical pharmacokinetics: M. D. Edstein et al., Br. J. Pharmacol. 52, 663 (2001). Clinical evaluation in prevention of malaria relapse: D. S. Walsh et al., J. Infect. Dis. 180, 1282 (1999); in malaria prophylaxis: B. Lell et al., Lancet 355, 2041 (2000); B. R. Hale et al., Clin. Infect. Dis. 36, 541 (2003).
Derivative Type: Succinate
CAS Registry Number: 106635-81-8
Trademarks: Etaquine (GSK)
Molecular Formula: C24H28F3N3O3.C4H6O4
Molecular Weight: 581.58
Percent Composition: C 57.83%, H 5.89%, F 9.80%, N 7.23%, O 19.26%
Properties: Crystals from acetonitrile, mp 146-149°. LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 102, 71 i.p.; 429, 416 orally (LaMontagne).
Melting point: mp 146-149°
Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female rats (mg/kg): 102, 71 i.p.; 429, 416 orally (LaMontagne)
Therap-Cat: Antimalarial.
Keywords: Antimalarial.
Tafenoquine
(RS)-Tafenoquin Structural Formula V1.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms Etaquine,[1] WR 238605,[1] SB-252263
ATC code
  • none
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
Chemical and physical data
Formula C24H28F3N3O3
Molar mass 463.493 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

OLD CLIP

April 28, 2014
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) announced the start of a Phase 3 global program to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tafenoquine, an investigational medicine which is being developed for the treatment and relapse prevention (radical cure) of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) malaria.

P. vivax malaria, a form of the disease caused by one of several species of Plasmodium parasites known to infect humans, occurs primarily in South and South East Asia, Latin America and the horn of Africa. Severe anemia, malnutrition and respiratory distress are among the most serious consequences described to be caused by the infection.

The Phase 3 program includes two randomized, double-blind treatment studies to investigate tafenoquine in adult patients with P. vivax malaria. The DETECTIVE study (TAF112582) aims to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of tafenoquine as a radical cure for P. vivax malaria, co-administered with chloroquine, a blood stage anti-malarial treatment. The GATHER study (TAF116564) aims to assess the incidence of hemolysis and safety and efficacy of tafenoquine compared to primaquine, the only approved treatment currently available for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria.

Tafenoquine is not yet approved or licensed for use anywhere in the world.

“P. vivax malaria can affect people of all ages and is particularly insidious because it has the potential to remain dormant within the body in excess of a year, and causes some patients to experience repeated episodes of illness after the first mosquito bite,” said Nicholas Cammack, head, Tres Cantos Medicines Development Center for Diseases of the Developing World.  “Our investigation of tafenoquine for the treatment of P. vivax malaria is part of GSK’s efforts to tackle the global burden of malaria. Working with our partners, including MMV, we are determined to stop malaria in all its forms.”

“One of the big challenges we face in tackling malaria is to have new medicines to prevent relapse, caused by dormant forms of P. vivax,” said Dr. Timothy Wells, MMV’s chief scientific officer. “The Phase 3 program is designed to build upon the promising results of the Phase 2b study which showed that treatment with tafenoquine prevented relapses. If successful, tafenoquine has the potential to become a major contributor to malaria elimination. It’s a great privilege to be working with GSK on this project; they have a clear commitment to changing the face of public health in the countries in which we are working.”

/////////////Tafenoquine, タフェノキン , Orphan, FDA 2018,  KRINTAFEL, Priority Review, GlaxoSmithKline
COC1=CC(C)=C2C(OC3=CC=CC(=C3)C(F)(F)F)=C(OC)C=C(NC(C)CCCN)C2=N1
Advertisements

Carglumic acid, карглумовая кислота , حمض كاروغلوميك , カルグルミ酸 ,


Carglumic acid.svgCarglumic acid.png

Carglumic acid

N-Carbamyl-L-glutamate;

  • Molecular FormulaC6H10N2O5
  • Average mass190.154 Da
N-Carbamylglutamate
карглумовая кислота [Russian] [INN]
حمض كاروغلوميك [Arabic] [INN]
カルグルミ酸;
1188-38-1 [RN]
5L0HB4V1EW
8008
L-Glutamic acid, N-(aminocarbonyl)-
L-Glutamic acid, N-(hydroxyiminomethyl)-
N-[Hydroxy(imino)methyl]-L-glutamic acid
(S)-2-Ureidopentanedioic acid
(S)-2-ureidopentanedioic acid; N-Carbamoyl-L-Glutamic Acid; N-Carbamyl-L-glutamate; N-Carbamylglutamate
OE 312 / OE-312, UNII5L0HB4V1EW
Prepn: H. McIlwain, Biochem. J. 33, 1942 (1939)

Carglumic acid is a Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 Activator. The mechanism of action of carglumic acid is as a Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 Activator.

For the treatment of acute and chronic hyperammonaemia in patients with N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency. This enzyme is an important component of the urea cycle to prevent build up of neurotoxic ammonium in the blood.

EMA

Carglumic acid exists as a white powder or colourless crystals. It is soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in cold water and practically insoluble in organic solvents (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ether). The water solubility of carglumic acid at pH 2.0 is 21.0 g/L. It increases rapidly between the pH 3.0 (28.2 g/L) and the pH 5.0 (440.9 g/L). The solubility of carglumic acid in water is stable between pH 6.0 (555.5 g/L) and pH 8.0 (553.9 g/L). Carglumic acid is prepared from L-glutamic acid. It exhibits stereoisomerism due to the presence of one chiral centre and has one optical isomer; N-carbamoyl-D-glutamic acid.

ORIGINATOR ORPHAN EUROPE

POLA CHEMICAL

ORPHAN DRUG

EU APPROVED 2003 ORPHAN EUROPE

FDA 2010  ORPHAN EUROPE

JAPAN 2016 POLA CHEM

Title: Carglumic acid
CAS Registry Number: 1188-38-1
CAS Name: N-(Aminocarbonyl)-L-glutamic acid
Additional Names: carbamylglutamic acid; N-carbamoyl-L-glutamic acid; l-uramidoglutaric acid; ureidoglutaric acid
Trademarks: Carbaglu (Orphan Europe)
Molecular Formula: C6H10N2O5
Molecular Weight: 190.15
Percent Composition: C 37.90%, H 5.30%, N 14.73%, O 42.07%
Literature References: Metabolically stable analog of N-acetylglutamate, a physiological activator of the first enzyme of the urea cycle, carbamylphosphate synthetase (CAPS). Prepn: H. McIlwain, Biochem. J. 33, 1942 (1939). Effect on blood urea and ammonia levels and potential clinical application: J.-E. O’Connor et al., Eur. J. Pediatr. 143, 196 (1985). Evaluation in treatment of CAPS deficiency: G. Kuchler et al., J. Inher. Metab. Dis. 19, 220 (1996); of N-acetylglutamate synthetase (NAGS) deficiency: B. Plecko et al., Eur. J. Pediatr. 157, 996 (1998).
Properties: mp 174°.
Melting point: mp 174°
Therap-Cat: In treatment of inherited urea cycle disorders.

CARBAGLU®
(carglumic acid) Tablet for Oral Suspension

DESCRIPTION

CARBAGLU tablets for oral suspension, contain 200 mg of carglumic acid. Carglumic acid, the active substance, is a Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 (CPS 1) activator and is soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in cold water, and practically insoluble in organic solvents.

Chemically carglumic acid is N-carbamoyl-L-glutamic acid or (2S)-2-(carbamoylamino) pentanedioic acid, with a molecular weight of 190.16.

The structural formula is:

CARBAGLU® (carglumic acid) - Structural Formula Illustration

Molecular Formula: C6H10N2O5

The inactive ingredients of CARBAGLU are croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, silica colloidal anhydrous, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium stearyl fumarate.

Carglumic Acid is an orally active, synthetic structural analogue of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS 1) activator, with ammonia lowering activity. NAG, which is formed by the hepatic enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), is an essential allosteric activator of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS 1). CPS 1 plays an essential role in the urea cycle and converts ammonia into urea. Upon oral administration, carglumic acid can replace NAG in NAGS deficient patients and activates CPS 1, which prevents hyperammonaemia.

Carglumic acid is an orphan drug and a derivative of N-acetylglutamate that activates the first enzyme in the urea cycle that is responsible for removal and detoxification of ammonia, making this drug a valuable agent for therapy of hyperammonemia caused by rare forms of urea cycle defects. Clinical experience with carglumic acid is limited, but it has not been linked to significant serum enzyme elevations during therapy or to instances of clinically apparent acute liver injury.

Carglumic acid is an orphan drug, marketed by Orphan Europe under the trade name Carbaglu. Carglumic acid is used for the treatment of hyperammonaemia in patients with N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency.[1][2] The initial daily dose ranges from 100 to 250 mg/kg, adjusted thereafter to maintain normal plasma levels of ammonia.

The US FDA approved it for treatment of hyperammonaemia on March 18, 2010. Orphan Drug exclusivity expired on March 18, 2017.[3] 

USFDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2010/022562s000chemr.pdf

Carbaglu (carglumic acid) Tablets 200 mg, is a white elongated tablet with three score marks on both sides engraved C’s on one side. It is a dispersible tablet designed to be dispersed in of water and ingested or administered through a syringe via a nasogastric tube. It is indicated for treatment of acute hyperammonemia in patients with NAGS deficiency.

The drug substance, carglumic acid, is an allosteric activator of a critical urea cycle enzyme, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). It is a close analog of the naturally occurring activator, N-acetyl glutamate (NAG). Carglumic acid is a urea-like derivative of the amino acid L-glutamate and contains one chiral center. The drug substance solid form is the neutral dicarboxylic acid and is a white crystalline powder. The water solubility of the drug substance depends on the . polymorphic solid form has been found.

The drug substance is manufactured by .
The facility was found to have acceptable cGMP status during an inspection by
the Agency in November 2009. The synthesis of carglumic acid consists of a

Regarding characterization, the drug substance structure was determined by
NMR, MS, IR and Regarding impurities, two potential
impurities are possible due to
hydantoin-5-proprionic acid (HPA) and diaza-1,3-dione-2,4-carboxy-7-
cycloheptane (Diaza). Only the has been detected at
batch release and it increases in amount during storage at elevated temperatures
but not at room temperature. This impurity also increases during drug product
storage at room temperature but not at refrigerated temperatures, see above
discussion. The starting materials, , were not
detected in several batches and therefore routine testing is not required.
Regarding drug substance specification, identity testing is by IR and HPLC.
Other tests include optical rotation, melting point, pH of 0.5% solution, loss on
drying, residue on ignition, heavy metals, assay and impurities by HPLC.
Regarding chiral purity, the observed specific optical rotation is small and
therefore not a very precise method for determination of chiral purity. Although
a chiral HPLC method was developed, since the r was not detected in
any samples (the limit of detection was 0.1%) during the development, originally
the sponsor did not propose to implement the test in the specification. However,
the Agency recommended that the chiral HPLC method be included in the
specification to assure chiral purity, and the sponsor agreed to do so with the limit
for the NMT
Batch release data were provided that justified the proposed acceptance limits. In
general, measured total impurities were low in the drug substance, about .
Appropriate in-house reference standards were established.
Stability results for 3 batches stored at 25°C/60%RH for 36 months remained
within the tight specification limits. A re-test period of for the drug
substance stored in its original packaging at room temperature is granted.

B. Description of How the Drug Product is Intended to be Used
The drug product tablets may be dispersed in a minimum amount of water
mL per tablet) and ingested immediately or administered through a syringe via a
nasogastric tube. The suspension has a slightly acidic taste.

NDA 022562

EUROPE

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/004019/WC500230265.pdf

21 April 2017 EMA/CHMP/404487/2017 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report Ucedane International non-proprietary name: carglumic acid Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/004019/0000

Carglumic acid (also called N-carbamyl-L-glutamate, or carbamylglutamate) is an orally active deacylaseresistant synthetic structural N-acetylglutamate (NAG) analogue. NAG, which is formed by the hepatic enzyme N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), is an essential allosteric activator of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS-1). CPS-1 plays an essential role in the urea cycle and converts ammonia into urea which prevents hyperammonaemia. Despite a lower affinity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase for carglumic acid than for N-acetylglutamate, carglumic acid has been shown in vivo to stimulate carbamoyl phosphate synthetase and to be much more effective than N-acetylglutamate in protecting against ammonia intoxication in rats.

Carglumic acid was first authorised in the EU as Carbaglu dispersible tablets in January 2003. At the time of approval Carbaglu was indicated for the treatment of hyperammonaemia associated with N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency. Subsequently, the approved indications for Carbaglu have been extended and is now also authorised for the treatment of hyperammonaemia due to, isovaleric acidaemia, methymalonic acidaemia, or propionic acidaemia. Ucedane is indicated in treatment of hyperammonaemia due to N-acetylglutamate synthase primary deficiency. Proposed posology and method of administration for Ucedane

The chemical name of the active substance, carglumic acid, is N-Carbamyl-L-glutamic acid corresponding to the molecular formula C6H10N2O5. It has a relative molecular mass 190.16 g/mol and the following structure:

Carglumic acid exists as a white powder or colourless crystals. It is soluble in boiling water, slightly soluble in cold water and practically insoluble in organic solvents (cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ether). The water solubility of carglumic acid at pH 2.0 is 21.0 g/L. It increases rapidly between the pH 3.0 (28.2 g/L) and the pH 5.0 (440.9 g/L). The solubility of carglumic acid in water is stable between pH 6.0 (555.5 g/L) and pH 8.0 (553.9 g/L). Carglumic acid is prepared from L-glutamic acid. It exhibits stereoisomerism due to the presence of one chiral centre and has one optical isomer; N-carbamoyl-D-glutamic acid.

Adverse effects

The most common adverse effects include vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and tonsillitis.[4]

SYNTHESIS PHARMACODIA

http://en.pharmacodia.com/web/drug/1_468.html

References

  1. Jump up^ Caldovic L, Morizono H, Daikhin Y, Nissim I, McCarter RJ, Yudkoff M, Tuchman M (2004). “Restoration of ureagenesis in N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency by N-carbamylglutamate”. J Pediatr145 (4): 552–4. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.06.047PMID 15480384.
  2. Jump up^ Elpeleg O, Shaag A, Ben-Shalom E, Schmid T, Bachmann C (2002). “N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency and the treatment of hyperammonemic encephalopathy”. Ann Neurol52 (6): 845–9. doi:10.1002/ana.10406PMID 12447942.
  3. Jump up^ “Patent and Exclusivity Search Results”.
  4. Jump up^ Drugs.comProfessional Drug Facts for Carglumic Acid.
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2014322323 PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM
2014-04-25
2014-10-30
US9592179 DISPOSABLE RIGID CONTAINER FOR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS
2012-09-21
2014-08-07
US2015099270 METHOD OF SCREENING PHARMACEUTICALS FOR DRUG INTERACTIONS AND NEPHROTOXICITY
2014-10-06
2015-04-09
US8459458 Disposable rigid container for pharmaceutical compositions
2011-03-18
2013-06-11
US7118913 Expression vector containing urea cycle enzyme gene, transformant thereof, and use of transformant for protein over-expression
2005-04-28
2006-10-10
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2014079780 Crush resistant delayed-release dosage forms
2013-11-19
2014-03-20
US2010151028 CRUSH RESISTANT DELAYED-RELEASE DOSAGE FORMS
2009-12-17
2010-06-17
US2011311631 CONTROLLED RELEASE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION WITH RESISTANCE AGAINST THE INFLUENCE OF ETHANOL EMPLOYING A COATING COMPRISING A POLYMER MIXTURE AND EXCIPIENTS
2009-03-18
2011-12-22
US9730899 CONTROLLED RELEASE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION WITH RESISTANCE AGAINST THE INFLUENCE OF ETHANOL EMPLOYING A COATING COMPRISING NEUTRAL VINYL POLYMERS AND EXCIPIENTS
2009-03-18
2012-02-23
US2008311187 CRUSH RESISTAN DELAYED-RELEASE DOSAGE FORM
2008-06-17
2008-12-18
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017056347 METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS FOR TREATING CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH AN ABNORMAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES
2016-09-01
US2017049899 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-08-30
US2016354370 METHOD FOR TREATING A PROTOZOAL INFECTION
2016-08-19
US9688967 Bacteria Engineered to Treat Diseases Associated with Hyperammonemia
2016-05-25
US2017056510 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-03-08
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9669038 Heterocyclic compounds and uses thereof
2015-10-26
2017-06-06
US7790905 Pharmaceutical propylene glycol solvate compositions
2003-12-29
2010-09-07
US2017128580 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2017-01-19
US2017216370 BACTERIA ENGINEERED TO TREAT DISORDERS INVOLVING PROPIONATE CATABOLISM
2017-01-09
US2017056511 TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
2016-09-15
Carglumic acid
Carglumic acid.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms (S)-2-ureidopentanedioic acid
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
License data
Pregnancy
category
  • unknown
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 30%
Protein binding Undetermined
Metabolism Partial
Elimination half-life 4.3 to 9.5 hours
Excretion Fecal (60%) and renal (9%, unchanged)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.116.323 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C6H10N2O5
Molar mass 190.2 g/mol

////////////////Carglumic acid, FDA 2010, карглумовая кислота حمض كاروغلوميك カルグルミ酸 , ORPHAN, ORPHAN EU, JAPAN 2016, EU 2003, POLA, ORPHAN, OE 312

C(CC(=O)O)C(C(=O)O)NC(=O)N

Nitisinone, ニチシノン


ChemSpider 2D Image | Nitisinone | C14H10F3NO5DB00348.pngNitisinone.svg

Nitisinone

ニチシノン

Orfadin

Launched – 2002, NTBC
SC-0735
SYN-118

2-(alpha,alpha,alpha-Trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tuluoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione

2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione 

Priority,  Orphan

Formula
C14H10F3NO5
CAS
104206-65-7
Mol weight
329.2281
1,3-Cyclohexanedione, 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-
104206-65-7 [RN]
2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione
Orfadin®|SC-0735
QB-0882
SC0735
UNII:K5BN214699
UNII-K5BN214699
Research Code:SC-0735
Trade Name:Orfadin®
MOA:4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor
Indication:Hereditary tyrosinemia
Company:Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (SOBI) (Originator)

Nitisinone is a synthetic reversible inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. It is used in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. It is sold under the brand name Orfadin.

Nitisinone was first approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 18, 2002, then approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) on February 21, 2005. It was developed and marketed as Orfadin® by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB (SOBI) in the US .

The mechanism of action of nitisinone involves reversibile inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase(HPPD). It is indicated for use as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1).

Orfadin® is available as capsule for oral use, containing 2, 5 or 10 mg of free Nitisinone. The recommended initial dose is 1 mg/kg/day divided into two daily doses. Maximum dose is 2 mg/kg/day.

Nitisinone was launched in 2002 by Swedish Orphan (now Swedish Orphan Biovitrum) in a capsule formulation as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type I. In 2015, this product was launched in Japan for the same indication. The same year, an oral suspension formulation for pediatric patients was registered in the E.U., and launch took place in the United Kingdom shortly after. This formulation was approved in 2016 in the U.S. for the same indication. In 2016, nitisinone tablet formulation developed by Cycle Pharmaceuticals was approved in Canada (this formulation is also available also in the U.S.).

Indication

Used as an adjunct to dietary restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

Associated Conditions

EU

Image result for EU

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/004281/WC500236080.pdf

Nitisinone MendeliKABS

22 June 2017 EMA/CHMP/502860/2017

Product name, strength, pharmaceutical form: Orfadin • Marketing authorisation holder: Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB • Date of authorisation: 21/02/2005

Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/004281/0000

During the meeting on 22 June 2017, the CHMP, in the light of the overall data submitted and the scientific discussion within the Committee, issued a positive opinion for granting a Marketing authorisation to Nitisinone MendeliKABS.

The chemical name of nitisinone is 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione corresponding to the molecular formula C14H10F3NO5. It has a relative molecular mass of 329.23 g/mol and the following structure: Figure 1. Structure of nitisinone.

Nitisinone appears as off-white to yellowish non-hygroscopic fine crystalline powder. It is practically insoluble in unbuffered water. It is freely soluble in dichloromethane, sparingly soluble in ethyl alcohol, slightly soluble in isopropyl alcohol and 70% aqueous isopropyl alcohol and in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, very slightly soluble in pH 4.5 acetate buffer and practically insoluble at pH 1.1. Solubility in acidified aqueous media depends on the acid counter ion. Solubility increases with increasing pH. Its pKa was found to be around 10. Nitisinone is achiral and does not show polymorphism.

ALSO

2005

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Scientific_Discussion/human/000555/WC500049192.pdf

Nitisinone is a white to yellowish-white crystalline powder poorly soluble in water. The active substance is a weak acid and it is highly soluble in the pH range 4.5-7.2 in phosphate buffer solutions. Nitisinone has the chemical name 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione. It does not show polymorphism.

US FDA

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2016/206356Orig1s000ChemR.pdf

Company:  Swedish Orphan Biovitrum AB
Application No.:  206356Orig1
Approval Date: April 22, 2016

Nitisinone (INN), also known as NTBC (an abbreviation of its full chemical name) is a medication used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1. Since its first use for this indication in 1991, it has replaced liver transplantation as the first-line treatment for this rare condition. It is also being studied in the related condition alkaptonuria. It is marketed under the brand name Orfadin by the company Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi); it was first brought to market by Swedish Orphan International. It was originally developed as a candidate herbicide.

Uses

Nitisinone is used to treat hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, in combination with restriction of tyrosine in the diet.[1][2][3]

Since its first use for this indication in 1991, it has replaced liver transplantation as the first-line treatment for this rare condition.[4] I It is marketed under the brand name Orfadin.

