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Labetalol Hydrochloride, ラベタロール ,



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ChemSpider 2D Image | Labetalol | C19H24N2O3



  • Molecular FormulaC19H24N2O3
  • Average mass328.405 Da

Labetalol hydrochloride, AH-5158A, Sch-15719W, Amipress, Trandate, Normodyne

Labetalol was granted FDA approval on 1 August 1984

Presolol; (RS)-2-Hydroxy-5-{1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl}benzamide; 5-[1-Hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenyl propyl)amino]ethyl]salicylamide

A salicylamide derivative that is a non-cardioselective blocker of BETA-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and ALPHA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS.

253-258-3 [EINECS]
2-Hydroxy-5-{1-hydroxy-2-[(4-phenyl-2-butanyl)amino]ethyl}benzamide [ACD/IUPAC Name]
36894-69-6 [RN]
Benzamide, 2-hydroxy-5-(1-hydroxy-2-((1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino)ethyl)-
Benzamide, 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]- [ACD/Index Name]
  • AH 5158
  • Albetol
  • EC 253-258-3
  • EINECS 253-258-3
  • HSDB 6537
  • Ibidomide
  • Labetalol
  • Labetalolum
  • Labetalolum [INN-Latin]
  • Labetolol
  • SCH 15719W
  • UNII-R5H8897N95
Labetalol hydrochloride >98% (TLC), powder

Labetalol hydrochloride

  • CAS Number 32780-64-6,
  • Empirical Formula (Hill Notation) C19H24N2O3 · HCl,
  • Molecular Weight 364.87


Image result for labetalol


CAS 75659-07-3

  • (R,R)-Labetalol
  • Dilevalol
  • Dilevalolum
  • Dilevalolum [Latin]
  • UNII-P6629XE33T

Labetalol is a racemic mixture of 2 diastereoisomers where dilevalol, the R,R’ stereoisomer, makes up 25% of the mixture.8 Labetalol is formulated as an injection or tablets to treat hypertension

Labetalol is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and in long term management of angina.[1][2] This includes essential hypertension, hypertensive emergencies, and hypertension of pregnancy.[2] In essential hypertension it is generally less preferred than a number of other blood pressure medications.[1] It can be given by mouth or by injection into a vein.[1]

Common side effects include low blood pressure with standing, dizziness, feeling tired, and nausea.[1] Serious side effects may include low blood pressureliver problemsheart failure, and bronchospasm.[1] Use appears safe in the latter part of pregnancy and it is not expected to cause problems during breastfeeding.[2][3] It works by blocking the activation of β-receptors and α-receptors.[1]

Labetalol was patented in 1966 and came into medical use in 1977.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[2] A month supply in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about 8 £ as of 2019.[2] In the United States the wholesale cost of this amount is about US$12.[5] In 2016 it was the 233rd most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 2

Medical uses

Labetalol is effective in the management of hypertensive emergencies, postoperative hypertension, pheochromocytoma-associated hypertension, and rebound hypertension from beta blocker withdrawal. [7]

It has a particular indication in the treatment of pregnancy-induced hypertension which is commonly associated with pre-eclampsia[8]

It is also used as an alternative in the treatment of severe hypertension.[7]

Special populations

Pregnancy: studies in lab animals showed no harm to the baby. However, a comparable well-controlled study has not been performed in pregnant women.[9]

Nursing: breast milk has been shown to contain small amounts of labetalol (0.004% original dose). Prescribers should be cautious in the use of labetalol for nursing mothers.[9]

Pediatric: no studies have established safety or usefulness in this population.[9]

Geriatric: the elderly are more likely to experience dizziness when taking labetalol. Labetalol should be dosed with caution in the elderly and counseled on this side effect.[9]

Side effects


Low blood pressure with standing is more severe and more common with IV formulation (58% vs 1%[9]) and is often the reason larger doses of the oral formulation cannot be used.[10]



Labetalol is contraindicated in people with overt cardiac failure, greater-than-first-degree heart block, severe bradycardiacardiogenic shock, severe hypotension, anyone with a history of obstructive airway disease including asthma, and those with hypersensitivity to the drug.[12]


