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DC_AC50, selective way of blocking copper transport in cancer cells

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Figure imgf000094_0001

 

DC_AC50

3-amino-N-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H- cyclopenta [b] thieno [3,2-e] pyridine-2-carboxamide

licensed DC_AC50 to Suring Therapeutics, in Suzhou, China

INNOVATORS  Jing Chen of Emory University School of Medicine, Hualiang Jiang of the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chuan He of the University of Chicago, and coworkers

 

Developing small molecules that specifically inhibit human copper-trafficking proteins and an overview of the screening process.

COPPER TRANSPORT
Chaperone proteins (green) transfer copper ions to copper-dependent proteins (lilac) via ligand exchange between two cysteines (-SH groups) on each protein. DC_AC50 binds the chaperone and inhibits this interaction.
Credit: Nat. Chem.

Inhibition of human copper trafficking by a small molecule significantly attenuates cancer cell proliferation

Nature Chemistry, (2015)
doi:10.1038/nchem.2381

Jing Chen of Emory University School of Medicine, Hualiang Jiang of the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chuan He of the University of Chicago, and coworkers have now developed a selective way of blocking copper transport in cancer cells (Nat. Chem. 2015, DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2381). By screening a database of 200,000 druglike small molecules, the researchers discovered a promising compound, DC_AC50, for cancer treatment. They zeroed in on the compound by testing how well database hits inhibited a protein-protein interaction leading to copper transport and reduced proliferation of cancer cells.

20151109lnp1-dca

Scientists had already found a molecule, tetrathiomolybdate, that interferes with copper trafficking and have tested it in clinical trials against cancer. But tetrathiomolybdate is a copper chelator: It inhibits copper transport in cells by nonselectively sequestering copper ions. Sometimes, the chelator snags too much copper, inhibiting essential copper-based processes in normal cells and causing side effects.

In contrast, DC_AC50 works by inhibiting interactions between proteins in the copper-trafficking pathway: It prevents chaperone proteins, called Atox1 and CCS, from passing copper ions to enzymes that use them to run vital cellular processes. Cancer cells are heavy users of Atox1 and CCS, so DC_AC50 affects cancer cells selectively.

The team has licensed DC_AC50 to Suring Therapeutics, in Suzhou, China, for developing anticancer therapies. The group also plans to further tweak DC_AC50 to develop more-potent versions.

Thomas O’Halloran of Northwestern University, who has studied tetrathiomolybdate, comments that “the challenge in drug design is hitting one of these copper-dependent processes without messing with housekeeping functions that normal cells depend upon. DC_AC50 appears to block the function of copper metallochaperone proteins without interacting directly with their cargo, copper ions. As the first member of a new class of inhibitors, it provides a new way to interrogate the physiology of copper trafficking disorders and possibly intervene.”

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014116859A1?cl=en

 

Figure imgf000053_0003

 

COMPD IS LC-1 COMPD 50

 

Scheme 1 (Compounds LCI -LCI 9):

Experimental procedure for Scheme 1 :

Step a: To 1 equivalent of sodium metal in anhydrous diethyl ether is added 1-2 equivalents of ethyl formate and 1-2 equivalents of cyclopentanone. The resulting mixture is stirred overnight. The mother liquor is filtered by suction filtration to obtain crude intermediate 2.

Step b: To a solution of intermediate 2 in an organic solvent, is added 0.1 to 1 equivalent of glacial acetic acid. The reaction is stirred at 50-100 °C, then 2′ and 0.1 to 1 equivalent of glacial acetic acid are added. The resulting reaction mixture is refluxed for 1-5 hours, filtered and recrystallized to produce product 3; the said organic solvent may optionally be tetrahydrofuran, ether, dimethylformamide, ethyleneglycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, dioxane, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane. Step c: To a solution of compound 3 in an organic solvent, is added 1 equivalent of methyl bromoacetate and an appropriate amount of base. The reaction mixture is stirted at room temperature to produce intermediate 4. The said organic solvent may optionally be tetrahydrofuran, aether, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, dioxane, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane. The said base may optionally be potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, and their aqueous solution in various concentrations.