It has been demonstrated that treatment with nitisinone can reduce urinary levels of homogentisic acid in alkaptonuria patients by 95%.[5] A series of clinical trials run by DevelopAKUre to determine whether nitisinone is effective at treating the ochronosis suffered by patients with alkaptonuria are ongoing.[6] If the trials are successful, DevelopAKUre will try to get nitisinone licensed for use by alkaptonuria patients.[7]

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of nitisinone involves reversibile inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD).[8][9] This is a treatment for patients with Tyrosinemia type 1 as it prevents the formation of maleylacetoacetic acid and fumarylacetoacetic acid, which have the potential to be converted to succinyl acetone, a toxin that damages the liver and kidneys.[4] This causes the symptoms of Tyrosinemia type 1 experienced by untreated patients.[10]

Alkaptonuria is caused when an enzyme called homogentisic dioxygenase (HGD) is faulty, leading to a buildup of homogenisate.[11]Alkaptonuria patients treated with nitisinone produce far less HGA than those not treated (95% less in the urine),[5] because nitisinone inhibits HPPD, resulting in less homogenisate accumulation. Clinical trials are ongoing to test whether nitisinone can prevent ochronosisexperienced by older alkaptonuria patients.[6]

Adverse effects

Nitisinone has several negative side effects; these include but are not limited to: bloated abdomen, dark urine, abdominal pain, feeling of tiredness or weakness, headache, light-colored stools, loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, and yellow-colored eyes or skin.[12]

Research

Nitisinone is being studied as a treatment for alkaptonuria.[13]

Research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has demonstrated that nitisinone can reduce urinary levels of HGA by up to 95% in patients with alkaptonuria. The primary parameter of the NIH trial was range of hip motion, for which the results were inconclusive.[citation needed]

Research done using alkaptonuric mice has shown that mice treated with nitisinone experience no ochronosis in knee joint cartilage. In contrast, all of the mice in the untreated control group developed ochronotic knee joints.[14]

The efficacy of Nitisinone is now being studied in a series international clinical trials called DevelopAKUre.[15] The studies will recruit alkaptonuria patients in Europe.[16] A larger number of patients will be recruited in these trials than in the previous NIH trial.[17] The trials are funded by the European Commission.[18]

Nitisinone has been shown to increase skin and eye pigmentation in mice, and has been suggested as a possible treatment for oculocutaneous albinism.[19][20]

History

Nitisinone was discovered as part of a program to develop a class of herbicides called HPPD inhibitors. It is a member of the benzoylcyclohexane-1,3-dione family of herbicides, which are chemically derived from a natural phytotoxin, leptospermone, obtained from the Australian bottlebrush plant (Callistemon citrinus).[21] HPPD is essential in plants and animals for catabolism, or breaking apart, of tyrosine.[22] In plants, preventing this process leads to destruction of chlorophyll and the death of the plant.[22] In toxicology studies of the herbicide, it was discovered that it had activity against HPPD in rats[23] and humans.[24]

In Type I tyrosinemia, a different enzyme involved in the breakdown of tyrosine, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase is mutated and doesn’t work, leading to very harmful products building up in the body.[1] Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase acts on tyrosine after HPPD does, so scientists working on making herbicides in the class of HPPD inhibitors hypothesized that inhibiting HPPD and controlling tyrosine in the diet could treat this disease. A series of small clinical trials attempted with one of their compounds, nitisinone, were conducted and were successful, leading to nitisinone being brought to market as an orphan drug Swedish Orphan International,[8] which was later acquired by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sobi).

Sobi is now a part of the DevelopAKUre consortium. They are responsible for drug supply and regulatory support in the ongoing clinical trials that will test the efficiacy of nitisinone as a treatment for alkaptonuria.[25] It is hoped that if the trials are successful, nitisinone could also be licensed for treatment of alkaptonuria.[7]

Generic versions

There is no generic version of Orfadin in G7 countries. Prior to the market authorization of MDK-Nitisinone in Canada, the only Nitisinone product available globally was Orfadin.[26]Until recently, Nitisinone was not approved in Canada where it was distributed for over 20 years via a Health Canada Special Access Program. In September 2016, MendeliKABS was granted approval of a Priority New Drug Submission (PNDS) by Health Canada for a bioequivalent generic version of Orfadin capsules (MDK-Nitisinone). In November 2016 Cycle Pharma was also granted approval of a PNDS by Health Canada for Nitisinone tablets that are bioequivalent to Orfadin capsules.[27] SOBI was granted approval of a PNDS in December 2016.[28]

PAPER

1H NMR, 13C NMR, and Computational DFT Studies of the Structure of 2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones and Their Alkali Metal Salts in Solution

Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warszawa, Poland
J. Org. Chem.200671 (12), pp 4636–4641
DOI: 10.1021/jo060583g
Abstract Image

1H and 13C NMR spectra of 2-acyl-substituted cyclohexane-1,3-diones (acyl = formyl, 1; 2-nitrobenzoyl, 2; 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl, 3) and lithium sodium and potassium salts of 1have been measured. The compound 3, known as NTBC, is a life-saving medicine applied in tyrosinemia type I. The optimum molecular structures of the investigated objects in solutions have been found using the DFT method with B3LYP functional and 6-31G** and/or 6-311G(2d,p) basis set. The theoretical values of the NMR parameters of the investigated compounds have been calculated using GIAO DFT B3LYP/6-311G(2d,p) method. The theoretical data obtained for compounds 13 have been exploited to interpret their experimental NMR spectra in terms of the equilibrium between different tautomers. It has been found that for these triketones an endo-tautomer prevails. The differences in NMR spectra of the salts of 1 can be rationalized taking into account the size of the cation and the degree of salt dissociation. It seems that in DMSO solution the lithium salt exists mainly as an ion pair stabilized by the chelation of a lithium cation with two oxygen atoms. The activation free energy the of formyl group rotation for this salt has been estimated to be 51.5 kJ/mol. The obtained results suggest that in all the investigated objects, including the free enolate ions, all atoms directly bonded to the carbonyl carbons lie near the same plane. Some observations concerning the chemical shift changes could indicate strong solvation of the anion of 1 by water molecules. Implications of the results obtained in this work for the inhibition mechanism of (4-hydroxyphenyl) pyruvate dioxygenase by NTBC are commented upon.

2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC; 3). The compound was prepared in the same manner as 2. The synthesis of an appropriate benzoic acid derivative was started from the transformation of commercially available 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylaniline into benzonitrile by the classical Sandmeyer method. Then the nitrile was hydrolyzed in 65% sulfuric acid to give 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid.13 The obtained triketone 3 had a mp of 140−142 °C (lit.14 141−143 °C). For NMR data, see Supporting Information….. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/jo060583g/suppl_file/jo060583gsi20060420_080852.pdf

NMR data for 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione, 3, in CDCl3

1 H NMR: 16.25 (s, 1H, OH), 8.47 (ddq, 1H, H10, J10,12=1.7 Hz, J10,13=0.4 Hz, J10,F=0.7 Hz), 7.94 (ddq, 1H, H12, J12,13=8.0 Hz, J12,F=0.7 Hz), 7.39 (ddq, 1H, H13, J13,F=0.8 Hz), 2.81 (t-like m, 2H, H4, H4’, JH4,H4’= -18.8 Hz, JH4,H5=5.4 Hz, JH4,H5’=7.3 Hz, JH4,H6=0.7 Hz, JH4,H6’= -0.8 Hz), 2.37 (tlike m, 2H, H6, H6’, JH6,H6’= -16.5 Hz, JH6,H5=4.6 Hz, JH6,H5’=8. 5 Hz), 2.04 (pentet-like m, 2H, H5, H5’, JH5,H5’= -13.6 Hz.

13C NMR: 196.3 (s, C(O)Ph), 195.8 (s, C3), 194.1 (s, C1), 145.5 (s, C9), 139.7 (s, C8), 132.0 (q, C11, J11,F=34.3 Hz), 130.8 (q, C12 J12,F=3.5 Hz), 127.7 (s, C13), 122.6 (q, CF3, JC,F=272.9 Hz), 121.1 (q, C10, J10,F=3.9 Hz), 112.7 (s, C2), 37.3 (s, C6) 31.6 (s, C4), 19.1 (s, C5).

str1 str2

PATENT

EP 186118

US 4780127

File:Nitisinone synthesis.svg

 Nitisinone pk_prod_list.xml_prod_list_card_pr?p_tsearch=A&p_id=228471

The condensation of cyclohexane-1,3-dione (I) with 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl chloride by means of TEA in dichloromethane gives the target Nitisinone.EP 0186118
JP 1986152642, US 4774360, US 4780127

Image result for nitisinone synthesis

Nitisinone

    • Synonyms:NTBC, SC 0735
    • ATC:A16AX04
  • Use:treatment of inherited tyrosinemia type I
  • Chemical name:2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione
  • Formula:C14H10F3NO5
  • MW:329.23 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:104206-65-7

Substance Classes

Synthesis Path

Substances Referenced in Synthesis Path

CAS-RN Formula Chemical Name CAS Index Name
504-02-9 C6H8O2 cyclohexane-1,3-dione 1,3-Cyclohexanedione
81108-81-8 C8H3ClF3NO3 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride

Trade Names

Country Trade Name Vendor Annotation
D Orfadin Orphan Europe
USA Orfadin Swedish Orphan ,2002

Formulations

  • cps. 2 mg

References

    • WO 9 300 080 (ICI; 7.1.1993; appl. 18.6.1992; GB-prior. 24.6.1991).
    • US 4 774 360 (Stauffer Chemical; 27.9.1988; appl. 29.6.1987).
  • synergistic herbicidal combination:

    • WO 9 105 469 (Hoechst AG; 2.5.1991; appl. 12.10.1990; D-prior. 18.10.1989).
  • preparation of benzoylcyclohexanedione herbicides:

    • US 4 780 127 (Stauffer Chemical; 25.10.1988; appl. 30.6.1986; USA-prior. 25.3.1982).
  • certain 2-(2-nitrobenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanediones:

    • EP 186 118 (Stauffer Chemical; 2.7.1986; appl. 18.12.1985; USA-prior. 20.12.1984).
  • stable herbicidal compositions:

    • WO 9 727 748 (Zeneca; 7.8.1997; appl. 3.2.1997; USA-prior. 2.2.1996).

PATENT

US9783485B1

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9783485B1/en

NTBC is a drug marketed by Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB under the brand name Orfadin® and it is used to slow the effects of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) in adult and pediatric patients. It has been approved by FDA and EMA in January 2002 and February 2005 respectively.

HT-1 disease is due to a deficiency of the final enzyme of the tyrosine catabolic pathway fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. NTBC is a competitive inhibitor of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme which precedes fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase. By inhibiting the normal catabolism of tyrosine in patients with HT-1, NTBC prevents the accumulation of the toxic intermediates maleylacetoacetate and fumarylacetoacetate, that in patients with HT-1 are converted to the toxic metabolites succinylacetone and succinylacetoacetate, the former inhibiting the porphyrin synthesis pathway leading to the accumulation of 5-aminolevulinate.

Usefulness of NTBC in the treatment of further diseases has also been documented. A non-comprehensive list is reported hereinafter.

Effectiveness of Orfadin® in the treatment of diseases where the products of the action of HPPD are involved (e.g., HT-1) has been described notably in EP0591275B1 corresponding to U.S. Pat. No. 5,550,165B1. Synthesis of NTBC is also described in this patent.

WO2011106655 reports a method for increasing tyrosine plasma concentrations in a subject suffering from oculocutaneous/ocular albinism, the method comprising administering to the subject a pharmaceutically acceptable composition comprising NTBC in the range of between about 0.1 mg/kg/day to about 10 mg/kg/day.

U.S. Pat. No. 8,354,451B2 reports new methods of combating microbial infections due to fungi or bacteria by means of administration to a subject of a therapeutically active amount of NTBC.

WO2010054273 discloses NTBC-containing compositions and methods for the treatment and/or prevention of restless leg syndrome (RLS).

EP1853241B1 claims the use of NTBC in the treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, notably Parkinson disease.

Introne W. J., et al., disclosed usefulness of nitisinone in the treatment of alkaptonuria (Introne W. J., et al., Molec. Genet. Metab., 2011, 103, 4, 307). The key step of the synthesis reported in EP0591275B1 (now propriety of Swedish Orphan Biovitrum International AB, SE), involves the reaction of 2-nitro-4-trifluromethylbenzoyl chloride and cyclohexane-1,3-dione in the presence of triethylamine and then use of acetone cyanohydrin in order to promote the rearrangement of the key intermediate enol ester. After washing and extraction from CH2Cl2, the crude product is recrystallized from ethyl acetate to get the desired 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione as a solid having a melting point of 88-94° C.

Another patent (U.S. Pat. No. 4,695,673) filed in name of Stauffer Chemical Company disclosed a process of synthesis of acylated 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in which the intermediate enol ester is isolated prior to its rearrangement into the final product, said rearrangement making use of a cyanohydrin compound derived from alkali metal, methyl alkyl ketone, benzaldehyde, cyclohexanone, C2-C5aliphatic aldehyde, lower alkyl silyl or directly by using hydrogen cyanide.

Yet another patent (U.S. Pat. No. 5,006,158) filed in name of ICI Americas Inc. disclosed a process similar to the one disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,695,673 wherein the intermediate enol ester was isolated prior to its rearrangement into the final product by use of potassium cyanide. Said reaction can optionally be done by concomitant use of a phase transfer catalyst such as Crown ethers. The preferred solvent for conducting such a reaction is 1,2-dichloroethane.

Still a further patent (EP0805791) filed in name of Zeneca Ltd disclosed an alternative synthesis of nitisinone involving the reaction of 1,3-cyclohexanedione and variously substituted benzoyl chloride in the presence of sodium or potassium carbonate in CH3CN or DMF. Best yields were obtained using CH3CN as solvent and sodium carbonate as the base. Reaction was performed at 55-57° C. in 17 hours.

It is well known that one of the problems of the actual drug formulation (i.e., Orfadin® capsules) is its chemical instability. Indeed, even if Orfadin® has to be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature ranging from 2° C. to 8° C., its shelf life is of only 18 months. After first opening, the in-use stability is a single period of 2 months at a temperature not above 25° C., after which it must be discarded. It will be evident that such storage conditions have an impact in the distribution chain of the medicine, in terms of costs and also in terms of logistics for the patient. Therefore, there is an urgent need of more stable formulations, both from a logistic supply chain point of view, and from the patient compliance point of view. Since the formulation of Orfadin® contains only the active ingredient and starch as excipient, relative instability may be attributed to the active pharmaceutical ingredient itself; in other words it can derive from the way it is synthesized and/or the way it is extracted from the reaction mixture, and/or the way it is finally crystallized. Furthermore, some impurities may contribute to render the final product less stable overtime. Consequently, it is of major importance to identify a process of synthesis and/or a crystallization method that enable the reliable production of a highly pure and stable product.

Impurities as herein-above mentioned can derive either from the final product itself (through chemical degradation) or directly from the starting materials/solvents used in the process of synthesis. Regarding the latter option, it is therefore primordial to ascertain that at each step, impurities are completely removed in order not to get them at the final stage, also considering that some of them could potentially be cyto/genotoxic.

The impurities correlated to nitisinone can be either derived from the starting materials themselves (i.e., impurities 1 and 2) or obtained as side products during the process of synthesis and/or under storage conditions (i.e., impurities 3 to 5) and are the following:

    • 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid (Impurity no 1),
    • 1,3-cyclohexanedione (CHD) (Impurity no 2),
    • 4-(trifluoromethyl)salicylic acid (Impurity no 3),
    • 2-[3-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (Impurity no 4), and
    • 6-trifluoromethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-xanthene-1,9-dione (Impurity no 5).
Figure US09783485-20171010-C00001


Impurity-2, impurity-3, and impurity-5 have been previously reported in WO2015101794. Strangely, impurity-4 has never been reported, even if it is an obvious side-product which can easily be formed during the coupling reaction between 1,3-cyclohexanedione and 2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid, the latter being not 100% pure but containing some amount of regioisomer 3-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoic acid.

Potential genotoxicity of impurity no 4 which possesses an aromatic nitro moiety was assessed using in-silico techniques and resulted to be a potential genotoxic impurity. According to the FDA ICH M7 guidelines, daily intake of a mutagenic impurity (Threshold of Toxicological Concern, TTC) in an amount not greater than 1.5 μg per person is considered to be associated with a negligible risk to develop cancer over a lifetime of exposure. Consequently, assuming a daily dose of 2 mg/kg, for a person weighing 70 kg, the maximum tolerated impurity content of such a compound would be of about 11 ppm, as calculated according to the equation underneath.

concentration ⁢ ⁢ limit ⁢ ⁢ ( ppm ) = T ⁢ ⁢ T ⁢ ⁢ C ⁡ ( µg / day ) Dose ⁡ ( g / day )

It is therefore of paramount importance to ensure that the process of synthesis of nitisinone and the purification steps of the same give rise to an API devoid of such impurity no 4, or at least far below the threshold of 11 ppm as indicated above. The skilled person will understand that total absence of said impurity is highly desirable.

It is well known in the pharmaceutical field that investigation of potential polymorphism of a solid API is of crucial importance and is also recommended by major regulatory authorities such as FDA.

Notwithstanding the fact that nitisinone has been used for years to treat HT-1 patients, it appears that no NTBC formulation fully satisfies the requisites of stability and/or compliance standard for the patients. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need of long-term pure and stable formulations.

Example 1

Thionyl chloride (162 g, 1.36 mol) was added dropwise into a suspension of 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (228 g, 0.97 mol) in toluene (630 g) at 80° C. The thus obtained solution was kept under stirring at 80° C. for 20 hours, and then cooled to 50° C. The volatiles were removed under reduced pressure in order to get the expected 2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride as an oil. The latter, cooled to 25° C. was added dropwise to a suspension of 1,3-cyclohexanedione (109 g, 0.97 mol) and potassium carbonate (323 g, 2.33 mol) in CH3CN (607 g). After 18 h the mixture was diluted with water (500 ml) and slowly acidified to about pH=1 with HCl 37%. The mixture was then warmed to about 55° C. and the phases were separated. The organic layer was washed with a 10% aqueous solution of sodium chloride and then, concentrated under reduced pressure at a temperature below 55° C. to reach a volume of 380 ml. The thus obtained mixture was stirred at 55° C. for 1 h and then cooled to 0° C. in 16 to 18 h. The resulting solid was filtered and rinsed several times with pre-cooled (0° C.) toluene. The wet solid was dried at 60° C. under vacuum for 6 h to provide nitisinone (164 g) as a white to yellowish solid with a purity of 98.4% as measured by HPLC and a content of potentially genotoxic impurity no 4 of 6.1 ppm measured by HPLC/MS.

Example 2

Nitisinone as obtained from example 1 (164 g) was added to a 3/1 (w/w) mixture of CH3CN/toluene (volume of solvent: 638 ml). The mixture was warmed gently to about 55° C. under stirring until solids were completely dissolved. The solution was then concentrated under reduced pressure maintaining the internal temperature below 50° C. to reach a volume of 290 ml. Then, more toluene (255 g) was added and the solution was concentrated again under reduced pressure until the residual volume reached 290 ml. The solution was heated to about 55° C. for 1 h and successively cooled slowly in 10 to 12 h to 10° C. The resulting solid was filtered and rinsed several times with pre-cooled (0° C.) toluene. The wet solid was dried at about 60° C. under vacuum for 4 h to provide nitisinone (136 g) as a white to yellowish solid, with a purity of 99.94% and a 99.8% assay measured by HPLC and a d(90) particle size between 310 and 350 μm. The content of potential genotoxic impurity no 4 resulted below 1 ppm.

CLIP

Nitisinone – WikiVisually

WikiVisually

4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase – Proposed Reaction Mechanism of HPPD

Image result for nitisinone synthesis

References

  1. Jump up to:a b National Organization for Rare Disorders. Physician’s Guide to Tyrosinemia Type 1Archived 2014-02-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. Jump up^ “Nitisinone (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names”. Mayoclinic.com. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  3. Jump up^ Sobi Orfadin® (nitisinone)
  4. Jump up to:a b McKiernan, Patrick J (2006). “Nitisinone in the Treatment of Hereditary Tyrosinaemia Type 1”. Drugs66 (6): 743–50. doi:10.2165/00003495-200666060-00002PMID 16706549.
  5. Jump up to:a b Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A.; Suwannarat, Pim; O’Brien, Kevin E.; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C.; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A. (2011). “A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria”Molecular Genetics and Metabolism103(4): 307–14. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2011.04.016PMC 3148330Freely accessiblePMID 21620748.
  6. Jump up to:a b “About DevelopAKUre | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  7. Jump up to:a b “A Potential Drug – Nitisinone”. Akusociety.org. Archived from the original on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  8. Jump up to:a b Lock, E. A.; Ellis, M. K.; Gaskin, P.; Robinson, M.; Auton, T. R.; Provan, W. M.; Smith, L. L.; Prisbylla, M. P.; Mutter, L. C.; Lee, D. L. (1998). “From toxicological problem to therapeutic use: The discovery of the mode of action of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), its toxicology and development as a drug”. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease21 (5): 498–506. doi:10.1023/A:1005458703363PMID 9728330.
  9. Jump up^ Kavana, Michael; Moran, Graham R. (2003). “Interaction of (4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate Dioxygenase with the Specific Inhibitor 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione†”. Biochemistry42 (34): 10238–45. doi:10.1021/bi034658bPMID 12939152.
  10. Jump up^ “Newborn Screening”. Newbornscreening.info. 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  11. Jump up^ “What is Alkaptonuria?”. Akusociety.org. Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  12. Jump up^ “Nitisinone (Oral Route) Side Effects”. Mayoclinic.com. 2015-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  13. Jump up^ Phornphutkul, Chanika; Introne, Wendy J.; Perry, Monique B.; Bernardini, Isa; Murphey, Mark D.; Fitzpatrick, Diana L.; Anderson, Paul D.; Huizing, Marjan; Anikster, Yair; Gerber, Lynn H.; Gahl, William A. (2002). “Natural History of Alkaptonuria”. New England Journal of Medicine347 (26): 2111–21. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021736PMID 12501223.
  14. Jump up^ Preston, A. J.; Keenan, C. M.; Sutherland, H.; Wilson, P. J.; Wlodarski, B.; Taylor, A. M.; Williams, D. P.; Ranganath, L. R.; Gallagher, J. A.; Jarvis, J. C. (2013). “Ochronotic osteoarthropathy in a mouse model of alkaptonuria, and its inhibition by nitisinone”. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases73 (1): 284–9. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202878PMID 23511227.
  15. Jump up^ “DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  16. Jump up^ “2012-005340-24”. Clinicaltrialsregister.eu. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  17. Jump up^ “The Programme | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Archived from the original on 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  18. Jump up^ “European Commission : CORDIS : Search : Simple”. Cordis.europa.eu. 2012-05-30. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  19. Jump up^ Onojafe, Ighovie F.; Adams, David R.; Simeonov, Dimitre R.; Zhang, Jun; Chan, Chi-Chao; Bernardini, Isa M.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Dolinska, Monika B.; Alur, Ramakrishna P.; Brilliant, Murray H.; Gahl, William A.; Brooks, Brian P. (2011). “Nitisinone improves eye and skin pigmentation defects in a mouse model of oculocutaneous albinism”Journal of Clinical Investigation121 (10): 3914–23. doi:10.1172/JCI59372PMC 3223618Freely accessiblePMID 21968110Lay summary – ScienceDaily (September 26, 2011).
  20. Jump up^ “Nitisinone for Type 1B Oculocutaneous Albinism – Full Text View”. ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  21. Jump up^ G. Mitchell, D.W. Bartlett, T.E. Fraser, T.R. Hawkes, D.C. Holt, J.K. Townson, R.A. Wichert Mesotrione: a new selective herbicide for use in maize Pest Management Science, 57 (2) (2001), pp. 120–128
  22. Jump up to:a b Moran, Graham R. (2005). “4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase”. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics433 (1): 117–28. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2004.08.015PMID 15581571.
  23. Jump up^ Ellis, M.K.; Whitfield, A.C.; Gowans, L.A.; Auton, T.R.; Provan, W.M.; Lock, E.A.; Smith, L.L. (1995). “Inhibition of 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by 2-(2-Nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione and 2-(2-Chloro-4-methanesulfonylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology133 (1): 12–9. doi:10.1006/taap.1995.1121PMID 7597701.
  24. Jump up^ Lindstedt, Sven; Odelhög, Birgit (1987). “4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from human liver”. In Kaufman, Seymour. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids and Amines. Methods in Enzymology. 142. pp. 139–42. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(87)42021-1ISBN 978-0-12-182042-8PMID 3037254.
  25. Jump up^ “Others | DevelopAKUre”. Developakure.eu. 2014-06-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  26. Jump up^ Pr MDK-Nitisinone Summary Basis of Decisions, Health Canada 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/drug-med/sbd-smd-2016-mdk-nitisinone-190564-eng.php
  27. Jump up^ Pr Nitisinone Tablets Regulatory Decision Summary Health Canada, 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/rds-sdr/drug-med/rds-sdr-nitisinone-tab-193770-eng.php
  28. Jump up^ PrOrfadin Regulatory Decision Summary Health Canada, 2016. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/rds-sdr/drug-med/rds-sdr-orfadin-193226-eng.php

External links

Nitisinone
Nitisinone.svg
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
License data
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life Approximately 54 h
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.218.521 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C14H10F3NO5
Molar mass 329.228 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
Title: Nitisinone
CAS Registry Number: 104206-65-7
CAS Name: 2-[2-Nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione
Additional Names: NTBC
Trademarks: Orfadin (Swedish Orphan )
Molecular Formula: C14H10F3NO5
Molecular Weight: 329.23
Percent Composition: C 51.07%, H 3.06%, F 17.31%, N 4.25%, O 24.30%
Literature References: Herbicidal triketone that inhibits 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), an enzyme involved in plastoquinone biosynthesis in plants and in tyrosine catabolism in mammals. Prepn: C. G. Carter, EP 186118 (1986 to Stauffer); idem, US 5006158 (1991 to ICI). Inhibition of HPPD in plants: M. P. Prisbylla et al., Brighton Crop Prot. Conf. – Weeds 1993, 731; in rats: M. K. Ellis et al., Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 133, 12 (1995). LC determn in plasma: M. Bielenstein et al., J. Chromatogr. B 730,177 (1999). Clinical evaluation in hereditary tyrosinemia type I: S. Lindstedt et al., Lancet 340, 813 (1992). Review of toxicology and therapeutic development: E. A. Lock et al, J. Inherited Metab. Dis. 21, 498-506 (1998); of clinical experience: E. Holme, S. Lindstedt, ibid. 507-517.
Properties: Solid, mp 88-94°.
Melting point: mp 88-94°
Therap-Cat: In treatment of inherited tyrosinemia type I.