The minimum requirement for adrenergic agents is a primary or secondary amine separated from a substituted benzene ring by one or two carbons.[13] This configuration results in strong agonist activity. As the size of the substituent attached to the amine becomes greater, particularly with respect to a t-butyl group, then the molecule typically is found to have receptor affinity without intrinsic activity, and is, therefore, an antagonist.[13] Labetalol, with its 1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl substituted amine, is greater in size relative to a t-butyl group and therefore acts predominantly as an antagonist. The overall structure of labetalol is very polar. This was created by substituting the isopropyl group in the standard beta-blocker structure with an aralkyl group, including a carboxamide group on the meta position, and by adding a hydroxyl group on the para position.[14]

Labetalol has two chiral carbons and consequently exists as four stereoisomers.[15] Two of these isomers, the (S,S)- and (R,S)- forms are inactive. The third, the (S,R)-isomer, is a powerful α1 blocker. The fourth isomer, the (R,R)-isomer which is also known as dilevalol, is a mixed nonselective β blocker and selective α1 blocker.[14] Labetalol is typically given as a racemic mixture to achieve both alpha and beta receptor blocking activity.[16]

Stereoisomers of labetalol
(RR)-Labetalol Structural Formula V1.svg
CAS number: 75659-07-3
(SS)-Labetalol Structural Formula V1.svg
CAS number: 83167-24-2
(RS)-Labetalol Structural Formula V1.svg
CAS number: 83167-32-2
(SR)-Labetalol Structural Formula V1.svg
CAS number: 83167-31-1

Labetalol acts by blocking alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, resulting in decreased peripheral vascular resistance without significant alteration of heart rate or cardiac output.

The β:α antagonism of labetalol is approximately 3:1.[17][18]

It is chemically designated in International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature as 2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]benzamide monohydrochloride.[16][19]


Mechanism of action

Labetalol’s dual alpha and beta adrenergic antagonism has different physiological effects in short- and long-term situations. In short-term, acute situations, labetalol decreases blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance with little effect on stroke volume, heart rate and cardiac output.[20] During long-term use, labetalol can reduce heart rate during exercise while maintaining cardiac output by an increase in stroke volume.[21]

Labetalol is a dual alpha (α1) and beta (β1/β2) adrenergic receptor blocker and competes with other Catecholamines for binding to these sites.[22] Its action on these receptors are potent and reversible.[12] Labetalol is highly selective for postsynaptic alpha1- adrenergic, and non-selective for beta-adrenergic receptors. It is about equipotent in blocking both beta1- and beta2- receptors.[14]

The amount of alpha to beta blockade depends on whether labetalol is administered orally or intravenously (IV). Orally, the ratio of alpha to β blockade is 1:3. Intravenously, alpha to β blockade ratio is 1:7.[14][12] Thus, the labetalol can be thought to be a beta-blocker with some alpha-blocking effects.[12][22][23] By comparison, labetalol is a weaker β-blocker than propranolol, and has a weaker affinity for alpha-receptors compared to Phentolamine.[14][22]

Labetalol possesses intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.[23] In particular, it is a partial agonist at beta2- receptors located in the vascular smooth muscle. Labetalol relaxes vascular smooth muscle by a combination of this partial beta2- agonism and through alpha1- blockade.[23][24] Overall, this vasodilatory effect can decrease blood pressure.[25]

Similar to local anesthetics and sodium channel blocking antiarrhythmics, labetalol also has membrane stabilizing activity.[23][26] By decreasing sodium entry, labetalol decreases action potential firing and thus has local anesthetic activity.[27]

Physiological action

The physiological effects of labetalol when administered acutely (intravenously) are not predictable solely by their receptor blocking effect, i.e. blocking beta1- receptors should decrease heart rate, but labetalol does not. When labetalol is given in acute situations, it decreases the peripheral vascular resistance and systemic blood pressure while having little effect on the heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume, despite its alpha1-, beta1- and beta2- blocking mechanism.[20][21] These effects are mainly seen when the person is in the upright position.[25]

Long term labetalol use also has different effects from other beta-blocking drugs. Other beta-blockers, such as propranolol, persistently reduce cardiac output during exercise. The peripheral vascular resistance decreases when labetalol is first administered. Continuous labetalol use further decreases peripheral vascular resistance. However, during exercise, cardiac output remains the same due to a compensatory mechanism that increases stroke volume. Thus, labetalol is able to reduce heart rate during exercise while maintaining cardiac output by the increase in stroke volume.[21]


Labetalol, in animal models, was found to cross the blood-brain-barrier in only negligible amounts.[28]


