ACETATE CAS NO 141732-76-5
Exenatide, derived from a compound found in the saliva of the Gila monster, a large lizard native to the southwestern US, is a functional analog of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), a naturally occuring peptide.
Exenatide (INN, marketed as Byetta, Bydureon) is a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist(GLP-1 agonist) medication approved in April 2005 for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It belongs to the group of incretin mimetics and is manufactured by Amylin Pharmaceuticals. Exenatide in its Byetta form is administered as a subcutaneous injection (under the skin) of the abdomen, thigh, or arm, any time within the 60 minutes before the first and last meal of the day. A once-weekly injection has been approved as of January 27, 2012 under the trademark Bydureon
Exenatide is a synthetic version of exendin-4, a hormone found in the saliva of the Gila monster that was first isolated by Dr. John Eng in 1992 while working at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in the Bronx, New York. It displays biological properties similar to human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a regulator of glucose metabolism andinsulin secretion. According to the package insert, exenatide enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell, suppresses inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying, although the mechanism of action is still under study.
Exenatide is a 39-amino-acid peptide, an insulin secretagogue, with glucoregulatory effects. Exenatide was approved by the FDA on April 28, 2005 for patients whose diabetes was not well-controlled on other oral medication. The medication is injected subcutaneously twice per day using a filled pen-like device. The abdomen is a common injection site, after the area is cleaned with an alcohol pad. A new pen must first be tested to see if the medicine is flowing.
|Indication||Indicated as adjunctive therapy to improve glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus who are taking metformin, a sulfonylurea, or a combination of both, but have not achieved adequate glycemic control.|
|Pharmacodynamics||Exenatide is an incretin mimetic, which has glucoregulatory effects. While it is has blood-sugar lowering actions alone, it can also be combined with other medications such as pioglitazone, metformin, sulfonylureas, and/or insulin to improve glucose control. The approved use of exenatide is with either sulfonylureas, metformin and thiazolinediones. The medication is injected twice per day using a pre-filled pen device. Typical human responses to exenatide plus eating include improvements in the initial rapid release of endogenous insulin, suppression of glucagon release by the pancreas, regulation of gastric empyting and reduced appetite; all behaviors more typical of individuals without blood sugar control problems. Exenatide is self-regulating in that in lowers blood sugar when levels are elevated but does not continue to lower blood sugar when levels return to normal, unlike with sulfonylureas or insulins.|
|Mechanism of action||Exenatide is a functional analog of the human incretin Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1). Incretins enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and exhibit other antihyperglycemic actions following their release into the circulation from the gut. The GLP-1 system increases insulin secretion only in the presence of elevated plasma glucose levels, avoiding inappropriately high insulin levels during fasting. The drug also moderates peak serum glucagon levels during hyperglycemic periods following meals, but does not interfere with glucagon release in response to hypoglycemia. Secondary effects of drug administration reduces the rate of gastric emptying and decreases food intake, mitigating the potential severity of hyperglycemic events after meal|
|Following subcutaneous administration to patients with type 2 diabetes, exenatide reaches median peak plasma concentrations in 2.1 hours.|