////////////////Nitisinone, ニチシノン , Orfadin, FDA 2002, NTBC  , SC-0735  , SYN-118 , JAPAN 2015, JAP 2015, EU 2005, Priority,  Orphan

[O-][N+](=O)C1=C(C=CC(=C1)C(F)(F)F)C(=O)C1C(=O)CCCC1=O

FDA approves first treatment Bavencio (avelumab)for rare form of skin cancer


 Image result for avelumab
str1
03/23/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Bavencio (avelumab) for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), including those who have not received prior chemotherapy. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for metastatic MCC, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer.

March 23, 2017

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today granted accelerated approval to Bavencio (avelumab) for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), including those who have not received prior chemotherapy. This is the first FDA-approved treatment for metastatic MCC, a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer.

“While skin cancer is one of the most common cancers, patients with a rare form called Merkel cell cancer have not had an approved treatment option until now,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “The scientific community continues to make advances targeting the body’s immune system mechanisms for the treatment of various types of cancer. These advancements are leading to new therapies—even in rare forms of cancer where treatment options are limited or non-existent.”

According to the National Cancer Institute, approximately 1,600 people in the United States are diagnosed with MCC every year. While the majority of patients present with localized tumors that can be treated with surgical resection, approximately half of all patients will experience recurrence, and more than 30 percent will eventually develop metastatic disease. In patients with metastatic MCC, the cancer has spread beyond the skin into other parts of the body.

Bavencio targets the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway (proteins found on the body’s immune cells and some cancer cells). By blocking these interactions, Bavencio may help the body’s immune system attack cancer cells.

Bavencio received an Accelerated Approval, which enables the FDA to approve drugs for serious conditions to fill an unmet medical need using clinical trial data that is thought to predict a clinical benefit to patients. Further clinical trials are required to confirm Bavencio’s clinical benefit and the sponsor is currently conducting these studies.

Today’s approval of Bavencio was based on data from a single-arm trial of 88 patients with metastatic MCC who had been previously treated with at least one prior chemotherapy regimen. The trial measured the percentage of patients who experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors (overall response rate) and, for patients with a response, the length of time the tumor was controlled (duration of response). Of the 88 patients who received Bavencio in the trial, 33 percent experienced complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors. The response lasted for more than six months in 86 percent of responding patients and more than 12 months in 45 percent of responding patients.

Common side effects of Bavencio include fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, infusion-related reactions, rash, decreased appetite and swelling of the limbs (peripheral edema). The most common serious risks of Bavencio are immune-mediated, where the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells or organs, such as the lungs (pneumonitis), liver (hepatitis), colon (colitis), hormone-producing glands (endocrinopathies) and kidneys (nephritis). In addition, there is a risk of serious infusion-related reactions. Patients who experience severe or life-threatening infusion-related reactions should stop using Bavencio. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Bavencio because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or a newborn baby.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapydesignation. Bavencio also received Orphan Drug designation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted accelerated approval of Bavencio to EMD Serono Inc.

Image result for avelumab

Image result for avelumab

Avelumab
Monoclonal antibody
Type ?
Source Human
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
  • none
UNII
KEGG

Avelumab (MSB0010718C) is a fully human monoclonal PD-L1antibody of isotypeIgG1, currently in development by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany & Pfizer for use in immunotherapy, especially for treatment of Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) .[1]

Mechanism of action

Avelumab binds to the PD ligand 1 and therefore inhibits binding to its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Formation of a PD-1/PD-L1 receptor/ligand complex leads to inhibition of CD8+ T cells, and therefore inhibition of an immune reaction. Immunotherapy aims at ceasing this immune blockage by blocking those receptor ligand pairs. In the case of avelumab, the formation of PD-1/PDL1 ligand pairs is blocked and CD8+ T cell immune response should be increased. PD-1 itself has also been a target for immunotherapy.[2] Therefore, avelumab belongs to the group of Immune checkpoint blockade cancer therapies.

Clinical trials

As of May 2015, according to Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany & Pfizer, avelumab has been in Phase Iclinical trials for bladder cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, mesothelioma, NSCLC, ovarian cancer and renal cancer. For Merkel-cell carcinoma, Phase II has been reached and for NSCLC there is also a study already in Phase III.[1]

Merkel-cell carcinoma

On March 23, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to avelumab (BAVENCIO, EMD Serono, Inc.) for the treatment of adults and pediatric patients 12 years and older with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).

Approval was based on data from an open-label, single-arm, multi-center clinical trial (JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial) demonstrating a clinically meaningful and durable overall response rate (ORR). All patients had histologically confirmed metastatic MCC with disease progression on or after chemotherapy administered for metastatic disease.

ORR was assessed by an independent review committee according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1. The ORR was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.3, 43.8), with 11% complete and 22% partial response rates. Among the 29 responding patients, the response duration ranged from 2.8 to 23.3+ months with 86% of responses durable for 6 months or longer. Responses were observed in patients regardless of PD-L1 tumor expression or presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus.

Safety data were evaluated in 1738 patients who received avelumab, 10 mg/kg, every 2 weeks. The most common serious adverse reactions to avelumab are immune-mediated adverse reactions (pneumonitis, hepatitis, colitis, adrenal insufficiency, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, and nephritis) and life-threatening infusion reactions. Among the 88 patients enrolled in the JAVELIN Merkel 200 trial, the most common adverse reactions were fatigue, musculoskeletal pain, diarrhea, nausea, infusion-related reaction, rash, decreased appetite, and peripheral edema. Serious adverse reactions that occurred in more than one patient in the trial were acute kidney injury, anemia, abdominal pain, ileus, asthenia, and cellulitis.

The recommended dose and schedule of avelumab is 10 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion over 60 minutes every 2 weeks. All patients should receive premedication with an antihistamine and acetaminophen prior to the first four infusions of avelumab.

Full prescribing information for avelumab is available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/761049s000lbl.pdf

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Merck-Pfizer Alliance. “Merck-Pfizer Alliance Avelumab Fact Sheet” (PDF). Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  2. Jump up^ Hamid, O; Robert, C; Daud, A; Hodi, F. S.; Hwu, W. J.; Kefford, R; Wolchok, J. D.; Hersey, P; Joseph, R. W.; Weber, J. S.; Dronca, R; Gangadhar, T. C.; Patnaik, A; Zarour, H; Joshua, A. M.; Gergich, K; Elassaiss-Schaap, J; Algazi, A; Mateus, C; Boasberg, P; Tumeh, P. C.; Chmielowski, B; Ebbinghaus, S. W.; Li, X. N.; Kang, S. P.; Ribas, A (2013). “Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma”. New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (2): 134–44. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1305133. PMC 4126516Freely accessible. PMID 23724846.

//////////fda 2017, Bavencio, avelumab, EMD Serono Inc., Priority Review,  Breakthrough Therapy designation.  Orphan Drug designation, skin cancer

 

 

UPDATE ON EMA

Bavencio : EPAR – Summary for the public EN = English 13/10/2017

 http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Summary_for_the_public/human/004338/WC500236650.pdf

Product details

Name Bavencio
Agency product number EMEA/H/C/004338
Active substance avelumab
International non-proprietary name(INN) or common name avelumab
Therapeutic area Neuroendocrine Tumors
Anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) code L01XC31
Additional monitoring This medicine is under additional monitoring. This means that it is being monitored even more intensively than other medicines. For more information, see medicines under additional monitoring.
Treatment of rare diseases This medicine has an “orphan designation” which means that it is used to treat life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions that affect no more than five in 10,000 people in the European Union, or are medicines which, for economic reasons, would be unlikely to be developed without incentives.
Conditional Approval Sometimes, the CHMP recommends that a medicine be given ‘conditional approval’. This happens when the Committee has based its positive opinion on data which, while not yet comprehensive, indicate that the medicine’s benefits outweigh its risks.

The company is given obligations to fulfil, such as the performance of further studies. The approval is renewed on a yearly basis until all obligations have been fulfilled, and is then converted from a conditional approval into a normal approval. Conditional approvals can only be granted for medicines that satisfy an ‘unmet medical need’, meaning the medicine is intended to be used for a disease or condition for which no treatment is readily available, and it is therefore important that patients have early access to the medicine concerned.

Publication details

Marketing-authorisation holder Merck Serono Europe Limited
Revision 1
Date of issue of marketing authorisation valid throughout the European Union 18/09/2017

Contact address:

Merck Serono Europe Limited
56 Marsh Wall
London E14 9TP
United Kingdom

FDA Approves Ryanodex for the Treatment of Malignant Hyperthermia


Dantrolene Tanaka et al.svg

Dantrolene sodium

1-[[[5-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-furanyl]methylene]amino]-2,4-imidazolidinedione

 

VIEW THIS POST AT BELOW LINK UNTIL FORMATTING IS FIXED

http://www.allfordrugs.com/2014/07/24/fda-approves-ryanodex-for

-the-treatment-of-malignant-hyperthermia/

 

 

FDA Approves Ryanodex for the Treatment of Malignant Hyperthermia

WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J.(BUSINESS WIRE) July 23, 2014 —

Eagle Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Eagle” or “the Company”)

(Nasdaq:EGRX) today announced that the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

has approved Ryanodex (dantrolene sodium) for injectable

suspension indicated for

the treatment of malignant hyperthermia (MH), along

with the appropriate supportive measures.

MH is an inherited and potentially fatal disorder triggered

by certain anesthesia agents

in genetically susceptible individuals. FDA had designated

Ryanodex as an Orphan Drug in

August 2013. Eagle has been informed by the FDA that it will learn over the next four to

six weeks if it has been granted the seven year Orphan Drug market exclusivity.

read at

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-ryanodex-malignant-

hyperthermia-4058.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_

campaign=Today%27s+

news+summary+-+July+23%2C+2014

 

 

READ MORE AT

PATENTS,  CAS NO ETC

http://www.allfordrugs.com/2014/07/24/fda-approves-ryanodex-

for-the-treatment-of-malignant-hyperthermia/

Rucaparib, PF-01367338 for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer and in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.


Figure
Rucaparib, PF-01367338
283173-50-2  cas 
6H-​Pyrrolo[4,​3,​2-​ef]​[2]​benzazepin-​6-​one, 8-​fluoro-​1,​3,​4,​5-​tetrahydro-​2-​[4-​[(methylamino)​methyl]​phenyl]​-
6H- ​Azepino[5,​4,​3-​cd]​indol-​6-​one, 8-​fluoro-​1,​3,​4,​5-​tetrahydro-​2-​[4-​[(methylamino)​methyl]​phenyl] ​-
8-​Fluoro-​2-​[4-​[(methylamino)​methyl]​phenyl]​-​1,​3,​4,​5-​ tetrahydro-​6H-​azepino[5,​4,​3-​cd]​indol-​6-​one;
8-Fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyl)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one
8-Fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyI)-l,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3- cd]indol-6-one
MW..C19 H18 F N3 O
cas of csa salt—–1327258-57-0
773059-19-1 (hydrochloride)
773059-22-6 (L-tartrate)
773059-23-7 (acetate)
459868-92-9  PHOSPHATE
AG-014699
AG-14699
CO-338
PF-01367338
AG-014447 (free base)
AG-14447 (free base) 
Agouron (Originator)
Pfizer (Originator)
WO 2014052550, WO 2014037313, WO 2000042040WO 2004087713WO 2005012305
Inhibition of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, or PARP, is an exciting new mechanism for the treatment of cancer.(1) The PARP enzyme is responsible for repair of damaged DNA in both normal and tumor cells, and inhibition of this repair mechanism is expected to make the cell more likely to undergo apoptosis. Preclinical work has shown that PARP inhibitors coadministered with a standard chemotherapuetic agent are more effective than the standard treatment alone
Rucaparib is a NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase inhibitor in phase II clinical development at Cancer Research UK for the treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer and in patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Clovis Oncology is conducting early clinical evaluation of rucaparib for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer or ER/PR +, HER2 negative with known BRCA1/2 mutations p2 and for the treatment of gBRCA mutation breast cancer.. Pfizer discontinued development of rucaparibin 2011.In 2011, the compound was licensed to Clovis Oncology by Pfizer for the treatment of cancer. In 2012, orphan drug designation was assigned in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of ovarian cancer.The compound 8-fluoro-2-{4-[(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3- cd]indol-6-one represented by formula

 

is a small molecule inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). 8-Fluoro-2-{4- [(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one and salts thereof, is disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,495,541 and PCT Application No. PCT/IB2004/000915, International Publication No. WO 2004/087713, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. U.S. Provisional Patent Applications No. 60/612,459 and 60/679,296, entitled “Polymorphic Forms of the Phosphate Salt of 8-Fluoro-2-{4-[(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H- azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one,” the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties, describe novel polymorphic forms of the phosphate salt of 8-fluoro-2-{4- [(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one, and methods for their preparation. U.S. Provisional Patent Applications No. 60/612,458; and 60/683,006, entitled “Therapeutic Combinations Comprising Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerases Inhibitor,” the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, describe pharmaceutical combinations of 8-fluoro-2-{4- [(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one.

 

………………………………………
http://www.google.com/patents/WO2000042040A1?cl=en
Example IIII:8-Fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyI)-l,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3- cd]indol-6-one

4-(8-fluoro-6-oxo-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-lH-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-2-yl)- benzaldehyde (100 mg, 0.32 mmol; prepared in a manner similar to that described for compound 12 for 2-bromo-8-fluoro-l,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one and 4-formylphenylboronic acid) was reacted with methylamine (1.62 mmol) as described for Compound PPP to yield 8-fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyl)- l,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one, 32 mg (31%) as a yellow solid: m.p. 1543-155 °C; Η NMR (300 MHz, d6-DMSO) 2.28 (s, 3H), 3.04 (m, 2H), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.69 (s, 2H), 7.32 (dd, 7= 9.0, 2.4 Hz, IH), 7.44 (m, 3H), 7.57 (d, 7= 8.1 Hz, 2H), 8.25 (br t, IH), 11.67 (br s, IH). HRMS (MALDI MH+) Calcd for C19H18N3OF: 324,1512. Found: 325.1524. Anal. (C19H18N3OF03 H2O) C, H, N.

……………………………..
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2012, 16 (12), pp 1897–1904
DOI: 10.1021/op200238p
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/op200238p
Abstract Image
Novel PARP inhibitor 1 is a promising new candidate for treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. A modified synthetic route to 1 has been developed and demonstrated on 7 kg scale. In order to scale up the synthesis to multikilogram scale, several synthetic challenges needed to be overcome. The key issues included significant thermal hazards present in a Leimgruber–Batcho indole synthesis, a low-yielding side-chain installation, a nonrobust Suzuki coupling and hydrogen cyanide generation during a reductive amination. In addition to these issues, changing from intravenous to oral delivery required a new salt form and therefore a new crystallization procedure. This contribution describes development work to solve these issues and scaling up of the new process in the pilot plant.
8-Fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyl)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one (1)
To a solution of aqueous sodium hydroxide (40% w/w, 3.6 kg, 2.0 equiv) in water (88 L, 14 L/kg) and methanol (35 L, 5.5 L/kg) was added 12 ……………………………………………………deleted……………………..and dried at 45 °C under vacuum to give 1 as a 1:1 THF solvate (5.57 kg, 14.08 mol, 84% yield);
mp (THF) dec at 220 °C;
δH: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.99–3.01 (m 2H), 3.65 (s, 2H), 7.27 (dd, 1H, J = 2.4, 9.3 Hz), 7.39 (dd, 1H, J = 2.4, 9.3 Hz), 7.42 (d, 2H, J = 8.5 Hz), 7.53 (d, 2H, J = 8.3 Hz), 8.18 (t, br, 1H, J = 5.7 Hz), 11.60 (s, 1H);
δC: (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) 28.74, 35.58, 41.84, 54.74, 100.47 (d, J = 25.8 Hz), 109.44 (d, J = 25.8 Hz), 111.47, 123.19, 125.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz), 127.55, 128.20, 129.86, 135.38 (d, J = 3.7 Hz), 136.67 (d, J = 12.4 Hz), 140.52, 158.31 (d, J = 233), 168.39.
8-Fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyl)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one (S)-camphorsulfonate Salt (21)
To a slurry of 1 (5.32 kg, 13.48 mol) in isopropanol (30 L, 5.5 L/kg) and water (39 L, 7.3 L/kg) was added a solution of (S)-camphorsulfonic acid (3.75 kg, 16.18 mol, 1.2 equiv) in water (10.6 L, 2 L/kg). The resultant slurry was then heated to 70 °C and held for 1 h to ensure dissolution. …………………………..deleted…………………..C to give 21 as a white crystalline solid (7.09 kg, 12.76 mol, 95% yield); mp (IPA/water) 303 °C;
δH: (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 0.74 (s, 3H), 1.05 (s, 3H), 1.28 (m, 1H), 1.80 (d, 1H, J = 18.0 Hz), 1.81–1.88 (m, 1H), 1.93 (app t, 1H, J = 4.5 Hz), 2.24 (m, 1H), 2.41 (d, 1H, J = 14.6 Hz), 2.62 (s, 3H), 2.66–2.72 (m, 1H), 2.91 (d, 1H, J = 14.7 Hz), 3.04–3.07 (m, br, 2H), 3.36–3.45 (m, br, 2H), 4.20 (s, 2H), 7.37 (dd, 1H, J = 2.4, 9.3 Hz), 7.44 (dd, 1H, J = 2.4, 11.0 Hz), 7.63 (d, 2H, J = 8.3 Hz), 7.71 (d, 2H, J = 8.3 Hz), 8.26 (t, br, 1H, J = 5.5 Hz), 11.76 (s, 1H);
δC: (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) 19.51, 20.02, 24.14, 26.37, 28.74, 32.28, 41.77, 42.13, 42.22, 46.71, 47.00, 51.06, 58.21, 100.65 (d, J = 25.8 Hz), 109.72 (d, J = 25.8 Hz), 112.41, 123.03, 126.04 (d, J = 8.7 Hz), 127.98, 130.19, 131.22, 132.22, 134.50, 136.83 (d, J = 12.0 Hz), 158.52 (d, J = 235 Hz), 168.27, 216.24.
………………….
WO 2006033003

The compound 8-fluoro-2-{4-[(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3- cd]indol-6-one represented by formula

 

is a small molecule inhibitor of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). 8-Fluoro-2-{4- [(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one and salts thereof, is disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,495,541 and PCT Application No. PCT/IB2004/000915, International Publication No. WO 2004/087713, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.

 

U.S. Provisional Patent Applications No. 60/612,459 and 60/679,296, entitled “Polymorphic Forms of the Phosphate Salt of 8-Fluoro-2-{4-[(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H- azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one,” the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties, describe novel polymorphic forms of the phosphate salt of 8-fluoro-2-{4- [(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one, and methods for their preparation. U.S. Provisional Patent Applications No. 60/612,458; and 60/683,006, entitled “Therapeutic Combinations Comprising Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerases Inhibitor,” the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in its entirety, describe pharmaceutical combinations of 8-fluoro-2-{4- [(methylamino)methyl]phenyl}-1 ,3,4,5-tetrahydro-6H-azepino[5,4,3-cd]indol-6-one.