Labetalol was the first drug created that combined both alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptor blocking properties. It was created to potentially fix the compensatory reflex issue that occurred when blocking a single receptor subtype, i.e. vasoconstriction after blocking beta-receptors or tachycardia after blocking alpha receptors. Because the reflex from blocking the single receptor subtypes acted to prevent the lowering of blood pressure, it was postulated that weak blocking of both alpha- and beta- receptors could work together to decrease blood pressure.[14][21]

Syn 1

Drugs Fut 1976,1(3),125

DE 1643224; FR 1557677; FR 8010M; GB 1200886; US 3642896; US 3644353; US 3705233

Condensation of 5-bromoacetylsalicylamide (I) with N-benzyl-N-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amine (II) in refluxing butanone to 5-(N-benzyl-N-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl) glycyl)salicylamide hydrochloride (III), m.p. 139-141 C, which is reduced with H2 over Pt-Pd/C in ethanol.


Reductocondensation of 5-(N,N-dibenzylglycyl)salicylamide (IV) and benzylace-tone (V) with H2 over Pd-Pt/C in methanol – acetic acid.


Reaction of methyl 5-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)salicylate hydrochloride (VI) with NH3 to 5-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)salicylamide hydrochloride (VII), m.p. >360 C, which is finally condensed with benzylacetone (V) and reduced with H2 over Pd-Pt/C in methanol.


File:Labetalol synthesis.png


2-hydroxy-5-(1-hydroxy-2-((1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino)ethyl)-, monohydrochloride, could be produced through many synthetic methods.

Following is one of the synthesis routes: 5-Bromoacetylsalicylamide (I) with N-benzyl-N-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amine (II) is condensed in the presence of refluxing butanone to produce 5-(N-benzyl-N-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl) glycyl)salicylamide hydrochloride (III), m.p. 139-141 C, and next the yielding compound is reduced with H2 over Pt-Pd/C in ethanol.

Production of Labetalol hydrochloride


aration of Labetaiol Hydrochloride of

Figure imgf000004_0001

Scheme -I illustrates the process for preparation of Labetaiol Hydrochloride of formula (I).

Figure imgf000004_0002

30% NaOH

Step – Sodium borohydride

Figure imgf000004_0003

Pure Labetaiol Hydrochloride (I)

aration of Labetaiol Hydrochloride of

Figure imgf000004_0001

Scheme -I illustrates the process for preparation of Labetaiol Hydrochloride of formula (I).

Figure imgf000004_0002

30% NaOH

Step – Sodium borohydride

Figure imgf000004_0003

Pure Labetaiol Hydrochloride (I)