Step d: The base described in Step c is added to a solution of compound 4 in an organic solvent. The reaction mixture is stirred and heated to produce intermediate 5. Step e: An appropriate amount of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate and alkali are added to a solution of compound 5 in an organic solvent. The reaction is stirred to produce intermediate 6.

Step f: An appropriate amount of base is added to a solution of compound 6 in an organic solvent, which is then hydro lyzed to produce intermediate 7.

Step g: 3′ and a stoichiometric amount of condensing agent are added to a solution of compound 7 in an organic solvent. The reaction mixture is stirred until 3′ reacts completely to produce the final product. The said organic so ί vers t may optional iy be tetrahydrofuran, aether, dimethyl formamide, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, dioxane, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane. The said condensing agent may optionally be DCC, EDO, HOBt, and GDI. Step h: To a solution of compound 7 in an organic solvent is added aqueous hydrochloric acid or trifluoroacetic acid. The reaction mixture is stirred vigorously to yield the BOC- deprotected final product.

 

Scheme 2 (Compounds LCI -LCI 9)

LCI ~LC39

Experimental procedure for Scheme 2(Compounds LC1-LC19):

Step a: Dissolve 1 equivalent of sodium in anhydrous ether, which shall be added slowly under an ice bath and rapid stirring condition. Add 1 equivalent of ethyl formate and 1 equivalent of cyclopentanone in a constant pressure dropping funnel, add 0.5 ml ethanol as an initiator, after 1 hour of stirring in ice bath, and stir overnight at room temperature until the reaction of sodium is finished. Perform suction filtration, wash with absolute ether to produce crude product for the following steps of reaction.

Step b: Dissolve the product in above steps directly in ethanol and control its amount, add an appropriate amount of glacial acetic acid, and stir and reflux under 70°C. Add cyano- sulfamide into the reaction solution, and add an appropriate amount of glacial acetic acid, react and reflux for about 3 hours. Recrystallize with ethanol to produce crude product.

Step c: Add 1 equivalent of the appropriate aniline or phenol and 2 equivalents of potassium carbonate solid in a round-bottomed flask that is placed in ice bath, add anhydrous THF to fully dissolve the solid, add 1.5 equivalents of bromoacetyl bromide into a constant pressure dropping funnel and dilute with THF, which is slowly dropped into the former said round- bottomed flask that is moved to room temperature in 10 min late and react for 1 hour; extract and dry with anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtrate by suction, and perform rotary evaporation to remove the solvent, and the crude product is obtained, which is to be used directly in the next step of reaction.

Step d: Dissolve the product from Step 2 into DMF under normal temperature by mixing, add 3 equivalents of 10% KOH solution, which is then transferred to an oil bath of 70°C and react, and add I equivalent of the product from step 3. Stir for about 3 hours and then extract directly with ethyl acetate, and recrystallize the crude product with ethanol to produce pure end product.

Steps a and b: Intermediate 3 is prepared in accordance with the method outlined in Scheme 1. Step c: 3′ and bromoacetyl bromide are condensed in the presence of a suitable base to produce intermediate 9. The said base may optionally be potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodiumcarbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, and their aqueous solution in various concentrations.

Step d: An appropriate amount of base is added to a solution of compound 3 in an organic solvent, and the reaction mixture is heated to 40-100 °C. Intermediate 9 is added, and the heated solution is stirred for 1-10 hours to yield the final product. The said organic solvent may optionally be tetrahydrofuran, aether, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, ethylene glycol diethyl ether, dioxane, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, or dichloromethane. The said base may optionally be potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, cesium carbonate, and their aqueous solution in various concentrations.

NMR and mass spectral data: LC-1 (Compound 50)- 3-amino-N-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H- cyclopenta [b] thieno [3,2-e] pyridine-2-carboxamide

1H NMR (CDCI3, 400 MHz) δ 9.15 (s, 1H), 7.61 (s, 1H), 7.13(m, 1H), 6.60 (m, 1H), 6.27 (s, 2H), 3.20 (t, 2H), 2.98 (t, 2H), 2.39 (m, 2H); ESI-MS (EI) m/z 422 (M+)

 

 

 

 

 

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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