Figure imgf000011_0003

Figure imgf000011_0004

 

Example 13. Synthesis of 8-Fluoro-2-(4-methylaminomethyl-phenyl)-1,3.4.5-tetrahvdro-azepinor5.4.3- ccflindol-6-one (15) i

 

Lactam 14 (14.42 g, 0.038 mol) was dissolved in hydrobromic acid in acetic acid (30%-32%, 140 ml). The reaction solution was stirred for 46 hours at room temperature in a 500ml flask that was connected to an ethanolamine scrubber system. HPLC analysis indicated the completion of the reaction. Ice (30 g) was added to the reaction solution followed by addition of aqueous NaOH (327 ml, 10 M, 3.27 mol) while the temperature was maintained between 25 0C and 35 0C. When addition of NaOH was complete, the pH was 10. The resulting solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (2 x 50 ml). The filter cake was then suspended in water (125 ml) and stirred for 2 hours. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (2 x 25 ml) and dried to afford 10.76 g of product (88% yield). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 2.577(s, 3H), 3.053(m, 2H), 3.406(m, 2H), 4.159(s, 2H), 7.36(dd, 1 H, J= 2.4 Hz and J= 9.3 Hz), 7.44(dd, 1 H, J= 2.4 Hz and J= 11.1 Hz), 7.63(d, 2H, J=8.1 Hz), 7.70(d, 2H, J= 8.1 Hz), 8.265(t, 1H, J= 5.7 Hz), 11.77(s, 1 H). Exact mass calculated for C19H19FN3O: 324.1512. Found: 324.1497.

 

Ambit Biosciences announces Phase 3 trial comparing quizartinib as monotherapy to chemotherapy regimens in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-ITD mutation.


File:Quizartinib.svg
QUIZARTINIB
1-(5-(tert-Butyl)isoxazol-3-yl)-3-(4-(7-(2-morpholinoethoxy)benzo[d]imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-2-yl)phenyl)urea

 N-(5-tert-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{ 4- [7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo [2, 1 -b] [ 1 ,3 ]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl } urea

 FOR acute myeloidLeukemia,
CAS 950769-58-1 (free base)      1132827-21-4 (2HCl)
Formula C29H32N6O4S
MW 560.7
Synonim AC220, AC-010220
ASP-2689
PATENTS
 U.S. Provisional Patent App. No. 60/743,543, filed March 17, 2006, U.S. Patent App. No. 11/724,992, filed March 16, 2007, and U.S. Patent App. Publication No. 2007/0232604, published October 4, 2007,
BioNews TexasAmbit initiates QUANTUM-R Phase 3 clinical trial of quizartinib in FLT3-ITD …News-Medical.net… the treatment of both newly diagnosed and relapsed FLT3-ITD positive and negative AML patients.
Both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Commission have granted orphan drug designation to quizartinib for the treatment of AML.AML, High Risk MDS Therapy
see

Quizartinib

Ambit Biosciences

 13 MAY 2013

Ambit Biosciences (NASDAQ:AMBI) is a biotech company that focuses on treatments that inhibit kinases, which are drivers for diseases such as cancer. Three drugs are in development, with the lead one being quizartinib — a Phase 2B trial treatment for acute myeloid leukemia. However, AMBI’s collaboration agreement with Astellas Pharma is set to expire in September, and if it is not replaced, it could mean a delay in Phase 3 trials for quizartinib. Keep in mind that AMBI generated $23.8 million in collaboration revenues last year.

Quizartinib (AC220) is a small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is currently under development by Ambit Biosciencesfor the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia. Its molecular target is FLT3, also known as CD135 which is a proto-oncogene.[1]

AC-220 is an angiogenesis inhibitor that antagonizes several proteins involved in vascularization. It was engineered by Ambit Biosciences using KinomeScan technology to potently target FLT3, KIT, CSF1R/FMS, RET and PDGFR kinases. Ambit is developing oral AC-220 in phase III clinical studies for the treatment of relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-ITD mutation. Early clinical trials are also ongoing for the treatment of advanced solid tumors, for the treatment of refractory or relapsed myelodysplasia, in combination with induction and consolidation chemotherapy for previously-untreated de novo acute myeloid leukemia, and as a maintenance therapy of AML following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In 2009, orphan drug designation was received both in the U.S. and in the EU for the treatment of AML. In 2009, Ambit Biosciences and Astellas Pharma have entered into a worldwide agreement to jointly develop and commercialize the drug candidate for the treatment of cancer and non-oncology indications. This agreement was terminated in 2013.

Flt3 mutations are among the most common mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia due to internal tandem duplication of Flt3. The presence of this mutation is a marker of adverse outcome.

Quizartinib is a small molecule with potential anticancer activity. Quizartinib is a selective inhibitor of class III receptor tyrosine kinases, including FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3/STK1), stem cell factor receptor (SCFR / KIT), colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/FMS) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs .) Able to inhibition of ligand-independent cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mutations in FLT3 are the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and occur in approximately 30% of cases of AML.
Quizartinib представляет собой малую молекулу с потенциальной противораковой активностью. Quizartinib является селективным ингибитором класса III рецепторов тирозин киназ, в том числе FMS-связанных тирозинкиназы 3 (FLT3/STK1), фактор стволовых клеток рецепторов (SCFR / KIT), колониестимулирующий фактор 1 рецепторов (CSF1R/FMS)  и тромбоцитарный рецепторов фактора роста (PDGFRs). Способен к торможению лиганд-независимой клеточной пролиферации и апоптоза. Мутации в FLT3 являются наиболее частыми генетическими изменениями в остром миелобластном лейкозе (ОМЛ) и встречаются примерно в 30% случаев ОМЛ.

Mechanism

Specifically, Quizartinib selectively inhibits class III receptor tyrosine kinases, including FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3/STK1), colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/FMS), stem cell factor receptor (SCFR/KIT), and platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs).

Mutations cause constitutive action of Flt3 leading to resulting in inhibition of ligand-independent leukemic cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Clinical trials

It had good results in a phase II clinical trial for refractory AML – particularly in patients who went on to have a stem cell transplant.[2]

………………………..

WO 2007109120 COMPD B1

EXAMPLE 3: PREPARATION OF N-(5-TERT-BUTYL-ISOXAZOL-3-YL)-N’-{4-[7-(2- MORPHOLIN-4-YL-ETHOXY)IMIDAZO[2,1 -B3[1 ,3]BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL]PHENYL}UREA [Compound B1]

[00426] A. The intermediate 2-amino-1,3-benzothiazol-6-ol was prepared according to a slightly modified literature procedure by Lau and Gompf. J. Org. Chem. 1970, 35, 4103-4108. To a stirred solution of thiourea (7.6 g, 0.10 mol) in a mixture of 200 ml_ ethanol and 9 ml_ concentrated hydrochloric acid was added a solution of 1 ,4-benzoquinone (21.6 g, 0.20 mol) in 400 mL of hot ethanol. The reaction was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature and then concentrated to dryness. The residue was triturated with hot acetonitrile and the resulting solid was filtered and dried.

[00427] The free base was obtained by dissolving the hydrochloride salt in water, neutralizing with sodium acetate, and collecting the solid by filtration. The product (2-amino-1 ,3-benzothiazol-6-ol) was obtained as a dark solid that was pure by LCMS (M+H = 167) and NMR. Yield: 13.0 g (78 %). NMR (DMSOd6) £7.6 (m, 2H ), 6.6 (d, 1H).

[00428] B. To prepare the intermediate 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,1- b][1 ,3]benzothiazoI-7-ol, 2-amino-1 ,3-benzothiazol-6-ol, (20.0 g, 0.12 mol) and 2-bromo-4′-nitroacetophenone (29.3 g, 0.12 mol) were dissolved in 600 mL ethanol and heated to reflux overnight. The solution was then cooled to 00C in an ice-water bath and the product was collected by vacuum filtration. After drying under vacuum with P2O5 , the intermediate (2-(4- nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,1-_D][1,3]benzothiazol-7-ol) was isolated as a yellow solid. Yield: 17.0 g (46 %) NMR (DMSO-CT6) δ 10 (s, 1 H), 8.9 (s, 1H), 8.3 (d, 2H), 8.1 (d, 2H), 7.8 (d, 1 H), 7.4 (s, 1 H), 6.9 (d, 1 H). [00429] C. To make the 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nttro- phenyl)imidazo[2,1-£>][1 ,3]benzothiazo!e intermediate: 2-(4- nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,1-jb][1 ,3]benzothiazol-7-ol, (3.00 g, 9.6 mmol) was suspended in 100 mL dry DMF. To this mixture was added potassium carbonate (4.15 g, 30 mmol, 3 eq), chloroethyl morpholine hydrochloride (4.65 g, 25 mmol, 2.5 eq) and optionally tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (7.39 g, 2 mmol). The suspension was then heated to 900C for 5 hours or until complete by LCMS. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured into 800 mL water, and allowed to stand for 1 hour. The resulting precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under vacuum. The intermediate, (7-(2- morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)imidazo[2,1-jb][1 ,3]benzothiazole) was carried on without further purification. Yield: 3.87 g (95 %) NMR (DMSO-Cf6) δ 8.97 (s, 1 H), 8.30 (d, 2H), 8.0 (d, 2H), 7.9 (d, 1 H), 7.7 (s, 1 H), 7.2 (d, 1 H), 4.1 (t, 2H), 5.6 (m, 4H), 2.7 (t, 2H).

[00430] D. To make the intermediate 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4- amino-phenyl)!midazo[2, 1 -b][1 ,3]benzothiazole: To a suspension of 7-(2- morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)imidazo[2,1-ib][1 ,3]benzothiazole (3.87g, 9.1 mmol) in 100 ml_ isopropyl alcohol/water (3:1 ) was added ammonium chloride (2.00 g, 36.4 mmol) and iron powder (5.04 g, 90.1 mmol). The suspension was heated to reflux overnight with vigorous stirring, completion of the reaction was confirmed by LCMS. The mixture was filtered through Celite, and the filtercake was washed with hot isopropyl alcohol (150 ml_). The filtrate was concentrated to approximately 1/3 of the original , volume, poured into saturated sodium bicarbonate, and extracted 3 times with dichloromethane. The combined organic phases were dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give the product as an orange solid containing a small amount (4-6 %) of starting material. (Yield: 2.75 g 54 %). 80% ethanol/water may be used in the place of isopropyl alcohol /water — in which case the reaction is virtually complete after 3.5 hours and oniy traces of starting material are observed in the product obtained. NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 8.4 (s, 1 H), 7.8 (d, 1 H), 7.65 (d, 1 H), 7.5 (d, 2H), 7.1 (d, 1 H), 6.6 (d, 2H), 4.1 (t, 2H)1.3.6 (m, 4H), 2.7 (t, 2H).

[00431] E. A suspension of 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-amino- phenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1 ,3]benzothiazole (4.06 g, 10.3 mmol) and 5-tert- butylisoxazole-3-isocyanate (1.994 g, 12 mmol) in toluene was heated at 120 0C overnight. The reaction was quenched by pouring into a mixture of methylene chloride and water containing a little methanol and neutralized with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution. The aqueous phase was extracted twice with methylene chloride, the combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to about 20 ml volume and ethyl ether was added resulting in the formation of a solid. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl ether, and dried under vacuum to give the free base. Yield: 2.342 g (41 %) NMR (DMSO-Cf6) £9.6 (br, 1H), 8.9 (br, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 7.86 (d, 1 H), 7.76 (d, 2H), 7.69 (d, 1 H), 7.51 (d, 2H), 7.18 (dd, 1H), 6.52 (s, 1H), 4.16 (t, 2H), 3.59 (t, 4H), 3.36 (overlapping, 4H), 2.72 (t, 2H), 1.30 (s, 9H). NMR (CDCI3) £9.3 (br, 1H), 7.84 (m, 4H), 7.59 (d, 2H), 7.49 (d, 1 H), 7.22 (d, 1 H), 7.03 (dd, 1 H)1 5.88 (s, 1 H), 4.16 (t, 2H), 3.76 (t, 4H), 2.84 (t, 2H), 2.61 (t, 4H), 1.37 (s, 9H).

[00432] F. For the preparation of the hydrochloride salt, N-(5-tert-butyl- isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2, 1 – b][1 ,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyI}urea hydrochloride, the free base was dissolved in a mixture of 20 ml methylene chloride and 1 ml methanol. A solution of 1.0 M HCI in ethyl ether (1.1 eq.) was added dropwise, followed by addition of ethyl ether. The precipitate was collected by filtration or centrifugation and washed with ethyl ether to give the hydrochloride salt. Yield: 2.44 g (98 %) NMR (DMSO-d6) £11-0 (br, 1 H), 9.68 (s, 1H), 9.26 (s, 1H), 8.66 (s, 1 H), 7.93 (d, 1H), 7.78 (m, 3H), 7.53 (d, 2H), 7.26 (dd, 1H), 6.53 (S, 1 H), 4.50 (t, 2H), 3.97 (m, 2H), 3.81 (t, 2H), 3.6 (overlapping, 4H)13.23 (m, 2H)1 1.30 (s, 9H).

[00433] G. Alternatively, Compound B1 may be made by taking the intermediate from Example 4B and reacting it with chloroethyl morpholine hydrochloride under conditions described in Step C. [00434] H . Λ/-(5-tert-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-Λ/’-{4-[5-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-6][1 ,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea hydrochloride, a compound having the general formula (I) where R1 is substituted on the 5 position of the tricyclic ring, was prepared in the manner described in Steps A- F but using the cyciization product 2-amino-benzothiazol-4-ol with 2-bromo-4′- nitroacetophenone in Step A. 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 11.6 (br, 1 H)1 9.78 (br, 1H), 9.56 (br, 1 H), 8.64 (s, 1H)1 7.94 (d, 2H), 7.70 (s, 1H)1 7.56 (d, 2H), 7.45 (t, 1 H), 7.33 (d, 1H), 6.54 (s, 1 H), 4.79 (t, 2H), 3.87 (m, 6H), 3.60 (m, 2H), 3.34 (m, 2H)1 1.30 (s, 9H); LC-MS: ESI 561 (M+H)+. [Compound B11] [00435] I. N-(5-tert-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[6-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1 ,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea hydrochloride [Compound B12] was also prepared by first preparing the benzothiazole starting material, 5 methoxy-benzothiazol-2yl~amine: [00436] To prepare the 5-methoxy-benzothiazol-2-ylamine starting material: To a suspension of (3-methoxy-phenyl)-thiourea (1.822g, 10 mmol) in CH2CI2 (20 ml_) at 0 0C was added dropwise a solution of bromine (1.76 g, 11 mmol) in 10 ml of trichloromethane over a period of thirty minutes. The reaction was stirred for 3 hours at room temperature then heated to 3 hours to reflux for one hour. The precipitate was filtered and washed with dichloromethane. The solid was suspended in saturated NaHCOsand extracted with CH2CI2. The extract was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give a white solid (1.716 g, 95%).

………………….

WO 2011056939

N-(5-ieri-butyl- isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l-&][l,3]benzothiazol-2- yl]phenyl}urea (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, or polymorph thereof. N-(5-ieri-Butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l- / ][!, 3]benzo

Figure imgf000004_0001

N- (5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l- &][l,3]benzo-thiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, or polymorph thereof, comprising any one, two, three, four, five, six, seven of the steps of:

(A) converting 2-amino-6-alkoxybenzothiazole (II), wherein R1 is a suitable phenolic hydroxyl protecting ;

Figure imgf000037_0001

(II)                                                                             (III)

(B) reacting 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (III) with compound (IV), wherein X is a leaving group, to yield 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-b]benzothiazol-7-ol (V);

Figure imgf000037_0002

(C) reacting 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-b]benzothiazol-7-ol (V) with compound (VI), wherein X2 is a leaving group, to yield 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4- nitrophenyl)imidazo[ -b]benzothiazole (VII);

Figure imgf000037_0003

 

Figure imgf000037_0004

(D) reducing 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2, 1- bjbenzothiazole (VII) to yield 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4- am

Figure imgf000038_0001

(E) converting 3-amino-5-£er£-butyl isoxazole (IX) to a 5-?er?-butylisoxazol-3- ylcarbamate derivative (X), wherein R2 is optionally substituted aryl, heteroaryl, alkyl, or cycloalkyl;

Figure imgf000038_0002

(IX)                                                              (X)

(F) reacting 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-aminophenyl)imidazo[2,l- bjbenzothiazole (VIII) with a 5-£er£-butylisoxazol-3-ylcarbamate derivative (X) to yield N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l- &][l,3]benzo-

 

Figure imgf000038_0003

(G) converting N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2,l-&][l,3]benzo-thiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea to an acid addition salt of N- (5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l- b] [ 1 ,3]benzo-thiazol-2-yl]phenyl } urea.

[00128] In certain embodiments, provided herein are processes for the preparation of N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l- &][l,3]benzo-thiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, or polymorph thereof, as depicted in Scheme 1, wherein R1, R2, X1, and X2 are defined herein elsewhere. In specific embodiments, provided herein are processes for the preparation of N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2,l-&][l,3]benzo-thiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, hydrate, or polymorph thereof, comprising any one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, of the Steps A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, as depicted in Scheme 1.

Scheme 1 :

 

Figure imgf000039_0001

A. Preparation of 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole

Figure imgf000070_0001

1. Example A-l[00252] To a 1-L 3-necked round bottom flask fitted with a condenser, heating mantle, and mechanical stirrer was charged aqueous hydrobromic acid (48%, 632 mL, 5.6 mol, 10 equiv). 2-Amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole (100 g, 0.55 mol, 1 equiv) was added to the above flask over 15 minutes. The reaction temperature was raised slowly to reflux (105-110 °C). A clear dark brown colored solution was observed at about 80 °C. The reflux was continued at 105-110 °C for about 4 hr. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC. When 2-amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole was less than 2%, the reaction was substantially complete.

[00253] The reaction mass was cooled to 0-5 °C and at this point precipitation of a solid was observed. The mixture was maintained at 0-5 °C for 0.5 hr and filtered, and the cake was pressed to remove HBr. The wet cake was transferred to a 2-L round bottom flask fitted with a mechanical stirrer. Saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (-1500 mL) was added slowly at ambient temperature, whereupon considerable frothing was observed. The pH of the solution was found to be about 6.5 to 7. The mixture was stirred for 0.5 hr at ambient temperature and filtered. The filter cake was washed with water (500 mL), dried on the filter and then under vacuum at 30-35 °C for 10-12 hr to give the product 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (82 g, 89% yield, HPLC purity = 99%). JH NMR (DMSO-if6, 500 MHz): δ 7.12 (d, 1H), 7.06 (S, 2H, NH2), 7.01 (d, 1H), 6.64 (dd, 1H); MS (m/z) = 167.1 [M+ + 1].

[00254] Table: Summary of Plant Batches

 

Figure imgf000071_0001

[00255] HPLC chromatographic conditions were as follows: The column used was XTerra RP8, 250 X 4.6 mm, 5μ or equivalent. Mobile Phase A was buffer, prepared by mixing 3.48 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate in 1.0 L of water, and adjusting the pH to 9.0 with phosphoric acid. Mobile Phase B was methanol. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/minute. Detection was set at UV 270 nm. The injection volume was 20 μΐ^, and the sample was diluted with a diluent (Mobile Phase A : Mobile Phase B = 70:30). Test solution was prepared by weighing accurately about 25 mg of sample and transferring it into a 100 mL volumetric flask, dissolving with 20-30 mL of diluent, making up the volume to the mark with diluent, and mixing. The HPLC was performed by separately injecting equal volumes of blank and test solution, and recording the chromatogram for all injections. The purity was calculated by area normalization method.

[00256] Table: HPLC Method

 

Figure imgf000072_0001

2. Example A-2

[00257] 2-Amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole was reacted with hot aqueous HBr at a temperature of >70 °C for about 3 hours and then the clear solution was cooled to ambient temperature overnight. The precipitated solids were collected, dissolved in hot water and the pH was adjusted to between 4.5-5.5. The resultant solids were collected, dried and re-crystallized from isopropanol. Second crop material was collected. The solids were vacuum dried to give 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole.

[00258] The reaction progress was monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The product was isolated as a white solid, with 99.4% purity (HPLC area %). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-if6) was collected, which conformed to structure.

3. Example A-3

[00259] A 22-L 3-neck round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical agitator, thermocouple probe, a reflux condenser, and a heating mantle. The flask was charged with hydrobromic acid (14 L, 123.16 mol, 13.10 equiv). Heating was initiated and 2- amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole was added (1.7 kg, 9.4 mol, 1.00 equiv) over 10 minutes with stirring. The heating of the reaction mixture was continued to reflux, and maintained (>107 °C) for approximately 5 hours. The reaction mixture turned into a clear solution between 75 °C and 85 °C. The reaction progress was monitored by TLC until no starting material was observed (A -0.5 mL reaction mixture aliquot was diluted with -0.5 mL water as a clear solution, neutralized with sodium acetate to pH -5 and extracted with 1 mL dichloromethane. The organic layer was spotted: 5%

methanol/dichloromethane; Rf (product) = 0.35; Rf (starting material) = 0.40).

[00260] The reaction mixture was cooled to – 20 °C (overnight). White solids precipitated. The solids were filtered on a polypropylene filter and pressed to remove as much hydrobromic acid from the solids as possible to facilitate the subsequent pH adjustment step. The slightly wet crude product was dissolved in hot (50 °C) water (5 L). The clear solution was filtered to remove any insoluble material present, and the solids were washed with 50 °C water. The filtrate was cooled to 10 °C. The cooled filtrate was neutralized with sodium acetate (- 1.0 kg) to pH 4.5 to 5.5 with vigorous stirring. A thick white solid precipitated. The solids were collected by filtration, and washed with cool (-10 °C) water (2 x 1.0 L) and air dried.

[00261] The wet crude product was slurried in hot (50 °C) isopropanol (3 L) briefly and allowed to stand in a cool room (-5 °C) overnight. The solids were collected by filtration and washed with methyl ferf-butylether (2 x 500 mL). The solids were dried in a vacuum oven overnight (<30 mm Hg) at 30 °C (first crop). Yield: 1068 g (68%), white solid. HPLC: 99.4% (area). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO- ) conformed to structure.

[00262] The organic filtrate was collected in a total volume of 1.0 L, cooled to 10 °C. The off-white solids were precipitated and collected by filtration. The solids were dried in a vacuum oven overnight (<30 mm Hg) at 30 °C (second crop). Yield: 497 g (32%), off-white solid. HPLC: 99.8% (area).

[00263] The overall yield combining the first crop and the second crop was 1565 g, (99%).