  • The substance labetalol is known from British patent specification 1,266,058 and U.S.P. 4,012,444. Its pharmacological properties are discussed by Farmer et. al. in British Journal of Pharmacology, 45: 660-675 (1972), who designate it AH5158; it is shown to block a- and β-adrenergic receptors, suggesting that it would be useful in the treatment of arrhythmia, hypertension and angina pectoris.
  • [0003]
    The unique pharmacological properties of labetalol and its use as an antihypertensive agent are said to be largely a function of the exquisite balance of its a- and a-blocking activities. The file history of U.S.P. 4,012,444 indeed indicates that slight changes in the chemical structure of labetalol deleteriously affect this balance, and, even in the few analogous compounds where the balance is retained, the absolute potencies of these compounds are shown to be too low for them to be useful antihypertensive agents. Therefore, in the treatment of hypertension, labetalol is the compound of choice among those disclosed in British patent specification 1,266,058 and U.S.P. 4,012,444.
  • [0004]
    Labetalol has two asymmetrically substituted carbon atoms and therefore can exist as two diastereoisomers and four optical isomers. Indeed, British patent specification 1,266,058 and U.S.P. 4,012,444 disclose that compounds such as labetalol have optically active forms, but give no example of an optically active form. These patent specifications .teach that “the racemic mixtures may be resolved by conventional methods, for example by salt formation with an optically active acid, followed by fractional crystallization”, but give no method of resolution. Example 14 of each specifi cation does indeed describe the separation of labetalol into two diastereoisomers “1” and “2”, using benzoic acid, but this is not an optical resolution. In British patent specifications 1,541,932 and 1,541,933, “isomer 1” is designated “diastereoisomer A” and is characterised as that diastereoisomer whose hydrochloride salt has the higher melting point. These two British patent specifications also disclose that diastereoisomer A is a valuable antiarrhythmic agent since it has strongly reduced β-adrenergic blocking activity and is therefore useful in the treatment of people who have suffered myocardial infarction.
  • [0005]
    We have now discovered that diastereoisomer A is composed of the (S,R) and (R,S) optical isomers of labetalol, whereas diastereoisomer B is composed of the (S,S) and (R,R) optical isomers. We have also-surprisingly found that the novel (R,R) optical isomer of labetalol exhibits, in comparison with labetalol itself, both an unexpectedly high increase in β-adrenergic blocking potency and a decrease in a-adrenergic blocking potency. Thus, when the (R,R) optical isomer is compared with labetalol, the ratio of the β-adrenergic blocking potency to the a-adrenergic blocking potency is found to be greatly and unexpectedly increased. In particular, animal tests have indicated that the (R,R) optical isomer has about twelve times the β-blocking potency of labetalol, but only about one third of the a-blocking potency of labetalol. These. properties could in no way have been predicted theoretically, especially as the β-blocking potency of diastereoisomer B is not significantly different from that of labetalol and the a-blocking potency of diastereoisomer B is half that of labetalol. Indeed, it is clear, when the activities of the four optical isomers of labetalol are compared, that the activities of the diastereoisomers A and B and indeed of labetalol itself cannot be calculated from the activities of their components. One can put this the other way around by saying that the α-and β-blocking activities of the four optical isomers of labetalol do not merely average to give the a- and β-blocking activites of labetalol and of its diastereoisomers A and B. Some of the activities are much greater than could ever have been expected on a simple basis of mathematical proportions, in particular the high β-blocking activity of the (R,R) optical isomer: this activity is much higher than the β-blocking activity of diastereoisomer B so that antagonism evidently exists between the (S,S) and (R,R) optical isomers with respect to the β-blocking activity. This degree of antagonism could in no way have been foreseen. In the absence of this antagonism, the (R,R) optical isomer shows a balance of properties that make it the optical isomer of choice in the treatment of hypertension. In particular, the (R,R) optical isomer possesses potent antihypertensive activity and rapid onset of activity while substantially lacking the undesirable side-effects usually associated with a-blockade, e.g. postural hypotension.
  • The following Table shows the relationships between labetalol, its diastereoisomersA and B and the four pure optical isomers; below each compound are given its potencies as an a-blocking and then as a β-blocking agent, all relative to the values for labetalol (assigned values 1.0 for each blocking activity):

    Figure imgb0001

    This table clearly shows the unexpectedly high β-blocking activity and ratio of β-:α-blocking activities possessed by the (R,R)-optical isomer. Additionally, the (R,R)–optical isomer has been found to possess greater direct peripheral vasodilation activity than labetalol, and this also contributes to its anti-hypertensive activity. Moreover, the (R,R)-optical isomer is substantially non-toxic at therapeutic doses.

  • [0007]
    According to the invention therefore we provide the (R,R)-optical isomer of labetalol, namely 5- {(R)–1-hydroxy-2-[(R)-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl} salicylamide, which can be characterised by means of its hydrochloride salt which is dimorphic with m.pts. of about 133-134°C. and about 192-193.5°C. and an [α]D 26 of about -30.6° (conc. 1 mg./ml., ethanol), said (R,R) optical isomer being substantially free of the corresponding (R,S), (S,R) and (S,S) optical isomers

reaction scheme:

Figure imgb0002
    E. (-)-5- { (R)-l-Hydroxy-2-[(R)-(l-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)-amino]ethyl} salicylamide hydrochloride salt (9)

  • [0032]
    Treat a solution of 3.0 g. (0.0059 mol.) of 2-0-benzyl-5-{(R) -1-hydroxy-2-[(R)-(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)benzylamino]ethyl} salicylamide in 30 ml. of ethyl ether with 2N ethereal hydrogen chloride until no further precipitation occurs. Wash the precipitated 2-0-benzyl-5-{(R)-1-hydroxy-2-[(R)-(1-methyl–3-phenylpropyl)benzylamino]ethyl} salicylamide hydrochloride with ether to remove excess hydrogen chloride and dissolve it in 100 ml. ethanol. To the ethanol solution add 300 mg. of a 20% palladium hydroxide on carbon catalyst and hydrogenate (3 atm.; 3.1 kg. cm.-2) in a Paar apparatus with shaking at room temperature for 3 hours. Filter off the catalyst, evaporate, and triturate the solid residue with isopropanol. Dissolve the solid in 11 ml. of 1N sodium hydroxide, adjust the pH to about 8 and precipitate the free base by bubbling in carbon dioxide. Collect the free base, wash it with water and dry it in vacuo at 40°C. Chromatograph the free base on 450 g. of silica gel and dissolve the pure product in 20 ml. of boiling acetonitrile. Cool the solution and carefully acidify with 2N ethereal HC1 to about pH2. Solidify the gum which precipitates by refluxing the mixture for 10 minutes, filter off the solid, wash it with ethyl ether and recrystallize it from ethanol to obtain analytically pure product (9), m.p. 192-193.5°C.(dec.), [α]D26 = -30.6° (c=1.0, ethanol).




  • Use:α- and β-adrenoceptor antagonist, α- and β-blocker, isomer of labetalol, antihypertensive
  • Chemical name:[R-(R*,R*)]-2-hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]benzamide
  • Formula:C19H24N2O3
  • MW:328.41 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:75659-07-3
  • LD50:1719 mg/kg (M, p.o.);
    1228 mg/kg (R, p.o.)



  • Formula:C19H24N2O3 • HCl
  • MW:364.87 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:75659-08-4
  • LD50:1079 mg/kg (M, p.o.);
    82 mg/kg (R, i.v.); 1026 mg/kg (R, p.o.)

Synthesis Path


CAS Registry Number: 36894-69-6
CAS Name: 2-Hydroxy-5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]benzamide
Additional Names: 5-[1-hydroxy-2-[(1-methyl-3-phenylpropyl)amino]ethyl]salicylamide; ibidomide
Molecular Formula: C19H24N2O3
Molecular Weight: 328.41
Percent Composition: C 69.49%, H 7.37%, N 8.53%, O 14.62%
Literature References: Specific competitive antagonist at both a- and b-adrenergic receptor sites. Prepn: L. H. Lunts, D. T. Collin, DE2032642eidem,US4012444 (1971, 1977 both to Allen & Hanburys). Synthesis of labetalol and enantiomers: J. E. Clifton et al.,J. Med. Chem.25, 670 (1982); and comparison of cardiovascular properties: E. H. Gold et al., ibid. 1363. Abs config of dilevalol: P. Murray-Rust et al.,Acta Crystallogr.C40, 825 (1984). Adrenoceptor blocking properties: E. J. Sybertz et al.,J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.218, 435 (1981). HPLC determn in serum or plasma: T. F. Woodman, B. Johnson, Ther. Drug Monit.3, 371 (1981). Metabolism in animals and man: R. Hopkins et al.,Biochem. Soc. Trans.4, 726 (1976). Toxicity: K. Shimpo et al.,Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi53, 15 (l978), C.A.90, 66465v (1974). Review of pharmacology: R. Donnelly, G. J. A. Macphee, Clin. Pharmacokinet.21, 95-109 (1991); of therapeutic applications in hypertension and ischemic heart disease: K. L. Goa et al.,Drugs37, 583-627 (1989).
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 32780-64-6
Manufacturers’ Codes: AH-5158A; Sch-15719W
Trademarks: Amipress (Dox-Al); Ipolab (Finmedical); Labelol (ELEA); Labrocol (Lagap); Normodyne (Schering); Presdate (Alfa); Pressalolo (Locatelli); Trandate (Allen & Hanburys)
Molecular Formula: C19H24N2O3.HCl
Molecular Weight: 364.87
Percent Composition: C 62.54%, H 6.91%, N 7.68%, O 13.15%, Cl 9.72%
Properties: White crystalline solid from ethanol-ethyl acetate, mp 187-189°. Sol in water, ethanol. Insol in ether, chloroform. LD50in male, female mice, male, female rats (mg/kg): 114, 120, 113, 107 i.p.; 47, 54, 60, 53 i.v.; 1450, 1800, 4550, 4000 orally (Shimpo).
Melting point: mp 187-189°
Toxicity data: LD50 in male, female mice, male, female rats (mg/kg): 114, 120, 113, 107 i.p.; 47, 54, 60, 53 i.v.; 1450, 1800, 4550, 4000 orally (Shimpo)
Derivative Type: (R,R)-Form hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 75659-08-4; 75659-07-3 (free base)
Additional Names: Dilevalol hydrochloride
Manufacturers’ Codes: Sch-19927
Properties: Polymorphic crystals from ethanol, mp 133-134° (dec); mp 192-193.5° (dec). [a]D26 -30.6° (c = 1.0 in ethanol).
Melting point: mp 133-134° (dec); mp 192-193.5° (dec)
Optical Rotation: [a]D26 -30.6° (c = 1.0 in ethanol)
Therap-Cat: Antihypertensive.
Keywords: a-Adrenergic Blocker; ?Adrenergic Blocker; Antihypertensive; Arylethanolamine Derivatives.
Clinical data
Pronunciation /ləˈbɛtəlɔːl/
Trade names Normodyne, Trandate, others
AHFS/ Monograph
MedlinePlus a685034
  • C
    One of few drugs used for PIH
Routes of
By mouth, intravenous
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 25%
Protein binding 50%
Metabolism Liver pass metabolism,
Elimination half-life Tablet: 6-8 hours; IV: 5.5 hours
Excretion Excreted in urine, not removed by hemodialysis
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.048.401 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H24N2O3
Molar mass 328.412 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Chirality Racemic mixture