B. Preparation of 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-b]benzothiazol-7-ol

 

Figure imgf000073_0001

1. Example B-l[00264] A 3-L 3-neck round bottom flask fitted with a condenser, a heating mantle, and a mechanical stirrer was charged with H-butanol (1.5 L), followed by 2-amino-6- hydroxybenzothiazole (75 g, 0.45 mol, 1.0 equiv), 2-bromo-4′-nitroacetophenone (121 g, 0.50 mol, 1.1 equiv), and sodium bicarbonate (41.6 g, 0.50 mol, 1.0 equiv). The reaction temperature was gradually raised to reflux and maintained at reflux (110-115 °C) for 2-3 hr. During the temperature increase, the reaction mass turned into a clear solution and then immediately changed into an orange colored suspension at 65-75 °C. The progress of the reaction was monitored by HPLC analysis every 1 hr (reaction mass sample was submitted to QC). When the level of 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole was less than 2%, the reaction was substantially complete.

[00265] The reaction mass was slowly cooled to 50-60 °C and then further cooled to 0-5 °C and stirred for 15 min. The precipitated solids were collected by filtration, and dried on the filter. The wet cake was transferred in to a 1-L round bottom flask, and water (600 mL) was added. The suspension was stirred for 0.5 hr and filtered, and the solid was dried on the filter. The wet cake was again taken in to a 1-L round bottom flask and stirred with acetone (200 mL). The slurry was filtered and washed with acetone (2 X 100 mL), and the solid was dried on the filter, unloaded and further dried in a vacuum oven at ambient temperature to give the product 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l- b]benzothiazol-7-ol (V) (120 g, 85.7% yield, HPLC purity = 98.7%). JH NMR (DMSO- d6, 500 MHz): δ 9.96 (s, 1H, OH), 8.93 (s, 1H), 8.27 (d, 2H), 8.06 (d, 2H), 7.78 (d, 1H), 7.38 (d, 1H), 6.97 (dd, 1H); MS (m/z) = 312 [M+ + 1].

[00266] Table: Summary of Plant Batches

 

Figure imgf000074_0001

* Input of 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (III)

[00267] HPLC chromatographic conditions were as follows: The column used was XTerra RP8, 250 X 4.6 mm, 5μ or equivalent. Mobile Phase A was buffer, prepared by mixing 3.48 g of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate in 1.0 L of water, and adjusting the H to 9.0 with phosphoric acid. Mobile Phase B was methanol. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/minute. Detection was set at UV 235 nm. The injection volume was 10 μΐ^. The blank was prepared by transferring 200 μΐ. of DMSO and 200 μΐ. of 2M NaOH into a 10 mL volumetric flask, making up the volume to the mark with methanol, and mixing. The test solution was prepared by weighing accurately about 10 mg of sample and transferring it into a 50 mL volumetric flask, dissolving with 1 mL of DMSO and 1 mL of 2M NaOH, sonicating to dissolve, making up the volume to the mark with methanol, and mixing. The HPLC was performed by separately injecting equal volumes of blank and test solution, and recording the chromatogram for all injections. The purity was calculated by area normalization method.

[00268] Table: HPLC Method

 

Figure imgf000075_0001

2. Example B-2

[00269] A 50-L 3-neck round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical agitator, a thermocouple probe, a reflux condenser, and a heating mantle. The flask was charged with 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (1068 g, 6.43 mol, 1.0 equiv) and ethanol (200 proof, 32.0 L), and the suspension was stirred for 10 minutes. 2-Bromo-4- nitroacetophenone (1667 g, 6.49 mol, 1.01 equiv) was added in one portion. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux (78 °C). The reflux was maintained for approximately 25 hours, resulting in a yellow suspension. The reaction progress was monitored by TLC (20% methanol/ethyl acetate; Rf (product) = 0.85; Rf (starting material) = 0.30). TLC indicated -50% 2-amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole after 24 hours of reflux. Tetrabutylammonium iodide (10 g) was added and reflux was maintained for an additional 12 hours. TLC indicated -50% starting material still present. Coupling was seen to occur at both the thiazole and the amine.

[00270] The reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C. The solids were collected by filtration, and the yellow solid was washed with ethanol (200 proof, 2 X 1.0 L) and diethyl ether (2 X 1.5 L). The solids were dried in a vacuum oven (<10 mm Hg) at 40 °C. Yield: 930 g (46%), yellow solid. HPLC: 99.5% (area). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i¾) conformed to structure.

3. Example B-3

[00271] The reaction of Step B was carried out on multiple runs, varying solvents, temperature, and base. The results were summarized in the table below. The product (V) was isolated as yellow or green solids, with 1H NMR consistent with the structure and a purity of greater than about 98% by HPLC analysis.

[00272] Table: Reaction Condition Screening

 

Figure imgf000076_0002

TBAI = Tetrabutylammonium Iodide

C. Preparation of 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4- nitrophenyl)imidazo[2, 1 -bjbenzothiazole

Figure imgf000076_0001

1. Example C-l

[00273] To a 2000-L glass-lined (GL) reactor was charged DMF (298 kg), and the agitator was started. Under a nitrogen blanket, the reactor was charged with 2-(4- nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-&]benzothiazol-7-ol (36.8 kg, 118.2 mol, 1.0 equiv), 4-(2- chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (57.2-66.0 kg, 307.3-354.6 mol, 2.6-3.0 equiv), tetrabutylammonium iodide (8.7 kg, 23.6 mol, 0.2 equiv) and potassium carbonate (49.0 kg, 354.6 mol, 3.0 equiv). The resulting yellow suspension was heated and stirred at 90 + 5 °C for at least 15 minutes, then the temperature was increased to 110 + 5 °C. The mixture was stirred for at least 1 hour and then sampled. The reaction was deemed complete if 2-(4-nitrophenyl) imidazo[2,l-&]benzothiazol-7-ol was <1% by HPLC. If the reaction was not complete, the heating was continued and the reaction sampled. If the reaction was incomplete after 6 hours, additional 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride may be charged. In general, additional charges of 4-(2- chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride had not been necessary at the given scale.

[00274] The reactor was cooled to 20 + 5 °C and charged with water (247 kg) and acetone (492 kg). The mixture was agitated at 20 + 5 °C for at least 1 hour. The product (VII) was isolated by filtration or centrifuge, and washed with water and acetone, and then dried in a vacuum oven at 45 °C to constant weight to give a yellow solid (46.2 kg, 92% yield, HPLC purity = 97.4% by area). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO- ) conformed to structure.

2. Example C-2

[00275] 2-(4-Nitrophenyl)imidazo[2, l-b]benzothiazol-7-ol, 4-(2-chloroethyl)- morpholine hydrochloride, potassium carbonate, and tetrabutylammonium iodide were added to N,N-dimethylformamide forming a yellow suspension that was heated at a temperature of >50 °C for over 3 hours. The reaction was cooled and the solids were collected, slurried into water, filtered, slurried into acetone, filtered and washed with acetone to give yellow solids that were dried under vacuum to give 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-b]benzothiazole.

[00276] The reaction progress was monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The product was isolated as a yellow solid, with 99% purity (HPLC area %), and a water content of 0.20%. Infrared (IR) spectrum was collected, which conformed to structure.

3. Example C-3

[00277] A 50-L 3-neck round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical agitator, a thermocouple probe, a drying tube, a reflux condenser, and a heating mantle. The flask was charged with 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2,l-&]benzothiazol-7-ol (1.770 kg, 5.69 mol, 1.0 equiv), N,N-dimethylformamide (18.0 L), 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (2.751 kg, 14.78 mol, 2.6 equiv), potassium carbonate (2.360 kg, 17.10 mol, 3.0 equiv), and tetrabutylammonium iodide (0.130 kg, 0.36 mol, 0.06 equiv) with stirring. The resulting yellow suspension was heated to about 90 °C to 95 °C, maintaining the temperature for approximately 5 hours. The reaction was monitored by TLC until no starting material was observed (20% methanol / ethyl acetate; Rf (product) = 0.15; Rf (starting material) = 0.85).

[00278] The reaction mixture was cooled to -10 °C, and the yellow solids were collected by filtration on a polypropylene filter pad. The solids were slurried in water (2 X 5 L) and filtered. The crude wet product was slurried in acetone (5 L), filtered, and the solids were rinsed with acetone (2 X 1.5 L). The solids were dried in a vacuum oven (<10 mm Hg) at 45 °C. Yield: 2.300 kg (95%), yellow solid. TLC: R/ = 0.15 (20% methanol / EtOAc). HPLC: 95.7% (area). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i¾) conformed to the structure.

[00279] Table: Yields from multiple batch runs

 

Figure imgf000078_0001

4. Example C-4

[00280] To a reactor were added 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2,l-&]benzothiazol-7-ol (1.0 kg), 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (1.6 kg), tetrabutylammonium iodide (0.24 kg), and potassium carbonate (1.3 kg, anhydrous, extra fine, hydroscopic). N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) (8.6 L) was added into the reactor. The DMF used had water content of no more than 0.05% w/w. The mixture was stirred for between 15 and 30 minutes to render a homogeneous suspension, which was heated to between 85 °C and 95 °C and stirred at between 85 °C and 95 °C for 15 to 30 minutes. The mixture was then heated to between 105 °C and 120 °C and stirred at between 105 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , 115 °C) until the reaction was complete (as determined by HPLC to monitor the consumption of starting material). In some embodiments, if necessary (e.g. , if after 6 hours the reaction was not complete as indicated by HPLC analysis), additional 4-(2- chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (0.03 kg) may be added and the reaction mixture stirred at between 105 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , 115 °C) until reaction completion.

[00281] The reaction mixture was cooled to between 20 °C and 30 °C (e.g. , over a period of 3 hours). To another reactor was added deionized water (7.6 L) and acetone (15 L). The mixture of water and acetone was then added into the reaction mixture while maintaining the temperature at between 20 °C and 30 °C. The mixture was then stirred for 1 to 2 hours at a temperature of between 20 °C and 30 °C. The mixture was filtered, and the solid was washed with deionized water (e.g. , about 45x deionized water) until pH of washes was below 8. The solid was then washed with acetone (9.7 L). The solid was dried under vacuum at a temperature of less than 50 °C until the water content by Karl-Fischer was less than 0.30% w/w and TGA curve showed a mass loss of less than 0.30% w/w at about 229 °C (sampling approximately every 6 hours). The desired product was obtained in about 89% yield having about 99% purity by HPLC.

5. Example C-5

[00282] To a reactor were added 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2, l-&]benzothiazol-7-ol (1.0 kg), 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (1.6 kg), and potassium carbonate (1.3 kg, anhydrous, extra fine, hydroscopic). N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) (8.6 L) was added into the reactor. The DMF used had water content of no more than 0.05% w/w. The mixture was stirred for between 15 and 30 minutes to render a homogeneous suspension, which was heated to between 95 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , between 100 °C and 105 °C) and stirred at between 95 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , 105 °C) until the reaction was complete (as determined by HPLC to monitor the consumption of starting material). In some embodiments, if necessary (e.g. , if after 6 hours the reaction was not complete as indicated by HPLC analysis), additional 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (0.03 kg) and potassium carbonate (0.024 kg) may be added and the reaction mixture stirred at between 100 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , 105 °C) until reaction completion.

[00283] The reaction mixture was cooled to between 60 °C and 70 °C over a period of at least 60 minutes. Industrial water (6 L) was added to the reactor. The reaction mixture was cooled to between 20 °C and 30 °C. Acetone (6 L) was added to the reactor. The mixture was stirred for 1 to 2 hours at a temperature of between 20 °C and 30 °C. The mixture was filtered, and the solid was washed with industrial water (e.g. , about 45 x industrial water) until pH of washes was below 8. The solid was then washed with acetone (9.7 L). The solid was dried under vacuum at a temperature of less than 50 °C, until the water content by Karl-Fischer was less than 0.30% w/w and TGA curve showed a mass loss of less than 0.30% w/w at about 229 °C (sampling approximately every 6 hours).

6. Example C-6

[00284] To a reactor is added 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2, l-&]benzothiazol-7-ol (1.0 kg), 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (1.6 kg), and potassium carbonate (1.3 kg, anhydrous, extra fine, hydroscopic). N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) (8.6 L) is added into the reactor. The DMF has a water content of no more than 0.05% w/w. The mixture is stirred for between 15 and 30 minutes to render a homogeneous suspension, which is heated to between 95 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , between 100 °C and 105 °C) and stirred at between 95 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , 105 °C) until the reaction is complete (as determined by HPLC to monitor the consumption of starting material). In some embodiments, if necessary (e.g. , if after 6 hours the reaction is not complete as indicated by HPLC analysis), additional 4-(2-chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride (0.03 kg) and potassium carbonate (0.024 kg) may be added and the reaction mixture stirred at between 100 °C and 120 °C (e.g. , 105 °C) until reaction completion.

[00285] The reaction mixture is cooled to between 20 °C and 30 °C (e.g. , over a period of 3 hours). To another reactor is added deionized water (7.6 L) and acetone (15 L). The mixture of water and acetone is then added into the reaction mixture while maintaining the temperature at between 20 °C and 30 °C. The mixture is then stirred for 1 to 2 hours at a temperature of between 20 °C and 30 °C. The mixture is filtered, and the solid is washed with deionized water (e.g. , about 45x deionized water) until pH of washes is below 8. The solid is then washed with acetone (9.7 L). The solid is dried under vacuum at a temperature of less than 50 °C until the water content by Karl-Fischer is less than 0.30% w/w and TGA curve shows a mass loss of less than 0.30% w/w at about 229 °C (sampling approximately every 6 hours). D. Preparation of 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4- aminophenyl)imidazo [2, 1 -bjbenzothiazole

 

Figure imgf000081_0001

[00286] To a 200-L high pressure (HP) reactor was charged a slurry of 7-(2- morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2,l-&]benzothiazole (VII) (7.50 kg, 17.7 mol, 1.0 equiv) in methanol (30 kg). The container was rinsed with additional methanol (10 kg) and the rinse was charged to the reactor. The reactor was then charged with THF (67 kg) and methanol (19 kg). The contents were agitated and the reactor was flushed with nitrogen by alternating nitrogen and vacuum. Vacuum was applied to the reactor and Raney Ni catalyst (1.65 kg, 0.18 wt. equiv) was charged through a sample line. Water (1 kg) was charged through the sample line to rinse the line. The reactor was flushed with nitrogen by alternating nitrogen and vacuum. The reactor was then vented and heated to 50 °C. The reactor was closed and pressurized with hydrogen gas to 15 psi keeping the internal temperature below 55 °C. The reactor was vented and re- pressurized a total of 5 times, then pressurized to 150 psi with hydrogen gas. The contents were agitated at 50 °C for at least 4 hours. At this point a hydrogen uptake test was applied: The reactor was re-pressurized to 150 psi and checked after 1 hour. If a pressure drop of more than 5 psi was observed, the process was repeated. Once the pressure drop remained < 5 psi, the reactor was vented and sampled. The reaction was deemed complete when 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2,1- 6]benzothiazole (VII) was < 0.5% by HPLC.

[00287] The reactor was flushed with nitrogen as shown above. The 200-L HP reactor was connected to the 2000-L GL reactor passing through a bag filter and polish filter. The bag filter and polish filter were heated with steam. The 200-L HP reactor was pressurized (3 psi nitrogen) and its contents were filtered into the 2000-L reactor. The filtrates were hot. The 200-L reactor was vented and charged with THF (67 kg) and methanol (59 kg), the reactor agitated, and filtered into the 2000-L GL reactor.

[00288] A total of 6 reductions (46.2 kg processed) were carried out and the combined batches were concentrated by vacuum distillation (without exceeding an internal temperature of 40 °C) to a volume of -180 L. The reactor was cooled to 20 °C and charged with heptane (250 kg) and again vacuum distilled to a volume of -180 L. The reactor was charged with heptane (314 kg) and agitated at 20 °C for at least 1 hour, and then the product was isolated by centrifugation or collection on a Nutsche filter, washing with heptanes (2-5 kg per portion for centrifugation, followed by a 10-20 kg heptanes rinse of the reactor; or 94 kg for Nutsche filtration, rinsing the reactor first). The cake was blown dry, transferred to a vacuum oven and dried to constant weight maintaining a temperature < 50 °C to give the desired product (VIII) (34.45 kg, 80% yield, HPLC purity = 97.9%).

2. Example D-2

[00289] 7-(2-Morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-b]benzothiazole was dissolved into methanol and THF and placed in a hydrogenator. Raney nickel was added and the vessel was pressurized with hydrogen and stirred for >24 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated to a thick paste and diluted with methyl ferf-butyl ether. The resulting solids were filtered and washed with methyl ferf-butyl ether and dried under vacuum to give 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-aminophenyl) imidazo [2, 1 -bjbenzothiazole.

[00290] The reaction progress was monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The product was isolated as a yellow solid, with 99% purity (HPLC area %). IR was collected, which conformed to structure.

3. Example D-3

[00291] Into a 5-gallon autoclave, 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl) imidazo[2,l-&]benzothiazole (580 g, 1.37 mol, 1.0 equiv), THF (7.5 L), methanol (7.5 L, AR) and -55 g of decanted Raney nickel catalyst were added. The reaction vessel was purged with nitrogen (3 X 50 psi) and hydrogen (2 X 50 psi), with stirring briefly under pressure and then venting. The autoclave was pressurized with hydrogen (150 psi). The mixture was stirred and the hydrogen pressure was maintained at 150 psi for over 24 hours with repressurization as necessary. The reaction progress was monitored by TLC (10% methanol / chloroform with 1 drop ammonium hydroxide; Rf (product) 0.20; Rf (SM) 0.80). The reaction was substantially complete when the TLC indicated no starting material present, typically after 24 hours of stirring at 150 psi. The hydrogenation was continued at 150 psi for a minimum of 4 hours or until completion if starting material was still present after the initial 4 hours.

[00292] The reaction mixture was filtered through a Buchner funnel equipped with a glass fiber filter topped with a paper filter. Unreacted starting material was removed together with the catalyst. The filtrate was concentrated to a total volume of 0.5 L, and the residue was triturated with methyl ferf-butyl ether (0.5 L). The resultant solids were collected by filtration, and washed with methyl ferf-butyl ether (0.3 L) (first crop).

[00293] The filtrate was concentrated to dryness and the residue was diluted with methyl ferf-butyl ether (2 L). The resultant solids were collected by filtration, washing with methyl ferf-butyl ether (0.5 L) (second crop).

[00294] The solids were dried in a vacuum oven (<10 mm Hg) at 25 °C. Yield: 510 g (95%), beige solid. TLC: R/ 0.2 (10% methanol / chloroform with one drop of ammonium hydroxide). HPLC: 99.0% (area). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i¾) conformed to the structure.

[00295] Table: Yields from multiple batch runs

 

Figure imgf000083_0001

4. Example D-4

[00296] The reaction of Step D was carried out in multiple runs under various conditions, such as, e.g. , varying catalyst loading, concentration of reactant, reaction temperature, and/or workup procedures. The results are summarized in the table below.

 

Figure imgf000083_0002

Description Run # l Run # 2 Run # 3 Run # 4 Run # 5Rxn Temp (°C) RT RT RT RT RT

Rxn Time (Hr) 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr 24 hr

Filtered the Filtered the solution

Filtered the Filtered the Filtered the

solution through through celite. The solution through solution through solution through

celite, washed celite filter cake celite, celite, celite,

with THF, refluxed in THF concentrated, concentrated, concentrated,

concentrated, washed with hot solvent exchanged solvent exchanged solvent exchanged

Work Up solvent exchanged THF, concentrated, with heptane, with heptane, with heptane,

with heptane, solvent exchanged stirred the solids stirred the solids stirred the solids

stirred the solids with heptane, stirred and filtered and filtered and filtered

and filtered the solids and washed with washed with washed with

washed with filtered washed with heptane heptane heptane

heptane heptane

Produce (VIII) 1.9 g 3.88 g 1.11 g 2.6 g 4.4 g

Yield 88% 83.4% 56 94.6%

HPLC purity 95.6% 77.5% 91% 93.8%

 

Figure imgf000084_0001

5. Example D-5

[00297] To a pressure reactor under nitrogen atmosphere was added a slurry of Raney Nickel in water (0.22 kg) (e.g. about 0.14 kg dry catalyst in water) and the charging line was rinsed with deionized water (0.13 L). To another reactor (Reactor B) were added methanol (5.05 L) and 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo [2, 1- &]benzothiazole (1.0 kg), and the mixture was stirred for between 15 and 30 minutes to render a homogenous suspension. The suspension was transferred to the pressure reactor. Reactor B was washed with methanol (4.88 L) and the wash was transferred to the pressure reactor. Tetrahydrofuran (10.1 L) was added to the pressure reactor.

Hydrogen was charged to the pressure reactor to a pressure of between 2.0 bar and 3.0 bar. The reactor was heated to a temperature of between 45 °C and 55 °C. Hydrogen was then charged to the pressure reactor to a pressure of between 6.0 bar and 7.0 bar. The mixture was stirred at a temperature of between 45 °C and 55 °C (e.g. , 50 °C), while maintaining the hydrogen pressure between 6.0 bar and 7.0 bar until reaction completion (as determined by HPLC to monitor the consumption of starting material).

[00298] The mixture was filtered while maintaining the temperature at between 35 °C and 50 °C. The pressure reactor and the filter were washed with a mixture of THF (10.1 L) and methanol (9.93 L) preheated to a temperature of between 45 °C and 55 °C (e.g. , 50 °C). The combined filtrate was concentrated to a volume of between 2.4 L and 2.8 L under vacuum at a temperature of no more than 40 °C, and a precipitate was formed. Methanol (7.5 L) was added. The slurry was cooled to a temperature of between 5 °C and -5 °C (e.g. , over 3 hours) and stirred for at least 1 hour (e.g. , for 3 hours) while maintaining the temperature at between 5 °C and -5 °C. The suspension was filtered. The solid was washed with methanol (2 X 1.2 L). The solid was then dried under vacuum at a temperature of less than 50 °C until the methanol and THF contents were each less than 3000 ppm as analyzed by GC (e.g. , less than 1500 ppm). The desired product was obtained in about 88.5% yield having about 99% purity by HPLC.

E. Preparation of phenyl 5-£er£-butylisoxazol-3-ylcarbamate

Figure imgf000085_0001

[00299] The jacket temperature of a 200-L glass-lined (GL) reactor was set to 20 °C. To the reactor was charged 5-ieri-butylisoxazole-3-amine (15.0 kg, 107.0 mol, 1.0 equiv), then K2C03 (19.5 kg, 141.2 mol, 1.3 equiv) and anhydrous THF (62 kg).

Agitation was started and then phenyl chloroformate (17.6 kg, 112.4 mol, 1.05 equiv) was charged. The charging line was rinsed with additional anhydrous THF (5 kg). The reaction was agitated at 20 + 5 °C for at least 3 hours then sampled. The reaction was deemed complete if 5-£er£-butylisoxazole-3-amine was < 2% by HPLC. If the reaction was not complete after 6 hours, additional K2CO3 and phenyl chloroformate may be added to drive the reaction to completion.