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  20. Jump up to:a b MacCarthy, E. P.; Bloomfield, S. S. (1983-08-01). “Labetalol: a review of its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical uses and adverse effects”. Pharmacotherapy3(4): 193–219. doi:10.1002/j.1875-9114.1983.tb03252.xISSN 0277-0008PMID 6310529.
  21. Jump up to:a b c d Louis, W. J.; McNeil, J. J.; Drummer, O. H. (1984-01-01). “Pharmacology of combined alpha-beta-blockade. I”. Drugs. 28 Suppl 2: 16–34. doi:10.2165/00003495-198400282-00003ISSN 0012-6667PMID 6151889.
  22. Jump up to:a b c Robertson, D; Biaggioni, I (2012). Katzung, BG (ed.). Adrenoceptor Antagonist Drugs IN: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (12 ed.). San Francisco: McGraw Hill Lange Medical. pp. 151–168. ISBN 978-0-07-176401-8.
  23. Jump up to:a b c d Westfall, David P (2004). Craig, Charles R (ed.). Adrenoreceptor Antagonists IN: Modern Pharmacology with Clinical Applications (6th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 109–117. ISBN 978-0781737623.
  24. ^ Lund-Johansen, P. (1988-01-01). “Hemodynamic effects of beta-blocking compounds possessing vasodilating activity: a review of labetalol, prizidilol, and dilevalol”. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 11 Suppl 2: S12–17. doi:10.1097/00005344-198800000-00004ISSN 0160-2446PMID 2464093.
  25. Jump up to:a b Lund-Johansen, P. (1984-01-01). “Pharmacology of combined alpha-beta-blockade. II. Haemodynamic effects of labetalol”. Drugs. 28 Suppl 2: 35–50. doi:10.2165/00003495-198400282-00004ISSN 0012-6667PMID 6151890.
  26. ^ Mottram, Allan R.; Erickson, Timothy B. (2009). Field, John (ed.). Toxicology in Emergency Cardiovascular Care IN: The Textbook of Emergency Cardiovascular Care and CPR. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott WIlliams & Wilkins. pp. 443–452. ISBN 978-0-7817-8899-1.
  27. ^ Exam Zone (1 January 2009). Elsevier Comprehensive Guide. Elsevier India. pp. 449–. ISBN 978-81-312-1620-0.
  28. ^ Detlev Ganten; Patrick J. Mulrow (6 December 2012). Pharmacology of Antihypertensive Therapeutics. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-3-642-74209-5.

External links


    • EP 9 702 (Schering Corp.; appl. 17.9.1979; USA-prior. 20.9.1978).
  • Improvement of diastereomer separation:

    • DOS 2 616 403 (Scherico; appl. 14.4.1976; USA-prior. 17.4.1975).
    • US 4 173 583 (Schering Corp.; 6.11.1979; appl. 21.9.1978; prior. 17.4.1975).
  • Synthesis without chromatographic purification:

    • EP 92 787 (Schering Corp.; appl. 20.4.1983; USA-prior. 26.4.1982).
  • Chiral reduction of IV:

    • Clifton, J.E. et al.: J. Med. Chem. (JMCMAR) 25, 670 (1982).
    • Gold, E.H. et al.: J. Med. Chem. (JMCMAR) 25, 1363 (1982).
    • EP 382 157 (Schering Corp.; appl. 6.2.1990; USA-prior. 10.2.1989, 26.9.1989).
    • US 4 948 732 (Schering Corp.; 14.8.1990; prior. 26.9.1989, 10.2.1989).
///////////Labetalol hydrochloride, AH-5158A, Sch-15719W, Amipress, Trandate, Normodyne, ラベタロール  , Dilevalol

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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