[00300] Once complete, the reaction was filtered (Nutsche). The filter was rinsed with THF (80 kg). The filtrate was vacuum distilled without exceeding an internal temperature of 40 °C until -50 L remained. Water (188 kg) and ethanol (45 L) were charged, and the mixture was agitated for at least 3 hours with a jacket temperature of 20 °C. The resulting solid was isolated by centrifugation or collection on a Nutsche filter, rinsed with water (2-5 kg for each centrifugation portion; 30 kg for Nutsche filtration) and blow-dried. The solid was then dried to constant weight in a vacuum oven (45 °C) to give the desired product (19.4 kg, 92% yield, HPLC purity = 97.4%). On an 800 g scale, 1559 g of the desired product (98% yield) was obtained with a 99.9% HPLC purity. JH NMR (DMSO-i¾) δ 11.17 (s, 1H); 7.4 (m, 2H); 7.2 (m, 3H); 1.2 (s, 9H). LCMS (M+H)+ 261.

F. Preparation of N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2, 1 -b] [ 1 ,3 ]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl } urea

 

Figure imgf000086_0001

1. Example F-l

[00301] The jacket of a 2000-L GL reactor was set to 20 °C and the reactor was charged with 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-aminophenyl)imidazo[2,l- &]benzothiazole (26.7 kg, 67.8 mol, 1.0 equiv), 3-amino-5-?-butylisoxazole phenyl carbamate (19.4 kg, 74.5 mol, 1.1 equiv), DMAP (0.5 kg, 4.4 mol, 0.06 equiv), and DCM (anhydrous, 260 kg). Agitation was started, triethylamine (1.0 kg, 10.2 mol, 0.15 equiv) was charged followed by additional DCM (5 kg) through the charging line. The reaction was heated to reflux (-40 °C) and agitated for at least 20 hours with complete dissolution observed followed by product crystallizing from solution after -30 minutes. The reaction was sampled and deemed complete when HPLC analysis showed a ratio of compound (VIII) to compound (I) < 1%.

[00302] The reactor was cooled to 0 °C and stirred for at least 2 hours. The content of the reactor were isolated by centrifuge. Each portion was rinsed with 2-3 kg of cold (0 °C) DCM and spun dry for at least 5 minutes with a 10 psi nitrogen purge. For the final portion, the reactor was rinsed with 10 kg of cold (0 °C) DCM and transferred to the centrifuge where it was spun dry for at least 5 minutes with a 10 psi nitrogen purge. The combined filter cakes were transferred to a vacuum tray dryer and dried to constant weight at 50 °C and at least >20 inches of Hg to give the desired product (I) (35.05 kg, 92% yield, HPLC purity = 98.8%). Phenol was the major impurity detected (0.99%); and three other impurities (<0.10%) were detected. JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO- ) conformed to structure.

2. Example F-2

[00303] A variety of solvents were used in the reaction of Step F to optimize for better yields and purity profiles. The contents of the symmetrical urea impurity (XI) were compared and summarized in the table below:

 

Figure imgf000087_0001

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011056939A1?cl=en   SE THIS FOR DELETED CLIPS

 

Figure imgf000090_0001

 

Figure imgf000090_0002

4. Example F-4

[00305] To Reactor A under a nitrogen atmosphere was added 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)-2-(4-aminophenyl)imidazo[2,l-&]benzothiazole (1 kg) and DMAP (0.02 kg). To Reactor B under a nitrogen atmosphere was added 3-amino-5-?-butylisoxazole phenyl carbamate (0.73 kg) and DCM (5.6 L). The DCM used had a water content of less than 0.05 % w/w. The mixture in Reactor B was stirred until dissolution. The solution was transferred into Reactor A (the solution can be filtered into Reactor A to remove any insoluble impurities in the carbamate starting material), and the mixture was stirred in Reactor A. Reactor B was washed with DCM (0.8 L) and the wash was transferred into Reactor A. Reactor A was washed with DCM (0.9 L). To Reactor A was added triethylamine (0.1 L) and the charging vessel and lines were rinsed with DCM (0.1 L) into Reactor A. The mixture was then heated to reflux and stirred at reflux until reaction completion (as determined by HPLC to monitor the consumption of starting material).

[00306] The reaction mixture was cooled (e.g. , over 2 to 3 hours) to a temperature of between -5 °C and 5 °C (e.g. , 0 °C). The mixture was then stirred for 2 to 3 hours at a temperature of between -5 °C and 5 °C (e.g. , 0 °C). The suspension was filtered. The solid was washed with cool DCM (2 X 1.5 L) (pre-cooled to a temperature of between -5 °C and 5 °C). The solid was dried under vacuum at a temperature of less than 45 °C until the DCM content was less than 1000 ppm (e.g., below 600 ppm) as analyzed by GC. The desired product was obtained having about 99% purity by HPLC.

G. Preparation of N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2, l-b] [1 ,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl }urea dihydrochloride

 

Figure imgf000091_0001

1. Example G-l

[00307] The jacket of a 2000-L GL reactor was set to 20 °C and the reactor was charged with N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo [2, 1-&][1, 3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea (35.0 kg, 62.4 mol, 1.0 equiv) followed by methanol (553 kg). Agitation was started and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux (-65 °C). Concentrated aqueous HC1 (15.4 kg, 156.0 mol, 2.5 equiv) was charged rapidly (<5 minutes) and the charge line was rinsed into the reactor with methanol (12 kg). Addition of less than 2.0 equivalents of HC1 normally resulted in the formation of an insoluble solid. The reaction mixture was heated at reflux for at least 1 hour. Upon HC1 addition, the slurry dissolved and almost immediately the salt started to crystallize, leaving insufficient time for a polish filtration.

[00308] The reactor was cooled to 20 °C and the product was isolated by filtration (Nutsche) rinsing the reactor and then the cake with methanol (58 kg). The solid was then dried in a vacuum oven (50 °C) to constant weight to give the desired

dihydrochloride salt (35 kg, 89% yield, HPLC purity = 99.94%). JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i¾) conformed to structure.

2. Example G-2

[00309] Concentrated HC1 was added to a suspension of N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3- yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l-&][l,3]benzothiazol-2- yl]phenyl}urea in warm methanol forming a solution that slowly began to precipitate. The reaction mixture was refluxed for over 2 hours and then stirred overnight at ambient temperature. The dihydrochloride salt was collected and dried under vacuum.

3. Example G-3

[00310] A 50-L 3-neck round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical agitator, a thermocouple probe, a nitrogen inlet, a drying tube, a reflux condenser, an addition funnel, and a heating mantle. The flask was charged with N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)- N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l-&][l,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea (775 g, 1.38 mol, 1.0 equiv) and MeOH (40 L, AR). The resulting off-white suspension was heated to reflux (68 °C). A clear solution did not form. HC1 (37% aqueous) (228 mL, 3.46 mol, 2.5 equiv) was added over 5 minutes at 68 °C. The reaction mixture turned into a clear solution and then a new precipitate formed within approximately 3 minutes. Heating was continued at reflux for approximately 5 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to ambient temperature overnight. The off-white solids were collected by filtration on a polypropylene filter, washing with MeOH (2 X 1 L, AR). [00311] Two lots of material prepared in this manner were combined (740 g and 820 g). The combined solids were slurried in methanol (30 L) over 30 minutes at reflux and allowed to cool to the room temperature. The solids were collected by filtration on a polypropylene filter, rinsing with methanol (2 X 1.5 L). The solids were dried in a vacuum oven (<10 mm Hg) at 40 °C. Yield: 1598 g (84%), off-white solid. HPLC: 98.2% (area). MS: 561.2 (M+l)+JH NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-i¾) conformed to the structure. Elemental Analysis (EA): Theory, 54.97 %C; 5.41 %H; 13.26 %N; 5.06 %S; 11.19 %C1; Actual, 54.45 %C; 5.46 %H; 13.09 %N; 4.99 %S; 10.91 %C1.

4. Example G-4

[00312] Into a 50-L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a heating mantle, a condenser and a nitrogen inlet, were charged N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol- 3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l-&][l,3]benzothiazol-2- yl]phenyl}urea (1052.4 g, 1.877 mol, 1.0 equiv) and methanol (21 L). The reactor was heated and stirred. At an internal temperature of > 50 °C, cone. HC1 (398.63 mL, 4.693 mol, 2.5 equiv) was charged over 5 minutes through an addition funnel. During the addition, the mixture changed from a pale yellow suspension to a white suspension. The internal temperature was 55 °C at the conclusion of the addition. The mixture was heated to reflux for 1 hour, then heating was discontinued and the mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature. The mixture was filtered in two portions, and each filter cake was washed with methanol (2 X 1 L), transferred to trays and dried in a vacuum oven (45 °C) to constant weight. The dried trays were combined to produce 1141.9 g of the salt (96% yield, 99.1 % HPLC purity, 10.9% chloride by titration).

 

H. Analytical Data

1. N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{ 4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl- ethoxy)imidazo[2, l-&] [l ,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea

dihydrochloride

[00314] A batch of about 30 grams of N-(5-ieri-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’- {4-[7-(2- morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2, l-&] [l ,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea

dihydrochloride was prepared using the methods described herein. This lot was

prepared in accordance with the requirements for production of clinical Active

Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) under GMP conditions. The analytical data for this batch was obtained, and representative data were provided herein. [00315] Summary of analytical data for the dihydrochloride salt.

 

Figure imgf000095_0001

 

………………………

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2009038757A2?cl=en

 EXAMPLE 1. SYNTHESIS OF N-(5-TERT-BUTYL-ISOXAZOL-3-YU- N>-{4-f7-(2-MORPHOLIN-4- YL-ETHOXY)IMID AZO[2,1- BlH,31BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YL|PHENYLiUREA (“COMPOUND Bl”)

[00357] A. The intermediate 2-amino-l,3-benzothiazol-6-ol was prepared according to a slightly modified literature procedure by Lau and Gompf: J. Org. Chem. 1970, 35, 4103- 4108. To a stirred solution of thiourea (7.6 g, 0.10 mol) in a mixture of 200 mL ethanol and 9 mL concentrated hydrochloric acid was added a solution of 1 ,4-benzoquinone (21.6 g, 0.20 mol) in 400 mL of hot ethanol. The reaction was stirred for 24 hours at room temperature and then concentrated to dryness. The residue was triturated with hot acetonitrile and the resulting solid was filtered and dried.

[00358] The free base was obtained by dissolving the hydrochloride salt in water, neutralizing with sodium acetate, and collecting the solid by filtration. The product (2- amino-l,3-benzothiazol-6-ol) was obtained as a dark solid that was pure by LCMS (M+H = 167) and NMR. Yield: 13.0 g (78 %). NMR (DMSO-^) Sl.6 (m, 2H), 6.6 (d, IH). [00359] B. To prepare the 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-b][l,3]benzothiazol-7-ol intermediate, 2-amino-l,3-benzothiazol-6-ol (20.0 g, 0.12 mol) and 2-bromo-4′- nitroacetophenone (29.3 g, 0.12 mol) were dissolved in 600 mL ethanol and heated to reflux overnight. The solution was then cooled to O0C in an ice-water bath and the product was collected by vacuum filtration. After drying under vacuum with P2O5 , the intermediate (2- (4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-£][l,3]benzothiazol-7-ol) was isolated as a yellow solid. Yield: 17.0 g (46 %) NMR (DMSO-(I6) δ 10 (s, IH), 8.9 (s, IH), 8.3 (d, 2H), 8.1 (d, 2H), 7.8 (d, IH), 7.4 (s, IH), 6.9 (d, IH).

[00360] C. To make the 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)imidazo[2,l-

6][l,3]benzothiazole intermediate: 2-(4-nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l-6][l,3]benzothiazol-7-ol,

NYI-4144519vl 84 (3.00 g, 9.6 mmol) was suspended in 100 mL dry DMF. To this mixture was added potassium carbonate (4.15 g, 30 mmol, 3 eq), chloroethyl morpholine hydrochloride (4.65 g, 25 mmol, 2.5 eq) and optionally tetrabutyl ammonium iodide (7.39 g, 2 mmol). The suspension was then heated to 900C for 5 hours or until complete by LCMS. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured into 800 mL water, and allowed to stand for 1 hour. The resulting precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under vacuum. The intermediate, (7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitro-phenyl)imidazo[2, 1 – b][\, 3]benzothiazole) was carried on without further purification. Yield: 3.87 g (95 %) NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 8.97 (s, IH), 8.30 (d, 2H), 8.0 (d, 2H), 7.9 (d, IH), 7.7 (s, IH), 7.2 (d, IH), 4.1 (t, 2H), 5.6 (m, 4H), 2.7 (t, 2H).

[00361] D. To make the intermediate 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-amino- phenyl)imidazo[2,l-b][l,3]benzothiazole: To a suspension of 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)- 2-(4-nitro-phenyl)imidazo[2,l -b][\ , 3]benzothiazole (3.87g, 9.1 mmol) in 100 mL isopropyl alcohol/water (3:1) was added ammonium chloride (2.00 g, 36.4 mmol) and iron powder (5.04 g, 90.1 mmol). The suspension was heated to reflux overnight with vigorous stirring, completion of the reaction was confirmed by LCMS. The mixture was filtered through Celite, and the filtercake was washed with hot isopropyl alcohol (150 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to approximately 1/3 of the original volume, poured into saturated sodium bicarbonate, and extracted 3 times with dichloromethane. The combined organic phases were dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give the product as an orange solid containing a small amount (4-6 %) of starting material. (Yield: 2.75 g 54 %). 80% ethanol/water may be used in the place of isopropyl alcohol /water – in which case the reaction is virtually complete after 3.5 hours and only traces of starting material are observed in the product obtained. NMR (DMSO-Λfc) δ 8.4 (s, IH), 7.8 (d, IH), 7.65 (d, IH), 7.5 (d, 2H), 7.1 (d, IH), 6.6 (d, 2H), 4.1 (t, 2H), 3.6 (m, 4H), 2.7 (t, 2H).

[00362] E. A suspension of 7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-amino- phenyl)imidazo[2,l-b][l,3]benzothiazole (4.06 g, 10.3 mmol) and 5-tert-butylisoxazole-3- isocyanate (1.994 g, 12 mmol) in toluene was heated at 120 0C overnight. The reaction was quenched by pouring into a mixture of methylene chloride and water containing a little methanol and neutralized with saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution. The aqueous phase was extracted twice with methylene chloride, the combined organic extracts were dried over

NYI-4144519vl 85 MgSO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to about 20 ml volume and ethyl ether was added resulting in the formation of a solid. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl ether, and dried under vacuum to give the free base of Compound B 1. Yield: 2.342 g (41 %) NMR (DMSO-J6) £9.6 (br, IH), 8.9 (br, IH), 8.61 (s, IH), 7.86 (d, IH), 7.76 (d, 2H), 7.69 (d, IH), 7.51 (d, 2H), 7.18 (dd, IH), 6.52 (s, IH), 4.16 (t, 2H), 3.59 (t, 4H), 3.36 (overlapping, 4H), 2.72 (t, 2H), 1.30 (s, 9H). NMR (CDCl3) £9.3 (br, IH), 7.84 (m, 4H), 7.59 (d, 2H), 7.49 (d, IH), 7.22 (d, IH), 7.03 (dd, IH), 5.88 (s, IH), 4.16 (t, 2H), 3.76 (t, 4H), 2.84 (t, 2H), 2.61 (t, 4H), 1.37 (s, 9H).

6.2 EXAMPLE 2. ALTERNATIVE SYNTHESIS QF N-(5-TERT-BUTYL- ISOXAZQL-3- YL)-N -{4-[7-q-MORPHOLIN-4- YL- ETHOXYUMID AZOf2,l-BUl,31BENZOTHIAZOL-2- YLIPHENYLIUREA (“COMPOUND Bl”)

[00363] A. To a suspension of the intermediate 2-(4-Nitrophenyl)imidazo[2,l- b][l,3]benzothiazol-7-ol from Example IB (2.24 g, 7.2 mmol) in ethanol (40 mL) was added SnCl2 1H2O (7.9Og, 35 mmol) and heated to reflux. Concentrated HCl was added to the reaction mixture and the precipitate formed gradually. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 20 hours and then allowed to cool to room temperature. The solution was poured into ice and neutralized with 10% NaOH and adjusted to approximately pH 6. The organic phase was extracted three times with ethyl acetate (80 mL x 3). Extracts were dried over MgSθ4 and concentrated to give a yellow solid. (1.621 g, 80%). The solid was recrystallized from methanol to give a pure product (1.355 g, 67%).

[00364] B. To a suspension of the intermediate from Step 2A (0.563 g, 2 mmol) in toluene (30 mL) was added 5-tert-butylisoxazole-3-isocyanate (0.332g, 2 mmol) and heated to reflux overnight. LC-MS analysis showed presence of the intermediate but no trace of 5- tert-butylisoxazole-3-isocyanate and an additional 0.166 g of the isocyanate was added. The reaction was again heated to reflux overnight. Completion of reaction was verified by LC- MS. The solvent was removed and the resulting mixture was dissolved in methanol which was removed to give the second intermediate as a solid.

[00365] The mixture was dissolved in CH2Cl2 (150 mL) and washed with saturated

NaHCO3. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, concentrated, and purified by silica gel chromatography three times, first using a methanol/CH2Cl2 gradient, the second time using a

NYI-4144519vl 86 hexane/ethyl acetate gradient followed by a methanol/ethyl acetate gradient, and a third time using a methanol/CH2Cl2 gradient.

[00366] C. To a suspension of the intermediate from Step 2B (0.1 10 g, 0.25 mmol) in

THF (5mL) was added Ph3P (0.079g, 0.3 mmol), diisopropylazodicarboxylate (0.06 Ig, 0.3 mmol) and 4-morpholinoethanol (0.039 g, 0.3 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Completion of the reaction was verified by LC-MS. The solvent was removed and the final product was purified using silica gel chromatography, with methanol in CH2Cl2 (0.030g, 21%).

6.3 EXAMPLE 3. BULK SYNTHESIS OF N-(5-TERT-BUTYL- ISOXAZOL-3-YL)-N’-f4-[7-(2-MORPHOLIN-4-YL- ETHOXY^IMID AZO[2α-BUlJlBENZOTHIAZOL-2- YLlPHENYLiUREA (“COMPOUND Bl”)

[00367] A multi-step reaction scheme that was used to prepare bulk quantities of

Compound Bl is depicted in FIG. 66a and FIG. 66b, and is described further below. [00368] Step 1 : Preparation of 2- Amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (Intermediate 1). 2-

Amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole is reacted with hot aqueous HBr for about 3 hrs and then the clear solution is cooled to ambient temperature overnight. The precipitated solids are collected, dissolved in hot water and the pH is adjusted to between 4.5-5.5. The resultant solids are collected, dried and recrystallized from Isopropanol. Second crop material is collected. The solids are vacuum dried to give Intermediate 1.

[00369] Step 2: Preparation of 2-(4-Nitrophenyl) imidazo [2J-b]benzothiazol-7-ol

(Intermediate 2). 2-Amino-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, 2-Bromo-4-nitroacetophenone and absolute Ethanol are added together and heated to reflux for approximately 24 hours. Tetrabutylammonium iodide is added and the reaction is refluxed an additional 12 hours. The resulting yellow suspension is cooled and the solids collected and washed with Ethanol and Diethyl ether. The solids are dried under vacuum to give Intermediate 2. [00370] Step 3: Preparation of 7-(2-Morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-nitrophenyl) imidazo

[2,1-b] benzothiazole (Intermediate 3). Intermediate 2, 4-(2-Chloroethyl)morpholine hydrochloride, Potassium carbonate and Tetrabutylammonium iodide are added to N,N- Dimethylformamide forming a yellow suspension that is heated for over 3 hours. The reaction is cooled and the solids are collected, slurried into water, filtered, slurried into

NYl-4 l4451′)v l 87 acetone, filtered and washed with Acetone to give yellow solids that are dried under vacuum to give Intermediate 3.

[O0371] Step 4: Preparation of 7-(2-Moφholin-4-yl-ethoxy)-2-(4-aminophenyl) imidazo [2,1 -b] benzothiazole (Intermediate 4). Intermediate 3 is dissolved into Methanol and THF and placed in a Hydrogenator. Raney Nickel is added and the vessel is pressurized with Hydrogen and stirred for >24 hrs. The reaction mixture is concentrated to a thick paste and diluted with Methyl tert-butyl ether. The resulting solids are filtered and washed with Methyl tert-butyl ether and dried under vacuum to give Intermediate 4. [O0372] Step 5: Preparation of {[5-(tert-Butyl) isoxazol-3-vnatnino}-N-{4-r7-(2- morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)(4-hvdroimidazolo[2J-blbenzothiazol-2-yl)]phenyl|carboxamide (Compound Bl). 3 -Amino- 5 -tert-butyl isoxazole in Methylene chloride is added to a vessel containing toluene which is cooled to approx 0 0C. Triphosgene is then added and the reaction mixture is cooled to below -15 0C. Triethylamine is added, followed by Intermediate 4. The mixture is heated to distill off the Methylene chloride and then heated to over 60 0C for over 12 hours and cooled to 50-60 °C. The resulting solids are filtered, washed with Heptane, slurried with 4% sodium hydroxide solution, and filtered. The solids are then washed with Methyl tert-butyl ether followed by Acetone and dried under vacuum to give Compound Bl.

6.4 EXAMPLE 4. EXAMPLES OF PREPARATION OF COMPOUND Bl HCL SALT

[00373] Example A: For the preparation of a hydrochloride salt of Compound Bl5 N-

(5-tert-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,l- b][l,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea hydrochloride, the free base was dissolved in a mixture of 20 ml methylene chloride and 1 ml methanol. A solution of 1.0 M HCl in ethyl ether (1.1 eq.) was added dropwise, followed by addition of ethyl ether. The precipitate was collected by filtration or centrirugation and washed with ethyl ether to give a hydrochloride salt of Compound Bl. Yield: 2.44 g (98 %) NMR (DMSO-^) S X 1.0 (br, IH), 9.68 (s, IH), 9.26 (s, IH), 8.66 (s, IH), 7.93 (d, IH), 7.78 (m, 3H), 7.53 (d, 2H), 7.26 (dd, IH), 6.53 (s, IH), 4.50 (t, 2H), 3.97 (m, 2H), 3.81 (t, 2H), 3.6 (overlapping, 4H), 3.23 (m, 2H), 1.30 (s, 9H). [00374] Example B: Concentrated HCl is added to a suspension of Compound Bl in warm methanol forming a solution that slowly begins to precipitate. The reaction mixture is

NYI-4144519vl 88 refluxed for over 2 hrs and then stirred overnight at ambient temperature. The HCl salt is collected and dried under vacuum.

[00375] Example C: Materials: {[5-(tert-Butyl) isoxazol-3-yl]amino}-N-{4-[7-(2- morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)(4-hydroimidazolo[2,l-6]benzothiazol-2-yl)] phenyl }carboxamide (775 g, 1.38 mol, 1.0 eq); HCl 37% aqueous (288 mL, 3.46 mol, 2.5 eq); Methanol (MeOH, AR) (40L). Procedure: (Step 1) Equipped a 5OL 3-neck round bottom flask with a mechanical agitator, thermocouple probe, Nitrogen inlet, drying tube, reflux condenser, addition funnel and in a heating mantle. (Step 2) Charged the flask with {[5-(tert-Butyl) isoxazol-3-yl] amino}-N-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)(4-hydroimidazolo[2,l- b]benzothiazol-2-yl)] phenyl jcarboxamide (775g) and MeOH, AR (40L). Heat the resulting off-white suspension to reflux (680C). A clear solution did not form. (Step 3) Added HCl (37% aqueous) (228 mL) over 5 minutes at 68°C. The reaction mixture turned into a clear solution and then a new precipitate formed within approximately 3 minutes. Continued heating at reflux for approximately 5 hours. Allowed the reaction mixture to cool to ambient temperature overnight. (Step 4) Collected the off-white solids by filtration onto a polypropylene filter, washing the solids with MeOH, AR (2 x 1 L). (Step 5) Combined two lots of material prepared in this manner (74Og and 82Og). Slurried the combined solids in Methanol (30 L) over 30 minutes at reflux and cool to the room temperature. (Step 6) Collected the solids by filtration onto a polypropylene filter, rinsing with Methanol (2 x 1.5L). (Step 7) Dried the solids in a vacuum oven (<10mniHg) at 400C. Yield: 1598 g (84%), off-white solid; HPLC: 98.2% (area); MS: 561.2 (M+l); IH NMR: conforms (300 MHz, DMSO-d6); Elemental Analysis (EA): Theory = 54.97 %C; 5.41 %H; 13.26 %N; 5.06 %S; 11.19 %C1; Actual = 54.45 %C; 5.46 %H; 13.09 %N; 4.99 %S; 10.91 %C1.

NYl-4I44519v! 89 [00376] Examples of Compound Bl HCl salt synthesis

 

Figure imgf000091_0001

[00377] Example D: In a 50-L 3-neck round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, condenser and nitrogen inlet was charged Compound Bl (1052.4 g, 1.877 mol, 1.00 equiv.) and methanol (21 L). The reactor was heated and stirred. At an internal temperature > 50 0C, cone. HCl (398.63 mL, 4.693 mol, 2.5 equiv.) was charged over 5 minutes through an addition funnel. With the addition, the reaction changed from a pale yellow suspension to a white suspension. The internal temperature was 55 0C at the conclusion of the addition. The reaction was heated to reflux for 1 hour, then heating discontinued and the reaction allowed to cool to room temperature. The reaction was filtered in two portions, each filter cake washed with methanol (2 x 1 L), transferred to trays and dried in a vacuum oven (45 0C) to constant weight. The dried trays were combined to produce 1141.9 g, 96% yield, 99.1 % HPLC purity, 10.9% chloride by titration.

Solid Forms Comprising the HCl Salt of Compound Bl 6.6.2.1 Preparation of Solid Forms

 

Figure imgf000103_0001

6.6.2.2 Cold Precipitation Experiments

 

Figure imgf000103_0002

NYl-4144519vl 102 6.6.2.3 Slurry Experiments

 

Figure imgf000104_0001

NYI-41445 l9vl 103 6.6.2.4 Additional Preparation of Solid Forms Comprising the HCI Salt of Compound Bl

Figure imgf000105_0001

NYl-4144519v l 104

Figure imgf000106_0001

NYM 144519vl 105

Figure imgf000107_0001

N Y l -4 1 4 4 5 1 9 v l 1 0 6

Figure imgf000108_0001

NYI-4I44519vi 107

Figure imgf000109_0001

N V I 4 1 4 4 5 1 9 1 0 8

Figure imgf000110_0001

“Abbreviations in Table: CC = crash cool, CP = crash precipitation, EtOAc = ethyl acetate, FE = fast evaporation, VD = vapor diffusion, IPA = isopropanol, MEK = methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone), RE = rotary evaporation, RT = room (ambient) temperature, SC = slow cool, SE = slow evaporation, THF = tetrahydrofuran, TFE = 2,2,2=trifluoroethanol.

6.6.2.5 Scale-up Experiments of Involving Crystal Forms Comprising the HCl Salt of Compound Bl

 

Figure imgf000110_0002

NYI-4144519v l 109

Figure imgf000111_0001

Abbreviations in Table: CC = crash cool, CP = crash precipitation, EtOAc = ethyl acetate, FE = fast evaporation, IPA = isopropanol, MEK = methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone), RE = rotary evaporation, RT = room (ambient) temperature, SC = slow cool, SE = slow evaporation, THF = tetrahydrofuran, TFE = 2,2,2=trifluoroethanol.

 

……………………

Identification of N-(5-tert-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea dihydrochloride (AC220), a uniquely potent, selective, and efficacious FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) inhibitor
J Med Chem 2009, 52(23): 7808

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm9007533

Abstract Image

N-(5-tert-Butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N′-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea Dihydrochloride (7): General Procedure D
A suspension of 2-(4-aminophenyl)-7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazole (19c) (4.06 g, 10.3 mmol) and 5-tert-butyl-isoxazole-3-isocyanate (5) (1.994 g, 12 mmol) in toluene (60 mL) was heated at 120 °C overnight. The reaction was quenched with a mixture of dichloromethane and water containing a little methanol, and the mixture was neutralized with saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The aqueous phase was extracted twice with dichloromethane, and the combined organic extracts were dried over MgSO4 and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to a volume of about 20 mL and ethyl ether was added, resulting in the formation of a solid. The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl ether, and dried under vacuum to give the free base of 7 (2.342 g, 41%).
 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 9.6 (br, 1H), 8.9 (br, 1H), 8.61 (s, 1H), 7.86 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.69 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.18 (dd, J = 1.3 and 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.52 (s, 1H), 4.16 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 3.59 (t, J = 4.2 Hz, 4H), 3.36 (overlapping, 4H), 2.72 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 2H), 1.30 (s, 9H).
General Procedure E for Preparation of Hydrochloride Salt

The free base was dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane (20 mL) and methanol (1 mL). A solution of 1.0 M HCl in ethyl ether (1.1 equiv for all compounds except 7, for which 2.5 equiv were used) was added dropwise, followed by addition of ethyl ether. The precipitate was collected by filtration to give
N-(5-tert-butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N′-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea dihydrochloride (7) (2.441 g, 98%).
1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 11.0 (br, 1H), 9.68 (s, 1H), 9.26 (s, 1H), 8.66 (s, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (m, 3H), 7.53 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.26 (dd, J = 2.4 and 8.9 Hz, 1H), 6.53 (s, 1H), 4.50 (t, J = 4.1 Hz, 2H), 3.97 (m, 2H), 3.81 (t, J = 12.1 Hz, 2H), 3.6 (overlapping, 4H), 3.23 (m, 2H), 1.30 (s, 9H). LC-MS (ESI) m/z 561 (M + H)+.
Anal. (C29H32N6O4S·2HCl) C, H, N. C: calcd 54.97; found 54.54. H: calcd 5.22; found 5.87. N: calcd 13.26; found 13.16.

References

  1.  Chao, Qi; Sprankle, Kelly G.; Grotzfeld, Robert M.; Lai, Andiliy G.; Carter, Todd A.; Velasco, Anne Marie; Gunawardane, Ruwanthi N.; Cramer, Merryl D.; Gardner, Michael F.; James, Joyce; Zarrinkar, Patrick P.; Patel, Hitesh K.; Bhagwat, Shripad S. (2009). “Identification of N-(5-tert-Butyl-isoxazol-3-yl)-N’-{4-[7-(2-morpholin-4-yl-ethoxy)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]benzothiazol-2-yl]phenyl}urea Dihydrochloride (AC220), a Uniquely Potent, Selective, and Efficacious FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase-3 (FLT3) Inhibitor”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 52 (23): 7808–7816.
  2.  Drug Tames Refractory AML. ASH Dec 2012
  3. NMR……….http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S152601-AC-220-HNMR-Selleck.pdf
  4. HPLC………http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/hplc/S152601-AC-220-HPLC-Selleck.pdf

Figure

 

APREMILAST, … ORALLY ACTIVE PDE4 INHIBITOR


APREMILAST

PDE4 inhibitor

N-{2-[(1S)-1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide

(+)-2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2- methanesulfonylethyl]-4-acetylaminoisoindolin-l,3-dione,

(S)—N-{2-[1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
(S)-N-{2-[1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
Molecular Formula: C22H24N2O7S   Molecular Weight: 460.50016

608141-41-9 CAS NO

Celgene (Originator)
CC-10004 (apremilast) is an oral compound that is being studied in multiple Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. We successfully completed our early stage studies, demonstrating clinical activity and tolerability and meeting safety endpoints in a placebo controlled proof-of mechanism trial in moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. With the initiation of six multi-center international clinical trials, we are advancing the clinical development of CC-10004.

Celgene's apremilast could be game-changer in PsA

CC-10004, , Apremilast (USAN), SureCN302992, Apremilast (CC-10004), QCR-202,

Apremilast is an orally available small molecule inhibitor of PDE4 being developed byCelgene for ankylosing spondylitispsoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis.[1][2] The drug is currently in phase III trials for the three indications. Apremilast, an anti-inflammatory drug, specifically inhibits phosphodiesterase 4. In general the drug works on an intra-cellular basis to moderate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production.

APREMILAST

Apremilast is being tested for its efficacy in treating “psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet’s disease, and rheutmatoid arthritis.

“Apremilast is Celgene’s lead oral phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor and anti-TNF alpha agent in phase III clinical studies at Celgene for the oral treatment of moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis and for the oral treatment of psoriatic arthritis.

Early clinical development is also ongoing for the treatment of acne, Behcet’s disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, prurigo nodularis, ankylosing spondylitis, atopic or contact dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. No recent development has been reported for research for the treatment of skin inflammation associated with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

In 2011, Celgene discontinued development of the compound for the management of vision-threatening uveitis refractory to other modes of systemic immunosuppression due to lack of efficacy.

Celgene had been evaluating the potential of the drug for the treatment of asthma; however, no recent development has been reported for this research. The drug candidate is also in phase II clinical development at the William Beaumont Hospital Research Institute for the treatment of chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome and for the treatment of vulvodynia (vulvar pain).

In 2013, orphan drug designations were assigned to the product in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of Behcet’s disease.

Celgene Corp has been boosted by more impressive late-stage data on apremilast, an oral drug for psoriatic arthritis, this time in previously-untreated patients.

The company is presenting data from the 52-week PALACE 4 Phase III study of apremilast tested in PsA patients who have not taken systemic or biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at the American College of Rheumatology meeting in San Diego. The results from the 527-patient trial show that at week 16, patients on 20mg of the  first-in-class oral inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) achieved an ACR20 (ie a 20% improvement in the condition) response of 29.2% and 32.3% for 30mg aapremilast, compared with 16.9% for those on placebo.

After 52 weeks, 53.4% on the lower dose and 58.7% on 30mg achieved an ACR20 response. ACR50 and 70 was reached by 31.9% and 18.1% of patients, respectively, for apremilast 30mg. The compound was generally well-tolerated and discontinuation rates for diarrhoea and nausea were less than 2% over 52 weeks.

Commenting on the data, Alvin Wells, of the Rheumatology and Immunotherapy Center in Franklin, Wisconsin, noted that apremilast demonstrated long-term safety and tolerability and significant clinical benefit in treatment-naive patients. He added that “these encouraging results suggest that apremilast may have the potential to be used alone and as a first-line therapy”. Celgene is also presenting various pooled data from the first three trials in the PALACE programme which, among other things, shows that apremilast significantly improves swollen and tender joints.

Treatment for PSA, which affects about 30% of the 125 million people worldwide who have psoriasis, currently involves injectable tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, notably AbbVie’s Humira (adalimumab) and Pfizer/Amgen’s Enbrel (etanercept), once patients have not responded to DMARDs (at least in the UK). While the biologics are effective, the side effect profile can be a concern, due to the risk of infection and tuberculosis and many observers believe that apremilast will prove popular with patients and doctors due to the fact that it is oral, not injectable.

Apremilast was filed for PsA with the US Food and Drug Administration in the first quarter and will be submitted on both sides of the Atlantic for psoriasis before year-end. The European filing will also be for PsA.

Apremilast impresses for Behcet’s disease

Celgene has also presented promising Phase II data on apremilast as a treatment for the rare inflammatory disorder Behcet’s disease. 71% of patients achieved complete response at week 12 in clearing oral ulcers

APREMILAST

  1.  “Apremilast Palace Program Demonstrates Robust and Consistent Statistically Significant Clinical Benefit Across Three Pivotal Phase III Studies (PALACE-1, 2 & 3) in Psoriatic Arthritis” (Press release). Celgene Corporation. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  2.  “US HOT STOCKS: OCZ, VeriFone, Men’s Wearhouse, AK Steel, Celgene”The Wall Street Journal. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-06.
  3. Discovery of (S)-N-[2-[1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl] acetamide (apremilast), a potent and orally active phosphodiesterase 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor.

    Man HW, Schafer P, Wong LM, Patterson RT, Corral LG, Raymon H, Blease K, Leisten J, Shirley MA, Tang Y, Babusis DM, Chen R, Stirling D, Muller GW.

    J Med Chem. 2009 Mar 26;52(6):1522-4. doi: 10.1021/jm900210d.

  4. Therapeutics: Silencing psoriasis.Crow JM.Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):S58-9. doi: 10.1038/492S58a. No abstract available.
  5. NMR…http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S803401-Apremilast-HNMR-Selleck.pdf
  6. WO 2003080049
  7. WO 2013126495
  8. WO 2013126360
  9. WO 2003080049
  10. WO 2006065814
  11. US2003/187052 A1 …..MP 144 DEG CENT
  12. US2007/155791
  13. J. Med. Chem.200851 (18), pp 5471–5489
    DOI: 10.1021/jm800582j
  14. J. Med. Chem.201154 (9), pp 3331–3347
    DOI: 10.1021/jm200070e

…………………………………………

INTRODUCTION

2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione is a PDE4 inhibitor that is currently under investigation as an anti-inflammatory for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis and other allergic, autoimmune and rheumatologic conditions. S-enantiomer form of 2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione can be prepared by reacting (5)-aminosulfone 1 with intermediate 2.

Figure imgf000003_0001

Existing methods for synthesizing (S)-aminosulfone 1 involve resolution of the corresponding racemic aminosulfone by techniques known in the art. Examples include the formation and crystallization of chiral salts, and the use of chiral high performance liquid chromatography. See, e.g., Jacques, J., et al., Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1981); Wilen, S. H., et al, Tetrahedron 33:2725 (1977); Eliel, E. L., Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds (McGraw Hill, NY, 1962); and Wilen, S. H., Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions p. 268 (E.L. Eliel, Ed., Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN, 1972). In one example, as depicted in Scheme 1 below, (5)-aminosulfone 1 is prepared by resolution of racemic aminosulfone 3 with N-Ac-L-Leu. Racemic aminosulfone 3 is prepared by converting 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile 4 to enamine intermediate 5 followed by enamine reduction and borate hydrolysis. This process has been reported in U.S. Patent

Application Publication No. 2010/0168475.

Figure imgf000003_0002

CH2CI2, NaOH

Figure imgf000003_0003

Scheme 1

The procedure for preparing an enantiomerically enriched or enantiomerically pure aminosulfone, such as compound 1, may be inefficient because it involves the resolution of racemic aminosulfone 3. Thus, a need exists as to asymmetric synthetic processes for the preparation of an enantiomerically enriched or enantiomerically pure aminosulfone, particularly for manufacturing scale production. Direct catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of a suitable enamine or ketone intermediate is of particular interest because it eliminates the need for either classic resolution or the use of stoichiometric amount of chiral auxiliary, and thus, may be synthetically efficient and economical.

……………………………………….

SYNTHESIS OF KEY INTERMEDIATE

WO2013126495A2

Example 1

Synthesis of 1 -(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine

Figure imgf000058_0001

[00232] A slurry of dimethylsulfone (85 g, 903 mmol) in THF (480 ml) was treated with a

1.6M solution of n-butyllithium in hexane (505 ml, 808 mmol) at 0 – 5 °C. The resulting mixture was agitated for 1 hour then a solution of 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (80 g, 451 mmol) in THF (240 ml) was added at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was agitated at 0 – 5 °C for 0.5 hour, warmed to 25 – 30 °C over 0.5 hour and then agitated for 1 hour. Water (1.4 L) was added at 25 – 30 °C and the reaction mass was agitated overnight at room temperature (20 – 30 °C). The solid was filtered and subsequently washed with a 2: 1 mixture of water :THF (200 ml), water (200 ml) and heptane (2 x 200 ml). The solid was dried under reduced pressure at 40 – 45 °C to provide the product as a white solid (102 g, 83% yield); 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 1.34 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 4.08 (q, J=7.0 Hz, 2H), 5.03 (s, 1H), 6.82 (s, 2H), 7.01 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 – 7.22 (m, 2H).

Example 2

Synthesis of (R)- 1 -(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanamine

Figure imgf000059_0001

[00233] A solution of bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (36 mg, 0.074 mmol) and (i?)-l-[(5)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyldi-tert-butylphosphine (40 mg, 0.074 mmol) in 25 mL of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was prepared under nitrogen. To this solution was then charged l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine (2.0 g, 7.4 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 50 °C and hydrogenated under 90 psig hydrogen pressure. After 18 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and removed from the hydrogenator. The mixture was evaporated and the residue was purified by chromatography on a CI 8 reverse phase column using a water-acetonitrile gradient. The appropriate fractions were pooled and evaporated to -150 mL. To this solution was added brine (20 mL), and the resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgS04) and evaporated to provide the product as a white crystalline solid (1.4 g, 70% yield); achiral HPLC (Hypersil BDS C8, 5.0 μπι, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.5 mL/min, 278nm, 90/10 gradient to 80/20 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over 10 min then gradient to 10/90 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over the next 15 min): 9.11 (99.6%); chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H 5.0 μιη Daicel, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.0 mL/min, 280 nm, 70:30:0.1 heptane-z-PrOH-diethylamine): 7.32 (97.5%), 8.26 (2.47%); 1H NMR (DMSO-de) δ 1.32 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.08 (s, 2H), 2.96 (s, 3H), 3.23 (dd, J= 3.6, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.41 (dd, J= 9.4, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.26 (dd, J= 3.7, 9.3 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (s, 2H), 7.02 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 14.77, 41.98, 50.89, 55.54, 62.03, 63.68, 111.48, 111.77, 118.36, 137.30, 147.93, 148.09. Example 3

Synthesis of (6 -l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanamine N-Ac-L-Leu salt

Figure imgf000060_0001

[00234] A solution of bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (17 mg, 0.037 mmol) and (5)-l-[(i?)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyldi-tert-butylphosphine (20 mg, 0.037 mmol) in 10 mL of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was prepared under nitrogen. To this solution was then charged l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine (2.0 g, 7.4 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 50 °C and hydrogenated under 90 psig hydrogen pressure. After 18 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and removed from the hydrogenator. Ecosorb C-941 (200 mg) was added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite, and the filter was washed with additional trifluoroethanol (2 mL). Then, the mixture was heated to 55 °C, and a solution of N- acetyl-L-leucine (1.3 g, 7.5 mmol) was added dropwise over the course of 1 h. Stirring proceeded at the same temperature for 1 h following completion of the addition, and then the mixture was cooled to 22 °C over 2 h and stirred at this temperature for 16 h. The crystalline product was filtered, rinsed with methanol (2 x 5 mL), and dried under vacuum at 45 °C to provide the product as a white solid (2.6 g, 80% yield); achiral HPLC (Hypersil BDS Cg, 5.0 μιη, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.5 mL/min, 278nm, 90/10 gradient to 80/20 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over 10 min then gradient to 10/90 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over the next 15 min): 8.57 (99.8%); chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H 5.0 μιη Daicel, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.0 mL/min, 280 nm, 70:30:0.1 heptane-z-PrOH-diethylamine): 8.35 (99.6%); 1H NMR (DMSO-<¾) δ 0.84 (d, 3H), 0.89 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.33 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.41 – 1.52 (m, 2H), 1.62 (dt, J= 6.7, 13.5 Hz, 1H), 1.83 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 3.28 (dd, J= 4.0, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.44 (dd, J= 9.1, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (q, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H), 4.18 (q, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J= 4.0, 9.1 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (br, 3H), 6.90 (s, 2H), 7.04 (s, 1H), 8.04 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H); Anal. (C20H34N2O7S) C, H, N. Calcd C, 53.79; H, 7.67; N 6.27. Found C, 53.78; H, 7.57; N 6.18.

SUBSEQUENT CONVERSION

S-enantiomer form of 2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione can be prepared by reacting (5)-aminosulfone 1 with intermediate 2.

Figure imgf000003_0001

……………………………………

APREMILAST

GENERAL SYNTHESIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APREMILAST

WO2012083153A1

Figure imgf000044_0001

Figure imgf000044_0002

Figure imgf000044_0004

(apremilast)

[0145] Preparation of 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound 2). 3-Ethoxy-

4-methoxybenzaldehyde (Compound 1, 10.0 gm, 54.9 mmol, Aldrich) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (4.67 gm, 65.9 mmol, Aldrich) were charged to a 250 mL three-necked flask at room temperature, followed by the addition of anhydrous acetonitrile (50 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for thirty minutes and then heated to reflux (oil bath at 85 °C). After two hours of reflux, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and added 50 mL of deionized water. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove acetonitrile and then transferred to a separatory funnel with an additional 80 mL of deionized water and 80 mL dichloromethane. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed successively with water (80 mL) and saturated sodium chloride (80 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (approximately 20 gm). The organic layer was filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a yellow oil. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0 to 1 % MeOH/DCM ) afforded 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile

(Compound 2) as a white solid (7.69 gm, 79 % yield). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 178.1 (M + 1). HPLC indicated >99% purity by peak area. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾: δ ppm 1.32 (t, 3H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 4.05 (q, 2H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H).

[0146] Preparation of l-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyi)-2-

(niethylsulfonyl)ethanamine (Compound 3). Dimethyl sulfone (2.60 gm, 27.1 mmol, Aldrich) and tetrahydrofuran (10 mL, Aldrich) were charged to a 250 mL three-necked flask at room temperature. The mixture was cooled to 0 – 5 °C, and the solution gradually turned white. n-Butyllithium (10.8 mL, 27.1 mmol, 2.5 M solution in hexanes, Aldrich) was added to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 5 – 10 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for one hour, turning light-yellow. 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound 2, 4.01 gm, 22.5 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (8 mL) was then charged to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for another 15 minutes. After warming to room temperature, the reaction mixture was stirred for another 1.5 hours and then transferred to a second 250 mL three-necked flask containing a suspension of sodium borohydride (1.13 gm, 29.3 mmol, Aldrich) in

tetrahydrofuran (1 1 mL), maintained at – 5 – 0 °C for 30 minutes. Trifluoroacetic acid (“TFA,” 5.26 mL, 68.3 mmol, Aldrich) was charged to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 40 minutes and an additional 17 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then charged with 2.7 mL of deionized water over five minutes at room temperature. The mxiture was stirred at room temperature for 15 hours. Aqueous NaOH (10 N, 4.9 mL) was charged to the flask over 15 minutes at 45 °C. The mixture was stirred at 45 °C for two hours, at 60 °C for 1.5 hours, and at room temperature overnight. After approximately 17 hours at room temperature the mixture was cooled to 0 °C for thirty minutes and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residual material was charged with deionized water (3 mL) and absolute ethanol (3 mL) and stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 2 hours. The mixture was filtered under vacuum, and the filtered solid was washed with cold absolute ethanol (3 x 5 mL), followed by deionized water until the pH of the wash was about 8. The solid was air dried overnight, and then in a vacuum oven at 60 °C for 17 hours to afford Compound 3 as a white solid (4.75 gm, 77 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 274.1 (M + 1). Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾): δ ppm 1.32 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.08 (bs, 2H), 2.95 (s, 3H), 3.23 (dd, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (dd, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 4.01 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (s, 2H), 7.02 (s, 1H).

[0147] Preparation of 4-Nitroisobenzofuran-l,3-dione (Compound 5). Into a 250 mL round bottom flask, fitted with a reflux condenser, was placed 3-nitrophthalic acid (21.0 gm, 99 mmol, Aldrich) and acetic anhydride (18.8 mL, 199 mmol, Aldrich). The solid mixture was heated to 85 °C, under nitrogen, with gradual melting of the solids. The yellow mixture was heated at 85 °C for 15 minutes, and there was noticeable thickening of the mixture. After 15 minutes at 85 °C, the hot mixture was poured into a weighing dish, and allowed to cool. The yellow solid was grinded to a powder and then placed on a cintered funnel, under vacuum. The solid was washed with diethyl ether (3 x 15 mL), under vacuum and allowed to air dry overnight, to afford 4-nitroisobenzofuran-l ,3-dione, Compound 5, as a light-yellow solid (15.8 gm, 82 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 194.0 (M + 1). TLC: Rf = 0.37 (10% MeOH/DCM with 2 drops Acetic acid) Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-i¾: δ ppm 8.21 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 8.39 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H).

[0148] Preparation of 2-(l-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyI)-2-

(methylsulfonyl)ethyl)-4-nitroisoindoline-l,3-dione (Compound 6). Into a 2 – 5 mL microwave vial was added 4-nitroisobenzofuran-l ,3-dione (Compound 5, 0.35 gm, 1.82 mmol), the amino-sulfone intermediate (Compound 3, 0.50 gm, 1.82 mmol) and 4.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. The mixture was placed in a microwave at 125 °C for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes the acetic acid was removed under reduced pressure. The yellow oil was taken up in ethyl acetate and applied to a 10 gm snap Biotage samplet. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0 to 20 % Ethyl Acetate/Hexanes) afforded Compound 6 as a light-yellow solid (0.67 gm, 82 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 449.0 (M + 1). TLC: Rf = 0.19

(EtOAc:Hexanes, 1 : 1). HPLC indicated 99% purity by peak area. Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾: δ ppm 1.32 (t, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (m, 2H), 4.21 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (d, J – 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (t, J = 15.5 Hz, 1H), 8.19 (dd, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (dd, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H).

[0149] Preparation of 4-Amino-2-(l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-

(methylsulfonyl)ethyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione (Compound 7). Compound 6 (0.54 gm, 1.20 mmol) was taken up in ethyl acetate / acetone (1 : 1 , 24 mL) and flowed through the H-cube™ hydrogen reactor using a 10 % Pd/C CatCart™ catalyst cartridge system (ThalesNano, Budapest Hungary). After eluting, the yellow solvent was concentrated under reduced pressure to give Compound 7 as a yellow foam solid (0.48 gm, 95 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 419.1 (M + 1). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-<¾): δ ppm 1.31 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 4.04 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.09 (m, 1H), 4.34 (m, 1H), 5.71 (dd, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 6.52 (bs, 2H), 6.92-6.98 (m, 3H), 7.06 (bs, 1 H), 7.42 (dd, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H).

[0150] Preparation of N-(2-(l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-

(methylsuIfonyl)ethyl)-l,3-dioxoisoindolin-4-yl)acetamide (Apremilast, Compound 8).

Into a 2-5 mL microwave vial was placed Compound 7 (0.18 gm, 0.43 mmol), acetic anhydride (0.052 mL, 0.53 mmol) and acetic acid (4 mL). The microwave vial was placed into a Biotage microwave and heated to 125 °C for 30 minutes. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0 to 5% MeOH/DCM) to afford apremilast (Compound 8) as a yellow oil (0.14 gm, 71%). HPLC indicated 94.6% purity by peak area.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c 6): δ ppm 1.31 (t, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 3.01 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.01 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4,14 (dd, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 5.76 (dd, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (m, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 9.72 (bs, 1H).

……………………..

SYNTHESIS

EP2501382A1

5. EXAMPLES

Certain embodiments provided herein are illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.

5.1 PREPARATION OF (+)-2-[l-(3-ETHOXY-4-METHOXYPHENYL)-2- METHANESULFONYLETHYLJ-4- ACETYL AMINOISOINDOLIN-1,3- DIONE (APREMILAST)

Figure imgf000021_0001

5.1.1 Preparation of 3-aminopthalic acid

10% Pd/C (2.5 g), 3-nitrophthalic acid (75.0 g, 355 mmol) and ethanol (1.5 L) were charged to a 2.5 L Parr hydrogenator under a nitrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen was charged to the reaction vessel for up to 55 psi. The mixture was shaken for 13 hours, maintaining hydrogen pressure between 50 and 55 psi. Hydrogen was released and the mixture was purged with nitrogen 3 times. The suspension was filtered through a celite bed and rinsed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The resulting solid was reslurried in ether and isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was dried in vacua to a constant weight, affording 54 g (84%> yield) of 3-aminopthalic acid as a yellow product. 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 3.17 (s, 2H), 6.67 (d, 1H), 6.82 (d, 1H), 7.17 (t, 1H), 8-10 (brs, 2H). 13C-NMR(DMSO-d6) δ: 112.00, 115.32, 118.20, 131.28, 135.86, 148.82, 169.15, 170.09.

5.1.2 Preparation of 3-acetamidopthalic anhydride

A I L 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and condenser and charged with 3-aminophthalic acid (108 g, 596 mmol) and acetic anhydride (550 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 3 hours and cooled to ambient temperature and further to 0-5. degree. C. for another 1 hour. The crystalline solid was collected by vacuum filtration and washed with ether. The solid product was dried in vacua at ambient temperature to a constant weight, giving 75 g (61% yield) of 3-acetamidopthalic anhydride as a white product. 1H-NMR (CDCI3) δ: 2.21 (s, 3H), 7.76 (d, 1H), 7.94 (t, 1H), 8.42 (d, 1H), 9.84 (s, 1H).

5.1.3 Resolution of 2-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)- ethyl-2-amine

A 3 L 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and condenser and charged with 2-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-ylamine (137.0 g, 500 mmol), N-acetyl-L-leucine (52 g, 300 mmol), and methanol (1.0 L). The stirred slurry was heated to reflux for 1 hour. The stirred mixture was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and stirring was continued for another 3 hours at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered and washed with methanol (250 mL). The solid was air-dried and then dried in vacuo at ambient temperature to a constant weight, giving 109.5 g (98% yield) of the crude product (85.8% ee). The crude solid (55.0 g) and methanol (440 mL) were brought to reflux for 1 hour, cooled to room temperature and stirred for an additional 3 hours at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake was washed with methanol (200 mL). The solid was air-dried and then dried in vacuo at 30°C. to a constant weight, yielding 49.6 g (90%> recovery) of (S)-2-(3-ethoxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-ylamine-N-acety 1-L-leucine salt (98.4% ee). Chiral HPLC (1/99 EtOH/20 mM KH2P04 @pH 7.0, Ultron Chiral ES-OVS from Agilent Technologies, 150 mm.times.4.6 mm, 0.5 mL/min., @240 nm): 18.4 min (S-isomer, 99.2%), 25.5 min (R-isomer, 0.8%)

5.1.4 Preparation of (+)-2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2- methanesulfonylethyl] -4-acetylaminoisoindolin- 1 ,3-dione

A 500 mL 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer,

thermometer, and condenser. The reaction vessel was charged with (S)-2-(3-ethoxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-yl amine N-acetyl-L-leucine salt (25 g, 56 mmol, 98% ee), 3-acetamidophthalic anhydride (12.1 g, 58.8 mmol), and glacial acetic acid (250 mL). The mixture was refluxed over night and then cooled to <50°C. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate. The resulting solution was washed with water (250 mL x

2), saturated aqeous NaHC03 (250 mL.times.2), brine (250 mL.times.2), and dried over sodium sulphate. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo, and the residue recrystallized from a binary solvent containing ethanol (150 mL) and acetone (75 mL). The solid was isolated by vacuum filtration and washed with ethanol (100 mL.times.2). The product was dried in vacuo at 60°C. to a constant weight, affording 19.4 g (75% yield) of Compound 3 APREMILAST with 98% ee. Chiral HPLC (15/85 EtOH/20 mM KH2P04 @pH 3.5, Ultron Chiral ES-OVS from Agilent Technology, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 0.4 mL/min., @240 nm): 25.4 min (S-isomer, 98.7%), 29.5 min (R-isomer, 1.2%).

1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.47 (t, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 3.68-3.75 (dd, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.07-4.15 (q, 2H), 4.51-4.61 (dd, 1H), 5.84-5.90 (dd, 1H), 6.82-8.77 (m, 6H), 9.46 (s, 1H).

13C-NMR(DMSO-d6) δ: 14.66, 24.92, 41.61, 48.53, 54.46, 55.91, 64.51, 111.44, 112.40, 115.10, 118.20, 120.28, 124.94, 129.22, 131.02, 136.09, 137.60, 148.62, 149.74, 167.46, 169.14, 169.48.

…………………………………..

NMR

US20100129363

1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.47 (t, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 3.68-3.75 (dd, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.07-4.15 (q, 2H), 4.51-4.61 (dd, 1H), 5.84-5.90 (dd, 1H), 6.82-8.77 (m, 6H), 9.46 (s, 1H). 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 14.66, 24.92, 41.61, 48.53, 54.46, 55.91, 64.51, 111.44, 112.40, 115.10, 118.20, 120.28, 124.94, 129.22, 131.02, 136.09, 137.60, 148.62, 149.74, 167.46, 169.14, 169.48.

…………….

APREMILAST

J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52 (6), pp 1522–1524
DOI: 10.1021/jm900210d

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) LiN(SiMe3)2, then Me2SO2/n-BuLi/BF3Et2O, −78 °C; (b) N-Ac-l-leucine, MeOH; (c) HOAc, reflux.

……………………

SARCOIDOSIS

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause. Sarcoidosis is characterized by the presence of granulomas in one or more organ systems. The most common sites of involvement are the lungs and the lymph nodes in the mediastinum and hilar regions. However, sarcoidosis is a systemic disease and a variety of organ systems or tissues may be the source of primary or concomitant clinical manifestations and morbidity. The clinical course of sarcoidosis is extremely variable, and ranges from a mild or even asymptomatic disease with spontaneous resolution to a chronic progressive disease leading to organ system failure and, in 1-5% of cases, death. See Cecil

Textbook of Medicine, 21st ed. (Goldman, L., Bennett, J. C. eds), W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000, p. 433-436.

While the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, a substantial body of information suggests that immune mechanisms are important in disease pathogenesis. For example, sarcoidosis is

characterized by enhanced lymphocyte and macrophage activity. See Thomas, P.D. and

Hunninghake, G.W., Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1987, 135: 747-760. As sarcoidosis progresses, skin rashes, erythema nodosum and granulomas may form. Granulomas or fibrosis caused by sarcoidosis can occur throughout the body, and may affect the function of vital organs such as the lungs, heart, nervous system, liver or kidneys. In these cases, the sarcoidosis can be fatal. See

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/sarcoidosis.html (accessed November 12, 2009).

Moreover, a variety of exogenous agents, both infectious and non-infectious, have been hypothesized as a possible cause of sarcoidosis. See Vokurka et ah, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997, 156: 1000-1003; Popper et al, Hum. Pathol, 1997, 28: 796-800; Almenoff et al, Thorax, 1996, 51 : 530-533; Baughman et al., Lancet, 2003, 361 : 1111-1118. These agents include mycobaceria, fungi, spirochetes, and the agent associated with Whipple’s disease. Id.

Sarcoidosis may be acute or chronic. Specific types of sarcoidosis include, but are not limited to, cardiac sarcoidosis, cutaneous sarcoidosis, hepatic sarcoidosis, oral sarcoidosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, neurosarcoidosis, sinonasal sarcoidosis, Lofgren’s syndrome, lupus pernio, uveitis or chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis.

As the lung is constantly confronted with airborne substances, including pathogens, many researchers have directed their attention to identification of potential causative transmissible agents and their contribution to the mechanism of pulmonary granuloma formation associated with sarcoidosis. See Conron, M. and Du Bois, R.M., Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2001, 31 : 543-554; Agostini et al, Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. , 2002, 8: 435-440.

Corticosteroid drugs are the primary treatment for the inflammation and granuloma formation associated with sarcoidosis. Rizatto et al. , Respiratory Medicine, 1997, 91 : 449-460. Prednisone is most often prescribed drug for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Additional drugs used to treat sarcoidosis include methotrexate, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, doxycycline and chloroquin. TNF-a blockers such as thalidomide and infliximab have been reported to be effective in treating patients with sarcoidosis. Baughman et al, Chest, 2002, 122: 227-232; Doty et al, Chest, 2005, 127: 1064-1071. Antibiotics have also been studied for the treatment of sarcoidosis, such as penicillin antibiotics, cephalosporin antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, lincomycin antibiotics, and tetracycline antibiotics. Specific examples include minocycline hydrochloride, clindamycin, ampicillin, or clarithromycin. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0111956.

There currently lacks a Food and Drug Administration-approved therapeutic agent for the treatment of sarcoidosis, and many patients are unable to tolerate the side effects of the standard corticosteroid therapy. See Doty et al, Chest, 2005, 127: 1064-1071. Furthermore, many cases of sarcoidosis are refractory to standard therapy. Id. Therefore, a demand exists for new methods and compositions that can be used to treat patients with sarcoidosis.

……………..

PATENTS

8-15-2012
PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF AMINOSULFONE COMPOUNDS
11-4-2011
HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS AS PHOSPHODIESTERASE INHIBITORS
5-27-2011
Nanosuspension of a Poorly Soluble Drug via Microfluidization Process
5-28-2010
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS USING PDE4 INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CANCERS

 

 

 

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

need help, email or call me

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
web link

I was  paralysed in dec2007, Posts dedicated to my family, my organisation Glenmark, Your readership keeps me going and brings smiles to my family

 

Advaxis’s cancer vaccine gets FDA orphan status for treatment of HPV-associated head and neck cancer


US-based clinical-stage biotechnology firm Advaxis has received orphan drug designation from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its lead drug candidate ADXS-HPV to treat human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancer patients.

Advaxis’s cancer vaccine gets FDA orphan status for treatment of HPV-associated head and neck cancer

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsadvaxis-cancer-vaccine-gets-fda-orphan-status-treatment-hpv-associated-head-neck-cancer?WT.mc_id=DN_News

PRINCETON, N.J., Nov 05, 2013 (BUSINESS WIRE) — Advaxis, Inc., /quotes/zigman/23528806/delayed/quotes/nls/adxs ADXS +2.61% , a leader in developing the next generation of cancer immunotherapies, announced that it has been granted Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD) for ADXS-HPV, its lead drug candidate, for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancer.

Orphan Drug Designation is granted to drug therapies intended to treat diseases or conditions that affect fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Orphan Drug Designation entitles the sponsor to clinical protocol assistance with the FDA, as well as federal grants, tax credits, and potentially a seven year market exclusivity period.

“We are very pleased to have been granted an orphan drug designation for ADXS-HPV in this unmet medical need,” commented Dr. Robert Petit, Chief Scientific Officer of Advaxis. “Patients with head and neck cancer have limited treatment options and we hope to improve their survival by developing ADXS-HPV for this indication. We plan to initiate an additional Phase 1/2 study in early stage head and neck cancer for ADXS-HPV with a nationally recognized center of excellence, and we will continue the ongoing Phase 1 study being sponsored by the University of Liverpool and Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust that is evaluating the safety and efficacy of ADXS-HPV when combined with standard chemotherapy and radiation treatment in patients with head and neck cancer.”

“Receiving orphan drug designation for ADXS-HPV in head and neck cancer is excellent news for a technology that may offer the potential to treat an indication with few therapy options, and, importantly, it helps define a clear path forward to registration,” commented Daniel J. O’Connor, President and Chief Executive Officer of Advaxis.

About Orphan Drug Designation

Under the Orphan Drug Act (ODA), the FDA may grant orphan designation to a drug or biological product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally a disease or condition that affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug or biological product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product. The benefits of orphan drug designation can be substantial and include federal grants, tax credits, and potentially a seven year market exclusivity period once the product is approved, provided that the product is first to market.

In order for a sponsor to obtain orphan designation for a drug or biological product, an application must be submitted to OOPD, and the designation approved. The approval of an application for orphan designation is based upon the information submitted by the sponsor. A drug that has obtained orphan designation is said to have “orphan status.” Each designation request must stand on its own merit. Sponsors requesting designation of the same drug for the same indication as a previously designated product must submit their own data in support of their designation request. The approval of an orphan designation request does not alter the standard regulatory requirements and process for obtaining marketing approval. Safety and efficacy of a compound must be established through adequate and well-controlled studies.

About ADXS-HPV

ADXS-HPV is an immunotherapy that is designed to target cells expressing the HPV gene E7. Expression of the E7 gene from high-risk HPV variants is responsible for the transformation of infected cells into dysplastic and malignant tissues. Eliminating these cells can eliminate the dysplasia or malignancy. ADXS-HPV is designed to infect antigen-presenting cells and direct them to generate a powerful, cellular immune response to HPV E7. The resulting cytotoxic Tcells infiltrate and attack the tumors while specifically inhibiting tumor Tregs and MDSCs in the tumors that are protecting it.

About Head and Neck Cancer

Cancer of the head and neck includes cancers arising from mucosa lining the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, sinonasal tract, and nasopharynx. The most common histologic type observed is squamous cell carcinoma; therefore, the term “head and neck squamous cell carcinoma” (HNSCC) is frequently used to imply squamous cell carcinomas involving these anatomical sites. Excessive tobacco and alcohol are important risk factors for HNSCCs overall, but human papillomavirus (HPV) is now recognized as the causative agent in a subset of HNSCCs.

While the incidence of head and neck cancers that are linked to alcohol and tobacco use as the primary risk factor has fallen in the past three decades, a trend attributed to decreasing tobacco use in the United States, the incidence of HPV-associated head and neck cancer has been increasing. The increase was observed particularly among young individuals (<60 years of age), men, and Caucasians. Studies have shown that oral HPV infection is likely to be sexually acquired, as the increase in the incidence of HPV-associated head and neck cancers may be attributed to changing sexual practices. According to the World Health Organization’s Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers in the World Summary Report 2010, HPV is associated with 20-50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. HPV-associated head and neck cancer is growing at an epidemic rate in western countries; and occurs more frequently (3:1) in men than women. In the United States, the number of HPV-positive head and neck cancer cases has already equaled the number of cervical cancer cases.

About Advaxis, Inc.

Advaxis is a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing the next generation of immunotherapies for cancer and infectious diseases. Advaxis immunotherapies are based on a novel platform technology using live, attenuated bacteria that are bio-engineered to secrete an antigen/adjuvant fusion protein(s) that is designed to redirect the powerful immune response all human beings have to the bacterium to the cancer itself.

ADXS-HPV is currently being evaluated in four clinical trials for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers: recurrent/refractory cervical cancer (India), locally advanced cervical cancer (GOG/NCI U.S. study, Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01266460), head & neck cancer (CRUK study, Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01598792), and anal cancer (BrUOG study, Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT01671488). Advaxis has over 15 distinct immunotherapies in various stages of development, developed directly by Advaxis and through strategic collaborations with recognized centers of excellence such as: the University of Pennsylvania, the Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Brown University Oncology Group, and others.

ADXS-HPV is currently in Phase 1/2 clinical development for recurrent/refractory and advanced cervical cancer, HPV caused head and neck cancers, and anal cancer.

Links to ADXS-HPV trials:

ADXS-HPV is an immunotherapy that is designed to target cells expressing the HPV gene E7. Expression of the E7 gene from high-risk HPV variants is responsible for the transformation of infected cells into dysplastic and malignant tissues. Eliminating these cells can eliminate the dysplasia or malignancy. ADXS-HPV is designed to infect antigen-presenting cells and direct them to generate a powerful, cellular immune response to HPV E7. The resulting cytotoxic Tcells infiltrate and attack the tumors while specifically inhibiting tumor Tregs and MDSCs in the tumors that are protecting it.

The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be about 12,340 newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases and 7,060 newly diagnosed cases of anal cancer in the U.S. in 2013.

In 2009, the CDC reported that about 45% of women aged 20 to 24 had HPV.  HPV causes a number of different types of cancer. The same types of genital HPV that cause cervical cancer (HPV-16, HPV-18) cause about 8 out of 10 squamous cell anal cancers. In addition, nearly half of cancers of the vulva and about 7 out of 10 vaginal cancers are HPV-related. Some other genital cancers (cancers of the penis and urethra) and some head and neck cancers (mostly the throat, tongue, and tonsils) are also related to high-risk types of HPV. For additional information about HPV, please visit: http://www.cancer.org/.

 

home business

back to home for more updates

 

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

amcrasto@gmail.com

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA
%d bloggers like this: