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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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SY-008


Acetic acid;(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[4-[[4-[(E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-2-yl)but-1-enyl]-2-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-propan-2-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol.png

SY-008

CAS 1878218-66-6

FREE FORM 1480443-32-0

SGLT1 inhibitor (type 2 diabetes),

β-D-Glucopyranoside, 4-[[4-[(1E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)-1-buten-1-yl]-2-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl, acetate (1:1)

acetic acid;(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[4-[[4-[(E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecan-2-yl)but-1-enyl]-2-methylphenyl]methyl]-5-propan-2-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol

4-{4-[(1E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-1-en-1-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate

MF H50 N4 O6 . C2 H4 O2

MW 58.8 g/mol,C35H54N4O8

Originator Eli Lilly

  • Developer Eli Lilly; Yabao Pharmaceutical Group
  • Class Antihyperglycaemics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Sodium-glucose transporter 1 inhibitors
  • Phase I Diabetes mellitus
  • 28 Aug 2018 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Diabetes-mellitus in Singapore (PO)
  • 24 Jun 2018 Biomarkers information updated
  • 12 Mar 2018 Phase-I clinical trials in Diabetes mellitus (In volunteers) in China (PO) (NCT03462589)
  • Eli Lilly is developing SY 008, a sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) inhibitor, for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The approach of inhibiting SGLT1 could be promising because it acts independently of the beta cell and could be effective in both early and advanced stages of diabetes. Reducing both glucose and insulin may improve the metabolic state and potentially the health of beta cells, without causing weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Clinical development is underway in Singapore and China.

    As at August 2018, no recent reports of development had been identified for phase-I development in Diabetes-mellitus in Singapore (PO).

Suzhou Yabao , under license from  Eli Lilly , is developing SY-008 , an SGLT1 inhibitor, for the potential oral capsule treatment of type 2 diabetes in China. By April 2019, a phase Ia trial was completed

PATENT

WO 2013169546

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2013169546&recNum=43&docAn=US2013039164&queryString=EN_ALL:nmr%20AND%20PA:(ELI%20LILLY%20AND%20COMPANY)%20&maxRec=4416

The present invention is in the field of treatment of diabetes and other diseases and disorders associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a group of diseases that is characterized by high levels of blood glucose. It affects approximately 25 million people in the United States and is also the 7th leading cause of death in U.S. according to the 201 1 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLT’s) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the absorption of carbohydrates, such as glucose. More specifically, SGLTl is responsible for transport of glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLTl may result in reduced absorption of glucose in the small intestine, thus providing a useful approach to treating diabetes.

U.S. Patent No. 7,655,632 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with human SGLTl inhibitory activity which are further disclosed as useful for the prevention or treatment of a disease associated with hyperglycemia, such as diabetes. In addition, WO 201 1/039338 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor activity which are further disclosed as being useful for treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

There is a need for alternative drugs and treatment for diabetes. The present invention provides certain novel inhibitors of SGLTl which may be suitable for the treatment of diabetes.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a compound of Formula II:

Preparation 1

Synthesis of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol.

Scheme 1, step A: Add borane-tetrahydrofuran complex (0.2 mol, 200 mL, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (39 g, 0.18 mol) in

tetrahydrofuran (200 mL). After 18 hours at room temperature, remove the solvent under the reduced pressure to give a solid. Purify by flash chromatography to yield the title compound as a white solid (32.9 g, 0.16 mol). 1H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.55 (s, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 7.18-7.29 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol.

Borane-dimethyl sulfide complex (2M in THF; 1 16 mL, 0.232 mol) is added slowly to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (24.3 g, 0.1 13 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 146 mL) at 3 °C. After stirring cold for 10 min the cooling bath is removed and the reaction is allowed to warm slowly to ambient temperature. After 1 hour, the solution is cooled to 5°C, and water (100 mL) is added slowly. Ethyl acetate (100 mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution (200 mL) and dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by filtration through a short pad of silica eluting with 15% ethyl acetate/iso-hexane to give the title compound (20.7 g, 91.2% yield). MS (m/z): 183/185 (M+l-18).

Preparation 2

Synthesis of 4-bromo- l-2-methyl-benzene.

Scheme 1, step B: Add thionyl chloride (14.31 mL, 0.2 mol,) to a solution of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol (32.9 g, 0.16 mol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) and

-Cl-

dimethylformamide (0.025 mol, 2.0 mL) at 0°C. After 1 hour at room temperature pour the mixture into ice-water (100 g), extract with dichloromethane (300 mL), wash extract with 5% aq. sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and brine (200 mL), dry over sodium sulfate, and concentrate under reduced pressure to give the crude title compound as a white solid (35.0 g, 0.16 mol). The material is used for the next step of reaction without further purification. XH NMR (CDC13): δ 2.38 (s, 3H), 4.52 (s, 2H), 7.13-7.35 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of 4-bromo- 1 -chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene. Methanesulfonyl chloride (6.83 mL, 88.3 mmol) is added slowly to a solution of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol (16.14 g, 80.27 mmol) and triethylamine (16.78 mL; 120.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (80.7 mL) cooled in ice/water. The mixture is allowed to slowly warm to ambient temperature and is stirred for 16 hours. Further

methanesulfonyl chloride (1.24 mL; 16.1 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. Water (80mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with hydrochloric acid (IN; 80 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (80 mL), then water (80 mL), and is dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with hexane) to give the title compound (14.2 g; 80.5% yield). XH NMR (300.1 1 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.18 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H).

Preparation 3

Synthesis of 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol.

Scheme 1, step C: Add sodium hydride (8.29 g, 0.21 mol, 60% dispersion in oil) to a solution of methyl 4-methyl-3-oxovalerate (27.1 mL, 0.19 mol) in tetrahydrofuran at 0°C. After 30 min at room temperature, add a solution of 4-bromo- l-chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene (35.0 g, 0.16 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL). Heat the resulting mixture at 70 °C overnight (18 hours). Add 1.0 M HC1 (20 mL) to quench the reaction.

Extract with ethyl acetate (200 mL), wash extract with water (200 rnL) and brine (200 mL), dry over a2S04, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Dissolve the resulting residue in toluene (200 mL) and add hydrazine monohydrate (23.3 mL, 0.48 mol). Heat the mixture at 120 °C for 2 hours with a Dean-Stark apparatus to remove water. Cool and remove the solvent under the reduced pressure, dissolve the residue with dichloromethane (50 mL) and methanol (50 mL). Pour this solution slowly to a beaker with water (250 mL). Collect the resulting precipitated product by vacuum filtration. Dry in vacuo in an oven overnight at 40 °C to yield the title compound as a solid (48.0 g, 0.16 mol). MS (m/z): 311.0 (M+l), 309.0 (M-l).

Alternative synthesis of 4-r(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl1-5-isopropyl- !H-pyrazol- 3-oL

A solution of 4-bromo- 1 -chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene (13.16 g, 59.95 mmoles) in acetonitrile (65.8 mL) is prepared. Potassium carbonate (24.86 g, 179.9 mmol), potassium iodide (1 1.94 g, 71.94 mmol) and methyl 4-methyl-3-oxo valerate (8.96 mL; 62.95 mmol) are added. The resulting mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. Hydrochloric acid (2N) is added to give pH 3. The solution is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 ml), the organic phase is washed with brine (100 ml) and dried over Na2S04. The mixture is filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is dissolved in toluene (65.8 mL) and hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL, 0.180 mol) is added. The resulting mixture is heated to reflux and water is removed using a Dean and Stark apparatus. After 3 hours the mixture is cooled to 90 °C and additional hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL; 0.180 mol) is added and the mixture is heated to reflux for 1 hour. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid is triturated with water (200 mL), filtered and dried in a vacuum oven over P2O5 at 60°C. The solid is triturated in iso-hexane (200 mL) and filtered to give the title compound (14.3 g; 77.1% yield). MS (m/z): 309/31 1 (M+l).

Preparation 4

Synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra- O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step D: To a 1L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (20 g, 64.7 mmol), alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide tetrabenzoate (50 g, 76 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (6 g, 19.4 mmol), dichloromethane (500 mL), potassium carbonate (44.7 g, 323 mmol) and water (100 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (500mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (37 g, 64 mmol). MS (ml 2): 889.2 (M+l), 887.2 (M-l).

Preparation 5

Synthesis of 4- {4-[( lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1H- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step E: Add 3-buten-l-ol (0.58 mL, 6.8 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3 g, 3.4 mmol) in acetonitrile (30 mL) and triethylamine (20 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (205 mg, 0.67 mmol) and palladium acetate (76 mg, 0.34 mmol). Reflux at 90 °C for 2 hours. Cool to room temperature and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (2.1 g, 2.4 mmol). MS (m/z): 878.4 (M+l).

Preparation 6

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step F: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (134 mg, 0.96 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (280 mg, 0.32 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (133.8 mg, 1.6 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (270 mg, 0.31 mmol). MS (m/z): 876.5 (M+l), 874.5 (M-l).

Preparation 7

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2- {(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 1, step G: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (98 mg, 0.46 mmol) to a solution of 4- {4-[(lis)-4-oxybut- 1 -en-1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (270 mg, 0.31 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (179 mg, 0.62 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (5 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL), dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (275 mg, 0.25 mmol).

MS (m/z): 1115.6 (M+1).

Preparation 8

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2- methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside dihydrochloride.

Scheme 1, step H: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 0.6 mL, 2.4 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3is)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (275 mg, 0.25 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL). After overnight (18 hours) at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (258 mg, 0.24 mmol). MS (m/z): 1015.6 (M+l).

Example 1

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2- methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 1, step I: Add sodium hydroxide (0.5 mL, 0.5 mmol, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (258 mg, 0.24 mmol) in methanol (2 mL). After 2 hours at 40 °C, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to give a residue, which is purified by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 um C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – 1¾0 w NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound as a solid (46 mg, 0.08 mmol). MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+l), 596.8 (M-l).

 Preparation 9

Synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra- O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step A: To a 1 L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammomum chloride (5 g, 15.5 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL), potassium carbonate (32 g, 323 mmol) and water (120 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (450 mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (36.5 g, 57 mmol). MS (m/z): 638.5 (M+l), 636.5 (M-l).

Alternative synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Reagents 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24.0 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (4.94 g, 15.52 mmol), potassium carbonate

(32.18 g, 232.9 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (120 mL) are combined and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 18 hours. The mixture is partitioned between dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (250 mL). The organic phase is washed with brine (250 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with 10% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane to 70% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the title compound (36.5 g, 74% yield). MS (m/z): 639/641 (M+l).

Preparation 10

Synthesis of 4- {4-[( lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1H- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step B: Add 3-buten-l-ol (6.1 mL, 70 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (15 g, 23.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL) and triethylamine (50 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (1.43 g, 4.7 mmol) and palladium acetate (526 mg, 2.35 mmol). After refluxing at 90 °C for 2 hours, cool, and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (7.5 g, 11.9 mmol). MS (m/z): 631.2 (M+l), 629.2 (M-l).

Preparation 11

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step C: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (2.1g, 4.76 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside ( 1.5 g, 2.38 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (2 g, 23.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL), wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (0.95 g, 1.51 mmol). MS (m/z): 628.8(M+1), 626.8 (M-l).

Preparation 12

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0- acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 2, Step D: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (303 mg, 1.4 mmol) to a solution of 4- {4-[(lis)-4-oxybut- 1 -en-1 -yl]-2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (600 mg, 0.95 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (333 mg, 1.2 mmol) in 1,2-dichloroethane (30 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (15 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (60 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (60 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (500 mg, 0.58 mmol).

MS (m/z): 866.8, 867.8 (M+l), 864.8, 865.8 (M-l).

Preparation 13

Synthesis oftert-butyl 2-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,8- diazaspiro[4.5]decane-8-carboxylate.

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of Preparation 12. S (m/z): 852.8, 853.6 (M+l), 850.8, 851.6 (M-l).

Preparation 14

Synthesis oftert-butyl 9-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-3,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-3-carboxylate.

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of Preparation 12. S (m/z): 866.8, 867.6 (M+l), 864.8, 865.6 (M-l).

Preparation 15

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2- methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside dihydrochloride.

Scheme 2, step E: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 1.5 mL, 5.8 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]- lH-pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 -yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (500 mg, 0.58 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL). After 2 hours at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (480 mg, 0.57 mmol).

MS (m/z): 767.4 (M+l).

Preparation 16

Synthesis of 4-{4-[(lE)-4-(2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5- (propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

dihydrochloride.

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of Preparation 15. MS (m/z): 752.8, 753.8 (M+1), 750.8 (M-1).

First alternative synthesis of Example 1

First alternative synthesis of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en- 2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 2, step F: Add methanol (5 mL), triethylamine (3 mL), and water (3 mL) to 4-{4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (480 mg, 0.24 mmol). After 18 hours (overnight) at room temperature, concentrate to dryness under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 urn C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – H20 w NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound as a solid (50 mg, 0.08 mmol).

MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+1), 596.8 (M-1). 1H MR (400.31 MHz, CD3OD): δ 7.11 (d, J=1.3

Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J=1.3,8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J= 15.8 Hz, 1H), 6.16 (dt, J= 15.8, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (m, 1H), 3.81 (d, J= 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H) , 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.72 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 4H), 2.44-2.33 (m, 6H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.26 ( broad s, 2H), 1.59 (m, 2H), 1.50 (m, 2H), 1.43 (m, 2H), 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.1 1 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.10 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Example 2

Synthesis of 4- {4-[(lE)-4-(2,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-2-yl)but-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbi

(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

O H

The title compound is prepared essentially by the method of the first alternative synthesis of Example 1. MS (m/z): 584.7 (M+l), 582.8 (M-l).

Example 3

Synthesis of 4- {4-[( 1 E)-4-(3 ,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-3 -yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2- methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

The title compound is prepared essentially by first treating the compound of Prearation 14 with HC1 as discussed in Preparation 15 then treating the resulting hydrochloride salt with triethyl amine as discussed in the first alternative synthesis of Example 1. MS (m/z): 598.8, 599.8 (M+l), 596.8, 597.8 (M-l).

Example 1 Preparation 17

Synthesis of tert-butyl 4-but-3- nyl-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 3, step A: Cesium carbonate (46.66 g, 143.21 mmol) is added to a suspension of tert-butyl 4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (16.66 g, 57.28 mmoles) in acetonitrile (167 mL). The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes at ambient temperature then 4-bromobutyne (6.45 mL, 68.74 mmol) is added. The reaction is heated to reflux and stirred for 18 hours. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is partitioned between water (200 mL) and ethyl acetate (150 mL). The phases are separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The combined organic layers are washed with water (200 mL), then brine (150 mL), dried over MgSC^, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (17.2 g, 98% yield). iH MR (300.11 MHz, CDC13): δ 3.43-3.31 (m, 4H),

2.53-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.37-2.29 (m, 4H), 2.20 (s, 2H), 1.94 (t, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 1.44 (s, 17H).

Preparation 18

Synthesis of tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]- 4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 3, step B: Triethylamine (5.62 mmoles; 0.783 mL), 4,4,5, 5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (8.56 mL, 59.0 mmol) and zirconocene chloride (1.45 g, 5.62 mmoles) are added to tert-butyl 4-but-3-ynyl-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (17.21 g, 56.16 mmoles). The resulting mixture is heated to 65 °C for 3.5 hours. The mixture is cooled and dissolved in dichloromethane (150 mL). The resulting solution is passed through a ~4cm thick pad of silica gel, eluting with dichloromethane (2 x 200 mL). The filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (21.2 g, 87% yield), !H NMR (300.1 1 MHz, CDC13): δ 6.65-6.55 (m, 1H), 5.49-5.43 (m, 1H),

3.42-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.40-2.27 (m, 6H), 2.25-2.08 (m, 2H), 1.70 – 1.13 (m, 29H).

Preparation 19

Synthesis of tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]- lH-pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 -yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Scheme 3, step C: A solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (20 g, 31.3 mmol), tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (16.3 g, 37.5 mmol) and potassium carbonate (12.97 g, 93.82 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) and water (40 mL) is degassed for 15 min by bubbling nitrogen gas through it. Pd(OAc)2 (140 mg, 625 μιηοΐ) and 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,4′,6′-tri-i-propyl-l, r-biphenyl (0.596 g, 1.25 mmol) are added and the reaction is heated to reflux for 16 h. The solution is cooled to ambient temperature and methanol (200 mL) is added. After 30 minutes the solvent is removed under reduced pressure. The mixture is partitioned between ethyl acetate (500 mL) and brine (500 ml) adding aqueous MgS04 (1M; 500 ml) to aid the phase separation. The layers are separated and the organic layer is dried over MgS04 and filtered through a 10 cm pad of silica gel, eluting with ethyl acetate (-1.5 L). The filtrate is discarded and the silica pad is flushed with 5% MeOH in THF (2 L). The methanolic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (20. lg, 92%).

MS (m/z): 699 (M+l).

Second alternative Synthesis of Example 1

Second alternative synthesis of 4- {4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l- yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 3, step D: Trifluoroacetic acid (32.2 mL; 0.426 mol) is added to a solution of tert-butyl 2- {(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (14.87 g; 21.28 mmol) in dichloromethane (149 mL) cooled in iced water. The solution is allowed to warm to room temperature. After 30 minutes, the mixture is slowly added to ammonia in MeOH (2M; 300 mL), applying cooling as necessary to maintain a constant temperature. The solution is stirred at room temperature for 15 min. The mixture is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is purified using SCX-2 resin. The basic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is triturated/sonicated in ethyl acetate, filtered and dried. The resulting solid is dissolved in MeOH (200ml) and concentrated in vacuo. This is repeated several times give the title compound (12.22 g, yield 96%). MS (m/z): 599 (M+l). [a]D20 = -12 ° (C=0.2, MeOH).

PATENT

WO 2015069541

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015069541A1

4-{4-[(1 E)-4-(2,9-DIAZASPIRO[5.5]UNDEC-2-YL)BUT-1 -EN-1

-YL]-2-METHYLBENZYL}-5-(PROPAN-2-YL)-1 H-PYRAZOL-3-YL

BETA-D- GLUCOPYRANOSIDE ACETATE

The present invention relates to a novel SGLT1 inhibitor which is an acetate salt of a pyrazole compound, to pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compound, to methods of using the compound to treat physiological disorders, and to intermediates and processes useful in the synthesis of the compound.

The present invention is in the field of treatment of diabetes and other diseases and disorders associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a group of diseases that is characterized by high levels of blood glucose. It affects approximately 25 million people in the United States and is also the 7th leading cause of death in U.S. according to the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLT’s) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the absorption of carbohydrates, such as glucose. More specifically, SGLT1 is responsible for transport of glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLT1 may result in reduced absorption of glucose in the small intestine, thus providing a useful approach to treating diabetes.

U.S. Patent No. 7,655,632 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with human SGLT1 inhibitory activity which are further disclosed as useful for the prevention or treatment of a disease associated with hyperglycemia, such as diabetes. In addition, WO 2011/039338 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives with SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor activity which are further disclosed as being useful for treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

There is a need for alternative drugs and treatment for diabetes. The present invention provides an acetate salt of a pyrazole compound, which is an SGLT1 inhibitor, and as such, may be suitable for the treatment of certain disorders, such as diabetes. Accordingly, the present invention provides a compound of Formula I:

Figure imgf000003_0001

or hydrate thereof.

Figure imgf000008_0001

Preparation 1

(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol

Figure imgf000009_0001

Scheme 1, step A: Add borane-tetrahydrofuran complex (0.2 mol, 200 mL, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (39 g, 0.18 mol) in

tetrahydrofuran (200 mL). After 18 hours at room temperature, remove the solvent under the reduced pressure to give a solid. Purify by flash chromatography to yield the title compound as a white solid (32.9 g, 0.16 mol). !H NMR (CDCI3): δ 1.55 (s, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 4.61 (s, 2H), 7.18-7.29 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)mefhanol.

Borane-dimethyl sulfide complex (2M in THF; 116 mL, 0.232 mol) is added slowly to a solution of 4-bromo-2-methylbenzoic acid (24.3 g, 0.113 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 146 mL) at 3 °C. After stirring cold for 10 min the cooling bath is removed and the reaction is allowed to warm slowly to ambient temperature. After 1 hour, the solution is cooled to 5°C, and water (100 mL) is added slowly. Ethyl acetate (100 mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution (200 mL) and dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by filtration through a short pad of silica eluting with 15% ethyl acetate/iso-hexane to give the title compound (20.7 g, 91.2% yield). MS (m/z): 183/185 (M+l-18).

Preparation 2

4-bromo- 1 -chloromethyl -2 -methyl -benzene

Figure imgf000009_0002

Scheme 1, step B: Add thionyl chloride (14.31 mL, 0.2 mol,) to a solution of (4- bromo-2 -methyl -phenyl)methanol (32.9 g, 0.16 mol) in dichloromethane (200 mL) and dimethylformamide (0.025 mol, 2.0 mL) at 0°C. After 1 hour at room temperature pour the mixture into ice-water (100 g), extract with dichloromethane (300 mL), wash extract with 5% aq. sodium bicarbonate (30 mL) and brine (200 mL), dry over sodium sulfate, and concentrate under reduced pressure to give the crude title compound as a white solid (35.0 g, 0.16 mol). The material is used for the next step of reaction without further purification. !H NMR (CDC13): δ 2.38 (s, 3H), 4.52 (s, 2H), 7.13-7.35 (m, 3H).

Alternative synthesis of 4-bromo-l-chloromethyl-2-methyl -benzene. Methanesulfonyl chloride (6.83 mL, 88.3 mmol) is added slowly to a solution of (4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methanol (16.14 g, 80.27 mmol) and triethylamine (16.78 mL; 120.4 mmol) in dichloromethane (80.7 mL) cooled in ice/water. The mixture is allowed to slowly warm to ambient temperature and is stirred for 16 hours. Further

methanesulfonyl chloride (1.24 mL; 16.1 mmol) is added and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. Water (80mL) is added and the phases are separated. The organic layer is washed with hydrochloric acid (IN; 80 mL) then saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (80 mL), then water (80 mL), and is dried over Na2S04. Filtration and concentration under reduced pressure gives a residue which is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with hexane) to give the title compound (14.2 g; 80.5% yield). !H NMR (300.11 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 2H), 7.18 (d, J= 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.55 (s, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H).

Preparation 3

4- [(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl] -5 -isopropyl- lH-pyrazol-3 -ol

Figure imgf000010_0001

Scheme 1, step C: Add sodium hydride (8.29 g, 0.21 mol, 60% dispersion in oil) to a solution of methyl 4-methyl-3-oxovalerate (27.1 mL, 0.19 mol) in tetrahydrofuran at 0°C. After 30 min at room temperature, add a solution of 4-bromo-l-chloromethyl-2- methyl-benzene (35.0 g, 0.16 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (50 mL). Heat the resulting mixture at 70 °C overnight (18 hours). Add 1.0 M HC1 (20 mL) to quench the reaction. Extract with ethyl acetate (200 mL), wash extract with water (200 mL) and brine (200 mL), dry over Na2S04, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Dissolve the resulting residue in toluene (200 mL) and add hydrazine monohydrate (23.3 mL, 0.48 mol). Heat the mixture at 120 °C for 2 hours with a Dean-Stark apparatus to remove water. Cool and remove the solvent under the reduced pressure, dissolve the residue with dichloromethane (50 mL) and methanol (50 mL). Pour this solution slowly to a beaker with water (250 mL). Collect the resulting precipitated product by vacuum filtration. Dry in vacuo in an oven overnight at 40 °C to yield the title compound as a solid (48.0 g, 0.16 mol). MS (m/z): 311.0 (M+l), 309.0 (M-l). Alternative synthesis of 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl] -5 -isopropyl- lH-pyrazol-

3-ol.

A solution of 4-bromo-l-chloromethyl-2-methyl-benzene (13.16 g, 59.95 mmoles) in acetonitrile (65.8 mL) is prepared. Potassium carbonate (24.86 g, 179.9 mmol), potassium iodide (11.94 g, 71.94 mmol) and methyl 4-methyl-3-oxovalerate (8.96 mL; 62.95 mmol) are added. The resulting mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 20 hours. Hydrochloric acid (2N) is added to give pH 3. The solution is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 ml), the organic phase is washed with brine (100 ml) and dried over Na2S04. The mixture is filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is dissolved in toluene (65.8 mL) and hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL, 0.180 mol) is added. The resulting mixture is heated to reflux and water is removed using a Dean and Stark apparatus. After 3 hours the mixture is cooled to 90 °C and additional hydrazine monohydrate (13.7 mL; 0.180 mol) is added and the mixture is heated to reflux for 1 hour. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid is triturated with water (200 mL), filtered and dried in a vacuum oven over P2Os at 60°C. The solid is triturated in iso-hexane (200 mL) and filtered to give the title compound (14.3 g; 77.1% yield). MS (m/z): 309/311 (M+l).

Preparation 4

4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000012_0001

Scheme 1, step D: To a 1L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5- isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (20 g, 64.7 mmol), alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide tetrabenzoate (50 g, 76 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (6 g, 19.4 mmol), dichloromethane (500 mL), potassium carbonate (44.7 g, 323 mmol) and water (100 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (500mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (37 g, 64 mmol). MS (m/z): 889.2 (M+l), 887.2 (M-l).

Preparation 5

4- {4- [(lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000012_0002

Scheme 1, step E: Add 3-buten-l-ol (0.58 mL, 6.8 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4- bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3 -yl 2,3 ,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside (3 g, 3.4 mmol) in acetonitrile (30 mL) and triethylamine (20 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (205 mg, 0.67 mmol) and palladium acetate (76 mg, 0.34 mmol). Reflux at 90 °C for 2 hours. Cool to room temperature and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (2.1 g, 2.4 mmol). MS (m/z): 878.4 (M+l).

Preparation 6

4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000013_0001

Scheme 1, step F: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (134 mg, 0.96 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (280 mg, 0.32 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (133.8 mg, 1.6 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (270 mg, 0.31 mmol). MS (m/z): 876.5 (M+l), 874.5 (M-l).

Preparation 7

tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000014_0001

Scheme 1, step G: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (98 mg, 0.46 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol- 3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (270 mg, 0.31 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (179 mg, 0.62 mmol) in 1,2- dichloroethane (5 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL), dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (275 mg, 0.25 mmol).

MS (m/z): 1115.6 (M+l).

Preparation 8

4- {4- [( l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan- 2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride

Figure imgf000014_0002

Scheme 1, step H: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 0.6 mL, 2.4 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3- [(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4- yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (275 mg, 0.25 mmol) in dichloromethane (5 mL). After overnight (18 hours) at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (258 mg, 0.24 mmol). MS (m/z): 1015.6 (M+l).

Figure imgf000016_0001

Preparation 9

4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Figure imgf000017_0001

Scheme 2, step A: To a 1 L flask, add 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)mefhyl]-5- isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D- glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (5 g, 15.5 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL), potassium carbonate (32 g, 323 mmol) and water (120 mL). Stir the reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Extract with dichloromethane (450 mL). Wash extract with water (300 mL) and brine (500 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (36.5 g, 57 mmol). MS (m/z): 638.5 (M+l), 636.5 (M-l).

Alternative synthesis of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Reagents 4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5-isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (24.0 g, 77.6 mmol), 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide (50.4 g, 116 mmol), benzyltributylammonium chloride (4.94 g, 15.52 mmol), potassium carbonate (32.18 g, 232.9 mmol), dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (120 mL) are combined and the mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 18 hours. The mixture is partitioned between dichloromethane (250 mL) and water (250 mL). The organic phase is washed with brine (250 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue is purified by flash chromatography (eluting with 10% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane to 70% ethyl acetate in dichloromethane) to give the title compound (36.5 g, 74% yield). MS (m/z): 639/641 (M+l). Preparation 10

4- {4- [(lis)-4-hydroxybut- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000018_0001

Scheme 2, step B: Add 3-buten-l-ol (6.1 mL, 70 mmol) to a solution of 4-(4- bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5 -(propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-3 -yl 2,3 ,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranoside (15 g, 23.5 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL) and triethylamine (50 mL). Degas the solution with nitrogen over 10 minutes. Add tri-o-tolylphosphine (1.43 g, 4.7 mmol) and palladium acetate (526 mg, 2.35 mmol). After refluxing at 90 °C for 2 hours, cool, and concentrate to remove the solvent under the reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (7.5 g, 11.9 mmol) MS (m/z): 631.2 (M+l), 629.2 (M-l).

Preparation 11

4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl

2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside

Figure imgf000018_0002

Scheme 2, step C: Add 3,3,3-triacetoxy-3-iodophthalide (2.1g, 4.76 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-hydroxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside ( 1.5 g, 2.38 mmol) and sodium bicarbonate (2 g, 23.8 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0 °C. After 15 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium thiosulfate (10 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (30 mL), wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (40 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (0.95 g, 1.51 mmol). MS (m/z): 628.8(M+1), 626.8 (M-l).

Preparation 12a

tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy] -lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en- 1 -yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000019_0001

Scheme 2, Step D: Add sodium triacetoxyborohydride (303 mg, 1.4 mmol) to a solution of 4-{4-[(l£)-4-oxybut-l-en-l-yl]-2-methylbenzyl}-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol- 3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (600 mg, 0.95 mmol) and tert-butyl 2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (333 mg, 1.2 mmol) in 1,2- dichloroethane (30 mL). After 30 minutes at room temperature, quench the reaction with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (15 mL). Extract with dichloromethane (60 mL). Wash extract with water (30 mL) and brine (60 mL). Dry organic phase over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by flash chromatography to yield the title compound (500 mg, 0.58 mmol).

MS (m/z): 866.8, 867.8 (M+l), 864.8, 865.8 (M-l).

Preparation 13

4- {4- [( l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan- 2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride

Figure imgf000020_0001

Scheme 2, step E: Add hydrogen chloride (4.0 M solution in 1,4-dioxane, 1.5 mL, 5.8 mmol) to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6- tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] – lH-pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 – yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (500 mg, 0.58 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL). After 2 hours at room temperature, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to yield the title compound as a solid (480 mg, 0.57 mmol).

MS (m/z): 767.4 (M+l).

Scheme 3

Figure imgf000021_0001

Preparation 14

tert-butyl 4-but-3-ynyl-4,9-diazas iro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000021_0002

Scheme 3, step A: Cesium carbonate (46.66 g, 143.21 mmol) is added to a suspension of tert-butyl 4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate hydrochloride (16.66 g, 57.28 mmoles) in acetonitrile (167 mL). The mixture is stirred for 10 minutes at ambient temperature then 4-bromobutyne (6.45 mL, 68.74 mmol) is added. The reaction is heated to reflux and stirred for 18 hours. The mixture is cooled and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue is partitioned between water (200 mL) and ethyl acetate (150 mL). The phases are separated and the aqueous layer is extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL). The combined organic layers are washed with water (200 mL), then brine (150 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (17.2 g, 98% yield). lH NMR (300.11 MHz, CDC13): δ 3.43-3.31 (m, 4H), 2.53-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.37-2.29 (m, 4H), 2.20 (s, 2H), 1.94 (t, J= 2.6 Hz, 1H), 1.44 (s, 17H).

Preparation 15

tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]-4,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000022_0001

Scheme 3, step B: Triethylamine (5.62 mmoles; 0.783 mL), 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1,3,2-dioxaborolane (8.56 mL, 59.0 mmol) and zirconocene chloride (1.45 g, 5.62 mmoles) are added to tert-butyl 4-but-3-ynyl-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (17.21 g, 56.16 mmoles). The resulting mixture is heated to 65 °C for 3.5 hours. The mixture is cooled and dissolved in dichloromethane (150 mL). The resulting solution is passed through a ~4cm thick pad of silica gel, eluting with dichloromethane (2 x 200 mL). The filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (21.2 g, 87% yield). 1H NMR (300.11 MHz, CDCI3): δ 6.65-6.55 (m, 1H), 5.49-5.43 (m, 1H), 3.42-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.40-2.27 (m, 6H), 2.25-2.08 (m, 2H), 1.70 – 1.13 (m, 29H).

Preparation 16

tert-butyl 2-{(3£’)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH- pyrazol-4-yl} methyl)phenyl]but-3 -en- 1 -yl} -2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000023_0001

Scheme 3, step C: A solution of 4-(4-bromo-2-methylbenzyl)-5-(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (20 g, 31.3 mmol), tert- butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5 ,5 -tetramethyl- 1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3 -enyl] -4,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (16.3 g, 37.5 mmol) and potassium carbonate (12.97 g, 93.82 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (200 mL) and water (40 mL) is degassed for 15 min by bubbling nitrogen gas through it. Pd(OAc)2 (140 mg, 625 μιηοΐ) and 2- dicyclohexylphosphino-2′,4′,6′-tri-i -propyl- Ι, -biphenyl (0.596 g, 1.25 mmol) are added and the reaction is heated to reflux for 16 h. The solution is cooled to ambient temperature and methanol (200 mL) is added. After 30 minutes the solvent is removed under reduced pressure. The mixture is partitioned between ethyl acetate (500 mL) and brine (500 ml) adding aqueous MgS04 (1M; 500 ml) to aid the phase separation. The layers are separated and the organic layer is dried over MgS04 and filtered through a 10 cm pad of silica gel, eluting with ethyl acetate (-1.5 L). The filtrate is discarded and the silica pad is flushed with 5% MeOH in THF (2 L). The methanolic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title compound (20. lg, 92%).

MS (m/z): 699 (M+l).

Figure imgf000024_0001
Figure imgf000024_0002

Preparation 17

tert-butyl 4- [(E)-4- [4- [(3 -hydroxy-5-isopropyl- 1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)methyl] -3 -methyl- phenyl]but-3-enyl]-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate

Figure imgf000024_0003

Scheme 4, step A: Add tert-butyl 4-[(£)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2- dioxaborolan-2-yl)but-3-enyl]-4,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (35.8 kg, 82.4 mol) in methanol (130 L) to a solution of (4-[(4-bromo-2-methyl-phenyl)methyl]-5- isopropyl-lH-pyrazol-3-ol (23.9 kg, 77.3 mol) in methanol (440 L) at room temperature. Add water (590 L) and tripotassium phosphate (100 kg, 471.7 mol) and place the reaction under nitrogen atmosphere. To the stirring solution, add a suspension of

tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium (1.42 kg, 1.55 mol) and di-tert- butylmethylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate (775 g, 3.12 mol) in methanol (15 L). The resulting mixture is heated at 75 °C for 2 hours. Cool the mixture and filter over diatomaceous earth. Rinse the the filter cake with methanol (60 L), and concentrate the filtrate under reduced pressure. Add ethyl acetate (300 L), separate the layers, and wash the organic layer with 15% brine (3 x 120 L). Concentrate the organic layer under reduced pressure, add ethyl acetate (300 L), and stir the mixture for 18 to 20 hours. Add heptane (300 L), cool the mixture to 10 °C, and stir the mixture for an additional 18 to 20 hours. Collect the resulting solids by filtration, rinse the cake with ethyl acetate/heptane (2:3, 2 x 90 L), and dry under vacuum at 40°C to give the title compound (29.3 kg, 70.6% yield) as a white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD): δ 7.14 (s, 1H), 7.07 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J= 16.0 Hz, 1H), 6.25-6.12 (m, 1H), 3.63 (s, 2H), 3.45-3.38 (bs, 3H), 3.34 (s, 3 H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.40 (m, 5 H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 1.68-1.62 (m, 2H), 1.60-1.36 (m, 15H), 1.11 (s, 3H), 1.10 (s, 3H).

Preparation 12b

Alterternative preparation of tert-butyl 2-{(3£)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3- [(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but- 3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate.

Figure imgf000025_0001

Scheme 4, step B: Combine tert-butyl 4-[(E)-4-[4-[(3-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-lH- pyrazol-4-yl)methyl] -3-methyl-phenyl]but-3 -enyl] -4,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undecane-9- carboxylate (17.83 kg, 33.2 moles), acetonitrile (180 L), and benzyltributylammonium chloride (1.52 kg, 4.87 moles) at room temperature. Slowly add potassium carbonate (27.6 kg, 199.7 moles) and stir the mixture for 2 hours. Add 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha- D-glucopyranosyl bromide (24.9 kg, 60.55 mol), warm the reaction mixture to 30°C and stir for 18 hours. Concentrate the mixture under reduced pressure and add ethyl acetate (180 L), followed by water (90 L). Separate the layers, wash the organic phase with 15% brine (3 x 90 L), concentrate the mixture, and purify using column chromatography over silica gel (63 kg, ethyl acetate/heptanes as eluent (1 :2→1 :0)) to provide the title compound (19.8 kg, 94% purity, 68.8% yield) as a yellow foam, !H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.13 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.78 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J= 16.0,

1H), 6.25-6.13 (m, 1H), 5.64 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.45-5.25 (m, 2H), 5.13-4.95 (m, 2H), 4.84-4.76 (m, 1H), 4.25-4.13 (m, 2H), 4.10-4.00 (m, 2H), 3.90-3.86 (m, 1H), 3.58-3.50 (m, 2H), 3.40-3.22 (m, 4H), 2.89-2.79 (m, 1H), 2.10-1.90 (m, 18 H), 1.82 (s, 3H), 1.62- 0.82 (m, 22H).

Preparation 18

2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl} -2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane

Figure imgf000026_0001

Scheme 4, step C: Combine tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)- 3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-0-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4- yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (19.6 kg, 22.6 moles) with dichloromethane (120 L) and cool to 0°C. Slowly add trifluoroacetic acid (34.6 L, 51.6 kg, 452 moles) and stir for 9 hours. Quench the reaction with ice water (80 L), and add ammonium hydroxide (85-90 L) to adjust the reaction mixture to pH (8- 9). Add dichloromethane (120 L), warm the reaction mixture to room temperature, and separate the layers. Wash the organic layer with water (75 L), brine, and concentrate under reduced pressure to provide the title compound (16.2 kg, 95.0% purity, 93% yield) as a yellow solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13): δ 7.08 (s, IH), 6.99 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, IH),

6.76 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, IH), 6.38 (d, J=15.6 Hz, IH), 6.00-5.83 (m, IH), 5.31 (d, J= 7.6 Hz, IH), 5.25-5.13 (m, 4H), 4.32 (dd, J= 12.8, 9.2 Hz, IH), 4.14 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, IH), 3.90 (d, J= 10.0 Hz, IH), 3.75-3.50 (m, 3H), 3.30-3.00 (m, 5 H), 2.85-2.75 (m, IH), 2.70-2.48 (m, 3H), 2.25 (s, IH), 2.13-1.63 (m, 19H), 1.32-1.21 (m, IH), 1.14 (s, 3H), 1.13 (s, 3H), 1.12 (s, 3H), 1.10 (s, 3H).

Example 1

Hydrated crystalline 4- {4-[(l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl]-2- methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate

First alternative preparation of 4-{4-[(l£’)-4-(2.9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l- yl]-2-methylbenzyl| -5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside (free base).

Figure imgf000027_0001

Scheme 1, step I: Add sodium hydroxide (0.5 mL, 0.5 mmol, 1.0 M solution) to a solution of 4- {4-[( l£)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} – 5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (258 mg, 0.24 mmol) in methanol (2 mL). After 2 hours at 40°C, concentrate to remove the solvent under reduced pressure to give a residue, which is purified by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 μιη C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – H.0 with NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound (free base) as a solid (46 mg, 0.08 mmol). MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+l), 596.8 (M-l).

Second alternative preparation of 4-{4-r(l-£’)-4-(2.9-diazaspiror5.51undec-2-yl)but-l-en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl I -5 -(propan-2-yl)- lH-pyrazol-3 -yl beta-D-glucopyranoside (free base).

Figure imgf000028_0001

Scheme 2, step F: Add methanol (5 mL), triethylamine (3 mL), and water (3 mL) to 4- {4-[( lJE)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 – (propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside dihydrochloride (480 mg, 0.24 mmol). After 18 hours (overnight) at room temperature, concentrate to dryness under reduced pressure. Purify the resulting residue by preparative HPLC method: high pH, 25% B for 4 min, 25-40 B % for 4 min @ 85 mL/min using a 30 x 75 mm, 5 μιη C18XBridge ODB column, solvent A – H20 with NH4HCO3 @ pH 10, solvent B – MeCN to yield the title compound (free base) as a solid (50 mg, 0.08 mmol).

MS (m/z): 598.8 (M+l), 596.8 (M-l). 1H NMR (400.31 MHz, CD3OD): δ 7.11 (d, J=1.3

Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J=l .3,8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (d, J= 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J= 15.8 Hz, 1H), 6.16 (dt, J= 15.8, 6.3 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (m, 1H), 3.81 (d, J= 11.7 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H), 3.68 (d, J= 16.8 Hz, 1H) , 3.64 (m, 1H), 3.37-3.29 (m, 4H), 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.72 (t, J= 5.8 Hz, 4H), 2.44-2.33 (m, 6H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.26 ( broad s, 2H), 1.59 (m, 2H), 1.50 (m, 2H), 1.43 (m, 2H), 1.36 (m, 2H), 1.11 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.10 (d, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H).

Third alternative preparation of 4-{4-[(l£,)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.51undec-2-yl)but-l-en-l- yll-2-methylbenzyl|-5-(propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside.

Scheme 3, step D: Trifluoroacetic acid (32.2 mL; 0.426 mol) is added to a solution of tert-butyl 2-{(3JE)-4-[3-methyl-4-({5-(propan-2-yl)-3-beta-D- glucopyranosyl)oxy]-lH-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3-en-l-yl}-2,9- diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (14.87 g; 21.28 mmol) in dichloromethane (149 mL) cooled in iced water. The solution is allowed to warm to room temperature. After 30 minutes, the mixture is slowly added to ammonia in MeOH (2M; 300 mL), applying cooling as necessary to maintain a constant temperature. The solution is stirred at room temperature for 15 min. The mixture is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is purified using SCX-2 resin. The basic filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue is triturated/sonicated in ethyl acetate, filtered and dried. The resulting solid is dissolved in MeOH (200mL) and concentrated in vacuo. This is repeated several times to give the title compound (free base) (12.22 g, yield 96%). MS (m/z): 599 (M+l); [a]D 20 = -12 ° (C=0.2, MeOH).

Preparation of final title compound, hydrated crystalline 4-{4-|YlE)-4-(2.9- diazaspiro [5.5|undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl I -5-(propan-2-vD- 1 H-pyrazol-3 – yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate.

Figure imgf000029_0001

4- {4- [(1 E)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl } -5 – (propan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl beta-D-glucopyranoside (902 mg) is placed in a round bottom flask (100 mL) and treated with wet ethyl acetate (18 mL). [Note – wet ethyl acetate is prepared by mixing ethyl acetate (100 mL) and dionized water (100 mL). After mixing, the layers are allowed to separate, and the top wet ethyl acetate layer is removed for use. Acetic acid is a hydrolysis product of ethyl acetate and is present in wet ethyl acetate.] The compound dissolves, although not completely as wet ethyl acetate is added. After several minutes, a white precipitate forms. An additional amount of wet ethyl acetate (2 mL) is added to dissolve remaining compound. The solution is allowed to stir uncovered overnight at room temperature during which time the solvent partially evaporates. The remaining solvent from the product slurry is removed under vacuum, and the resulting solid is dried under a stream of nitrogen to provide the final title compound as a crystalline solid. A small amount of amorphous material is identified in the product by solid-state NMR. This crystalline final title compound may be used as seed crystals to prepare additional crystalline final title compound.

Alternative preparation of final title compound, hvdrated crystalline 4-{4-[(lE)-4-(2.,9- diazaspiro [5.5]undec-2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl I -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-3 – yl beta-D-glucopyranoside acetate.

Under a nitrogen atmosphere combine of 4-{4-[(lE)-4-(2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undec- 2-yl)but- 1 -en- 1 -yl] -2-methylbenzyl} -5-(propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazol-3-yl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O- acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2.1 kg, 2.74 mol), methanol (4.4 L), tetrahydrofuran (4.2 L), and water (210 mL). Add potassium carbonate (460 g, 3.33 moles) and stir for four to six hours, then filter the reaction mixture to remove the solids. Concentrate the filtrate under reduced pressure, then add ethanol (9.0 L) followed by acetic acid (237 mL, 4.13 mol) and stir at room temperature for one hour. To the stirring solution add wet ethyl acetate (10 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water) slowly over five hours, followed by water (500 mL). Stir the suspension for twelve hours and add wet ethyl acetate (4.95 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water) over a period of eight hours. Stir the suspension for twelve hours and add additional wet ethyl acetate (11.5 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water) slowly over sixteen hours. Stir the suspension for twelve hours, collect the solids by filtration and rinse the solids with wet ethyl acetate (3.3 L, containing approx. 3 w/w% water). Dry in an oven under reduced pressure below 30°C to give the title compound as an off-white crystalline solid (1.55 kg, 2.35 mol, 96.7% purity, 72.4 w/w% potency, 68.0% yield based on potency). HRMS (m/z): 599.3798 (M+l).

PATENT

CN105705509

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=CN175101669&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION

The present invention is in the field of treatment of diabetes and other diseases and conditions associated with hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a group of diseases characterized by high blood sugar levels. It affects approximately 25 million people in the United States, and according to the 2011 National Diabetes Bulletin, it is also the seventh leading cause of death in the United States (US Department of Health and Human Resources Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters (SGLT’s) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the uptake of carbohydrates such as glucose. More specifically, SGLT1 is responsible for transporting glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLT1 can result in a decrease in glucose absorption in the small intestine, thus providing a useful method of treating diabetes.

Alternative medicines and treatments for diabetes are needed. The present invention provides an acetate salt of a pyrazole compound which is an SGLT1 inhibitor, and thus it is suitable for treating certain conditions such as diabetes.

U.S. Patent No. 7,655,632 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives having human SGLT1 inhibitory activity, which are also disclosed for use in the prevention or treatment of diseases associated with hyperglycemia, such as diabetes. Moreover, WO 2011/039338 discloses certain pyrazole derivatives having SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor activity, which are also disclosed for use in the treatment of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.


PATENT

WO-2019141209

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019141209&tab=FULLTEXT&_cid=P10-JYNZF2-05384-1

Diabetes is a group of lifelong metabolic diseases characterized by multiple causes of chronic hyperglycemia. Long-term increase in blood glucose can cause damage to large blood vessels and microvessels and endanger the heart, brain, kidney, peripheral nerves, eyes, feet and so on. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, there are more than 100 complications of diabetes, which is the most common complication, and the incidence rate is also on the rise. The kidney plays a very important role in the body’s sugar metabolism. Glucose does not pass through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane in the body, and must rely on the glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Sodium-coupled glucose co-transporters (SGLTs) are one of the transporters known to be responsible for the uptake of carbohydrates such as glucose. More specifically, SGLT1 is responsible for transporting glucose across the brush border membrane of the small intestine. Inhibition of SGLT1 results in a decrease in glucose absorption in the small intestine and can therefore be used in the treatment of diabetes.
Ellerelli has developed a novel SGLTs inhibitor for alternative drugs and treatments for diabetes. CN105705509 discloses the SGLTs inhibitor-pyrazole compound, which has the structure shown in the following formula (1):
str1
It is well known for drug production process has strict requirements, the purity of pharmaceutical active ingredients will directly affect the safety and effectiveness of drug quality. Simplified synthetic route optimization, and strictly control the purity of the intermediates has a very important role in improving drug production, quality control and optimization of the dosage form development.
CN105705509 discloses a method for synthesizing a compound of the formula (1), wherein the intermediate compound 2-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl4-({5-(propyl-2-yl)) is obtained by the step B in Scheme 4. -3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl)phenyl]but-3- Tert-butyl-1-enyl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane-9-carboxylate (Compound obtained in Preparation Example 12b) was obtained as a yellow foam, yield 68.6%, purity 94 %, this step involves silica gel column purification, low production efficiency, high cost, and poor quality controllability; the intermediate 2-{(3E)-4-[3-methyl 4-({5- (prop-2-yl)-3-[(2,3,4,6-tetra-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl}methyl) Phenyl]but-3-en-1-yl}-2,9-diazaspiro[5.5]undecane (Compound obtained in Preparation Example 18) as a yellow solid with a purity of 95.0%; The resulting intermediate compounds were all of low purity. Moreover, CN105705509 produces a compound of formula (1) having a purity of 96.7% as described in the publications of the publications 0141 and 0142. The resulting final compound is not of high purity and is not conducive to subsequent drug preparation.

Process for preparing pyranoglucose-substituted pyrazole compound, used as a pharmaceutical intermediate in SGLT inhibitor for treating diabetes.

Example 1
626 g of the compound of the formula (16), 6 L of acetonitrile, 840 g of cesium carbonate and 1770 g of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-glucosyl bromide (formula (17) The compound is sequentially added to the reaction vessel, heated to 40 ° C to 45 ° C, and reacted for 4 to 5 hours, then cooled to 20 to 25 ° C, filtered, and the obtained solid is rinsed once with acetonitrile; the filter cake is dissolved with 8 L of ethyl acetate and 10 L of water. After the liquid separation, the organic phase was concentrated to about 3 L, 10 L of acetonitrile was added, and the mixture was stirred for 12 h to precipitate a solid, which was filtered. The filter cake was rinsed with acetonitrile and dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to give white crystals, 652 g of compound of formula (9c). The yield was 61%, the HPLC purity was 98.52%, and the melting point was 180.0-182.1 °C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) (see Figure 1): δ 7.10 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J=15.6,1H), 6.19-6.12 (m,1H), 5.59 (d, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.40-5.35 (t, J=9.6 Hz, 1H), 5.17-5.06 (m, 2H) , 4.18-4.14 (dd, J = 12.4 Hz, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 4.10-4.06 (dd, J = 12.4 Hz, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 3.92-3.89 (dd, J = 10 Hz, 2.4 Hz, 1H) , 3.64-3.54 (dd, J=20 Hz, 16.8 Hz, 2H), 3.31-3.30 (m, 4H), 2.86-2.79 (m, 1H), 2.37-2.29 (m, 11H), 1.63-1.38 (m, 17H), 1.15-1.05 (m, 42H). MS (m/z): 1035.7 (M+H).
640 g of the compound of the formula (9c) and 6.4 L of ethyl acetate were successively added to the reaction vessel, and the temperature was lowered to 15 ° C to 20 ° C. 1176 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate was added in portions for 2 to 3 hours; after the reaction was over, 3.5 L of a 9% potassium hydroxide aqueous solution was added, and the mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, and the aqueous phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed successively with 3.5 L of 9% and 3.5 L of 3% aqueous potassium hydroxide and concentrated to 2.5 L. 21L of n-heptane was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred for 12 hours; filtered, and the filter cake was rinsed with n-heptane; the filter cake was dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to obtain white crystals, p-toluene of the compound of formula (10c). The sulfonate salt was 550 g, the yield was 80%, the purity was 97.59%, and the melting point was 168.0-169.2 °C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) (see Figure 2): δ 7.72 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 7.24 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.10 (s, 1H), 7.03 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J = 15.6, 1H), 6.19-6.12 (m, 1H), 5.60 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H) ), 5.41-5.37 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H), 5.17-5.06 (m, 2H), 4.18-4.14 (dd, J = 12.4 Hz, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.10-4.07 (d, J = 11.6Hz, 1H), 3.94-3.91 (dd, J=7.2Hz, 2.8Hz, 1H), 3.64-3.54 (dd, J=20.0Hz, 16.8Hz, 2H), 3.31-3.30 (m, 4H), 2.86 -2.79 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.29 (m, 14H), 1.78-1.44 (m, 8H), 1.15-1.05 (m, 42H). MS (m/z): 935.7 (M+H).
82.6 g of potassium hydroxide, 5.5 L of absolute ethanol and 550 g of the p-toluenesulfonate of the compound of the formula (10c) were sequentially added to the reaction vessel, and stirred at 45 to 50 ° C for about 4 hours. The temperature was lowered to 20 to 25 ° C, filtered, and the solid was rinsed with ethanol. The filtrate and the eluent were combined, and 65 g of acetic acid was added thereto, followed by stirring for 15 min. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to about 1.5 L, and then 52 g of acetic acid was added. After stirring for 20 min, 4.5 L of ethyl acetate containing 3% water and 160 mL of purified water were added dropwise. After the dropwise addition, continue stirring for 3 to 4 hours. Filter and filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate containing 3% water. The solid was transferred to a reaction kettle, 500 mL of water was added and stirred for 18 h. After filtration, the filter cake was washed successively with water and an ethanol/ethyl acetate mixed solvent. The filter cake was dried under vacuum at 35 to 40 ° C for 4 hours to obtain a white solid, 245 g of compound of formula (1), yield 75%, purity 99.55%. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) (see Figure 3): δ 7.11 (s, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (d, J=16.0,1H), 6.20-6.13 (dt, J=15.6 Hz, 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.03-5.01 (m, 1H), 3.83 (d, J=11.2, 1H), 3.71-3.59 (m, 3H), 3.35-3.30 (m, 4H), 3.09-3.06 (t, J = 6 Hz, 4H), 2.87-2.77 (m, 1H), 2.49-2.31 (m, 6H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 2.26(s, 2H), 1.90 (s, 3H), 1.78 (m, 2H), 1.68 (m, 2H), 1.65 (m, 2H), 1.44-1.43 (m, 2H), 1.13 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.11 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), MS (m/z): 599.5 (M+H).
Example 2
5.00 kg of the maleate salt of the compound of the formula (16), 40 L of tetrahydrofuran, 5.47 kg of potassium phosphate and 11.67 kg of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-pivaloyl-α-D-glucosyl bromide The compound (formula (17)) is sequentially added to the reaction vessel, heated to 40 to 45 ° C, and reacted for 4 to 5 hours, then cooled to 15 to 25 ° C, filtered, and the solid was rinsed once with tetrahydrofuran. The filter cake was dissolved in 36 L of ethyl acetate and 20 L of water and then separated. The organic phase was concentrated to ca. 18 L, 64 L acetonitrile was added and stirred for 15 h. Filtration, the filter cake was rinsed with acetonitrile, and dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to give white crystals of the compound of formula (9c), 4.50 kg, yield 57%, HPLC purity 99.19%.
4.45 kg of the compound of the formula (9c) and 45 L of butyl acetate were sequentially added to the reaction vessel, and the temperature was lowered to 15 ° C to 20 ° C. 4.13 kg of methanesulfonic acid was added in portions and the reaction was carried out for 2 to 3 hours. 22 L of a 9% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution was added, stirred for 10 min, and the liquid phase was discarded. The organic phase was washed successively with 10 L of 9%, 4.5 L of 10% and 2 L of 2.5% aqueous potassium hydroxide and concentrated to 15 L. 68 L of n-heptane was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred for further 12 h. Filtered and the filter cake was rinsed once with n-heptane. The solid was dried under vacuum at 60 ° C for 24 h to obtain white crystals. The methanesulfonic acid salt of the compound of formula (10c) was 4.37 kg, yield 99%, purity 97.94%.
0.73 kg of potassium hydroxide, 43 L of methanol and 4.30 kg of the compound of the formula (10c) were sequentially added to the reaction vessel, and stirred at 45 to 50 ° C for 4 hours. The temperature was lowered to 20 to 25 ° C, filtered, and 0.56 kg of acetic acid was added to the filtrate, and the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes. The reaction solution was concentrated to about 15 L under reduced pressure, and 0.40 g of acetic acid was added. After stirring for 10 min, 39 L of 3% water in ethyl acetate and 1.3 L of purified water were added dropwise. After the dropwise addition, stirring was continued for about 2 hours. Filter and filter cake was rinsed once with ethyl acetate containing 3% water. The solid was transferred to a reaction kettle, and 3.5 L of water was added and stirred for 18 h. After filtration, the filter cake was washed successively with water and an ethanol/ethyl acetate mixed solvent. The cake was vacuum dried at 35 to 40 ° C to give a white solid. Compound (1) (1), 1.84 g, yield 67%, purity 99.65%.
Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US9573970 4–5-(PROPAN-2-YL)-1H-PYRAZOL-3-YL BETA-D GLUCOPYRANOSIDE ACETATE 2014-10-30 2016-07-28

/////////////SY-008 , SY 008 , SY008, ELI LILY, PHASE 1, GLT1 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, Yabao Pharmaceutical, CHINA, DIABETES

CC(=O)O.Cc5cc(\C=C\CCN2CCCC1(CCNCC1)C2)ccc5Cc3c(nnc3C(C)C)O[C@@H]4O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]4O

Cc5cc(\C=C\CCN2CCCC1(CCNCC1)C2)ccc5Cc3c(nnc3C(C)C)O[C@@H]4O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]4
O

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Astellas Pharma Inc. new Glucokinase Activator, ASP ? for Type 2 Diabetes


str1

ASP ?

(2R)-2-(4-cyclopropanesulfonyl-3-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-3-[(R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]propanamide

CAS 1174229-89-0
MW C25 H29 N3 O5 S
Benzeneacetamide, 3-cyclopropyl-4-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-pyrazinyl]-α-[[(1R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]methyl]-, (αR)-
Molecular Weight, 483.58
[α]D20 −128.7 (c 1.00, MeOH);
1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 11.07 (s, 1H), 9.20 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.15 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 4.04 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.03–2.97 (m, 1H), 2.79 (tt, J = 8.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 2.25–1.81 (m, 8H), 1.53–1.47 (m, 1H), 1.17–1.12 (m, 2H), 1.08–1.02 (m, 4H), 0.89–0.84 (m, 2H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 101 MHz) δ 218.5, 171.8, 152.1, 147.3, 145.7, 143.2, 140.3, 138.2, 134.8, 129.0, 125.3, 125.1, 62.5, 49.9, 44.4, 38.4, 38.2, 34.8, 32.1, 29.1, 12.4, 10.8, 10.7, 5.8;
FTIR (ATR, cm–1) 3544, 3257, 1727, 1692, 1546, 1507, 1363, 1285, 1149, 719;
HRMS (ESI) m/z [M + Na]+ calcd for C25H29N3O5S 506.1726, found 506.1747.
Anal. Calcd for C25H29N3O5S: C, 62.09; H, 6.04; N, 8.69. Found: C, 61.79; H, 6.19; N, 8.62.

To Astellas Pharma,Inc.

Inventors Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki Amino
Applicant Astellas Pharma Inc.

Image result for Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan

Synthesis

contd…………………………..

PATENT

WO2009091014

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=56E9927692EF5105140FE1CD1FD14A5D.wapp1nC?docId=WO2009091014&recNum=114&maxRec=374&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=FP%3A%28astellas+pharma%29&tab=FullText

str1

PAPER

A Practical and Scalable Synthesis of a Glucokinase Activator via Diastereomeric Resolution and Palladium-Catalyzed C–N Coupling Reaction

Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan
§ Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00415
 Abstract Image

Here we describe the research and development of a process for the practical synthesis of glucokinase activator (R)-1 as a potential drug for treating type-2 diabetes. The key intermediate, chiral α-arylpropionic acid (R)-2, was synthesized in high diastereomeric excess through the diasteromeric resolution of 7 without the need for a chiral resolving agent. The counterpart 2-aminopyrazine derivative 3 was synthesized using a palladium-catalyzed C–N coupling reaction. This efficient process was demonstrated at the pilot scale and yielded 19.0 kg of (R)-1. Moreover, an epimerization process to obtain (R)-7 from the undesired (S)-7 was developed.

Hayakawa, M.; Kido, Y.; Nigawara, T.; Okumura, M.; Kanai, A.; Maki, K.; Amino, N. PCT Int. Appl. WO/2009/091014 A1 20090723,2009.

https://www.astellas.com/en/ir/library/pdf/3q2017_rd_en.pdf

///////////1174229-89-0, ASTELLAS, Glucokinase Activator, TYPE 2 DIABETES, PRECLINICAL, ASP ?, WO 2009091014Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki AminoWO2009091014,

O=C(Nc1cnc(cn1)CO)[C@H](C[C@@H]2CC(=O)CC2)c3ccc(c(c3)C4CC4)S(=O)(=O)C5CC5

AMG-3969


Image result for amg 3969

AMG-3969

M.Wt: 522.46
Cas : 1361224-53-4 , MF: C21H20F6N4O3S

WO 2012027261 PRODUCT PATENT

Inventors Kate Ashton, Michael David Bartberger, Yunxin Bo, Marian C. Bryan, Michael Croghan, Christopher Harold Fotsch, Clarence Henderson Hale, Roxanne Kay Kunz, Longbin Liu, Nobuko Nishimura, Mark H. Norman, Lewis Dale Pennington, Steve Fong Poon, Markian Myroslaw Stec, Jean David Joseph St., Jr., Nuria A. Tamayo, Christopher Michael Tegley, Kevin Chao Yang
Applicant Amgen Inc.

2-[4-[(2S)-4-[(6-Amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl]-2-(1-propyn-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol)

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol,

mp 113–123 °C;
[α]D20 = +75.1 (c = 2.2, MeOH).
Agents for Type 2 Diabetes,  PRECLINICAL

AMG-3969, a novel and stable small-molecule disruptor of glucokinase (GK) and glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) interaction by the optimization of initial screening hit and AMG-1694. AMG-3969 potently induced the dissociation of the GK-GKRP complex and promoted GK translocation both in-vitro and in-vivo. In rodent model of diabetes, AMG-3969 reduced blood glucose levels without affecting euglycemic animals. The study represents the first successful discovery of a small molecule that targets the GK-GKRP complex as a novel pathway for managing blood glucose levels with reduced hypoglycemic risk.

Image result for AMGEN

 Kate Ashton

Kate Ashton

Senior Scientist at Amgen, Inc

Amgen
Thousand Oaks, United States
Dr. Kate Ashton received a Masters in Chemistry with Industrial Experience from the University of Edinburgh. She conducted her PhD thesis research on the synthesis and structure elucidation of Reidispongiolide A with Prof. Ian Paterson at the University of Cambridge, and her postdoctoral work on SOMO catalysis with Prof. David W. C. MacMillan at both Caltech and Princeton. She has been at Amgen for 6 years and has worked on indications for cancer, Alzheimer’s and diabetes.Dr Fecke works in the area of industrial early drug discovery since 1996. He is currently Group Leader in the Primary Pharmacology department at UCB Pharma (UK) and is involved in the identification and characterization of NCE and NBE drugs in molecular interaction assays for both immunological and CNS diseases. Prior to joining UCB, he worked for Novartis and Siena Biotech in the areas of transplant rejection, neurodegeneration and oncology. He obtained his PhD at the Heinrich-Heine-University Dusseldorf in Germany in 1994.

Image result for amg 3969

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, AMG-3969

Glucokinase (GK) is a member of a family of four hexokinases that are critical in the cellular metabolism of glucose. Specifically GK, also known as hexokinase IV or hexokinase D, facilitates glucose induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells as well as glucose conversion into glycogen in the liver. GK has a unique catalytic activity that enables the enzyme to be active within the physiological range of glucose (from 5mM glucose to lOmM glucose).

Genetically modified mouse models support the role of GK playing an important role in glucose homeostasis. Mice lacking both copies of the GK gene die soon after birth from severe hyperglycemia, whereas mice lacking only one copy of the GK gene present with only mild diabetes. Mice that are made to overexpress the GK gene in their livers are hypoglycemic.

Numerous human mutations in the GK gene have been identified, with the vast majority of them resulting in proteins with impaired or absent enzymatic activity. These loss-of-function mutations are thought to contribute to the hyperglycemia seen with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type II (MODY-2). A small fraction of these mutations result in a GK with increased catalytic function. These individuals present with moderate to severe hypoglycemia.

GK activity in the liver is transiently regulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). GK catalytic activity is inhibited when GK is bound to GKRP. This interaction is antagonized by increasing concentrations of both glucose and fructose -1 -phosphate (F1P). The complex of the two proteins is localized primarily to the nuclear compartment of a cell. Post prandially as both glucose and fructose levels rise, GK released from GKRP translocates to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic GK is now free of the inhibitory effects of GKRP and able to kinetically respond to glucose. Evidence from the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF) indicates that their glucose intolerance may be a result of this mechanism failing to function properly.

A compound that acts directly on GKRP to disrupt its interaction with GK and hence elevate levels of cytoplasmic GK is a viable approach to modulate GK activity. Such an approach would avoid the unwanted hypoglycemic effects of over stimulation of GK catalytic activity, which has been seen in the

development of GK activators. A compound having such an effect would be useful in the treatment of diabetes and other diseases and/or conditions in which GKRP and/or GK plays a role.

CLIP

Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors
Nature 2013, 504(7480): 437

Image result for Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

Image result for Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors.

SYNTHESIS

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) 1-propynylmagnesium bromide, THF, 0 °C, 99%; (b) TFA, DCM, then NaBH(OAc)3 77%; (c) NH4OH, EtOH, 120 °C, 88%; (d) chiral SFC, 38%………..Nature 2013,504, 437440

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2012027261

EXAMPLE 241 : 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROP YN- 1 – YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

STEP 1 : 4-BENZYL 1 -TERT-BUTYL 2-0X0-1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 2-L Erlenmeyer flask was charged with 2-piperazinone (36.5 g, 364 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), sodium carbonate (116 g, 1093 mmol), 600 mL of dioxane, and 150 mL of water. To this was slowly added benzyl chloroformate (62.1 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at room temperature over 20 min. After the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 h and then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 L). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid. To this solid was added 500 mL of DCM, triethylamine (128 mL, 911 mmol), DMAP (4.45 g, 36.4 mmol), and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (119 g, 546 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 1 h at room temperature, the mixture was diluted with water and the organics were separated. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a brown oil. To this oil was added 100 mL of DCM followed by 1 L of hexane. The resulting white solid was collected by filtration to give 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (101 g).

STEP 2: BENZYL (2-((TERT-BUTOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)ETHYL)(2-OXO-3 -PENTYN- 1 -YL)CARBAMATE

A 150-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl

2- oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (1.41 g, 4.22 mmol) and THF (5 mL). 1-Propynylmagnesium bromide (0.5 M in THF, 20.0 mL, 10.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added at 0 °C slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Saturated aqueous NH4C1 (40 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL, then 2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (50 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo- 3- pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (1.55 g) as a clear oil.

STEP 3: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (82.2 g, 219 mmol) and 300 mL of DCM. After cooling to -10 °C, TFA (169 mL, 2195 mmol) was added and the resulting dark solution was stirred at room temperature for 15 min. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (186 g, 878 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was then added portion- wise over 10 min. After 2 h, the mixture was

concentrated, diluted with EtOAc (1 L), and neutralized with 5 N NaOH. The layers were separated and the organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting orange oil was purified via column chromatography (750 g of silica gel, 0 to 4.5 % MeOH/DCM) to give benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (43.7 g) as a brown foam.

STEP 4: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO-l-HYDROXY- 1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 150-mL reaction vessel was charged with benzyl 3-(prop-l-yn-l-yl)piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.88 g, 11.2 mmol), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-l, 1,1, 3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (4.36 g, 13.5 mmol, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 3009), dicyclohexyl(2′,6′-diisopropoxy-[ 1 , 1 ‘-biphenyl]-2-yl)phosphine, RuPhos (0.530 g, 1.14 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), RuPhos Palladacycle (0.417 g, 0.572 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA), sodium tert-butoxide (2.73 g, 28.4 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA) and toluene (35 mL). The mixture was degassed by bubbling Ar through the solution for 10 min. The vessel was sealed and heated at 100 °C for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temerature and water (100 mL) was added. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 100 mL) and the combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (150 mL). The organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate as a yellow solid.

STEP 5: 2-(4-(4-((6-CHLORO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (3.13 g, 6.25 mmol) and TFA (40 mL).

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (1.25 mL, 14.1 mmol, Acros/Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was added dropwise at room temperature. After 5 min, additional TfOH (0.45 mL, 5.1 mmol) was added. After an additional 10 min, solid

NaHC03 was carefully added in potions. Saturated aqueous NaHC03 (250 mL) was added slowly to bring pH to approximately 7. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL). At this time, more solid NaHC03 was added to the aqueous phase and extracted again with EtOAc (100 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (200 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford 3.10 g of tan solid.

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with this material, triethylamine (5.00 mL, 35.9 mmol) and CH2CI2 (30 mL). 6-Chloropyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (1.58 g, 7.43 mmol, Organic Process Research & Development 2009, 13, 875) was added in potions at 0 °C. The brown mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 min. The volume of the reaction mixture was reduced to approximately 10 mL in vacuo then the mixture was purified twice by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (3.46 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 6: 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 20-mL sealed tube was charged with 2-(4-(4-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (0.340 g, 0.627 mmol), concentrated ammonium hydroxide (5.00 mL, 38.5 mmol) and EtOH (5 mL). The reaction mixture was heated in an Initiator (Biotage, AB, Uppsala, Sweden) at 120 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was further heated in a heating block at 110 °C for 5 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated and purified by column chromatography (25 g of silica, 30 to 80% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (0.289 g) as a mixture of two enantiomers.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.49 (br. s., 1 H), 7.80 (dd, J= 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.55 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.05 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s., 1 H), 3.85 – 3.72 (m, 2 H), 3.54 (br. s., 1 H), 3.50 – 3.34 (m, 2 H), 2.83 (dd, J= 3.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.69 (dt, J= 3.4, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.80 (s, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.1 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.003 μΜ

The individual enantiomers were isolated using chiral SFC. The method used was as follows: Chiralpak® ADH column (21 x 250 mm, 5 μιη) using 35% methanol in supercritical C02 (total flow was 70 mL/min). This produced the two enantiomers with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98%.

2-(4-((2S)-4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(l -propyn- 1-yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -hexafluoro-2-propanol and 2-(4-((2R)-4-((6-amino-3 -pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol.

FIRST ELUTING PEAK (PEAK #1)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.48 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (dd, J= 2.5, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.95 (d, J= 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.52 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (s, 2 H), 4.44 (br. s., 1 H), 3.82 – 3.71 (m, 2 H), 3.58 – 3.33 (m, 3 H), 2.81 (dd, J= 3.2, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.67 (dt, J= 3.9, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.78 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.002 μΜ.

SECOND ELUTING PEAK (PEAK #2)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.49 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.78 (dd, J= 2.3, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.54 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.97 (s, 2 H), 4.46 (br. s., 1 H), 3.77 (t, J= 11.7 Hz, 2 H), 3.67 (br. s., 1 H), 3.51 – 3.33 (m, 2 H), 2.82 (dd, J= 3.3, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (dt, J= 3.9, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (d, J= 2.0 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.342 μΜ.

Alternative procedure starting after Step 4.

STEP 5 : 2-(4-(4-((6-AMINO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)- 1 -PIPERAZIN YL)PHENYL)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3 -HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

Alternatively, 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol was synthesized from benzyl 3-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate as follows.

A 2-L round-bottomed flask was charged with benzyl 3 -(1 -propyn- 1-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (21.8 g, 43.5 mmol, step 5) and TFA (130 mL).

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (11.6 mL, 131 mmol, Acros/Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was added slowly at rt resulting orange cloudy mixture. After stirring at rt for 10 min, the volume of the reaction mixture was reduced to half in vacuo. Solid NaHC03 was added in potions until the mixture became sludge. Saturated aqueous NaHC03(800 mL) was added slowly until the pH was about

8. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 250 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (500 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (500 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. This material was dissolved into DCM (200 mL) and triethylamine (31.0 mL, 222 mmol) was added. Then 6-aminopyridine-3-sulfonyl chloride (9.40 g, 48.8 mmol, published PCT patent application no. WO

2009/140309) was added in potions over 10 min period. The brown mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 min. The reaction mixture was washed with water (300 mL) and saturated aqueous NaCl (300 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (780 g of total silica, 30 to 90% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-(4-((6-amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (19.4 g) as a mixture of two enantiomers.

Paper

Nonracemic Synthesis of GK–GKRP Disruptor AMG-3969

Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, United States
Amgen Inc. 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, United States
J. Org. Chem., 2014, 79 (8), pp 3684–3687

Abstract Image

A nonracemic synthesis of the glucokinase–glucokinase regulatory protein disruptor AMG-3969 (5) is reported. Key features of the synthetic approach are an asymmetric synthesis of the 2-alkynyl piperazine core via a base-promoted isomerization and a revised approach to the synthesis of the aminopyridinesulfonamide with an improved safety profile.

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-Aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, AMG-3969 (5)

(S)-2-(4-(4-((6-aminopyridin-3-yl)sulfonyl)-2-(prop-1-yn-1-yl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (5) (64.0 g, 49% yield) as white solid. The enanatiomeric excess was found to be >99.5% by chiral SFC (see Supporting Information):
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.47 (s, 1 H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1 H), 7.59 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.97 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.55 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 5.06 (br s, 2 H), 4.45 (br s, 1 H), 3.96 (br s, 1 H), 3.77 (t, J = 12.1 Hz, 2 H), 3.50–3.35 (m, 2 H), 2.82 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.68 (t, J = 10.9 Hz, 1 H), 1.79 (s, 3 H);
13C NMR (101 MHz, CD3OD) δ 163.8, 152.0, 150.1, 138.2, 129.0, 124.7 (q), 123.9, 121.1, 117.5, 109.3, 82.8, 78.3 (m), 75.5, 52.0, 47.2, 44.9, 3.2;
 
HRMS (ESI-TOF) m/z [M + H]+calcd for C21H21F6N4O3S 523.1239, found 523.1229;
 
mp 113–123 °C;
 
[α]D20 = +75.1 (c = 2.2, MeOH).
 

Clip

AMG-3969 is a disruptor of the glucokinase (GK)–glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) protein–protein interaction. Bourbeau and co-workers at Amgen describe their efforts towards an asymmetric synthesis of this compound ( J. Org. Chem. 2014, 79, 3684). The discovery route to this compound involved seven steps (14% overall yield), had certain safety concerns and relied upon SFC separation of the API enantiomers. The new route requires five steps (26% overall yield) and delivers the API in excellent enantiomeric excess (99% ee). A key feature of the synthetic approach was an asymmetric synthesis of the 2-alkynylpiperazine core via a base-promoted isomerization. It was found that the strongly basic conditions employed for the “alkyne-walk” did not erode the previously established stereocenter. Also, safety concerns around a late-stage amination of a 2-chloropyridine intermediate in the discovery route were alleviated by starting with a Boc-protected diaminopyridine instead.
PATENT

INTERMEDIATE A: TERT-EUTYL (5-(CHLOROSULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

0,N

STEP 1 : TERT-BUTY (5-NITRO-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 5-nitro-2-pyridinamine (75.0 g, 539 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) and 500 mL of DCM. To this was added triethylamine (82 g, 810 mmol), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (129 g, 593 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and N,N-dimethylpyridin-4-amine (32.9 g, 270 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at rt for 18 h, the mixture was diluted with water and the solid was collected by filtration. The yellow solid was washed with MeOH to give tert-butyl (5-nitro-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (94.6 g) as a light yellow solid.

STEP 2: TERT-BUTY (5 – AMINO-2-P YRIDINYL)C ARB AM ATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with tert-butyl (5-nitro-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (96.4 g, 403 mmol), 500 mL of MeOH, 500 mL of THF, and 100 mL of sat aq NH4Cl. Zinc (105 g, 1610 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc, Newburyport, MA) was slowly added (over 10 min) to this solution. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 h, then filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and then diluted with EtOAc and washed with water. The organic extracts were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting solid was recrystallized from MeOH to give tert-butyl(5-amino-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (38.6 g) as a light-yellow solid.

STEP 3: TERT-BUTYL (5-(CHLOROSULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with sodium nitrite (15.3 g, 221 mmol, J. T. Baker, Philipsburg, NJ), 100 mL of water and 500 mL of MeCN. After cooling to 0 °C, cone, hydrochloric acid (231 mL, 2770 mmol) was slowly added keeping the internal temperature below 10 °C. After stirring at 0 °C for 10 min, tert-butyl (5-amino-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (38.6 g, 184 mmol) was added as a suspension in MeCN (200 mL). The mixture was stirred for 30 min, then 150 mL of AcOH, copper(ii) chloride (12.4 g, 92.2 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and copper(i) chloride (0.183 g, 1.85 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc,

Newburyport, MA) were added. S02 gas (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was bubbled through the solution for 15 min. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 min, then about 500 mL of ice-cold water was added. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration and dried over MgS04 to give tert-butyl (5-(chlorosulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (15.5 g) as a white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.93 (br s, 1 H), 8.63 – 8.42 (m, 1 H), 8.35 -7.94 (m, 2 H), 1.58 (s, 9 H).

INTERMEDIATE B: (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

STEP 1 : (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(2-PROPYN-l-YL)-2,5-PIPERAZINEDIONE

A 1-L round-bottoemd flask was charged with (S)-2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)pent-4-ynoic acid (42.0 g, 197 mmol, AK Scientific, Union City, CA), ethyl 2-(benzylamino)acetate (40.0 g, 207 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), HATU (90 g, 240 mmol, Oakwood Products, West Columbia, SC) and 200 mL of DMF. To this was added N-ethyl-N-isopropylpropan-2-amine (51.5 ml, 296 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 15 min of stirring at rt, the mixture was diluted with water 300 mL and extracted with 1 L of 20% EtOAc in diethyl ether. The layers were separated and the organic was washed with 2 M HCl, water, sat. aq. NaHC03 and brine. The extracts were dried and concentrated to give an off-white solid. To this was added 200 mL of DCM and TFA (152 ml, 1970 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at rt for 30 min, the mixture was concentrated and then azetroped with 100 mL toluene (twice). To the brown oil obtained was added ammonia (2 M in MeOH, 394 ml, 789 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The mixture was concentrated, dissolved in EtOAc, and washed with water. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid that was triturated with diethyl ether to give (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (37.3 g) as a white solid.

STEP 2: (3S)-l-BENZYL-3-(2-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

A 1-L round-bottomed flask was charged with (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine-2,5-dione (37.3 g, 154 mmol) and 150 mL of THF. To this was slowly added aluminum (III) lithium hydride (1M in THF, 539 ml, 539 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After the addition was complete the mixture was heated at 80 °C for 12 h. The mixture was then cooled to 0 °C and solid sodium sulfate decahydrate was added until bubbling ceased. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated to give (S)-l-benzyl-3-(prop-2-yn-l-yl)piperazine (18.1 g) as a yellow oil.

STEP 3: (35)-l-BENZYL-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

To a solution of (35)-l-benzyl-3-(2-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.3 g, 11 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added potassium t-butoxide (2.41 g, 21.5 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min, then quenched with water (200 mL) and EtOAc (300 mL) was added. The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 10% MeOH in CH2CI2) and then recrystallized from hexanes to afford (35)- 1-benzyl-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.16 g) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 7.42 – 7.21 (m, 5 H), 3.59 – 3.49 (m, 3 H), 2.93 (td, J= 2.9, 12.4 Hz, 1 H), 2.86 – 2.73 (m, 2 H), 2.68 (d, J= 11.3 Hz, 1 H), 2.22 – 2.04 (m, 2 H), 1.80 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 3 H).

INTERMEDIATE C: N,N-BIS(4-METHOXYBENZYL)-5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN- 1 – YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

STEP 1 : (35)-l-((6-CHLORO-3-PYRIDINYL)SULFONYL)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)PIPERAZINE

To a stirred solution of benzyl (35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (2.51 g, 9.71 mmol, Intermediate E) in TFA (20 mL) in 250-mL round-bottomed flask, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (2.59 mL, 29.1 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA) was added slowly at rt. After stirring at room temperature for 3 min, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness under a vacuum. DCM (20 mL) was added to the residue followed by triethylamine (13.5 mL, 97 mmol). After the material went into solution, the mixture was cooled to 0 °C and 6-chloro-3-pyridinesulfonyl chloride (2.06 g, 9.73 mmol, Organic Process Research & Development 2009, 13, 875) was added portion-wise. After 5 min of stirring at 0 °C, water (40 mL) was added at that temperature and the layers were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (60 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (100 g of silica, 30 to 90% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford (35)- 1-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.61 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 2: N,N-BIS(4-METHOXYBENZYL)-5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

A mixture of (35)-l-((6-chloro-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.6 g, 8.7 mmol), N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-l-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanamine (2.40 g, 9.33 mmol, WO2007/109810A2), and DIPEA (2.4 mL, 14 mmol) in z-BuOH (8.0 mL) was heated at 132 °C using a microwave reactor for 3 h. This reaction was run three times (total starting material amount was 7.2 g). The mixtures from the three runs were combined and partitioned between EtOAc (200 mL) and aqueous NaHC03 (half saturated, 50 mL). The organic layer was washed with aqueous NaHC03 (3 x 50 mL), dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated. The residue was purified (5-times total) by chromatography on silica using MeOH:DCM:EtOAc:hexane

(4:20:20:60) as eluent to give N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-5-(((3S)-3-(l-propyn-i-yl)-l-piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinamine (6.6 g) as a white foam.

1H NMR (400MHz ,CDC13) δ ppm 8.55 (d, J= 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.64 (dd, J= 2.5, 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.13 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 4 H), 6.91 – 6.81 (m, 4 H), 6.47 (d, J= 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.75 (s, 4 H), 3.80 (s, 6 H), 3.68 – 3.61 (m, 1 H), 3.57 (d, J= 11.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.41 (d, J= 11.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.07 (td, J= 3.3, 12.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.87 (ddd, J= 2.9, 9.7, 12.2 Hz, 1 H), 2.63 – 2.47 (m, 2 H), 1.80 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 3 H). One exchangeable proton was not observed, m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 521.2 (M+H)+.

INTERMEDIATE D: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-OXIRANYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

step 1 step 2

STEP 1 : l-BR0M0-4-(l-(TRIFLU0R0METHYL)ETHENYL)BENZENE

To a 1-L round-bottomed flask was added methyl phenylphosphonium bromide (25.4 g, 71.1 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and toluene (75 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred for 5 min then concentrated and dried under high vacuum for 30 min. To this residue was added THF (300 mL) followed by n-butyllithium (2.5 M in hexanes, 29.0 mL, 71.1 mmol, Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) dropwise via an addition funnel. After being stirred for 1 h at rt, a solution of l-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (15.0 g, 59.3 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) in THF (20 mL) was added to the reaction mixture dropwise via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NH4C1 and the mixture was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between diethyl ether (150 mL) and saturated aqueous NH4C1 (80 mL). The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting crude product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 2 to 5% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford l-bromo-4-(l-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl)benzene (14.0 g) as a brown liquid.

STEP 2: 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL

To a solution of l-bromo-4-(l-(trifluoromethyl)ethenyl)benzene (13.5 g, 53.8 mmol) in acetone (100 mL) and water (100 mL) was added NMO (6.90 g, 59.2 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and osmium tetroxide (0.140 mL, 2.70 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 6 h. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was partitioned between EtOAc (100 mL) and water (30 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 75 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 0 to 8% MeOH in DCM) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (14.5 g) as an off-white solid.

STEP 3: 4-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-2,2-DIMETHYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-1,3-DIOXOLANE

To a solution of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (14.5 g, 51.0 mmol) in acetone (200 mL) was added 2,2-dimethoxypropane (19.0 mL, 153 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and /?-toluenesulfonic acid (0.485 g, 2.54 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 20 h. Additional 2,2-dimethoxypropane (19.0 mL, 153 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and /?-toluenesulfonic acid (0.485 g, 2.54 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) were added and the reaction was stirred for another 20 h. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous NaHC03 (10 mL). The reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was partitioned between

EtOAc (100 mL) and saturated aqueous NaHC03 (60 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting product was purified by column chromatography (330 g of silica gel, 0 to 8% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,3-dioxolane (15.7 g) as a colorless liquid.

STEP 4: BENZYL (3S)-4-(4-(2,2-DIMETHYL-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-l,3-DIOXOLAN-4-YL)PHENYL)-3-(l -PROPYN- 1 -YL)- 1 -PIPERAZINECAPvBOXYLATE

To a 20-mL vial was added benzyl (3S)-3-(l -propyn- l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (1.0 g, 3.87 mmol, Intermediate E), RuPhos Palladacycle (0.250 g, 0.310 mmol, Strem Chemical, Newburyport, MA), 4-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,3-dioxolane (2.50 g, 7.74 mmol), dioxane (15.0 mL), and sodium t-butoxide (0.740 g, 7.74 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St.

Louis, MO). The reaction mixture was degassed by bubbling N2 through the solution for 5 min, then the vial was capped. The reaction mixture was heated at 80 °C for 30 min then allowed to cool to rt and partitioned between EtOAc (70 mL) and water (40 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (1 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (80 g of silica, 5% to 30% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (35)-4-(4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,3-dioxolan-4-yl)phenyl)-3-(l -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (1.6 g) as a yellow foam.

STEP 5: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO- 1 -HYDROXY- 1 -(HYDROXYMETH YL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

To a 150-mL round-bottomed flask was added benzyl (3S)-4-(4-(2,2-dimethyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,3 -dioxolan-4-yl)phenyl)-3 -( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinecarboxylate (1.60 g, 3.18 mmol) and TFA (20 mL, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After the substrate was completely dissolved in TFA,

trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (0.850 mL, 9.55 mmol, Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill,

MA) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 1.5 h. The reaction mixture was slowly poured into a 300-mL beaker which contained 100 mL ice water. The resulting mixture was stirred while NaOH pellets (11.0 g) were slowly added to adjust the pH to 7. The solution was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 70 mL) and 10% IPA in CHCI3 (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The resulting intermediate was redissolved in DCM (60 mL). Triethylamine (2.20 mL, 16.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and tert-butyl (5-(chlorosulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (1.04 g, 3.60 mmol, Intermediate A) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h then partitioned between DCM (70 mL) and water (30 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (120 g of silica, 10% to 40% acetone in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifiuoro-l-hydroxy- 1 -(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (1.0 g) as a yellow foam.

STEP 6: rEi?r-BUTYL(5-(((35)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-2-OXIRANYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

To a solution of tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifiuoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(hydroxymethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (0.300 g, 0.513 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added triethylamine (0.400 mL, 2.88 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (0.108 g, 0.564 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was heated at reflux (50 °C) under N2 for 2 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and partitioned between sat. NaHCOs (30 mL) and DCM (70 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (2 x 40 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 40%> acetone in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5-(((35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-4-(4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxiranyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (0.240 g) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.66 (dd, J= 0.6, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 8.20 – 8.10 (m, 1 H), 8.04 (dd, J= 2.2, 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.63 (s, 1 H), 7.41 (d, J= 8.6 Hz, 2 H), 6.94 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 4.42 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.89 – 3.67 (m, 2 H), 3.38 (d, J = 5.3 Hz, 3 H), 2.97 – 2.83 (m, 2 H), 2.80 – 2.60 (m, 1 H), 1.78 (dd, J= 0.8, 2.0 Hz, 3 H), 1.55 (s, 9 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 567.2 (M+H)+.

ALTERNATIVE ROUTE TO 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL (INTERMEDIATE D STEP 2):

F3

step 1

STEP 1 : 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-2-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)OXIRANE

To a flame-dried, 50-mL, round-bottomed flask was added potassium t-butoxide (0.450 g, 4.01 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMSO (5.0 mL) and trimethylsulfoxonium iodide (1.00 g, 4.54 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min. To this reaction mixture was added l-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone (1.0 g, 4.0 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) in DMSO (5.0 mL) dropwise via an addition funnel. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min then quenched with water (1 mL) and partitioned between EtOAc (70 mL) and water (30 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (4 x 30 mL), dried over MgS04, filtered, and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 20% acetone in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)oxirane (0.610 g) as a pale-yellow liquid.

STEP 2: 2-(4-BROMOPHENYL)-3,3,3-TRIFLUORO-l,2-PROPANEDIOL

To a 20-mL vial was added 2-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)oxirane (0.200 g, 0.750 mmol), dioxane (2.0 mL), and water (3.0 mL). The resulting mixture was heated at 85 °C for 24 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (40 g of silica, 10 to 30% acetone in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-bromophenyl)-3,3,3-trifluoro-l,2-propanediol (2.0 g) as a white solid.

INTERMEDIATE E: BENZYL (3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

-Cbz

STEP 1 : 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL 2-0X0-1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 2-L Erlenmeyer flask was charged with 2-piperazinone (36.5 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), sodium carbonate (116 g, 1090 mmol, J. T. Baker, Philipsburg, NJ), 600 mL of dioxane, and 150 mL of water. To this was slowly added benzyl chloroformate (62.1 g, 364 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) at rt over 20 min. After the addition was complete, the mixture was stirred for 2 h and then diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc (2 L). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a white solid. To this solid was added 500 mL of DCM, triethylamine (128 mL, 911 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMAP (4.45 g, 36.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (119 g, 546 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After stirring at room temperature for 1 h, the mixture was diluted with water and the organics were separated. The organics were dried (MgS04), filtered, and concentrated to give a brown oil. To this oil was added 100 mL of DCM followed by 1 L of hexane. The resulting white solid was collected by filtration to give 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (101 g).

STEP 2: BENZYL (2-((7¾’i?J,-BUTOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)ETHYL)(2-OXO-3 -PENT YN- 1 – YL)C ARB AMATE

A 150-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-oxo- 1 ,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (1.41 g, 4.22 mmol) and THF (5 mL). 1-Propynylmagnesium bromide (0.5 M in THF, 20.0 mL, 10.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was added at 0 °C slowly. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 h. Saturated aqueous NH4C1 (40 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (200 mL, then 2 x 100 mL). The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (50 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford benzyl (2- tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (1.55 g) as a clear oil.

STEP 3: BENZYL 3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECARBOXYLATE

A 3-L round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-((tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)ethyl)(2-oxo-3-pentyn-l-yl)carbamate (82.17 g, 219 mmol) and 300 mL of DCM. After cooling to -10 °C, TFA (169 mL, 2200

mmol) was added and the resulting dark solution was stirred at rt for 15 min.

Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (186 g, 878 mmol, Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was then added portion- wise over 10 min. After 2 h, the mixture was

concentrated, diluted with EtOAc (1 L), and neutralized with 5 N NaOH. The layers were separated and the organic extracts were washed with brine, dried (MgS04), filtered and concentrated. The resulting orange oil was purified via column chromatography (750 g of silica gel, 0 to 4.5 % MeOH/DCM) to give benzyl 3 -(l-propyn-l-yl)-l -piperazmecarboxylate (43.67 g) as a brown foam.

STEP 4: 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL 2-(l -PROP YN-l-YL)- 1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

A 20-mL vial was charged with benzyl 3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (0.616 g, 2.38 mmol), di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (0.979 g, 4.49 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), DMAP (0.0287 g, 0.235 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), TEA (0.90 mL, 6.5 mmol) and DCM (8 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 30 min. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water (20 mL) and EtOAc (20 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (20 mL). The organic phase was washed with saturated aqueous sodium chloride (40 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under a vacuum. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (25 g of silica, 0 to 50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (0.488 g) as a colorless oil.

STEP 5: 4-BENZYL 1 – TER Γ-BUT YL (2S)-2-( 1 -PROP YN-l-YL)- 1,4-PIPERAZINEDICARBOXYLATE

The individual enantiomers of 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl 2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-1 ,4-piperazinedicarboxylate were isolated using chiral SFC. The method used was as follows: Chiralpak® ADH column (Daicel Inc., Fort Lee, NJ) (30 x 250 mm, 5 μιη) using 12% ethanol in supercritical C02 (total flow was 170 mL/min).

This separated the two enantiomers with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98%. The first eluting peak was subsequently identified as 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl (2S)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate and used in the next step.

STEP 6: BENZYL (3S)-3-(l-PROPY -l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINECAPvBOXYLATE

A 100-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 4-benzyl 1-tert-butyl (25)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l,4-piperazinedicarboxylate (0.145 g, 0.405 mmol), TFA (1.0 mL, 13 mmol) and DCM (2 mL). The mixture was stirred at rt for 40 min. The mixture was concentrated and solid NaHC03 was added followed by saturated aqueous NaHC03. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 20 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with IN NaOH (40 mL), saturated aqueous NaHC03 (40 mL), water (40 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (40 mL). The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under a vacuum to afford benzyl (35)-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinecarboxylate (0.100 g) as a pale yellow clear oil which solidified upon standing to give a pale yellow solid.

1H NMR (400MHz, MeOD) δ ppm 7.47 – 7.13 (m, 5 H), 5.27 – 5.00 (m, 2 H), 3.88 – 3.58 (m, 3 H), 3.48 – 3.33 (m, 2 H), 3.22 – 3.02 (m, 1 H), 2.89 – 2.63 (m, 1 H), 1.80 (s, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 259.1 (M+H)+.

XAMPLE 23: 5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(l,2,2,2-TETRAFLUORO-1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

STEP 1 : 2-(4-((2S)-4-BENZYL-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)-1 , 1 ,1 ,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-PROPANOL

A 20-mL vial was charged with (3S)-l-benzyl-3-(l-propyn-l-yl)piperazine (2.143 g, 10 mmol, Intermediate B), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1,1,1, 3,3, 3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol (3.09 g, 11.5 mmol, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 3009), sodium 2-methylpropan-2-olate (1.92 g, 20.0 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), dioxane (5 mL), RuPhos palladacycle (0.364 g, 0.500 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc., Newburyport, MA), and RuPhos (0.233 g, 0.500 mmol, Strem Chemical Inc., Newburyport, MA). The vial was sealed and heated at 100 °C for 1 h. The mixture was allowed to cool to rt, and diluted with water and extracted with EtOAc. The combined organic phases were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 2-(4-((2S)-4-benzyl-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (1.75 g) as a slightly yellow oil.

STEP 2: l,l,l,3,3,3-HEXAFLUORO-2-(4-((2S)-2-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-l-PIPERAZINYL)PHENYL)-2-PROPANOL

A 250 mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 2-(4-((2S)-4-benzyl-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)- 1,1,1 ,3 ,3 ,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (1.75 g, 4.35 mmol), potassium carbonate (2.40 g, 17.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), CH2CI2 (25 mL), and 1-chloroethyl chlorocarbonate (1.88 mL, 17.4 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). After 30 min at rt, the reaction was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. To the resulting oil was added MeOH (25 mL). This mixture was heated at 75 °C for 1.5 h then concentrated. The residue was triturated with diethyl ether to give l,l,l,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(4-((2S)-2-(l-propyn-l-yl)-l-piperazinyl)phenyl)-2-propanol (1.44 g) as a white solid.

STEP 3: TERT-BUTYL (5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(2,2,2-TRIFLUORO- 1 -HYDROXY- 1 -(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDINYL)CARBAMATE

A 250-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexaf uoro-2-(4-((2S)-2-( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)- 1 -piperazinyl)phenyl)-2-propanol (18.9 g, 51.6 mmol) and DCM (150 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. TEA was added (14.4 mL, 103 mmol, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) followed by tert-butyl (5- (chlorosulfonyl)pyridin-2-yl)carbamate (15.9 g, 54.2 mmol, Intermediate A) portionwise. After 10 min, the reaction mixture was diluted with water (100 mL) and the organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column

chromatography (0 to 50% EtO Ac in hexanes) to afford tert-butyl (5 -(((3 S)-3 -( 1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (19.9 g) as a tan foam.

STEP 4: 5-(((3S)-3-(l-PROPYN-l-YL)-4-(4-(l,2,2,2-TETRAFLUORO-l- (TRIFLUOROMETHYL)ETHYL)PHENYL)- 1 -PIPERAZINYL)SULFONYL)-2-PYRIDIN AMINE

A 500-mL round-bottomed flask was charged with tert-butyl (5-(((3S)-3-(1 -propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-(2,2,2-trifluoro- 1 -hydroxy- 1 – (trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)-l-piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinyl)carbamate (19.7 g, 31.6 mmol) and DCM (300 mL) and cooled to 0 °C.

(Diethylamino)sulfur trifluoride (4.18 mL, 31.6 mmol, Matrix Scientific, Columbia, SC) was added, and after 10 min, the reaction was diluted with water (250 mL) and DCM (200 mL). The organic layer was separated, dried over

Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum. The resultant foam was taken up in DCM (200 mL) and cooled to 0 °C. TFA (100 mL, 1298 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was warmed to rt for 1.5 h. The reaction was then re-cooled to 0 °C and solid sodium bicarbonate was added slowly until gas evolution ceased. The mixture was diluted with water (250 mL) and DCM (300 mL) and the organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated under a vacuum to give a solid that was purified by silica gel column chromatography (0 to 100% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford 5-(((3S)-3-(l-propyn- 1 -yl)-4-(4-( 1 ,2,2,2-tetrafluoro- 1 -(trifluoromethyl)ethyl)phenyl)- 1 -piperazinyl)sulfonyl)-2-pyridinamine (11.05 g) as a single enantiomer.

1H NMR (400MHz, CD3OD) δ ppm 8.31 (d, J= 2.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.74 (dd, J= 2.4, 8.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.47 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 7.12 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2 H), 6.63 (d, J= 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.76-4.70 (m, 1 H), 3.76 (dd, J= 1.9, 11.2 Hz, 2 H), 3.66 – 3.52 (m, 1 H), 3.29 – 3.20 (m, 1 H), 2.79 – 2.72 (m, 1 H), 2.66 – 2.53 (m, 1 H), 1.76 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H). m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 525.2 (M+H)+. GK-GKRP IC50 (Binding) = 0.187 μΜ.

PAPER

Small Molecule Disruptors of the Glucokinase–Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Interaction: 2. Leveraging Structure-Based Drug Design to Identify Analogues with Improved Pharmacokinetic Profiles

Department of Therapeutic Discovery—Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Therapeutic Discovery—Molecular Structure and Characterization, §Department of Metabolic Disorders, Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism, Department of Pathology, #Department of Pharmaceutics Amgen, Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California, 91320 and 360 Binney Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02142, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2014, 57 (2), pp 325–338
DOI: 10.1021/jm4016747
Abstract Image

In the previous report, we described the discovery and optimization of novel small molecule disruptors of the GK-GKRP interaction culminating in the identification of 1 (AMG-1694). Although this analogue possessed excellent in vitro potency and was a useful tool compound in initial proof-of-concept experiments, high metabolic turnover limited its advancement. Guided by a combination of metabolite identification and structure-based design, we have successfully discovered a potent and metabolically stable GK-GKRP disruptor (27, AMG-3969). When administered to db/db mice, this compound demonstrated a robust pharmacodynamic response (GK translocation) as well as statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in fed blood glucose levels.

2-(4-((2S)-4-((6-Amino-3-pyridinyl)sulfonyl)-2-(1-propyn-1-yl)-1-piperazinyl)phenyl)-1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (27)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.48 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.77 (dd, J = 2.5, 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 2 H), 6.95 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2 H), 6.52 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (s, 2 H), 4.44 (br s, 1 H), 3.82–3.71 (m, 2 H), 3.58–3.33 (m, 3 H), 2.81 (dd, J = 3.2, 11.1 Hz, 1 H), 2.67 (dt, J = 3.9, 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 1.78 (d, J = 2.2 Hz, 3 H).
m/z (ESI, +ve ion) 523.2 (M + H)+.
REFERENCES
St Jean, D.J. Jr.; Ashton, K.; Andrews, K.; et al.
Small molecule disruptors of the glucokinase-glucokinase regulatory protein (GK-GKRP) interaction
34th Natl Med Chem Symp (May 18-21, Charleston) 2014, Abst 4
Small molecule disruptors of the GK-GKRP interaction as potential antidiabetics
247th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (March 16-20, Dallas) 2014, Abst MEDI 214
Use of non-traditional conformational restriction in the design of a novel, potent, and metabolically stable series of GK-GKRP inhibitors
248th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (August 10-14, San Francisco) 2014, Abst MEDI 267
Small molecule inhibitors for glucokinase-glucokinase regulatory protein (GK-GKRP) binding: Optimization for in vivo target assessment of type II diabetes
248th Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (August 10-14, San Francisco) 2014, Abst MEDI 268

MAKING CONNECTIONS Aleksandra Baranczak (right), a fourth-year grad student in Gary A. Sulikowski’s lab at Vanderbilt University, discusses her efforts to synthesize the core of the diazo-containing natural product lomaiviticin A with Kate Ashton, a medicinal chemist at Amgen
Dr. Kate Ashton

Mark Norman

Mark Norman

Michael Bartberger

Michael Bartberger

Chris Fotsch

Chris Fotsch

David St. Jean

David St. Jean

Klaus Michelsen

Klaus Michelsen

///////////1361224-53-4, AMGEN, AMG 3969, Type 2 Diabetes,  PRECLINICAL
O=S(=O)(c1ccc(N)nc1)N2C[C@H](C#CC)N(CC2)c3ccc(cc3)C(O)(C(F)(F)F)C(F)(F)F

BMS-741672


str1

Figure

SCHEMBL2786493.png

BMS-741672

N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(Isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide BMS-741672

N-((lR,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6- (trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide

N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide;

C25 H33 F3 N6 O2, 506.56
Acetamide, N-[(1R,2S,5R)-5-[methyl(1-methylethyl)amino]-2-[(3S)-2-oxo-3-[[6-(trifluoromethyl)-4-quinazolinyl]amino]-1-pyrrolidinyl]cyclohexyl]-

CAS 1004757-96-3

PHASE 2, , Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes, Agents for Neuropathic Pain

Chemokine CCR2 (MCP-1 Receptor) Antagonists

Image result for Bristol-Myers Squibb

Molecular Formula: C25H33F3N6O2
Molecular Weight: 506.574 g/mol

Image result for bristol myers squibb headquarters

Michael G. Yang, Robert J. Cherney
Original Assignee Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
Michael G. Yang, Robert J. Cherney, Martin G. Eastgate, Jale Muslehiddinoglu, Siva Josyula Prasad, Zili Xiao
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
  • Originator Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Class Analgesics; Antihyperglycaemics
  • Mechanism of Action CCR2 receptor antagonists
  • Discontinued Diabetic neuropathies; Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Most Recent Events

  • 10 Apr 2007 Preclinical trials in Inflammation in USA (unspecified route)

BMS-741672, 1 , is a highly selective CCR2 antagonist (IC50 = 1.4 nM) featuring a complex array of four stereocenters. The key synthetic challenge was efficient assembly of the densely functionalized 1,2,4-triaminocyclohexane (TACH) core in a minimum number of linear steps.

Figure

N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(Isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide BMS-741672

Mp 161.3 °C.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 9.50–9.20 (1H), 9.04 (s, 1H), 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 5.04 (dt, J = 1.3, 7.3 Hz, 1H), 4.9 (m, 1H), 4.07 (dt, J = 3.7, 12.9 Hz, 1H), 3.53 (dt, J = 1.4, 9.9 Hz, 1H), 3.44–3.30 (m, 2H), 2.39 (dq, J = 13.6, 8.4 Hz, 1H), 2.26 (m, 1H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.17 (q, J = 2.9 Hz, 1H), 2.03–1.91 (m, 5H), 1.71–1.54 (m, 5H), 1.04 (s, br., 6H).

13C NMR (100 MHz, d6-DMSO) δ 171.46, 169.49, 159.62, 156.92, 151.22, 129.28, 128.27 (q, 4JCF = 3 Hz), 125.78 (q, 2JCF = 32 Hz), 124.11 (q, 1JCF = 272 Hz), 121.57 (q, 3JCF = 4 Hz), 114.33, 54.83, 53.54, 52.36, 47.34, 46.94, 43.13, 30.76, 30.24, 26.94, 26.38, 23.28, 20.87, 17.65 (br.), 16.73 (br.).

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 172.17. 170.73, 159.89, 156.91, 151.16, 128.68, 128.06 (q,4JCF = 3.0 Hz), 127.25 (q, 2JCF = 32 Hz), 123.98 (q, 1JCF = 272 Hz), 121.78 (q, 3JCF = 4 Hz), 115.11, 54.89, 53.21, 52.40, 47.40, 46.98, 43.72, 30.84, 30.70, 29.96, 27.80, 23.55, 19.96, 17.70 (2C).

LCMS (ESI, pos.): 508 (16.8), 507 (66.2), 254 (5.0). HR-ESI(pos)-MS: calcd for C25H34F3N6O2 507.2690 [M + H]+, found 507.2694.

IR (KBr): ν = 3428 (m, br.), 2966 (w), 1686 (s), 1635 (m), 1584 (s), 1540 (m), 1334 (m), 1307 (s), 1164 (m), 1121 (m), 870 (w), 845 (w).

[α]20D−187.9 (c 1.0, CHCl3).

Anal. Calcd for C25H33F3N6O2: C, 59.28; H, 6.57; F, 11.25; N, 16.59. Found: C, 59.21; H, 6.43; F, 11.07; N, 16.53.

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PATENT

WO 2008014381

http://www.google.ch/patents/WO2008014381A2?cl=en&hl=de

EXAMPLE 1

N-((lR,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6- (trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide

Figure imgf000072_0001

[00212] Example 1, Step 1: (IR, 2S, 5R)-tert-Butyl 2-benzyloxycarbonylamino- 7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (89.6 g, 0.24 mol, see: P. H. Carter, et al. PCT application WO 2005/021500) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and the resulting solution was washed with sat. NaHCCh (2 x 0.45 L) and sat. NaCl (I x 0.45 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4) and then filtered directly into a 3 -necked 3 L round-bottom flask. The solution was purged with direct nitrogen injection before being charged with 10% Pd/C (13.65 g) under nitrogen atmosphere. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen; this was repeated twice more. Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated, back-filled with nitrogen, and charged with fresh catalyst (6 g of 10% Pd/C). Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with nitrogen. The mixture was filtered through Celite; the filter pad was then washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate (-1.6 L EtOAc volume) was diluted with acetonitrile (0.3 L) and charged sequentially with Z-N-Cbz- methionine (68 g, 0.24 mol), TBTU (77 g, 0.24 mol), and Ν,Ν-diisopropylethylamine (42 mL, 0.24 mol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 4 h, during which time it changed from a suspension to a clear solution. The reaction was quenched with the addition of sat. NH4Cl (0.75 L) and water (0.15 L); the mixture was diluted further with EtOAc (0.75 L). The phases were mixed and separated and the organic phase was washed with sat. Na2Cθ3 (2 x 0.9 L) and sat. NaCl (1 x 0.75 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give (IR,2S,5R)- tert-butyl 2-((5)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-

(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate as an oil, which was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+ = 406.3; [M+Naf = 528.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-Me0H): δ 7.36 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.32 (m, IH), 4.2 (m, IH), 4.0 (m, IH), 2.5 – 2.7 (m, 3H), 2.25 (m, IH), 2.11 (s, 3H), 2.05 (m, 4H), 1.9 (m, IH), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 9H). Also present are EtOAc [1.26 (t), 2.03 (s), 4.12 (q)] and N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.83

(S)].

[00213] Example 1, Step 2: A sample of (1^,25,5^)- tert-butyl 2-((5)-2- (benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza- bicyclo[3.2. l]octane-6-carboxylate (0.24 mol assumed; see previous procedure) was dissolved in iodomethane (1,250 g) and stirred for 48 h at room temperature. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and concentrated in vacuo. This was repeated twice more. The resultant sludge was dissolved in dichloromethane (0.4 L) and poured into a rapidly stirring solution of MTBE (4.0 L). The resultant yellow solids were collected via suction filtration and dried under high vacuum to afford the sulfonium salt (179 g). This material was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M- Me2S+H]+ = 458.4; [M]+ = 520.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-Me0H): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.09 (s, 2H), 4.33 (m, IH), 4.28 (m, IH), 3.98 (m, IH), 3.3 – 3.45 (m, 2H), 2.97 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 2.78 (m, IH), 2.0 – 2.3 (m, 4H), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 9H). Also present are MTBE [1.18 (s), 3.2 (s)] and traces of N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.81 (s)]. [00214] Example 1, Step 3: All of the sulfonium salt from the previous step (0.24 mol assumed) was dissolved in DMSO (2.0 L). The resultant solution was stirred under nitrogen at room temperature and charged with cesium carbonate (216 g) portionwise. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 3 h and then filtered to remove the solids. The solution was divided into -0.22 L portions and worked up as follows: the reaction mixture (-0.22 L) was diluted with ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and washed successively with water (3 x 0.5 L) and brine (1 x 0.3 L). The organic phase was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The desired (\R,2S,5R)- tert-bvXyl 2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-7-oxo-6- azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (90.8 g, 83%) was obtained as a microcrystalline foam, free from tetramethyl urea impurity. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+ = 358.4; [M+Na]+ = 480.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 4.2 (m, IH), 3.6 (m, IH), 3.3 (m, IH), 2.64 (m, IH), 2.28 – 2.42 (m, 2H), 2.15 (m, IH), 1.7 – 2.0 (m, 5H), 1.55 (s, 9H). If desired, this material can be isolated as a solid by dissolving in MTBE (1 volume), adding to heptane (3.3 volumes), and collecting the resultant precipitate.

[00215] Example 1, Step 4: A stirring solution of (\R,2S,5R)- tert-butyl 2-((S>3- (benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-7-oxo-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6- carboxylate (108 g, 0.236 mol) in THF (1 L) was charged with lithium hydroxide monohydrate (21.74 g, 0.519 mol). Water (0.3 L) was added slowly, such that the temperature did not exceed 20 0C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and the volatiles were removed in vacuo. The pH was adjusted to -4 through the addition of IN HCl (450 mL) and NaH2PO4. The resultant white precipitates were collected by filtration and washed with water (2 x 1 L). The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.5 L) and water (~ 1 L). The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (0.7 L) and the resultant solution was heated at reflux for 1 h. Solids separated after cooling to RT, and were collected via filtration. These solids were purified by recrystallization in isopropanol to afford the desired (\R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3- (benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid as a white solid (104.5 g, 93% yield). LC/MS for primary peak: [M-tBu+H]+ = 420.2; [M-Boc+H]+ = 376.2; [M+H]+ = 476.2. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-Me0H): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.45 – 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.99 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, IH), 2.15 (m, IH), 2.0 (m, 2H), 1.6 – 1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

[00216] Example 1, Step 5: A 3 L round bottom flask was charged with (lR,25′,5R)-2-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (75.5 g, 0.158 mol), EDOHCl (33.5 g, 0.175 mol), 1 -hydroxybenzotriazole (23.6 g, 0.175 mol), and dichloromethane (1 L). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, during which time it changed from a white suspension to a clear solution. Ammonia (gas) was bubbled into the solution until the pH was strongly basic (paper) and the reaction was stirred for 10 min; this ammonia addition was repeated and the reaction was stirred for an additional 10 min. Water was added. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaHCθ3, NaH2PO4, and brine before being concentrated in vacuo. The residue was slurried with acetonitrile (0.5 L) and then concentrated in to give (lR,2S,5R)-2-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide as a white solid (75.9 g, -100%), which was used in the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+ = 375.3; [M+H]+ = 475.4; [M-tBu+H]+ = 419.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, Cl4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.25 (m, 2H), 3.70 (m, IH), 3.6 (m, IH), 3.45 (m, IH), 2.91 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.12 (m, IH), 1.9 – 2.05 (m, 2H), 1.65 – 1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

[00217] Example 1, Step 6: The reaction was run in three equal portions and combined for aqueous workup. A 5 L, 3-necked round bottom flask was charged with (lR,2S,5R)-2-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(tert- butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide (25.3 g, 53 mmol), acetonitrile (1.9 L), and 2.6 L of water/ice. The mixture was stirred and cooled to 0 0C. Iodobenzene diacetate (25.77 g, 80 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred for 2 h; another 0.5 eq of iodobenzene diacetate was added. The reaction was stirred for 9 h (reaction temp < 10 0C). The mixture was charged with 8 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride. Over the next thirty minutes, 4 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride were added every ten minutes, until the reaction had proceeded to completion (HPLC). The acetonitrile was removed in vacuo; some solid separated from the residue, and this was collected by filtration. The remaining residue was extracted with dichloromethane (3 L, then 1 L). The organic phase was washed sequentially with water, sat. NaHCθ3, and brine. The collected solids were added to the organic phase, along with activated carbon (15 g). The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 40 0C before being filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (1 L), and the resultant solution was stirred at 75 0C for 1 h before being allowed to cool to room temperature. A solid separated and was collected by filtration. This solid was purified further by recrystallization: it was first dissolved in 0.5 L CH2CI2, then concentrated in vacuo, then re-crystallized from 1 L EtOAc; this was repeated three times. The solids obtained from the mother liquors of the above were recrystallized three times using the same method. The combined solids were recrystallized twice more from acetonitrile (0.7 L) to provide 66 g (84%) of tert-bυXyl (lR,3R,45)-3-acetamido-4-((5)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2- oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (purity >99.5% by HPLC). LC/MS for primary peak: [M+H]+ = 489.4; [M-tBu+H]+ = 433.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4– MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, IH), 4.15 (m, IH), 4.04 (m, IH), 3.8 (m, IH), 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.44 (m, IH), 2.12 (m, IH), 1.87 – 2.05 (m, 4H), 1.87 (s, 3H), 1.55 – 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.46 (s, 9H). The stereochemical fidelity of the Hofmann rearrangement was confirmed through X-ray crystal structure analysis of this compound, as shown in Figure 1. [00218] Example 1, Step 7: A stirring solution of tert-butyl (\R,3R,4S)-3- acetamido-4-((5′)-3 -(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin- 1 – yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (66 g, 0.135 mol) in dichloromethane (216 mL) was charged with trifluoroacetic acid (216 mL). The reaction was stirred for 2 h at room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in methanol and the resultant solution was concentrated in vacuo; this was repeated once. Benzyl («S)-l-((l«S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate was obtained as an oil and used directly in Step 8 below. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 389.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.41 (br. s, IH), 4.15 (m, IH), 4.00 (t, J= 9.3 Hz, IH), 3.81 (t, J= 9.1 Hz, IH), 3.65 (q, J= 8.4 Hz, IH), 3.3 – 3.4 (m, IH), 2.45 (m, IH), 1.95 – 2.24 (m, 5H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.6 – 1.8 (m, 2H). [00219] Example 1, Step 8: A stirring solution of benzyl (S)- 1-(( \S,2R,4R)-2- acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (-0.135 mol) in methanol (675 mL) was charged sequentially with acetone (37.8 g, 4 eq), sodium acetate (33.2 g, 3 eq), and sodium cyanoborohydride (16.9 g, 2 eq). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 h and filtered. The filtrate was dissolved in dichloromethane (1 L); this solution was washed with IN NaOH (1 L). The solids collected in the filtration were dissolved in IN NaOH (IL) at 0 0C and then extracted with dichloromethane (1 L). The organic extracts were combined and extracted with aqueous HCl (200 mL IN HCl + 800 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then IN NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl (S)-I- ((lS,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3- ylcarbamate as an oil. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 431.45. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4– MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.31 (m, IH), 4.24 (t, J= 9.4 Hz, IH), 4.11 (m, IH), 3.61 (t, J= 9.1 Hz, IH), 3.52 (q, J= 8.6 Hz, IH), 3.04 (br. s, IH), 2.96 (sep, J= 6.3 Hz, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.15 (m, IH), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7 – 1.9 (m, 5H), 1.65 (m, IH), 1.12 (app. dd, J= 6.3, 1.1 Hz, 6H).

[00220] Example 1, Step 9 (See Alternative Step 9, below): A stirring solution of benzyl (S)-I -((lS’,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2- oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (-115 mmol) in dichloromethane (600 mL) was cooled to 0 0C and charged sequentially with formaldehyde (18.6 g, 37 wt% solution), triethylamine (23 mL), and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (28.7 g). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and diluted with dichloromethane (up to 1.2 L). This solution was washed thrice with 500 mL sat. NaHCθ3 + NaOH (sat. NaHCO3, pH to 11 w/ IN NaOH). The organic layer was extracted with aq. HCl (200 mL IN HCl + 600 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then IN NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (1.2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl {S)-\-{{\S,2R,AR)-2- acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate as an oil, which was used directly in Step 10 below. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 445.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3 – 7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.33 (br s, IH), 4.25 (t, J= 9.2 Hz, IH), 4.11 (br s, IH), 3.5 – 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.77 (v br s, 2 H), 2.41 (m, IH), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.0 – 2.1 (m, 2H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7 – 1.9 (m, 5H), 1.10 (app. dd, J = 17, 6.4 Hz, 6H). [00221] Example 1, Step 10: To a solution of benzyl (S)- 1-(( 15″,2R,4R)-2- acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3 -ylcarbamate (-0.115 mol) in methanol (600 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (6 g of 50% wet catalyst). The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen. The mixture was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 2 h and the catalyst was removed by filtration through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide N-((li?,25,5i?)-2-((S)-3-amino-2- oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide as an oil, which was taken on to the next step without further purification. LC/MS found [M + H]+ = 311.47. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, (I4-MeOH): δ 4.39 (br s, IH), 4.00 (m, IH), 3.3 –

3.5 (m, 4H), 2.73 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.0 – 2.2 (m, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H),

1.6 – 1.75 (m, 4H), 1.07 (app. dd, J= 21, 6.4 Hz, 6H). [00222] Example 1, Step 11: To a solution of N-((lR,25′,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2- oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide (~35 g, 0.115 mol) in isopropanol (600 mL) was added 4-chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazoline (32 g, 0.138 mol, 1.2 eq, see: P.H. Carter et al, PCT application WO 2005/021500). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight before being charged with triethylamine (46 g, 0.46 mol, 4 eq). The mixture was stirred at 60 0C for 10 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give an oil. Azeotropic distillation with isopropanol was performed twice. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (600 mL) and extracted with water (250 mL, containing 4 eq acetic acid). Dichloromethane (600 mL) was added to the combined aqueous washes, and the mixture was cooled to 0 0C. Aqueous NaOH (50% by weight) was added with stirring until the pH reached 11. The water layer was extracted with dichloromethane twice (2 x 600 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give the amorphous free base of the title compound (99% purity by HPLC). LC/MS found [M+H]+ = 507.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, U4– MeOH): δ 8.82 (s, IH), 8.59 (s, IH), 8.05 (dd, J= 8.8, 1.8 Hz, IH), 7.9 (d, J= 8.7 Hz, IH), 5.28 (t, J= 8.6 Hz, IH), 4.58 (br s, IH), 4.06 (m, IH), 3.52 – 3.68 (m, 2H), 3.43 (m, IH), 2.76 (br s, IH), 2.55 (m, IH), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.1 – 2.3 (m, 3H), 2.0 (s, 3H), 2.0 (m, IH), 1.65 – 1.8 (m, 3H), 1.09 (app. dd, J= 24, 6.4 Hz, 6 H).

Example 1, Alternative Step 9

Figure imgf000079_0001

[00223] Example 1, Alternative step 9a1: To a hydrogenator were charged ethyl (7R,SS)-S-((S)- l-phenyl-ethylamino)-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate A- toluenesulfonate salt I A (1417 g, 2.8 moles, c.f : WO2004098516, prepared analogous to US Pat.6,835,841), ethanol (200 proof, 11.4 L), and 10% Pd/C catalyst (50% wet, 284 g). The mixture was inerted with nitrogen, then pressurized with hydrogen gas (45 psig) and agitated vigorously at approx. 40 0C until starting material was consumed (HPLC). The suspension was cooled, purged with nitrogen gas and the catalyst was removed by filtration while inerted. The spent catalyst was washed with ethanol (4.3 L). The filtrate and washings were combined and concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 2-3 L while maintaining the batch between 40°-60 0C. Isopropyl acetate (5 L) was charged and the mixture was concentrated to a volume of ~2 L until most ethanol was removed (<0.5%) and residual moisture content was <l,000 ppm. Batch volume was adjusted to -7.5 L by the addition of isopropyl acetate. The mixture was heated to 80 0C until clear, then cooled 65°-70 0C. Seed crystals of 1 (5 g) were added and the batch was cooled to 500C over 2 hours, then further cooled to 20 0C over 4 hours and held for ~10 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered and the cake was washed with isopropyl acetate (2 L). The product was dried under vaccum at -35 0C until volatiles were recduced below -1% (LOD). Ethyl (7R,85′)-8-amino-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 was obtained as a white, crystalline solid (936 g, 83% yield; HPLC purity: 99.8%). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) 8.14-7.89 (brs, 3H), 7.75 (d, J 9.0Hz, 2H), 7.15 (d, J 8.0Hz, 2H), 4.22-4.04 (m, 2H), 4.01-3.77 (m, 4H), 3.55-3.43 (m, IH,), 3.20-3.13 (m, IH), 2.40-2.27 (m, 4H), 2.21-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.51 (m, 3H), 1.23 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H); HPLC: Waters Xterra MS C18 4.6 mm x 150 mm Ld., 3.5μm particle size, 0.05% NH40H (5% ACN, 95% H2O, solvent A), to 0.05% NH4OH (95% ACN, 5% H2O, solvent B), 5% B to 20% B in 10 minutes, changed to 95% B in 25 minutes, and then changed to 5% B in 1 minute; 11.1 minutes (aminoester 1).

Figure imgf000080_0001

Example 1, Alternative Step 9a”: Aminoester 1 (63g, 0.16M, leq.; the product of reductive deprotection of a known compound – (See e.g. R. J. Cherney, WO 2004/098516 and G. V. Delucca & S. S. Ko, WO 2004/110993) was placed in a round bottom flask and MeCN (50OmL) was added. EDAC (33.1g, 0.17M, l. leq), HOBt-H2O (21.2g, 0.16M, l.Oeq) and N-Cbz-Z-methionine (46.7g, 0.17M, 1.05eq) were then added followed by TEA (48.OmL, 0.35M, 2.2eq). An exotherm to 38 0C was observed. The reaction mass was left to stir at RT. After 30mins, HPLC indicated complete conversion. The reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.5L) and washed with KHCO3 (4x500mL, 20wt% aq. solution) and brine (50OmL). The organic phase was separated, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in TBME and reconcentrated to give ethyl (7R,85)-8- {(2S)-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino- 4-methylsulfanyl-butyr-yl-amino}-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 as a sticky semi-solid (76.2g, 98% yield, 93AP purity). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 5H), 7.03 (d, J9.0Hz, IH), 5.66 (d, J 8.0Hz, IH), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.35- 4.25 (m, 2H), 4.19-4.04 (m, 2H,), 3.98-3.86 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.80 (m, IH), 2.55-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.18 (dd, J 14.0Hz, 7.0Hz, IH), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.05-1.67 (m, 6H), 1.26 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. lO.Olmin (Compound 2, 93.1 AP). HRMS: m/z 495.2166 [CaIc: C24H35N2O7S 495.2165].

Figure imgf000081_0001

2 3 [00224] Example 1, Alternative Step 9b: Methionine amide 2 (75.Og, 0.15M) was dissolved in MeI (225mL, 3mL/g) – some off gassing was noted but no exotherm. The reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 16.5h. After this time a thick light yellow precipitate had formed. The flask was then evacuated to 200mmHg and some of the MeI removed. The remaining material was slurried in TBME (50OmL), after a 30min stir-out the slurry was filtered, the cake washed with TBME (50OmL). NMR analysis of this material indicated a small amount of MeI remaining. The cake was re-slurried in TBME (50OmL), filtered, washed with TBME (50OmL) and dried under vacuum to give [(35)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-{(7R,85′)-7- ethoxycarbonyl-l,4-di-oxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl}-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 as a free flowing off-white solid (93.5g, 97%, 99 area% purity). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.75 (d, J 9.0Hz, IH), 7.38-7.27 (m, 5H), 6.40 (d, J 7.0Hz, IH), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.76-4.65 (m, IH), 4.48-4.39 (m, IH), 4.14-3.85 (m, 6H), 3.84-7.73 (m, IH), 3.68-3.55 (m, IH), 3.21 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 2.90-2.83 (s, IH), 2.52-1.55 (m, 8H), 1.24 (t, J7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 2.45min (I-), 8.14min (Compound 3, 43.6AP, I 54.6AP). HRMS: m/z 509.2341 [CaIc: C25H37N2O7S 509.2321].

Figure imgf000082_0001

[00225] Example 1, Alternative Step 9c: Cs2CO3 (61.5g, 0.19M, 1.5eq) was placed in an round bottom flask and anhydrous DMSO (2.4L) was added. Sulfonium salt 3 (80.Og, 0.13M, 1.Oeq) was then added portionwise. Once the addition was complete the reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 2Oh. The reaction mass was then split in half and each half worked up separately: the reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.0L) and washed with brine (2L), the organic phase was washed with brine (50OmL). The combined aq. layers were then washed EtOAc (50OmL). The combined organic phases were then washed with brine (3x750mL). The second half of the reaction mass was treated in an identical manner and the combined organics dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give ethyl (7R,8S)-8-{(3S>3- Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl}-l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7- carboxylate 4 as a light colored oil (56.5g, 0.13M, -100 area-% purity) pure by NMR analysis. 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.38-7.30 (m, 5H), 5.37 (br d, J4.0Hz, IH), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.27-4.18 (m, IH), 4.17-3.82 (m, 8H), 3.32 (td, J 10.0Hz, 60.0Hz, IH), 3.23 (q, J5.0Hz, IH), 2.63-2.57 (m, IH), 2.42-2.25 (m, 2H), 1.94-1.68 (m, 5H), 1.25 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro Cl 8 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 8.99min (Compound 5, produced on column, 4.2AP), 9.48 (Compound 4, 74.3AP). HRMS: m/z 447.2127 [CaIc: C23H31N2O7 447.2131].

Figure imgf000083_0001

4 5

[00226] Example 1, Alternative Step 9d: Pyrrolidinone 4 (50.Og, 0.1 IM) was dissolved in acetone (50OmL) and IN HCl (50OmL) was added. The reaction mass was then heated to 65°C. After 20mins HPLC indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT and the acetone was removed on a rotary evaporator. During this distillation the product precipitated from solution as a white solid. This was isolated by filtration and the cake washed with water. The cake was then dried azeotropically with toluene (3x3OOmL) to give ethyl (\R,2S)-2-((3S)-3- Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-oxo-cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 as a white solid (39.8g, 88%, 97 area-% purity). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37- 7.32 (m, 5H), 6.65 (br d, J4.0Hz, IH), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.54-4.47 (m, IH), 4.34-4.26 (m, IH), 4.18 (dq, J 11.0Hz, 7.0Hz, IH), 4.09 (dq, J 11.0Hz, , 7.0Hz, IH), 3.36-3.20 (m, 3H), 2.70-2.35 (m, 6H), 2.05-1.96 (m, IH), 1.81 (quin., J l l.OHz, IH), 1.24 (t, J 7.0Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 8.95min (Compound 5). HRMS: m/z 403.1864 [CaIc: C2iH27N2O6403.1869].

Figure imgf000083_0002

[00227] Example 1, Alternative Step 9e: Cyclohexanone 5 (22.5g, 0.06M, leq), DMSO (3OmL) and Ti(O-ZPr)4 (33.7mL, 0.1 IM, 2.04eq) were placed in a round bottom flask. N-isopropyl-N-methylamine (11.6mL, 0.1 IM, 2.0eq) was then added in one portion. The mixture was left to stir for 30mins at room temperature before being cooled to <3°C in ice/water. MeOH (3OmL) was then added followed by the portionwise addition OfNaBH4 (4.33g, 0.1 IM, 2.04eq) – temperature kept <8°C. 30mins after the addition was completed the reaction mass was diluted with methylene chloride (30OmL) and then NaOH (IN, 4OmL). The resulting slurry was filtered through Celite, and the cake washed with methylene chloride (10OmL). The resulting liquor was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue dissolved in EtOAc (50OmL). This solution was extracted with IN HCl (2x400mL), the combined aqueous layers were then basified with Na2CO3. Extraction with EtOAc (4x250mL) provided a clear and colorless organic phase which was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give a white powder (24.6g, 96%, 7: 1 d.r.). This material was then slurried overnight in hexane (67OmL). The solid was isolated by filtration and dried under reduced pressure to give ethyl (lR,25′,5R)-2-((3S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino- 2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 as a while solid (20.9g, 81%, 24: 1 d.r.). 1H-NMR: (300MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37-7.28 (m, 5H), 5.55 (d, J4.5, IH), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.42 (q, J4.5, IH), 4.23-4.12 (m, IH), 4.08 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, IH), 4.02 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, IH), 3.84 (t, J9.0, IH), 3.46-3.36 (m, IH), 3.04 (septet, J6.5, IH), 2.86-2.80 (m, IH), 2.63-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.17 (s, 3H, Me), 2.10-1.63 (m, 7H), 1.22 (t, J 7.0, 3H), 1.00 (d, J 6.5, 3H), 0.97 (d, J 6.5, 3H). HPLC: YMC- Pack Pro C18 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water 20:80) to 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water:MeCN 20:5:75) 10 to 100% 15min gradient. 8.23 (Compound 6), 8.88 (5-e/«-Compound 6). HRMS: 460.2798 [CaIc: C25H38N3O5 460.2811].

Figure imgf000084_0001

[00228] Example 1, Alternative Step 9f: The aminoester 6 (9.76 g, 2.12 mmol) was dissolved in 2N HCl (80 mL), then heated to -55 0C under inert atmosphere. The reaction was stirred for 20 h, then cooled to room temperature. The reaction solution was washed twice with toluene (25 mL portions), neutralized to pH 6 – 7 by the addition of KOH pellets, then extracted eight times with methylene chloride (100 mL portions). The combined extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to 50 mL total volume. The concentrated solution was then slowly added to methyl tert-butyl ether (300 mL) over 15 min in an addition funnel with vigorous stirring. The resulting white slurry was stirred at ambient temperature for Ih, then cooled to 0 0C and stirred for Ih. The product was filtered, and washed twice with methyl tert-butyl ether (25 mL portions). Water from the wet cake was removed by azeotropic distillation with acetonitrile (300 mL). The product was dried under reduced pressure to provide (li?,25r,5R)-2-((35′)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid 7, (7.69 g, 84% yield) as a white foam. 1H-NMR: (400 MHz, 500C, CDCl3) δ 7.44-7.32 (m, 5H), 6.10 (broad s, IH), 5.19 (app s, 2H), 4.42 (dd, J= 15.6, 7.8 Hz, IH), 4.29-4.23 (m, IH), 3.68-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.33-3.27 (m, 2H), 3.20 (broad s, IH), 2.99 (broad s, IH), 2.51 (s, 3H), 2.49-2.45 (m, 3H), 2.33-2.31 (m, IH), 2.00 (ddd, J= 9.0, 8.6, 3.9 IH), 1.95-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.21 (m, 6H). LCMS: m/z 432.20 [CaIc: C23H34N3O5 432.25].

NHCbz

Figure imgf000085_0001
Figure imgf000085_0002
Figure imgf000085_0003

[00229] Example 1, Alternative Step 9g: Amino acid 7 (6.3g, 14.7mmol, l.Oeq) was dissolved in THF (8OmL) under N2 and NaH (584mg, 14.7mmol, l.Oeq, 60wt% dispersion in mineral oil) was added portionwise. When the addition was complete, and the evolution of gas had ceased, the reaction mass was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid azeotroped with toluene (50 mL) to give a white solid (KF 0.59wt%). This solid was slurried in toluene (100 mL) under N2and heated to 900C. DPPA (3.32 mL, 15.3 mmol, 1.05 eq) was added dropwise over ~2min. After ~5min all the solids had dissolved, after lOmins precipitation of a white solid was observed. After 30mins HPLC analysis indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT before being filtered, the cake was washed with toluene. The liquors where then slowly added into ACOH/AC2O (80/20, 168mL) solution at 900C. After 45mins HPLC still indicated some isocyanate. At 1.15h , the reaction mass was cooled to RT and diluted with toluene (10OmL) and water (10OmL). The organic layer was removed and the toluene washed with IN HCl

(10OmL). The combined aq. phases were then basified with K2Cθ3(s) and brought to pH 12 with NaOH (10N), keeping the temperature below 200C. The aq layer was then extracted with methylene chloride (4xl50mL), the combined organic layers dried over K2CO3 and concentrated to give benzyl (S)-l-((lS,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4- (isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate 8 as a white foam (4.5g, 70%, 94AP purity). The 1H-NMR was identical to material obtained from the route described above (Example 1, Step 9). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro Cl 8 5μm 4.6 x 150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% lOmin gradient. 7.20min (Compound 8), 7.85min (urea dimer). HRMS: 445.2809 [CaIc: C24H37N4O4 445.2815].

Alternative Preparation of Example 1

Figure imgf000086_0001

2 3

[00230] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 1: Ethyl (7R,85)-8-amino- l,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 (450. Ig), was combined with l-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)carbo-diimide hydrochloride (236.3g), 1-hydroxy benzotriazole hydrate (171.9g), N-carbobenzyloxy-Z -methionine (333.4g) and acetonitrile (3.1 L). To the stirred mixture was added triethylamine (249.5g) below 30 0C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (8.2 L) and washed with aqueous 25% potassium bicarbonate solution (2×4.5 L) followed by water (4.5 L). The organic phase was separated and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,85)-8-((5)-2- benzyloxycarbonylamino-4-methylsulfanyl-butyrylamino)-l,4-dioxa- spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 (1.4 L). Methyl iodide (2.39 kg) was added, the vessel was shielded from light and the mixture was held under slow agitation for approx. 24 h. To the thick yellow precipitate was added methyl tert-butyl ether (2.7 L) and the mixture was held for approx. 1 h. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (2×1.4 L), then dried under vacuum, yielding [(5)-3-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-3-((7R,8«S’)-7-ethoxycarbonyl-l,4- dioxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl)-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 (671.4 g, -94% yield) as an off-white solid (HPLC purity 99.9%).

Figure imgf000087_0001

[00231] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 2: Sulfonium salt 3 (619.4 g), and cesium carbonate (416.8 g) and anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide (6.2 L) were combined in a reactor equipped with a scrubber to neutralize volatile sulfides.

Vigorous agitation was maintained until complete conversion was obtained (HPLC). Ethyl acetate (12.4 L) was added, followed by 20 % brine (3 L). The organic phase was separated, washed twice with brine (2×3 L) and evaporated to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,8«S)-8-((«S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxa- spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4 in ethyl acetate (~0.8 L). Acetone (2.55 L) was added, followed by aqueous 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution (2.3 L). With good mixing, the solution was heated to 50 to 60 0C until conversion of 4 to ethyl (IR,2S)- 2-((5)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-oxo- cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 was complete (HPLC). The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure while below 40 0C, cooled to -30 0C, and water (4.1 L) was added. The resulting slurry was cooled to 5 to 10 0C and agitated for ~1 hour. The product was filtered and the cake was washed with water (2×2.5 L). Upon deliquoring, the cake was dried to a constant weight below 40 0C in a vacuum oven. Cyclohexanone 5 (272g, 70% yield) was obtained (HPLC purity 98.7%).

Figure imgf000088_0001

[00232] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 3: Cyclohexanone 5 (206 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.1 L) and charged to a hydrogenator. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (218.2 g) and N-isopropyl N-methylamine (63.64 g) were added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature (23 to 25 0C) for at least 5 h. Platinum catalyst (5% Pt/S/C, 15 g, approx. 7.5 % relative to 5) was added and hydrogenation was performed at -30 psig for at least 6 h, yielding a mixture of ethyl (lR,25′,5R)-2-((5)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl- methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 and its 5-epz-isomer (-7%). The catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to approx. -600 mL. Wet ethyl acetate (-3% water, 2.0 L) was added with vigorous agitation over a period of at least 1.5 h. Stirring was continued for at least an additional 6 h. The slurry was filtered. Filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (1.0 L) and discarded. The combined filtrate and washings were concentrated to -400 mL. Toluene (2.0 L) was added and the solution was washed with 2M aqueous hydrochloric acid (2 x 400 mL). The aqueous layer was warmed to 50° to 60 0C for approx. 20 h or hydrolysis of 6 was deemed complete (HPLC). Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added to adjust to pH -10, and mixture was extracted with toluene (3×600 mL). The organic phase was discarded and pH was readjusted to ~6 by addition of aqueous hydrochloric acid. The aqueous phase was concentrated to -600 mL under reduced pressure and extracted with methylene chloride (at least 3×2.0 L). The combined methylene chloride layers were evaporated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with THF to obtain a solution of (\R,2S,5R)-2- ((5*)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)- cyclohexane carboxylic acid 7 (-148 g) in THF (-4 L). Seed crystals of 8 were added, followed by 25 % solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (81.24 g) below 25 0C. The slurry was held for at least additional 16h with agitation. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with THF (4×200 mL) and dried to a constant weight in vacuo below 30 0C. Dry (lR,25′,5R)-2-((5)-3-benzyloxycarbonyl- amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexane-carboxylate sodium salt 8 was obtained (139g, -60% yield from 5).

Figure imgf000089_0001

[00233] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 4: Aminoester sodium salt 8 (10Og), diphenyl phosphate (3.86g), tert-BuOH (1275 mL) and toluene (225 mL) were combined and heated to reflux under reduced pressure. Approx. 500 mL of distillate were collected and discarded while being continuously replaced with a solution of toluene in tert-BuOH. Vacuum was removed and distillate was switched to percolate through a column filled with molecular sieves and allowed to return to the vessel. After drying was complete, DPPA (52.4mL; dissolved in 60 mL toluene) was added slowly to the slurry at 80 0C. Upon complete conversion (HPLC), tert- BuOH was removed by vacuum distillation and continuously replaced with toluene. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed twice with 10% aqueous K2HPO4 (lx800mL, 1×400 mL) and water (40OmL). The organic phase was heated and concentrated in vacuo to approx. 27OmL. Vacuum was removed and heptane (1.1 L) was added slowly at approx. 80 0C, followed by seeds of 9 (~lg). The slurry was slowly cooled to room temperature and benzyl {(S)-l-[(lS,2R,4R)-2- tert- butoxycarbonylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclo-hexyl]-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3- yl} -carbamate 9 was isolated by filtration as a white solid (86.76g, 78% yield).

Figure imgf000090_0001

[00234] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 5: The tert-Butyl carbamate 9 (5Og) was dissolved in Toluene (50OmL) and /-PrOH (15OmL). The resulting solution was then heated to 6O0C. Methanesulfonic acid (19.6mL) was added below 65°C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was cooled to RT and triethylamine (69.4mL) added slowly below 25°C. Acetic anhydride was then added below 25°C. After Ih acetic acid (25OmL) was added below 25°C. The toluene phase was discarded and 2-methyl-THF (50OmL) was added to the aqueous phase. The mixture was stirred vigorously and basified with NaOH (25% aqueous solution) to pH 12. The aqueous phase was discarded and the organic layer was washed with brine (25OmL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with /-PrOH. The solution was cooled and filtered to provide benzyl {(5′)-l-[(15r,2R,4R)-2-acetylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexyl]-2- oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl} -carbamate 10 in /-PrOH solution which was used directly in the hydrogenation.

[00235] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 6: To a solution containing acetamide 10 (~61g) in /-PrOH (-625 mL) was added 10% Pd/C wet catalyst (2.5 g) and the suspension was hydrogenated at 30 psig and approx. 25 0C for at least 2 h. Upon completion (HPLC), the catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to approx. 550 mL. Water (8.8 mL) was added, followed by 5.6 N hydrochloric acid in /-PrOH solution (69.5 mL). The resulting slurry was held at room temperature overnight. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was rinsed with /-PrOH (2×100 mL) and dried in vacuo to constant weight at -50 0C to give N-[(li?,25r,5R)-2-((5′)-3-amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-l-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl- amino)-cyclohexyl]-acetamide 11 (55.6 g, 97% yield) as its hydrochloric acid salt (73.6% free base assay, HPLC).

NH,

CL,

Example 1

Figure imgf000091_0001

[00236] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 7: To 6-trifluoromethyl- quinazolin-4-ol 12 (20.1 g) in MeCN (400 mL) was added 5.5 M solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (17.0 mL). The resulting suspension was distilled under reduced pressure and continuously replaced by MeCN to remove methanol. To the slurry was added DMF (1.4 g), followed by oxalyl chloride (13.0 mL) below 50 0C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), excess reagent was removed under reduced pressure to give -400 mL of slurry. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed with 10 % aqueous K2HPO4 (lxl.O L, 1×0.5 L) to afford 4-chloro-6- trifluoromethyl-quinazoline 13 (-21.2 g) in approx. 450 mL of wet MeCN solution, which was used directly in the subsequent coupling reaction (HPLC purity 99.8 %). [00237] Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 8: To a mixture of acetamide 11 (28.5 g, HCl salt, 73.6% free base assay), acetonitrile (100 mL), N,N,-di-isopropyl- N-ethylamine (61 mL) at room temperature was added a solution of 13 (-21.2 g) in MeCN (-450 mL). The homogeneous mixture was held overnight. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was concentrated in vacuo to approx. 125 mL. A 9.5% aqueous solution of acetic acid (240 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride. The aqueous phase was separated and methyl tert- butyl ether (450 mL) was added, followed by 2N aqueous lithium hydroxide solution to adjust to pH >11.5. The organic layer was separated, washed with water and filtered. Approx. half of the ether phase was diluted with methyl tert-bvAyl ether (-250 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. Heptane (45 mL) was added slowly below 60 0C, followed by seed crystals of Example 1 (0.4 g). Additional heptane (125 mL) was added and the mixture was slowly cooled to room temperature and the resulting slurry was held overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, the cake was washed with heptane and dried in vacuo to constant weight to give N-((lR,25′,5R)-5- (isopropylamino)-2-((5′)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)-quin-azolin-4- ylamino)pyrrolidin-l-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide 14 (15.0 g, 85% yield).

Crystallization Procedures for Example 1

[00238] Example 1, Production of bis-BSA salt and purification: The entirety of the amorphous free base from Example 1, Step 11 was dissolved in methanol (600 mL). The resultant solution was heated at 60 0C and charged with benzenesulfonic acid (2.5 eq). The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the resultant white solid was collected by filtration to yield the bis-benzene sulfonic acid salt of the title compound (95 g, 86%). This material was >99% pure by HPLC. This material was further purified by re-crystallization from 80/20 EtOH/H2θ, which provided the salt free from any residual methanol. HPLC purity = 99.8%. 1H ΝMR (500 MHz, D2O) δ ppm 8.75 (1 H, s), 8.66 (1 H, s), 8.25 (1 H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.90 (1 H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.75 (4 H, d, J=8.25 Hz), 7.43 – 7.57 (6 H, m), 5.42 (1 H, t), 4.33 – 4.44 (1 H, m), 4.09 – 4.19 (1 H, m), 3.83 – 3.91 (1 H, m), 3.74 – 3.83 (2 H, m), 3.61 (1 H, t, J=I 1.55 Hz), 2.75 (3 H, d, J=6.60 Hz), 2.61 – 2.70 (1 H, m), 2.31 – 2.44 (1 H, m), 2.20 – 2.27 (1 H, m), 2.17 (2 H, d, J=12.10 Hz), 1.94 – 2.04 (1 H, m, J=12.65 Hz), 1.90 – 1.95 (3 H, m), 1.72 – 1.91 (2 H, m), 1.37 (3 H, d, J=6.05 Hz), 1.29 (3 H, d, J=6.60 Hz). Differential scanning calorimetry utilized a heating rate of 10 °C/min and revealed a melting / decomposition endotherm with an onset temperature of 297.6 0C and a peak temperature at 299.1 0C. [00239] Example 1, Crystallization of the Free Base: A sample of the amorphous free base of N-((lR,25r,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((5′)-2-oxo-3- (6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin- 1 -yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide ( 1 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). The solution was charged with heptane (30 mL) and then warmed to distill the dichloromethane. The solution was cooled to 40 0C; a white solid precipitated. The suspension was heated to 90 0C and stirred for 2 h. The suspension was cooled to room temperature and filtered to provide the pure free base of the title compound. No residual solvent was apparent by 1H-NMR.

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PATENT

US 7671062

http://google.com/patents/US7671062

The present invention provides a novel antagonist or partial agonists/antagonists of MCP-1 receptor activity: N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide,
Figure US07671062-20100302-C00001

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or prodrug, thereof, having an unexpected combination of desirable pharmacological characteristics. Crystalline forms of the present invention are also provided. Pharmaceutical compositions containing the same and methods of using the same as agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, allergic, autoimmune, metabolic, cancer and/or cardiovascular diseases is also an objective of this invention. The present disclosure also provides a process for preparing compounds of Formula (I), including N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide:

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00002

wherein R1, R8, R9, R10, and

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00003

are as described herein. Compounds that are useful intermediates of the process are also provided herein.

1st embodiment, the disclosure provides a process for preparing a compound of formula IV, or a salt thereof:

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00010

Example 1 N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00060

Example 1, Step 1: (1R,2S,5R)-tert-Butyl 2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (89.6 g, 0.24 mol, see: P. H. Carter, et al. PCT application WO 2005/021500) was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and the resulting solution was washed with sat. NaHCO3 (2×0.45 L) and sat. NaCl (1×0.45 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4) and then filtered directly into a 3-necked 3 L round-bottom flask. The solution was purged with direct nitrogen injection before being charged with 10% Pd/C (13.65 g) under nitrogen atmosphere. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen; this was repeated twice more. Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated, back-filled with nitrogen, and charged with fresh catalyst (6 g of 10% Pd/C). Hydrogen was bubbled through the solution for 30 min and then the reaction was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 h. The flask was evacuated and back-filled with nitrogen. The mixture was filtered through Celite; the filter pad was then washed with ethyl acetate. The filtrate (˜1.6 L EtOAc volume) was diluted with acetonitrile (0.3 L) and charged sequentially with L-N-Cbz-methionine (68 g, 0.24 mol), TBTU (77 g, 0.24 mol), and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (42 mL, 0.24 mol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 4 h, during which time it changed from a suspension to a clear solution. The reaction was quenched with the addition of sat. NH4Cl (0.75 L) and water (0.15 L); the mixture was diluted further with EtOAc (0.75 L). The phases were mixed and separated and the organic phase was washed with sat. Na2CO3 (2×0.9 L) and sat. NaCl (1×0.75 L). The solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate as an oil, which was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+=406.3; [M+Na]+=528.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.36 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.2 (m, 1H), 4.0 (m, 1H), 2.5-2.7 (m, 3H), 2.25 (m, 1H), 2.11 (s, 3H), 2.05 (m, 4H), 1.9 (m, 1H), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.54 (s, 9H). Also present are EtOAc [1.26 (t), 2.03 (s), 4.12 (q)] and N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.83 (s)].

Example 1, Step 2: A sample of (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-2-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-4-(methylthio)butanamido)-7-oxo-6-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (0.24 mol assumed; see previous procedure) was dissolved in iodomethane (1,250 g) and stirred for 48 h at room temperature. The reaction was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane and concentrated in vacuo. This was repeated twice more. The resultant sludge was dissolved in dichloromethane (0.4 L) and poured into a rapidly stirring solution of MTBE (4.0 L). The resultant yellow solids were collected via suction filtration and dried under high vacuum to afford the sulfonium salt (179 g). This material was taken into the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Me2S+H]+=458.4; [M]+=520.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.09 (s, 2H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 4.28 (m, 1H), 3.98 (m, 1H), 3.3-3.45 (m, 2H), 2.97 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 2.78 (m, 1H), 2.0-2.3 (m, 4H), 1.7 (m, 2H), 1.52 (s, 9H). Also present are MTBE [1.18 (s), 3.2 (s)] and traces of N,N,N,N-tetramethylurea [2.81 (s)].

Example 1, Step 3: All of the sulfonium salt from the previous step (0.24 mol assumed) was dissolved in DMSO (2.0 L). The resultant solution was stirred under nitrogen at room temperature and charged with cesium carbonate (216 g) portionwise. The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 3 h and then filtered to remove the solids. The solution was divided into ˜0.22 L portions and worked up as follows: the reaction mixture (˜0.22 L) was diluted with ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and washed successively with water (3×0.5 L) and brine (1×0.3 L). The organic phase was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The desired (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-oxo-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (90.8 g, 83%) was obtained as a microcrystalline foam, free from tetramethyl urea impurity. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+=358.4; [M+Na]+=480.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 4.2 (m, 1H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 3.3 (m, 1H), 2.64 (m, 1H), 2.28-2.42 (m, 2H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 1.7-2.0 (m, 5H), 1.55 (s, 9H). If desired, this material can be isolated as a solid by dissolving in MTBE (1 volume), adding to heptane (3.3 volumes), and collecting the resultant precipitate.

Example 1, Step 4: A stirring solution of (1R,2S,5R)-tert-butyl 2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-oxo-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-6-carboxylate (108 g, 0.236 mol) in THF (1 L) was charged with lithium hydroxide monohydrate (21.74 g, 0.519 mol). Water (0.3 L) was added slowly, such that the temperature did not exceed 20° C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and the volatiles were removed in vacuo. The pH was adjusted to ˜4 through the addition of 1N HCl (450 mL) and NaH2PO4. The resultant white precipitates were collected by filtration and washed with water (2×1 L). The solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.5 L) and water (˜1 L). The organic layer was dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (0.7 L) and the resultant solution was heated at reflux for 1 h. Solids separated after cooling to RT, and were collected via filtration. These solids were purified by recrystallization in isopropanol to afford the desired (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid as a white solid (104.5 g, 93% yield). LC/MS for primary peak: [M-tBu+H]+=420.2; [M-Boc+H]+=376.2; [M+H]+=476.2. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 2H), 3.71 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.6 (m, 2H), 2.99 (m, 1H), 2.41 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 2.0 (m, 2H), 1.6-1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

Example 1, Step 5: A 3 L round bottom flask was charged with (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (75.5 g, 0.158 mol), EDC.HCl (33.5 g, 0.175 mol), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (23.6 g, 0.175 mol), and dichloromethane (1 L). The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, during which time it changed from a white suspension to a clear solution. Ammonia (gas) was bubbled into the solution until the pH was strongly basic (paper) and the reaction was stirred for 10 min; this ammonia addition was repeated and the reaction was stirred for an additional 10 min. Water was added. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaHCO3, NaH2PO4, and brine before being concentrated in vacuo. The residue was slurried with acetonitrile (0.5 L) and then concentrated in to give (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide as a white solid (75.9 g, ˜100%), which was used in the next step without further purification. LC/MS for primary peak: [M-Boc+H]+=375.3; [M+H]+=475.4; [M-tBu+H]+=419.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.35 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.25 (m, 2H), 3.70 (m, 1H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 3.45 (m, 1H), 2.91 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 1H), 1.9-2.05 (m, 2H), 1.65-1.9 (m, 4H), 1.46 (s, 9H).

Example 1, Step 6: The reaction was run in three equal portions and combined for aqueous workup. A 5 L, 3-necked round bottom flask was charged with (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)cyclohexanecarboxamide (25.3 g, 53 mmol), acetonitrile (1.9 L), and 2.6 L of water/ice. The mixture was stirred and cooled to 0° C. Iodobenzene diacetate (25.77 g, 80 mmol) was added and the reaction was stirred for 2 h; another 0.5 eq of iodobenzene diacetate was added. The reaction was stirred for 9 h (reaction temp<10° C.). The mixture was charged with 8 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride. Over the next thirty minutes, 4 eq N,N-diisopropylethylamine and 2 eq acetic anhydride were added every ten minutes, until the reaction had proceeded to completion (HPLC). The acetonitrile was removed in vacuo; some solid separated from the residue, and this was collected by filtration. The remaining residue was extracted with dichloromethane (3 L, then 1 L). The organic phase was washed sequentially with water, sat. NaHCO3, and brine. The collected solids were added to the organic phase, along with activated carbon (15 g). The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 40° C. before being filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in EtOAc (1 L), and the resultant solution was stirred at 75° C. for 1 h before being allowed to cool to room temperature. A solid separated and was collected by filtration. This solid was purified further by recrystallization: it was first dissolved in 0.5 L CH2Cl2, then concentrated in vacuo, then re-crystallized from 1 L EtOAc; this was repeated three times. The solids obtained from the mother liquors of the above were recrystallized three times using the same method. The combined solids were recrystallized twice more from acetonitrile (0.7 L) to provide 66 g (84%) of tert-butyl (1R,3R,4S)-3-acetamido-4-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (purity>99.5% by HPLC). LC/MS for primary peak: [M+H]+=489.4; [M-tBu+H]+=433.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.35 (m, 1H), 4.15 (m, 1H), 4.04 (m, 1H), 3.8 (m, 1H), 3.6 (m, 2H), 2.44 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 1H), 1.87-2.05 (m, 4H), 1.87 (s, 3H), 1.55-1.7 (m, 2H), 1.46 (s, 9H). The stereochemical fidelity of the Hofmann rearrangement was confirmed through X-ray crystal structure analysis of this compound, as shown in FIG. 1.

Example 1, Step 7: A stirring solution of tert-butyl (1R,3R,4S)-3-acetamido-4-((S)-3-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexylcarbamate (66 g, 0.135 mol) in dichloromethane (216 mL) was charged with trifluoroacetic acid (216 mL). The reaction was stirred for 2 h at room temperature and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in methanol and the resultant solution was concentrated in vacuo; this was repeated once. Benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate was obtained as an oil and used directly in Step 8 below. LC/MS found [M+H]+=389.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.41 (br. s, 1H), 4.15 (m, 1H), 4.00 (t, J=9.3 Hz, 1H), 3.81 (t, J=9.1 Hz, 1H), 3.65 (q, J=8.4 Hz, 1H), 3.3-3.4 (m, 1H), 2.45 (m, 1H), 1.95-2.24 (m, 5H), 2.00 (s, 3H), 1.6-1.8 (m, 2H).

Example 1, Step 8: A stirring solution of benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-aminocyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (˜0.135 mol) in methanol (675 mL) was charged sequentially with acetone (37.8 g, 4 eq), sodium acetate (33.2 g, 3 eq), and sodium cyanoborohydride (16.9 g, 2 eq). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 h and filtered. The filtrate was dissolved in dichloromethane (1 L); this solution was washed with 1N NaOH (1 L). The solids collected in the filtration were dissolved in 1N NaOH (1 L) at 0° C. and then extracted with dichloromethane (1 L). The organic extracts were combined and extracted with aqueous HCl (200 mL 1N HCl+800 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then 1N NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate as an oil. LC/MS found [M+H]+=431.45. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.31 (m, 1H), 4.24 (t, J=9.4 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (m, 1H), 3.61 (t, J=9.1 Hz, 1H), 3.52 (q, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 3.04 (br. s, 1H), 2.96 (sep, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 2.40 (m, 1H), 2.15 (m, 1H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7-1.9 (m, 5H), 1.65 (m, 1H), 1.12 (app. dd, J=6.3, 1.1 Hz, 6H).

Example 1, Step 9 (See Alternative Step 9, below): A stirring solution of benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropylamino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (˜115 mmol) in dichloromethane (600 mL) was cooled to 0° C. and charged sequentially with formaldehyde (18.6 g, 37 wt % solution), triethylamine (23 mL), and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (28.7 g). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes and diluted with dichloromethane (up to 1.2 L). This solution was washed thrice with 500 mL sat. NaHCO3+NaOH (sat. NaHCO3, pH to 11 w/1N NaOH). The organic layer was extracted with aq. HCl (200 mL 1N HCl+600 mL water). The aqueous phase was basified with sat. NaHCO3 (500 mL) and then 1N NaOH (100 mL) until pH 11. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (1.2 L). The organic extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate as an oil, which was used directly in Step 10 below. LC/MS found [M+H]+=445.4. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 7.3-7.4 (m, 5H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.33 (br s, 1H), 4.25 (t, J=9.2 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (br s, 1H), 3.5-3.6 (m, 2H), 2.77 (v br s, 2H), 2.41 (m, 1H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.0-2.1 (m, 2H), 1.92 (s, 3H), 1.7-1.9 (m, 5H), 1.10 (app. dd, J=17, 6.4 Hz, 6H).

Example 1, Step 10: To a solution of benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate (0.115 mol) in methanol (600 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (6 g of 50% wet catalyst). The flask was evacuated and back-filled with hydrogen. The mixture was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 2 h and the catalyst was removed by filtration through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to provide N-((1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide as an oil, which was taken on to the next step without further purification. LC/MS found [M+H]+=311.47. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 4.39 (br s, 1H), 4.00 (m, 1H), 3.3-3.5 (m, 4H), 2.73 (m, 1H), 2.38 (m, 1H), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.0-2.2 (m, 3H), 1.94 (s, 3H), 1.6-1.75 (m, 4H), 1.07 (app. dd, J=21, 6.4 Hz, 6H).

Example 1, Step 11: To a solution of N-((1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)acetamide (˜35 g, 0.115 mol) in isopropanol (600 mL) was added 4-chloro-6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazoline (32 g, 0.138 mol, 1.2 eq, see: P. H. Carter et al., PCT application WO 2005/021500). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight before being charged with triethylamine (46 g, 0.46 mol, 4 eq). The mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 10 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give an oil. Azeotropic distillation with isopropanol was performed twice. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (600 mL) and extracted with water (250 mL, containing 4 eq acetic acid). Dichloromethane (600 mL) was added to the combined aqueous washes, and the mixture was cooled to 0° C. Aqueous NaOH (50% by weight) was added with stirring until the pH reached 11. The water layer was extracted with dichloromethane twice (2×600 mL). The combined organic extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give the amorphous free base of the title compound (99% purity by HPLC). LC/MS found [M+H]+=507.3. 1H-NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOH): δ 8.82 (s, 1H), 8.59 (s, 1H), 8.05 (dd, J=8.8, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.9 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 1H), 5.28 (t, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.58 (br s, 1H), 4.06 (m, 1H), 3.52-3.68 (m, 2H), 3.43 (m, 1H), 2.76 (br s, 1H), 2.55 (m, 1H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 2.1-2.3 (m, 3H), 2.0 (s, 3H), 2.0 (m, 1H), 1.65-1.8 (m, 3H), 1.09 (app. dd, J=24, 6.4 Hz, 6 H).

Example 1 Alternative Step 9

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00061

Example 1, Alternative step 9ai: To a hydrogenator were charged ethyl (7R,8S)-8-((S)-1-phenyl-ethylamino)-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1A (1417 g, 2.8 moles, c.f.: WO2004098516, prepared analogous to U.S. Pat. No. 6,835,841), ethanol (200 proof, 11.4 L), and 10% Pd/C catalyst (50% wet, 284 g). The mixture was inerted with nitrogen, then pressurized with hydrogen gas (45 psig) and agitated vigorously at approx. 40° C. until starting material was consumed (HPLC). The suspension was cooled, purged with nitrogen gas and the catalyst was removed by filtration while inerted. The spent catalyst was washed with ethanol (4.3 L). The filtrate and washings were combined and concentrated under vacuum to a volume of 2-3 L while maintaining the batch between 40°-60° C. Isopropyl acetate (5 L) was charged and the mixture was concentrated to a volume of ˜2 L until most ethanol was removed (<0.5%) and residual moisture content was <1,000 ppm. Batch volume was adjusted to ˜7.5 L by the addition of isopropyl acetate. The mixture was heated to 80° C. until clear, then cooled 65°-70° C. Seed crystals of 1 (5 g) were added and the batch was cooled to 50° C. over 2 hours, then further cooled to 20° C. over 4 hours and held for ˜10 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered and the cake was washed with isopropyl acetate (2 L). The product was dried under vaccum at ˜35° C. until volatiles were reduced below ˜1% (LOD). Ethyl (7R,8S)-8-amino-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 was obtained as a white, crystalline solid (936 g, 83% yield; HPLC purity: 99.8%). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) 8.14-7.89 (brs, 3H), 7.75 (d, J 9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.15 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.22-4.04 (m, 2H), 4.01-3.77 (m, 4H), 3.55-3.43 (m, 1H,), 3.20-3.13 (m, 1H), 2.40-2.27 (m, 4H), 2.21-1.94 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.51 (m, 3H), 1.23 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H); HPLC: Waters Xterra MS C18 4.6 mm×150 mm i.d., 3.5 μm particle size, 0.05% NH4OH (5% ACN, 95% H2O, solvent A), to 0.05% NH4OH (95% ACN, 5% H2O, solvent B), 5% B to 20% B in 10 minutes, changed to 95% B in 25 minutes, and then changed to 5% B in 1 minute; 11.1 minutes (aminoester 1).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00062

Example 1, Alternative Step 9aii: Aminoester 1 (63 g, 0.16M, 1 eq.; the product of reductive deprotection of a known compound—(See e.g. R. J. Cherney, WO 2004/098516 and G. V. Delucca & S. S. Ko, WO 2004/110993) was placed in a round bottom flask and MeCN (500 mL) was added. EDAC (33.1 g, 0.17M, 1.1 eq), HOBt.H2O (21.2 g, 0.16M, 1.0 eq) and N-Cbz-L-methionine (46.7 g, 0.17M, 1.05 eq) were then added followed by TEA (48.0 mL, 0.35M, 2.2 eq). An exotherm to 38° C. was observed. The reaction mass was left to stir at RT. After 30 mins, HPLC indicated complete conversion. The reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.5 L) and washed with KHCO3 (4×500 mL, 20 wt % aq. solution) and brine (500 mL). The organic phase was separated, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated. The residue was dissolved in TBME and reconcentrated to give ethyl (7R,8S)-8-{(2S)-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-4-methylsulfanyl-butyr-yl-amino}-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 as a sticky semi-solid (76.2 g, 98% yield, 93 AP purity). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.36-7.30 (m, 5H), 7.03 (d, J 9.0 Hz, 1H), 5.66 (d, J 8.0 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.35-4.25 (m, 2H), 4.19-4.04 (m, 2H,), 3.98-3.86 (m, 4H), 2.87-2.80 (m, 1H), 2.55-2.45 (m, 2H), 2.18 (dd, J 14.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 2.08 (s, 3H), 2.05-1.67 (m, 6H), 1.26 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 10.01 min (Compound 2, 93.1 AP). HRMS: m/z 495.2166 [Calc: C24H35N2O7S 495.2165].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00063

Example 1, Alternative Step 9b: Methionine amide 2 (75.0 g, 0.15M) was dissolved in MeI (225 mL, 3 mL/g)—some off gassing was noted but no exotherm. The reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 16.5 h. After this time a thick light yellow precipitate had formed. The flask was then evacuated to 200 mmHg and some of the MeI removed. The remaining material was slurried in TBMF (500 mL), after a 30 min stir-out the slurry was filtered, the cake washed with TBMF (500 mL). NMR analysis of this material indicated a small amount of MeI remaining. The cake was re-slurried in TBMF (500 mL), filtered, washed with TBMF (500 mL) and dried under vacuum to give [(3S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-3-{(7R,8S)-7-ethoxycarbonyl-1,4-di-oxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl}-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 as a free flowing off-white solid (93.5 g, 97%, 99 area % purity). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.75 (d, J 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.27 (m, 5H), 6.40 (d, J 7.0 Hz, 1H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.76-4.65 (m, 1H), 4.48-4.39 (m, 1H), 4.14-3.85 (m, 6H), 3.84-7.73 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.55 (m, 1H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 3.12 (s, 3H), 2.90-2.83 (s, 1H), 2.52-1.55 (m, 8H), 1.24 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 2.45 min (I−), 8.14 min (Compound 3, 43.6 AP, I54.6 AP). HRMS: m/z 509.2341 [Calc: C25H37N2O7S 509.2321].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00064

Example 1, Alternative Step 9c: Cs2CO3 (61.5 g, 0.19M, 1.5 eq) was placed in an round bottom flask and anhydrous DMSO (2.4 L) was added. Sulfonium salt 3 (80.0 g, 0.13M, 1.0 eq) was then added portionwise. Once the addition was complete the reaction mass was left to stir in the dark for 20 h. The reaction mass was then split in half and each half worked up separately: the reaction mass was diluted with EtOAc (2.0 L) and washed with brine (2 L), the organic phase was washed with brine (500 mL). The combined aq. layers were then washed EtOAc (500 mL). The combined organic phases were then washed with brine (3×750 mL). The second half of the reaction mass was treated in an identical manner and the combined organics dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to give ethyl (7R,8S)-8-{(3S)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4 as a light colored oil (56.5 g, 0.13M, ˜100 area-% purity) pure by NMR analysis. 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.38-7.30 (m, 5H), 5.37 (br d, J 4.0 Hz, 1H), 5.11 (s, 2H), 4.27-4.18 (m, 1H), 4.17-3.82 (m, 8H), 3.32 (td, J 10.0Hz, 60.0 Hz, 1H), 3.23 (q, J 5.0 Hz, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 1H), 2.42-2.25 (m, 2H), 1.94-1.68 (m, 5H), 1.25 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 8.99 min (Compound 5, produced on column, 4.2 AP), 9.48 (Compound 4, 74.3 AP). HRMS: m/z 447.2127 [Calc: C23H31N2O7 447.2131].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00065

Example 1, Alternative Step 9d: Pyrrolidinone 4 (50.0 g, 0.11M) was dissolved in acetone (500 mL) and 1N HCl (500 mL) was added. The reaction mass was then heated to 65° C. After 20 mins HPLC indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT and the acetone was removed on a rotary evaporator. During this distillation the product precipitated from solution as a white solid. This was isolated by filtration and the cake washed with water. The cake was then dried azeotropically with toluene (3×300 mL) to give ethyl (1R,2S)-2-((3S)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-oxo-cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 as a white solid (39.8 g, 88%, 97 area-% purity). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37-7.32 (m, 5H), 6.65 (br d, J 4.0 Hz, 1H), 5.12 (s, 2H), 4.54-4.47 (m, 1H), 4.34-4.26 (m, 1H), 4.18 (dq, J 11.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 4.09 (dq, J 11.0 Hz, 7.0 Hz, 1H), 3.36-3.20 (m, 3H), 2.70-2.35 (m, 6H), 2.05-1.96 (m, 1H), 1.81 (quin., J 11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.24 (t, J 7.0 Hz, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 8.95 min (Compound 5). HRMS: m/z 403.1864 [Calc: C21H27N2O6403.1869].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00066

Example 1, Alternative Step 9e: Cyclohexanone 5 (22.5 g, 0.06M, 1 eq), DMSO (30 mL) and Ti(O-iPr)4 (33.7 mL, 0.11M, 2.04 eq) were placed in a round bottom flask. N-isopropyl-N-methylamine (11.6 mL, 0.11M, 2.0 eq) was then added in one portion. The mixture was left to stir for 30 mins at room temperature before being cooled to <3° C. in ice/water. MeOH (30 mL) was then added followed by the portionwise addition of NaBH4 (4.33 g, 0.11M, 2.04 eq)—temperature kept <8° C. 30 mins after the addition was completed the reaction mass was diluted with methylene chloride (300 mL) and then NaOH (1N, 40 mL). The resulting slurry was filtered through Celite, and the cake washed with methylene chloride (100 mL). The resulting liquor was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue dissolved in EtOAc (500 mL). This solution was extracted with 1N HCl (2×400 mL), the combined aqueous layers were then basified with Na2CO3. Extraction with EtOAc (4×250 mL) provided a clear and colorless organic phase which was dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated to give a white powder (24.6 g, 96%, 7:1 d.r.). This material was then slurried overnight in hexane (670 mL). The solid was isolated by filtration and dried under reduced pressure to give ethyl (1R,2S,5R)-2-((3S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 as a while solid (20.9 g, 81%, 24:1 d.r.). 1H-NMR: (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.37-7.28 (m, 5H), 5.55 (d, J 4.5, 1H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 4.42 (q, J 4.5, 1H), 4.23-4.12 (m, 1H), 4.08 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, 1H), 4.02 (dq, J 10.5, 7.0, 1H), 3.84 (t, J 9.0, 1H), 3.46-3.36 (m, 1H), 3.04 (septet, J 6.5, 1H), 2.86-2.80 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.48 (m, 2H), 2.17 (s, 3H, Me), 2.10-1.63 (m, 7H), 1.22 (t, J 7.0, 3H), 1.00 (d, J 6.5, 3H), 0.97 (d, J 6.5, 3H). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water 20:80) to 0.01M NH4OAc (MeOH:water:MeCN 20:5:75) 10 to 100% 15 min gradient. 8.23 (Compound 6), 8.88 (5-epi-Compound 6). HRMS: 460.2798 [Calc: C25H38N3O5 460.2811].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00067

Example 1, Alternative Step 9f: The aminoester 6 (9.76 g, 2.12 mmol) was dissolved in 2N HCl (80 mL), then heated to ˜55° C. under inert atmosphere. The reaction was stirred for 20 h, then cooled to room temperature. The reaction solution was washed twice with toluene (25 mL portions), neutralized to pH 6-7 by the addition of KOH pellets, then extracted eight times with methylene chloride (100 mL portions). The combined extracts were dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to 50 mL total volume. The concentrated solution was then slowly added to methyl tert-butyl ether (300 mL) over 15 min in an addition funnel with vigorous stirring. The resulting white slurry was stirred at ambient temperature for Ih, then cooled to 0° C. and stirred for 1 h. The product was filtered, and washed twice with methyl tert-butyl ether (25 mL portions). Water from the wet cake was removed by azeotropic distillation with acetonitrile (300 mL). The product was dried under reduced pressure to provide (1R,2S,5R)-2-((3S)-3-Benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid 7, (7.69 g, 84% yield) as a white foam. 1H-NMR: (400 MHz, 50° C., CDCl3) δ 7.44-7.32 (m, 5H), 6.10 (broad s, 1H), 5.19 (app s, 2H), 4.42 (dd, J=15.6, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.29-4.23 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.60 (m, 2H), 3.33-3.27 (m, 2H), 3.20 (broad s, 1H), 2.99 (broad s, 1H), 2.51 (s, 3H), 2.49-2.45 (m, 3H), 2.33-2.31 (m, 1H), 2.00 (ddd, J=9.0, 8.6, 3.9 1H), 1.95-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.21 (m, 6H). LCMS: m/z 432.20 [Calc: C23H34N3O5 432.25].

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00068

Example 1, Alternative Step 9g: Amino acid 7 (6.3 g, 14.7 mmol, 1.0 eq) was dissolved in THF (80 mL) under N2 and NaH (584 mg, 14.7 mmol, 1.0 eq, 60 wt % dispersion in mineral oil) was added portionwise. When the addition was complete, and the evolution of gas had ceased, the reaction mass was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting solid azeotroped with toluene (50 mL) to give a white solid (KF 0.59 wt %). This solid was slurried in toluene (100 mL) under N2and heated to 90° C. DPPA (3.32 mL, 15.3 mmol, 1.05 eq) was added dropwise over ˜2 min. After ˜5 min all the solids had dissolved, after 10 mins precipitation of a white solid was observed. After 30 mins HPLC analysis indicated complete reaction. The reaction mass was allowed to cool to RT before being filtered, the cake was washed with toluene. The liquors where then slowly added into AcOH/Ac2O (80/20, 168 mL) solution at 90° C. After 45 mins HPLC still indicated some isocyanate. At 1.15 h, the reaction mass was cooled to RT and diluted with toluene (100 mL) and water (100 mL). The organic layer was removed and the toluene washed with 1N HCl (100 mL). The combined aq. phases were then basified with K2CO3(s) and brought to pH 12 with NaOH (10N), keeping the temperature below 20° C. The aq layer was then extracted with methylene chloride (4×150 mL), the combined organic layers dried over K2CO3 and concentrated to give benzyl (S)-1-((1S,2R,4R)-2-acetamido-4-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)cyclohexyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-ylcarbamate 8 as a white foam (4.5 g, 70%, 94AP purity). The 1H-NMR was identical to material obtained from the route described above (Example 1, Step 9). HPLC: YMC-Pack Pro C18 5 μm 4.6×150 mm, 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% H2O), to 0.05% TFA (20% MeOH, 80% MeCN), 0-100% 10 min gradient. 7.20 min (Compound 8), 7.85 min (urea dimer). HRMS: 445.2809 [Calc: C24H37N4O4445.2815].

Alternative Preparation of Example 1

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00069

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 1: Ethyl (7R,8S)-8-amino-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4-toluenesulfonate salt 1 (450.1 g), was combined with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)carbo-diimide hydrochloride (236.3 g), 1-hydroxy benzotriazole hydrate (171.9 g), N-carbobenzyloxy-L-methionine (333.4 g) and acetonitrile (3.1 L). To the stirred mixture was added triethylamine (249.5 g) below 30° C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (8.2 L) and washed with aqueous 25% potassium bicarbonate solution (2×4.5 L) followed by water (4.5 L). The organic phase was separated and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,8S)-8-((S)-2-benzyloxycarbonylamino-4-methylsulfanyl-butyrylamino)-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 2 (1.4 L). Methyl iodide (2.39 kg) was added, the vessel was shielded from light and the mixture was held under slow agitation for approx. 24 h. To the thick yellow precipitate was added methyl tert-butyl ether (2.7 L) and the mixture was held for approx. 1 h. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with methyl tert-butyl ether (2×1.4 L), then dried under vacuum, yielding [(S)-3-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-3-((7R,8S)-7-ethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]dec-8-ylcarbamoyl)-propyl]-dimethylsulfonium iodide 3 (671.4 g, ˜94% yield) as an off-white solid (HPLC purity 99.9%).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00070

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 2: Sulfonium salt 3 (619.4 g), and cesium carbonate (416.8 g) and anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide (6.2 L) were combined in a reactor equipped with a scrubber to neutralize volatile sulfides. Vigorous agitation was maintained until complete conversion was obtained (HPLC). Ethyl acetate (12.4 L) was added, followed by 20% brine (3 L). The organic phase was separated, washed twice with brine (2×3 L) and evaporated to obtain a solution of ethyl (7R,8S)-8-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decane-7-carboxylate 4 in ethyl acetate (˜0.8 L). Acetone (2.55 L) was added, followed by aqueous 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution (2.3 L). With good mixing, the solution was heated to 50 to 60° C. until conversion of 4 to ethyl (1R,2S)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-oxo-cyclohexanecarboxylate 5 was complete (HPLC). The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure while below 40° C., cooled to ˜30° C., and water (4.1 L) was added. The resulting slurry was cooled to 5 to 10° C. and agitated for ˜1 hour. The product was filtered and the cake was washed with water (2×2.5 L). Upon deliquoring, the cake was dried to a constant weight below 40° C. in a vacuum oven. Cyclohexanone 5 (272 g, 70% yield) was obtained (HPLC purity 98.7%).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00071

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 3: Cyclohexanone 5 (206 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.1 L) and charged to a hydrogenator. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (218.2 g) and N-isopropyl N-methylamine (63.64 g) were added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature (23 to 25° C.) for at least 5 h. Platinum catalyst (5% Pt/S/C, 15 g, approx. 7.5% relative to 5) was added and hydrogenation was performed at ˜30 psig for at least 6 h, yielding a mixture of ethyl (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexanecarboxylate 6 and its 5-epi-isomer (˜7%). The catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to approx. ˜600 mL. Wet ethyl acetate (˜3% water, 2.0 L) was added with vigorous agitation over a period of at least 1.5 h. Stirring was continued for at least an additional 6 h. The slurry was filtered. Filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (1.0 L) and discarded. The combined filtrate and washings were concentrated to ˜400 mL. Toluene (2.0 L) was added and the solution was washed with 2M aqueous hydrochloric acid (2×400 mL). The aqueous layer was warmed to 50° to 60° C. for approx. 20 h or hydrolysis of 6 was deemed complete (HPLC). Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added to adjust to pH ˜10, and mixture was extracted with toluene (3×600 mL). The organic phase was discarded and pH was readjusted to ˜6 by addition of aqueous hydrochloric acid. The aqueous phase was concentrated to ˜600 mL under reduced pressure and extracted with methylene chloride (at least 3×2.0 L). The combined methylene chloride layers were evaporated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with THF to obtain a solution of (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonylamino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexane carboxylic acid 7 (˜148 g) in THF (˜4 L). Seed crystals of 8 were added, followed by 25% solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (81.24 g) below 25° C. The slurry was held for at least additional 16 h with agitation. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with THF (4×200 mL) and dried to a constant weight in vacuo below 30° C. Dry (1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-benzyloxycarbonyl-amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexane-carboxylate sodium salt 8 was obtained (139 g, ˜60% yield from 5).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00072

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 4: Aminoester sodium salt 8 (100 g), diphenyl phosphate (3.86 g), tert-BuOH (1275 mL) and toluene (225 mL) were combined and heated to reflux under reduced pressure. Approx. 500 mL of distillate were collected and discarded while being continuously replaced with a solution of toluene in tert-BuOH. Vacuum was removed and distillate was switched to percolate through a column filled with molecular sieves and allowed to return to the vessel. After drying was complete, DPPA (52.4 mL; dissolved in 60 mL toluene) was added slowly to the slurry at 80° C. Upon complete conversion (HPLC), tert-BuOH was removed by vacuum distillation and continuously replaced with toluene. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed twice with 10% aqueous K2HPO4 (1×800 mL, 1×400 mL) and water (400 mL). The organic phase was heated and concentrated in vacuo to approx. 270 mL. Vacuum was removed and heptane (1.1 L) was added slowly at approx. 80° C., followed by seeds of 9 (˜1 g). The slurry was slowly cooled to room temperature and benzyl {(S)-1-[(1S,2R,4R)-2-tert-butoxycarbonylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclo-hexyl]-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl}-carbamate 9 was isolated by filtration as a white solid (86.76 g, 78% yield).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00073

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 5: The tert-Butyl carbamate 9 (50 g) was dissolved in Toluene (500 mL) and i-PrOH (150 mL). The resulting solution was then heated to 60° C. Methanesulfonic acid (19.6 mL) was added below 65° C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was cooled to RT and triethylamine (69.4 mL) added slowly below 25° C. Acetic anhydride was then added below 25° C. After 1 h acetic acid (250 mL) was added below 25° C. The toluene phase was discarded and 2-methyl-THF (500 mL) was added to the aqueous phase. The mixture was stirred vigorously and basified with NaOH (25% aqueous solution) to pH 12. The aqueous phase was discarded and the organic layer was washed with brine (250 mL). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and continuously replaced with i-PrOH. The solution was cooled and filtered to provide benzyl {(S)-1-[(1S,2R,4R)-2-acetylamino-4-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexyl]-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl}-carbamate 10 in i-PrOH solution which was used directly in the hydrogenation.

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 6: To a solution containing acetamide 10 (˜61 g) in i-PrOH (˜625 mL) was added 10% Pd/C wet catalyst (2.5 g) and the suspension was hydrogenated at 30 psig and approx. 25° C. for at least 2 h. Upon completion (HPLC), the catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was concentrated to approx. 550 mL. Water (8.8 mL) was added, followed by 5.6 N hydrochloric acid in i-PrOH solution (69.5 mL). The resulting slurry was held at room temperature overnight. The product was isolated by filtration and the cake was rinsed with i-PrOH (2×100 mL) and dried in vacuo to constant weight at ˜50° C. to give N-[(1R,2S,5R)-2-((S)-3-amino-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-5-(isopropyl-methyl-amino)-cyclohexyl]-acetamide 11 (55.6 g, 97% yield) as its hydrochloric acid salt (73.6% free base assay, HPLC).

Figure US07671062-20100302-C00074

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 7: To 6-trifluoromethyl-quinazolin-4-ol 12 (20.1 g) in MeCN (400 mL) was added 5.5 M solution of sodium methoxide in methanol (17.0 mL). The resulting suspension was distilled under reduced pressure and continuously replaced by MeCN to remove methanol. To the slurry was added DMF (1.4 g), followed by oxalyl chloride (13.0 mL) below 50° C. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), excess reagent was removed under reduced pressure to give ˜400 mL of slurry. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and washed with 10% aqueous K2HPO4 (1×1.0 L, 1×0.5 L) to afford 4-chloro-6-trifluoromethyl-quinazoline 13 (˜21.2 g) in approx. 450 mL of wet MeCN solution, which was used directly in the subsequent coupling reaction (HPLC purity 99.8%).

Example 1, Alternative Preparation, Step 8: To a mixture of acetamide 11 (28.5 g, HCl salt, 73.6% free base assay), acetonitrile (100 mL), N,N,-di-isopropyl-N-ethylamine (61 mL) at room temperature was added a solution of 13 (˜21.2 g) in MeCN (˜450 mL). The homogeneous mixture was held overnight. Upon reaction completion (HPLC), the mixture was concentrated in vacuo to approx. 125 mL. A 9.5% aqueous solution of acetic acid (240 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride. The aqueous phase was separated and methyl tert-butyl ether (450 mL) was added, followed by 2N aqueous lithium hydroxide solution to adjust to pH>11.5. The organic layer was separated, washed with water and filtered. Approx. half of the ether phase was diluted with methyl tert-butyl ether (˜250 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. Heptane (45 mL) was added slowly below 60° C., followed by seed crystals of Example 1 (0.4 g). Additional heptane (125 mL) was added and the mixture was slowly cooled to room temperature and the resulting slurry was held overnight. The product was isolated by filtration, the cake was washed with heptane and dried in vacuo to constant weight to give N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropylamino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)-quin-azolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide 14 (15.0 g, 85% yield).

Crystallization Procedures for Example 1Example 1, Production of bis-BSA salt and purification: The entirety of the amorphous free base from Example 1, Step 11 was dissolved in methanol (600 mL). The resultant solution was heated at 60° C. and charged with benzenesulfonic acid (2.5 eq). The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the resultant white solid was collected by filtration to yield the bis-benzene sulfonic acid salt of the title compound (95 g, 86%). This material was >99% pure by HPLC. This material was further purified by re-crystallization from 80/20 EtOH/H2O, which provided the salt free from any residual methanol. HPLC purity=99.8%. 1H NMR (500 MHz, D2O) δ ppm 8.75 (1H, s), 8.66 (1H, s), 8.25 (1H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.90 (1H, d, J=8.80 Hz), 7.75 (4H, d, J=8.25 Hz), 7.43-7.57 (6H, m), 5.42 (1H, t), 4.33-4.44 (1H, m), 4.09-4.19 (1H, m), 3.83-3.91 (1H, m), 3.74-3.83 (2H, m), 3.61 (1H, t, J=11.55 Hz), 2.75 (3H, d, J=6.60 Hz), 2.61-2.70 (1H, m), 2.31-2.44 (1H, m), 2.20-2.27 (1H, m), 2.17 (2H, d, J=12.10 Hz), 1.94-2.04 (1H, m, J=12.65 Hz), 1.90-1.95 (3H, m), 1.72-1.91 (2H, m), 1.37 (3H, d, J=6.05 Hz), 1.29 (3H, d, J=6.60 Hz). Differential scanning calorimetry utilized a heating rate of 10° C./min and revealed a melting/decomposition endotherm with an onset temperature of 297.6° C. and a peak temperature at 299.1° C.

Example 1, Crystallization of the Free Base: A sample of the amorphous free base of N-((1R,2S,5R)-5-(isopropyl(methyl)amino)-2-((S)-2-oxo-3-(6-(trifluoromethyl)quinazolin-4-ylamino)pyrrolidin-1-yl)cyclohexyl)acetamide (1 g) was dissolved in dichloromethane (5 mL). The solution was charged with heptane (30 mL) and then warmed to distill the dichloromethane. The solution was cooled to 40° C.; a white solid precipitated. The suspension was heated to 90° C. and stirred for 2 h. The suspension was cooled to room temperature and filtered to provide the pure free base of the title compound. No residual solvent was apparent by 1H-NMR.

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PAPER

Abstract Image

A concise bulk synthesis of stereochemically complex CCR2 antagonist BMS-741672 is reported. A distinct structural feature is the chiral all-cis 1,2,4-triaminocyclohexane (TACH) core, which was assembled through consecutive stereocontrolled heterogeneous hydrogenations: efficient Pt-catalyzed reduction of a β-enaminoester, directed by (S)-α-methylbenzylamine as a low-cost chiral template, and reductive amination of a 3,4-cis-disubstituted cyclohexanone over sulfided Pt/C introduced a tert-amine, setting the third stereocenter in the all-cis cyclohexane core. The heterogeneous catalysts were recycled. Ester hydrolysis produced a γ-amino acid, isolated as its Na salt. A challenging Curtius reaction to introduce the remaining C–N bond at C-2 was strongly influenced by the presence of the basic tert-amine, providing a stereoelectronically highly activated isocyanate. Detailed mechanistic and process knowledge was required to enable clean trapping with an alcohol (t-BuOH) while avoiding formation of side products, particularly an unusual carbamoyl phosphate. Deprotection, N-acetylation, and uncatalyzed SNAr coupling with known 4-chloroquinazoline provided the final product. The resulting 12-step synthesis was used to prepare 50 kg of the target compound in an average yield of 82% per step.

Stereoselective Bulk Synthesis of CCR2 Antagonist BMS-741672: Assembly of an All-cis (S,R,R)-1,2,4-Triaminocyclohexane (TACH) Core via Sequential Heterogeneous Asymmetric Hydrogenations

Chemical and Synthetic Development, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, One Squibb Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00282
*Phone: 732-227-6917. Fax: 732-227-3001. E-mail: joerg.deerberg@bms.com.

Patents

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US7687508 2010-03-30 CYCLIC DERIVATIVES AS MODULATORS OF CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ACTIVITY
US7671062 2010-03-02 N-((IR, 2S, 5R)-5-(ISOPROPYL(METHYL)AMINO)-2-((S)-2-0XO-3-(6-TRIFLUOROMETHYL)QUINAZOLIN-4-YLAMINO)PYRROLIDIN-1-YL)CYCLOHEXYL)ACETAMIDE AND OTHER MODULATORS OF CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR ACTIVITY, CRYSTALLINE FORMS AND PROCESS.

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CC(C)N(C)[C@H]1C[C@@H](NC(C)=O)[C@H](CC1)N4CC[C@H](Nc3ncnc2ccc(cc23)C(F)(F)F)C4=O

Identification of an Orally Efficacious GPR40/FFAR1 Receptor Agonist from Zydus Cadila


Indian flag
str1
(S)-3-(4-((3-((isopropyl(thiophen-3- ylmethyl)amino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid
str1
Calcium (S)-3-(4-((3-((isopropyl(thiophen-3-yl methyl)amino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoate
Calcium (S)-3-(4-((3-((isopropyl(thiophen-3-yl methyl)amino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoate
 

The compounds of theese type lower blood glucose, regulate peripheral satiety, lower or modulate triglyceride levels and/or cholesterol levels and/or low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and raises the high-density l ipoproteins (HDL) plasma levels and hence are useful in combating different medical conditions, where such lowering (and raising) is beneficial. Thus, it could be used in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesteremia, hypertension, atherosclerotic disease events, vascular restenosis, diabetes and many other related conditions.

The compounds of are useful to prevent or reduce the risk of developing atherosclerosis, which leads to diseases and conditions such as arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, stroke, coronary heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, peripheral vessel diseases and related disorders. -These compounds  are useful for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of metabolic disorders loosely defined as Syndrome X. The characteristic features of Syndrome X include initial insulin resistance followed by hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance. The glucose intolerance can lead to non-insulin dependent diabetes mel litus (N I DDM, Type 2 diabetes), which is characterized by hyperglycemia, which if not controlled may lead to diabetic complications or metabolic disorders caused by insulin resistance. Diabetes is no longer considered to be associated only with glucose metabol ism, but it affects anatomical and physiological parameters, the intensity of which vary depending upon stages/duration and severity of the diabetic state. The compounds of this invention are also useful in prevention, halting or slowing progression or reducing the risk of the above mentioned disorders along with the resulting secondary diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, l ike arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis; diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy and renal disease including diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, glomerular sclerosis, nephrotic syndrome, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and end stage renal diseases, like microalbuminuria and albuminuria, which may be result of hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia.

Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease affl icting over 1 00 mi l lion people worldwide. In the United States, there are more than 12 mill ion diabetics, with 600,000 new cases diagnosed each year.

Diabetes mellitus is a diagnostic term for a group of disorders characterized by abnormal glucose homeostasis resulting in elevated blood sugar. There are many- types of diabetes, but the two most common are Type 1 (also referred to as insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus or IDDM) and Type II (also referred to as non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or NIDDM).

The etiology of the different types of diabetes is not the same; however, everyone with diabetes has two things in common: overproduction of glucose by the liver and little or no ability to move glucose out of the blood, into the cells where it becomes the body’s primary fuel.

People who do not have diabetes rely on insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas, to move glucose from the blood into the cells of the body. However, people who have diabetes either don’t produce insulin or can’t efficiently use the insulin they produce; therefore, they can’t move glucose into their cells. Glucose accumulates in the blood creating a condition called hyperglycemia, and over time, can cause serious health problems.

Diabetes is a syndrome with interrelated metabolic, vascular, and neuropathic components. The metabolic syndrome, generally characterized by hyperglycemia, comprises alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused by absent or markedly reduced insulin secretion and/or ineffective insulin action. The vascular syndrome consists of abnormalities in the blood vessels leading to cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. Abnormal ities in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems are also part of the diabetic syndrome.

About 5% to 10% of the people who have diabetes have IDDM. These individuals don’t produce insulin and therefore must inject insulin to keep their blood glucose levels normal . IDDM is characterized by low or undetectable levels of endogenous insulin production caused by destruction of the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas, the characteristic that most readily distinguishes IDDM from NIDDM. IDDM, once termed juvenile-onset diabetes, strikes young and older adults alike.

Approximately 90 to 95% of people with diabetes have Type II (or NIDDM). NIDDM subjects produce insulin, but the cells in their bodies are insulin resistant: the cells don’t respond properly to the hormone, so glucose accumulates i n their blood. NIDDM is characterized by a relative disparity between endogenous insulin production and insulin requirements, leading to elevated blood glucose levels. In contrast to IDDM, there is always some endogenous insulin production in NIDDM; many NIDDM patients have normal or even elevated blood insul in levels, whi le other NIDDM patients have inadequate insul in production ( otwein, R. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 308, 65-71 ( 1983)). Most people diagnosed with NIDDM are age 30 or older, and half of all new cases are age 55 and older. Compared with whites and Asians, NIDDM is more common among Native Americans, African-Americans, Latinos, and Hispanics. In addition, the onset can be insidious or even clinically non-apparent, making diagnosis difficult.

The primary pathogenic lesion on NIDDM has remained elusive. Many have suggested that primary insulin resistance of the peripheral tissues is the initial event. Genetic epidemiological studies have supported this view. Similarly, insulin secretion abnormalities have been argued as the primary defect in NIDDM. It is l ikely that both phenomena are important contributors to the disease process (Rimoin, D. L., et. al. Emery and Rimoin’s Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics 3rd Ed. 1 : 1401 – 1402 ( 1996)).

Many people with NIDDM have sedentary lifestyles and are obese; they weigh approximately 20% more than the recommended weight for their height and build. Furthermore, obesity is characterized by hyperinsul inemia and insul in resistance, a feature shared with NIDDM, hypertension and atherosclerosis.

The G-protein -coupled receptor GPR 40 functions as a receptor for long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in the body and as such is impl icated in a large number of metabolic conditions in the body. For example it has been alleged that a GPR 40 agonist promotes insulin secretion whilst a GPR 40 antagonist inhibits insulin secretion and so depending upon the circumstances the agonist and antagonist may be useful as therapeutic agents for the number of insul in related conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insul in resistance, neurodegenerative diseases and the like.

There is increasing evidences that lipids can also serve as extracel lular l igands for a specific class of receptors and thus act as “nutritional sensors” (Nolan CJ et al. J. Clinic. Invest., 2006, 1 1 6, 1 802- 1 812The free fatty acids can regulate cell function. Free fatty acids have demonstrated as ligands for orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and have been proposed to play a critical role in physiological glucose homeostasis.

GPR40, GPR 120, GPR41 and GPR43 exemplify a growing number of GPCRs that have been shown to be activated by free fatty acids. GPR40 and GPR 120 are activated by medium to long-chain free fatty acids whereas GPR 41 and GPR 43 are activated by short-chain fatty acid (Brown AJ et al, 2003).

GPR 40 is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells, and enhances glucose- stimulated insulin secretion {Nature, 2003, 422, 1 73- 1 76, J. Bio. Chem. 2003, 278, 1 1303- 1 13 1 1 , Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2003, 301, 406-4 10).

Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells through GPR40 is reported {Lett, to Nature 2003, 422, 1 73- 1 76).

GlaxoSmith line Research and Development, US published an article in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006, 16, 1840- 1 845 titled Synthesis and activity of small molecule GPR40 agonists. (Does this describe GW9508?)Another article titled Pharmacological regulation of insul in secretion in ΜΓΝ6 cells through the fatty – acid receptor GPR40: Identification of agonist and antagonist small molecules is reported in

Br. J. Pharmacol. 2006, 148, 619-928 from GlaxoSmithKl i ne. USA (Does this describe GW9508?) ‘

GW 9508.

Solid phase synthesis and SAR of small molecule agonists for the. GPR 40 receptor is published in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2007, 16, 1 840- 1 845 by Glaxo Smith line Res. 8c Dev. USA, including those with the following structures.

Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and development , USA published

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3-Aryl-3-(4-phenoxy)-propanoic acid as a Novel Series of G-protein -coupled receptor 40 agonists J. Med. Chem. 2007,

76, 2807-2817)

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland publ ished “Bidirectional Iterative Approach to the Structural Delineation of the Functional Chemo print in GPR 40 for agonist Recognition (J. Med. Chem. 2007. 50, 298 1 -2990).

Discov roglucinols of the following formula

as a new class of GPR40 (FFAR 1 ) agonists has been publ ished by Piramal Li fe Sciences, Ltd. in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2008, 1 8, 6357-6361

Synthesis and SAR of 1 ,2,3,4-tctrahydroisoquinoline- l -ones as novel G-protein coupled receptor40(GPR40) antagonists of the following formula has been published in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 79, 2400-2403 by Pfizer

Piramal Life Sciences Ltd. published “Progress in the discovery and development of small molecule modulators of G-protei n coupled receptor 40(GPR40/FFA 1 /FFAR1 ), an emerging target for type 2 diabetes” in Exp. Opin. Therapeutic Patents 2009, 19(2), 237 -264.

There was a report published in Zhonggno Bingli Shengli ^Zazhi 2009, 25(7), 1376- 1380 from Sun Yat. Sen University, Guangzhou, which mentions the role GPR 40 on lipoapoptosis.

A novel class of antagonists for the FFA’s receptor GPR 40 was published in Biochem. Biophy. Res. Commun. 2009 390, 557-563.

N41 (DC260126)

Merck Res. Laboratories published “Discovery of 5-aryloxy-2,4-thiazolidinediones as potent GPR40 agonists” having the following formula in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2010 20, 1298- 1 301

Discovery of TA -875, a potent, selective, and oral ly bioavai lable G PR 40 agonist is reported by Takeda Pharmaceutical Ltd. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2010,

7(6), 290-294

In another report from University of Southern Denmark” Structure -Activity of Dihydrocinnamic acids and discovery of potent FFA l (GPR40) agonist TUG-469″ is reported in ACS Me -349.

The free fatty acid 1 receptor (FFAR 1 or GPR40), which is highly expressed on pancreatic β-cells and amplifies glucose-stimulated insul in secretion, has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1 (6), 290-294).

G-protein coupled receptor (GPR40) expression and its regulation in human pancreatic islets: The role of type 2 diabetes and fatty acids is reported in Nutrition Metabolism & Cardiovascular diseases 2010, 2(9( 1 ), 22-25

Ranbaxy reported “Identification of Berberine as a novel agonist of fatty acid receptor GPR40” in Phytother Res. 2010, 24, 1260-63.

The following substituted 3-(4-aryloxyaryI)-propanoic acids as GPR40 agonists are reported by Merck Res. Lab. in Bioorg. ed. Chem. Lett. 201 1 , 21, 3390-3394

4 EC50=0.970 μΜ 5. EC50=2.484 μΜ

CoMSIA study on substituted aryl alkanoic acid analogs as GPR 40 agonists is reported Chem. Bio. Drug. Des. 201 1 , 77, 361 -372

Takeda further published “Design, Synthesis and biological activity of potential and orally available G-protein coupled receptor 40 agonists” in J. Med. Chem. 201 1 , 54(5), 1365- 1 378.

Amgen disclosed a potent oral ly bioavai lable GPR 40 agonist AMG-837 in Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.

Discovery of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives containing polar functional ities as Potent and orally bioavailable G protein-coupled receptor 40 Agonist for the treatment of type 2 Diabetes is reported in J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 3756-3776 by Takeda.

Discovery of AM- 1638: A potent and orally bioavailable GPR40/FFA 1 full agonist is reported in ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3(9), 726-730.

 

Ranjit Desai

Ranjit Desai

Sr Vice President. Head-Chemistry
Zydus Research Centre, Ahmedabad · Chemistry

Sameer Agarwal

Sameer Agarwal

Cadila Healthcare Ltd., India

Sameer Agarwal has obtained Master’s in Chemistry from IIT, Delhi and was awarded DAAD (German Govt. Scholarship) fellowship to purse research project at Karlsruhe University, Germany. He has received PhD degree from Technical University, Dresden, Germany in the field of Synthetic and bio-organic chemistry under direction of Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Knölker, FRSC, a well-known scientist of present times for his contribution towards Alkaloid Chemistry. He worked as Research Scientist (Post-Doc), JADO Technologies, (collaboration with Max Planck Institute (MPI) of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and Chemsitry Department, Technical University), Germany. He then decided to return to his home country and working with Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Ltd., Ahmedabad as Principal Scientist / Group Leader in the area of basic drug discovery and his research interest includes discovery of cardio metabolic, anti-inflammatory and oncology drugs. He has large number of publications in international journals and patents and is a reviewer of many prestigious journals including American Chemical Society.

Paper

Identification of an Orally Efficacious GPR40/ FFAR1 Receptor Agonist

ArticleinACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters · September 2016
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00331
Abstract Image

GPR40/FFAR1 is a G protein-coupled receptor predominantly expressed in pancreatic β-cells and activated by long-chain free fatty acids, mediating enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A novel series of substituted 3-(4-aryloxyaryl)propanoic acid derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their activities as GPR40 agonists, leading to the identification of compound 5, which is highly potent in in vitro assays and exhibits robust glucose lowering effects during an oral glucose tolerance test in nSTZ Wistar rat model of diabetes (ED50 = 0.8 mg/kg; ED90 = 3.1 mg/kg) with excellent pharmacokinetic profile, and devoid of cytochromes P450 isoform inhibitory activity

Synthesis of compound 5 is depicted in Scheme 1a.

The reductive amination1 of commercially available 3-thiophene-aldehyde (3) and isopropyl amine using sodium triacetoxyborohydride resulted in secondary amine intermediate 4. Compound 4 on further reductive amination under similar conditions with aldehyde intermediate, (S)-3-(4-((3-formylbenzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid (8), afforded 2d in high yields. The aldehyde intermediate, 8 was obtained from (S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid (6) as shown in Scheme 1b. Acid 6 was synthesized via 5-step reported procedure using commercially available 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and Meldrum’s acid.2 Resolution of racemic acid 6 was accomplished via diastereomeric salt formation with (1S,2R)-1-amino-2-indanol followed by salt break with aqueous acid to furnish compound 6. Treatment of 6 with of 40% aqueous tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide (nBu4POH) in THF, followed by addition of 3-formyl benzyl bromide (7), afforded aldehyde intermediate 8. Compound 2d was further converted to its corresponding calcium salt (5) in two-step sequence with excellent chemical purity.

Scheme 1a. Synthesis of Compounds 2d and 5. Reagent and Conditions: (a) CH(CH3)2NH2, NaB(OAc)3H, CH3COOH, dry THF, 0 ᵒC to r.t., 16 h; (b) Comp 8, NaB(OAc)3H, CH3COOH, dry THF, 0 ᵒC to r.t., 16 h; (c) NaOH, MeCN/H2O, r.t., 3 h; (d) CaCl2, MeOH/H2O, r.t., 16 h.

BASE

(S)-3-(4-((3-((isopropyl(thiophen-3- ylmethyl)amino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid (1.557 g, 3.34 mmol, 43.0 % yield) as wax solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ = 12.35 (br s, 1H), 7.44 (q, J = 3.2 Hz, 2H), 7.32 – 7.24 (m, 6H), 7.04 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 1H), 6.94 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 5.06 (s, 2H), 3.93 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), 3.51 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 4H), 2.84 (sept, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.57 (d, J = 8 Hz, 2H), 1.77 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 3H), 1.01 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 6H);

13C NMR and DEPT: DMSO-d6, 100MHz):- δ = 172.35 (C), 157.63 (C), 142.13 (C), 141.44 (C), 137.42 (C), 133.93 (C), 128.73 (CH), 128.64 (CH), 128.43 (CH), 127.99 (CH), 127.73 (CH), 126.28 (CH), 122.21 (CH), 115.10 (CH), 81.16 (C), 78.52 (C), 69.69 (CH2), 52.90 (CH2), 48.64 (CH), 48.49 (CH2), 43.44 (CH2), 33.15 (CH), 17.92 (CH3), 3.66 (CH3);

MS (EI): m/z (%) = 462.35 (100) (M+H) + ;

IR (KBr): ν = 3433, 2960, 2918, 2810, 1712, 1608, 1510, 1383, 1240, 1174, 1109, 1018 cm-1 .

CA SALT

calcium (S)-3-(4-((3-((isopropyl(thiophen-3-yl methyl)amino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoate (1.51 g, 1.536 mmol, 46% yield) as white powder. mp: 124.5 o C;

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ = 7.43 – 7.42 (m, 2H), 7.28 – 7.24 (m, 6H), 7.04 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 5.02 (s, 2H), 4.02 (s, 1H), 3.50 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 4H), 2.84 – 2.77 (sept, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 2.43 (dd, J1 = 6.8 Hz, J2 = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 2.28 (dd, J1 = 6.8 Hz, J2 = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 1.73 (s, 3H), 0.99 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 6H);

13C NMR and DEPT (100 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ = 177.78 (C), 157.23 (C), 142.11 (C), 141.4 (C), 137.46 (C), 135.81 (C), 128.83 (CH), 128.62 (CH), 128.40 (CH), 127.94 (CH), 127.69 (CH), 126.26 (CH), 122.18 (CH), 114.77 (CH), 83.18 (C), 77.32 (C), 69.66 (CH2), 52.89 (CH2), 48.59 (CH), 48.48 (CH2), 46.86 (CH2), 33.52 (CH), 17.88 (CH3), 3.78 (CH3);

MS (EI): m/z (%) = 462.05 (100) (M+H)+ ;

ESI-Q-TOF-MS: m/z [M+H]+ calcd for [C28H31NO3S + H]+ : 462.6280; found: 462.4988;

IR (KBr): ν = 3435, 2960, 2918, 2868, 2818, 1608, 1550, 1508, 1440, 1383, 1359, 1240 cm-1 ;

HPLC (% Purity) = 99.38%; Calcium Content (C56H60CaN2O6S2) Calcd.: 4.17%. Found: 3.99%.

 COMPD Ca salt

Calcium (S)-3-(4-((3-((isopropyl(thiophen-3-yl methyl)amino)methyl)benzyl)oxy)phenyl)hex-4-ynoate

Identification of an Orally Efficacious GPR40/FFAR1 Receptor Agonist

Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Ltd., Sarkhej-Bavla N.H. No. 8 A, Moraiya, Ahmedabad-382 210, India
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00331
*(S.A.) E-mail: sameeragarwal@zyduscadila.com or sameer_ag@yahoo.com., *(R.C.D.) E-mail: ranjitdesai@zyduscadila.com. Fax:+91-2717-665355. Tel: +91-2717-665555.
Ranjit Desai

Sr Vice President, Head Chemistry

Zydus Cadila

2012 – Present (4 years)Zydus Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India

Pankaj Patel, chairman and MD, Cadila Healthcare Ltd
Dr. Mukul Jain

Senior Vice President at Zydus Research Centre

Prashant Deshmukh

Prashant Deshmukh

Research Officer at Zydus Cadila

Dr. Poonam Giri

Dr. Poonam Giri

Principal Scientist at Zydus Research Centre

Bhadresh Rami

Bhadresh Rami

Debdutta Bandyopadhyay

Debdutta Bandyopadhyay

Senior General manager at Zydus Research Centre

Suresh Giri

Suresh Giri

Research Scientist

 References
1. Abdel-Magid, A. F.; Carson, K. G.; Harris, B. D.; Maryanoff, C. A.; Shah, R. D. Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones with Sodium Triacetoxyborohydride. Studies on Direct and Indirect Reductive Amination Procedures. J. Org. Chem., 1996, 61 (11), 3849–3862.
2. Walker, S. D.; Borths, C. J.; DiVirgilio, E.; Huang, L.; Liu, P.; Morrison, H.; Sugi, K.; Tanaka, M.; Woo, J. C. S.; Faul, M. M. Development of a Scalable Synthesis of a GPR40 Receptor Agonist. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2011, 15, 570–580.
3. Desai, R. C., Agarwal, S. Novel Heterocyclic Compounds, Pharmaceutical Compositions and Uses Thereof. Indian Pat. Appl. 2025/MUM/2015, 25 May 2015.
4. Cheng, Z., Garvin, D., Paguio, A., Stecha, P., Wood, K., & Fan, F. Luciferase Reporter Assay System for Deciphering GPCR Pathways. Current Chemical Genomics, 2010, 4, 84–91. http://doi.org/10.2174/1875397301004010084
5. Arkin, M. R., Connor, P. R., Emkey, R., et al. FLIPR™ Assays for GPCR and Ion Channel Targets. 2012 May 1 [Updated 2012 Oct 1]. In: Sittampalam, G. S., Coussens, N. P., Nelson, H., et al., editors. Assay Guidance Manual [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Eli Lilly & Company and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; 2004. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92012/
6. Garbison, K. E., Heinz, B. A., Lajiness, M. E. IP-3/IP-1 Assays. 2012 May 1. In: Sittampalam, G. S., Coussens, N. P., Nelson, H., et al., editors. Assay Guidance Manual [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): Eli Lilly & Company and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; 2004. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK92004/
7. Milić, A., Mihaljević, V.B., Ralić, J. et al. A comparison of in vitro ADME properties and pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and selected 15-membered ring macrolides in rodents. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet, 2014, 39, 263. doi:10.1007/s13318-013-0155-8
8. Bell, R. H.; Hye, R. J. Animal models of diabetes mellitus: physiology and pathology. J. Surg. Res. 1983, 35, 433-460.
9. Shafrir, E. Animal models of non insulin dependent diabetes. Diabetes Metab Rev. 1992, 8, 179- 208.

 

Paper
Development of a Scalable Synthesis of a GPR40 Receptor Agonist
Chemical Process Research and Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California 91320, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2011, 15 (3), pp 570–580
*Tel: 805-313-5152. Fax: 805-375-4532. E-mail: walkers@amgen.com.
Abstract Image

Early process development and salt selection for AMG 837, a novel GPR40 receptor agonist, is described. The synthetic route to AMG 837 involved the convergent synthesis and coupling of two key fragments, (S)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hex-4-ynoic acid (1) and 3-(bromomethyl)-4′-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl (2). The chiral β-alkynyl acid 1 was prepared in 35% overall yield via classical resolution of the corresponding racemic acid (±)-1. An efficient and scalable synthesis of (±)-1 was achieved via a telescoped sequence of reactions including the conjugate alkynylation of an in situ protected Meldrum’s acid derived acceptor prepared from 3. The biaryl bromide 2 was prepared in 86% yield via a 2-step Suzuki−Miyaura coupling−bromination sequence. Chemoselective phenol alkylation mediated by tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide allowed direct coupling of 1 and 2 to afford AMG 837. Due to the poor physiochemical stability of the free acid form of the drug substance, a sodium salt form was selected for early development, and a more stable, crystalline hemicalcium salt dihydrate form was subsequently developed. Overall, the original 12-step synthesis of AMG 837 was replaced by a robust 9-step route affording the target in 25% yield.

Image result for AMG 837
CAS [1291087-14-3] AMG 837
 Image result for AMG 837
“Enantioselective Synthesis of a GPR40 Agonist AMG 837 via Catalytic Asymmetric Conjugate Addition of Terminal Alkyne to α,β-Unsaturated Thioamide” Yazaki, R.; Kumagai, N.; Shibasaki, M. Org. Lett. 2011, 13, 952.   highlighted by Synfacts 2011, 6, 586.
NMR

/////////fatty acids, FFAR1 GPR40, GPR40 agonist, insulin secretion, type 2 diabetes, GPR40/FFAR1 Receptor Agonist, ZYDUS CADILA
c1(ccc(cc1)OCc2cc(ccc2)CN(Cc3ccsc3)C(C)C)[C@H](CC(=O)O[Ca]OC(C[C@@H](c4ccc(cc4)OCc5cc(ccc5)CN(Cc6ccsc6)C(C)C)C#CC)=O)C#CC
c1(ccc(cc1)OCc2cc(ccc2)CN(Cc3ccsc3)C(C)C)[C@H](CC(=O)O)C#CC

FDA approves Adlyxin (lixisenatide) 利西拉 to treat type 2 diabetes


 

 

07/28/2016 07:53 AM EDT
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Adlyxin (lixisenatide), a once-daily injection to improve glycemic control (blood sugar levels), along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes.

July 28, 2016

Release

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Adlyxin (lixisenatide), a once-daily injection to improve glycemic control (blood sugar levels), along with diet and exercise, in adults with type 2 diabetes.

“The FDA continues to support the development of new drug therapies for diabetes management,” said Mary Thanh Hai Parks, M.D., deputy director, Office of Drug Evaluation II in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Adlyxin will add to the available treatment options to control blood sugar levels for those with type 2.”

Type 2 diabetes affects more than 29 million people and accounts for more than 90 percent of diabetes cases diagnosed in the United States. Over time, high blood sugar levels can increase the risk for serious complications, including heart disease, blindness and nerve and kidney damage.

Adlyxin is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, a hormone that helps normalize blood sugar levels. The drug’s safety and effectiveness were evaluated in 10 clinical trials that enrolled 5,400 patients with type 2 diabetes. In these trials, Adlyxin was evaluated both as a standalone therapy and in combination with other FDA-approved diabetic medications, including metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone and basal insulin. Use of Adlyxin improved hemoglobin A1c levels (a measure of blood sugar levels) in these trials.

In addition, more than 6,000 patients with type 2 diabetes at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were treated with either Adlyxin or a placebo in a cardiovascular outcomes trial. Use of Adlyxin did not increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse events in these patients.

Adlyxin should not be used to treat people with type 1 diabetes or patients with increased ketones in their blood or urine (diabetic ketoacidosis).

The most common side effects associated with Adlyxin are nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea and dizziness. Hypoglycemia in patients treated with both Adlyxin and other antidiabetic drugs such as sulfonylurea and/or basal insulin is another common side effect. In addition, severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, were reported in clinical trials of Adlyxin.

The FDA is requiring the following post-marketing studies for Adlyxin:

  • Clinical studies to evaluate dosing, efficacy and safety in pediatric patients.
  • A study evaluating the immunogenicity of lixisenatide.

Adlyxin is manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, of Bridgewater, New Jersey.

END……………….

 

 

lixisenatide;Lixisenatide|Lixisenatide Acetate;Lixisenatide Acetate
CAS: 320367-13-3
MF: C215H347N61O65S
MW: 4858.53

C215 H347 N61 O65 S

L-Lysinamide, L-histidylglycyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-L-methionyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-asparaginylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-

L-Histidylglycyl-L-α-glutamylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-leucyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-glutaminyl-L-methionyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-alanyl-L-valyl-L-arginyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-lysyl-L-asparaginylglycylglycyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-serylglycyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-prolyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysyl-L-lysinamide

 

827033-10-3.png

Lixisenatide

Lixisenatide

 

827033-10-3; Lixisenatide [INN]; UNII-74O62BB01U; DesPro36Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2;   DesPro36Exendin-4(1-39)-Lys6-NH2
Molecular Formula: C215H347N61O65S
Molecular Weight: 4858.49038 g/mol
IUPAC Condensed

H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Ala-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-Ile-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pro-Ser-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-NH2

from PubChem
LINUCS

[][L-Lys-NH2]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Pro]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Asn]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Trp]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Ile]{[(1+2)][L-Phe]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Arg]{[(1+2)][L-Val]{[(1+2)][L-Ala]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][L-Met]{[(1+2)][L-Gln]{[(1+2)][L-Lys]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Leu]{[(1+2)][L-Asp]{[(1+2)][L-Ser]{[(1+2)][L-Thr]{[(1+2)][L-Phe]{[(1+2)][L-Thr]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-Glu]{[(1+2)][Gly]{[(1+2)][L-His]{}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}}

from PubChem
Sequence

HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSKKKKKK

from PubChem
PLN

H-HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKNGGPSSGAPPSKKKKKK-[NH2]

from PubChem
HELM

PEPTIDE1{H.G.E.G.T.F.T.S.D.L.S.K.Q.M.E.E.E.A.V.R.L.F.I.E.W.L.K.N.G.G.P.S.S.G.A.P.P.S.K.K.K.K.K.K.[am]}$$$$

Sanofi (formerly sanofi-aventis, formerly Aventis), under license from Zealand Pharma, has developed and launched lixisenatide

Lixisenatide (trade name Lyxumia) is a once-daily injectable GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of diabetes, discovered by Zealand Pharma A/S of Denmark and licensed and developed by Sanofi.[1] Lixisenatide was accepted for review by the US FDA on February 19, 2013, and approved by the European Commission on February 1, 2013.[2] On September 12, 2013, Sanofi delayed the approval process in the US, citing internal data from a cardiovascular risk study. The drug will likely be resubmitted for approval in 2015.

Lixisenatide is a once-daily injectable GLP-1 receptor agonist discovered by Zealand Pharma A/S of Denmark and licensed and developed by Sanofi. As of September 2010 it is in clinical trials for diabetes. Lixisenatide was accepted for review by the US FDA on February 19, 2013, and approved by the European Commission on February 1, 2013. The drug will likely be resubmitted for approval in 2015.

Mechanism of action

GLP-1 is a naturally-occurring peptide that is released within minutes of eating a meal. It is known to suppress glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells and stimulate insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 receptor agonists are used as an add-on treatment for type 2 diabetes and their use is endorsed by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology.

Physical and chemical properties

Lixisenatixe has been described as “des-38-proline-exendin-4 (Heloderma suspectum)-(1–39)-peptidylpenta-L-lysyl-L-lysinamide”, meaning it is derived from the first 39 amino acids in the sequence of the peptide exendin-4, found in the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum), omitting proline at position 38 and adding six lysine residues. Its complete sequence is:[3]

H–HisGlyGlu–Gly–ThrPhe–Thr–SerAspLeu–Ser–LysGlnMet–Glu–Glu–Glu–AlaValArg–Leu–Phe–Ile–Glu–Trp–Leu–Lys–Asn–Gly–Gly–Pro–Ser–Ser–Gly–Ala–Pro–Pro–Ser–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–Lys–NH2

PATENT

US 20110313131

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US20110313131

 

PATENT

CN 105713082

The title method comprises the steps of: (1) coupling Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH and resin to obtain Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-resin, (2) protecting amino acid with Fmoc, conducting solid-phase synthesis to obtain lixisenatide wholly protected 20-44-peptide resin, (3) conducting solid-phase synthesis to obtain wholly protected 15-19-peptide resin, (4) coupling the wholly protected 20-44-peptide resin and wholly protected 15-19-peptide resin, (5) coupling other amino acids till solid-phase synthesis finishes, (6) cracking lixisenatide peptide resin to obtain crude peptide, and (7) purifying through RP-HPLC.  The method improves crude peptide purity and purifn. yield.

PATENT

CN104211801A

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

利西拉, the English name: Lixisenatide, is a polypeptide containing 44 amino acids, the structural formula is as follows: peptide sequence as follows:

Figure CN104211801AD00031

H-His-Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu -Trp-Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pro-Pr O-Ser-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-NH 2 Li Xila to (Lixisenatide ) by Sanofi-Aventis developed once a day subcutaneously with glucagon-like peptide -I (GLP-I) receptor agonists, for the treatment of type II diabetes, on February 1, 2013 Sanofi Lee Division -Aventis of exenatide is approved EMEA, for the adjuvant treatment of poorly stable dose of basal insulin (or metformin) in the treatment of type II diabetes to improve HbAlc and postprandial blood glucose levels.

CN201210030151. 2 used in a pure solid phase sequential coupling method synthetic peptides. The method amino resin as the carrier, using conventional coupling sequence, the final cut to give Li Xila.

 US6528486 patent for the compound, synthetic methods mentioned it to phase condensation method Fmoc / tBu strategy.

The [0005] W02005058954 synthesis method including the gradual condensation process Fmoc / tBu strategy, Boc strategy of gradual condensation methods and genetic engineering.

The  W02001004156 synthesis method for the gradual condensation process Fmoc / tBu strategy.

 Since Li Xila abroad mostly used to synthesize Fmoc solid phase synthesis method, a gradual shrinking gradually synthesis step more, resulting in more types of product impurities, US 20130284912 Special Report polypeptide impurity: Di-Ser33- Leisy pull and Di-Ala35- Li Xila come, Di-Ser 33- Li Xila come and Di-Ala35- Li Xila to atmosphere amino acid sequence as follows: Di-Ser33- Li Xila to the amino acid sequence: H-His -Gly-Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu-Trp- Leu-Lys-Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Pr 〇-Pr〇-Ser-Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_LyS-NH2 Di-Ala35- Li Xila to the amino acid sequence: H-His-Gly- Glu-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Leu-Ser-Lys-Gln-Met-Glu-Glu-Glu-Al a-Val-Arg-Leu-Phe-IIe-Glu-Trp-Leu-Lys -Asn-Gly-Gly-Pro-Ser-Ser-Gly-Ala-Ala-Pr 〇-Pr〇-Ser-Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_Lys_LyS-NH2 toxicity of these impurities are impurities larger, and very difficult to separate from the main peak , the presence of the impurities seriously affect 利西拉 to content and the use of safety. Hence the need to find an effective way to remove it and to reach the high standard level of 0.1% or less. The present inventors have found that this impurity is difficult to remove by means of the prior art, although there are ways to remove part of, but removal is not ideal, it is difficult to achieve high quality standards is likely to cause 利西拉 level while reducing their yield.

In summary, the existing Li Xila to the solid phase synthesis, low yield of the synthesis, impurities, in particular, are not well controlled impurity Di-Ser 33- Li Xila come and Di-Ala35 – Li Xila to, does not apply to industrial production

Example i ^ a: Preparation 利西拉 to fine peptide acetate Weigh 利西拉 above 44. 70g to 45L crude peptide was dissolved in water, purified by C18 column, the first purification conditions: mobile phase: A phase: 0 I% TFA; B phase: acetonitrile; gradient program was: 15% B, 60 minutes to 60% B; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes. The second purification conditions: mobile phase was: A phase: 0 3% HAC; B phase: acetonitrile; gradient program was: 10% B, 60 minutes to 60% B; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes. Desalting conditions: Mobile phase: A phase: an aqueous solution of 20 mmol / L ammonium acetate: acetonitrile = 95: 5; B phase: water: acetonitrile = 95: 5; C phase: 0.03% aqueous solution of acetic acid: acetonitrile = 95 : 5; D phase: 0.03% aqueous solution of acetic acid: acetonitrile = 50: 50; gradient program: mobile phase A isocratic for 15 minutes, convert isocratic mobile phase B for 10 minutes, is converted into the flow Phase C isocratic 10 minutes, converted into a mobile phase D isocratic 25 minutes; detection wavelength 220 nm; peak fraction collection purposes; rotary evaporation concentrated and lyophilized to give Li Xila acetate fine peptide 22. 65g which HPLC spectrum shown in Figure 5, HPLC purity of 99.75% (area normalization method), Di-Ser33- Li Xila come to 0.03% (area normalization method), Di-Ala35- Li Xila to the content of 0.05% (area normalization method). Purification total yield of 51%, total yield 41%. Its mass spectrum as shown in Figure 6, [M + H] + = 4858. 691, 利西拉 precise molecular weight to the theoretical: 4857.53, the sample mass is consistent with the theoretical molecular weight.

PATENT

CN 103709243

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

Example 2: Preparation 利西拉 to crude peptide

利西拉 [0116] Example 24 was prepared to be placed 125.4g peptide resin cleavage reaction to 10ml / g resin ratio added lysis reagent (TFA: thioanisole: EDT: TIS: water = 86: 5 : 5: 3: 1 (V / V)), stirred at room temperature 2.5h. The reaction was purified by frit funnel filtration, the filtrate was collected, the resin was washed 3 times and then a small amount of TFA, the combined filtrates concentrated under reduced pressure. Frozen precipitation in anhydrous ether was added, washed three times with anhydrous diethyl ether, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid powder, i.e. Li Xila to crude peptide 47.lg, by weight of the crude peptide yield 97.2%, HPLC purity 63.8% 0

利西拉 to crude peptide preparation: 27 patients [0117] Example

利西拉 [0118] The Example 25 was prepared to be placed 123.7g peptide resin cleavage reaction to 10ml / g resin ratio added lysis reagent (TFA: thioanisole: EDT: TIS: water = 86: 5 : 5: 3: 1 (V / V)), stirred at room temperature 2.5h. The reaction was purified by frit funnel filtration, the filtrate was collected, the resin was washed 3 times and then a small amount of TFA, the combined filtrates concentrated under reduced pressure. Frozen precipitation in anhydrous ether was added, washed three times with anhydrous diethyl ether, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid powder, i.e. Li Xila to crude peptide 46.9g, yield the crude peptide by weight 96.5%, HPLC purity 64.2% 0

28 Example 2: Preparation 利西拉 to fine peptide acetate

 Example weighed 26 to 27 after 利西拉 to any 30.0g crude peptide was dissolved in 3000ml of water using Waters2545RP-HPLC system, wavelength 230nm, 50 X 250mm column of reverse phase C18 column, 0.2% TFA conventional / acetonitrile mobile phase were fractionated peaks of fractions, refined peptide purity greater than 98.5%. The fine peptide solution using Waters2545RP-HPLC system, 50 X 250mm column was C18 reverse phase column, 0.1% acetic acid / acetonitrile mobile phase transfer salt, the purpose of peak fractions were collected, concentrated by rotary evaporation and lyophilized to give Li Xila acetate fine salt peptide> 9.0g, RP-HPLC purity ≥98.5%. Purification Yield ≥30%, total yield ≥29.0%.

PATENT

CN 102875663

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

http://www.google.at/patents/CN102875663B?cl=en

Example 9

[0239] The crude peptide Li Xila to 4000g (including Li Xila to 1139g) was dissolved with purified water 100L, collected by filtration and the filtrate set aside.

[0240] purification chromatographic conditions:

[0241] HPLC Model: Novasep LC450

 Column: 450X250mm, built-phenyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase filler, the filler particle size of 10 μ m0

 flow rate: 5000ml / min.

The detection wavelength: 280nm.

 Mobile phase A phase: 10% 30mM D- 30mM sodium tartrate and disodium hydrogenphosphate in methanol / 90% aqueous (v / v), adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid.

[0246] Mobile phase A phase preparation process: Weigh 1280g 2070g D- sodium tartrate and disodium hydrogenphosphate, after an appropriate amount of purified water was dissolved through 0.45 μ m membrane filter, the filtrate collected all 300L tank, added 30L chromatographically pure After methanol was added to the 300L scale purification of water, adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid. Repeat preparation run.

[0247] The mobile phase B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile.

Figure CN102875663BD00132

[0249] sample volume: 250.0g (6250ml).

[0250] Purification: column equilibration the sample so that after 5 minutes, run a gradient purification, monitoring and staging purposes peak fractions were collected. The collected fractions (chromatographic conditions purity testing to the same conditions as above 利西拉 determination to area normalization method measured) purity test, the purity of greater than or equal to 98% of the fractions after removing most of the acetonitrile in turn salt; purity of 70% or more less than 98% of the fraction recovered after removal of most of the acetonitrile and the purification procedure is repeated, again collected purity greater than or equal to 98% of the fraction after removal of most of the acetonitrile are also used to turn salt; purity of less than 70 % of fractions by waste disposal.

[0251] points and 16 injections, repeat the above operation.

[0252] turn salt chromatographic conditions:

[0253] HPLC Model: Novasep LC450

[0254] Column: 450 X 250mm, built-C8 reversed-phase chromatography packing, the particle size of the filler is 10 μ m.

[0255] flow rate: 5000ml / min.

[0256] The detection wavelength: 280nm.

[0257] Mobile phase A phase: 0.2% acetic acid (v / v) solution.

[0258] The mobile phase B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile.

[0259] gradient

Figure CN102875663BD00141

[0260] sample volume: 2500ml.

[0261] Purification: The column equilibration the sample for 5 minutes, run a gradient purification, monitoring and collecting the target peak fractions. The purpose of the peak fractions were concentrated by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure to 9000ml after lyophilization.

[0262] After the freeze-dried to give a white powder refined peptide 704g. Purity of 98.39%, the impurity content of less than 0.5%. Purification yield 61.8% (in crude Li Xila to content), total yield of 17.6%.

PATENT

CN 102558338

MACHINE TRANSLATION FROM CHINESE, PL BEAR WITH SOME IREGULARITES IN GRAMMAR

Preparation of Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Rink Amide-MBHAResin:

[0096] To the resulting Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHAResin mouth of a 20% strength piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, the reaction was drained, washed with DMF Resin 6 (50ml * 6). Weigh Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -〇H3.52g, H0Bt1.01g, HBTU2.84g, TMP1.98ml, DMF50ml added to dissolve slowly with stirring under ice-cooling for 3 minutes, at room temperature for 2 hours, the reaction Ninhydrin detection method completed, pumping off the reaction solution, DMF the resin was washed twice (50mlX2), DCM the resin was washed twice (50mlX2), to give Fmoc-Lys (B oc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHAResin. As used in the above operation Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -OH: HOBt: HBTU: TMP ratio is 1: 1: 1: 2, wherein Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -OH is the number of moles of Fmoc-RinkAmide-MBHAResin number of moles 3 times.

[0097] Li Xila fully protected side chain was prepared to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin:

[0098] To the resulting Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -RinkAmide-MBHA Resin added 20% piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, drained reaction solution, washed 6 times with DMF. Weigh Jie 111〇 (3-1 ^ 8 billion (3) -0 13.528, 1 (»Shu 1.018,01 (:!! 1.391111 added 50,111,101 ^ dissolve slowly stirring for 3 minutes in an ice bath, poured into the solid phase resin is mixed with the reaction column, at room temperature for 2 hours, the reaction Ninhydrin detection method is completed, the reaction solution was deprived, DMF the resin was washed twice (50ml X 2), DCM the resin was washed twice (50ml X 2), to give Fmoc-Lys ( Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Lys (Boc) -Rink Amide-MBHAResin above operation used by the Fmoc-Lys (Boc) -〇H:. HOBt: DIC ratio is 1: 1: L2, which Fmoc-Lys (Boc) is three times the number of moles -〇H Fmoc-Rink Amide-MBHA Resin moles of repeat after the coupling step, followed by the completion of the 39 lysine to first. connecting protected amino acids histidine, followed by addition of 20% piperidine / DMF solution for 10 minutes, the reaction was drained, DMF the resin was washed six times (50ml X 6), DCM the resin was washed six times (50ml X 6 ), MeOH contraction of the resin three times with MeOH 50ml, each contraction 5min. After the resin was dried in vacuo to give a full side-chain protected peptide resin to the Li Xila 27. 5g, weight resin 17. 5g.

[0099] Li Xila to crude peptide preparation:

[0100] Weigh side chains fully protected Li Xila to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin 27. 5 grams, into a round bottom flask.Configuration 275 ml lysis buffer, wherein trifluoroacetic acid: thioanisole: ethanedithiol: anisole, phenol = 93: 4: 1: 1.5: 2 (volume ratio). Lysate in the refrigerator after the pre-freeze 1 hour before Sheng Youli put to Silas to -Rink Amide-MBHA Resin round bottom flask, stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered, the resin was washed with 20ml TFA and the combined filtrate.

[0101] The volume of the filtrate was slowly poured into 2,750 ml of diethyl ether frozen (frozen advance ether), a white precipitate appears, at 3000 rpm / centrifuged 5 minutes, the resulting solid was washed twice with ether, then the solid was dried under vacuum to give Li Xila trifluoroacetate crude peptide to 15. 3g.

[0102] Li Xila to large scale production of fine peptide:

[0103] Sample Preparation: The crude peptide was dissolved in water, the sample was completely dissolved by membrane filtration, the filtrate was collected for use.

[0104] Purification conditions: Column: octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase column, the column diameter and length: 300_X250mm. Mobile phase: A phase: 35mm〇l / L phosphoric acid solution adjusted with triethylamine to pH 6. 7; B phase: acetonitrile, flow rate: 2200ml / min, Gradient: B%: 12% ~32%, detection wavelength: 280nm . The injection volume was 75g. Purification process: the column with 50% acetonitrile rinse clean after balance sample, sample amount is 75g. Linear gradient 120min, the purpose of collecting peaks will be collected 利西拉 solution was concentrated by rotary evaporation under reduced pressure to about 80mg / ml and reserve the water temperature exceeds 40 ° C without conditions.

[0105] turn salt: turn salt conditions: Column: octadecyl silane bonded silica gel as stationary phase column, the column diameter and length: 300mmX250mm. Mobile phase: A phase: mass concentration of 0.2% aqueous acetic acid; B phase: HPLC grade acetonitrile, flow rate: 2200ml / min, detection wavelength: 280nm. Gradient: B%: 6% ~36%. The injection volume was 48-60g. Salt transfer process: the column with 50% acetonitrile rinse clean after the sample, the sample volume is 1600ml sample solution. Linear gradient 90min, the purpose of collecting peaks collected Li Xila to solutions were concentrated by rotary evaporation to about 80ml / g after go to the appropriate size vials, then freeze-dried to obtain the purity of greater than 99.5% The Li Xila come.

Old post

https://newdrugapprovals.org/2013/09/13/sanofi-to-withdraw-the-lixisenatide-new-drug-application-nda-in-the-u-s-the-company-plans-to-resubmit-the-nda-in-2015-after-completion-of-the-elixa-cv-study/

lixisenatide

Sanofi Provides Update on Lixisenatide New Drug Application in U.S.

Paris, France – September 12, 2013 – Sanofi (EURONEXT: SAN and NYSE: SNY) announced today its decision to withdraw the lixisenatide New Drug Application (NDA) in the U.S., which included early interim results from the ongoing ELIXA cardiovascular (CV) outcomes study. The company plans to resubmit the NDA in 2015, after completion of the ELIXA CV study.

The decision to withdraw the lixisenatide application follows discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding its proposed process for the review of interim data. Sanofi believes that potential public disclosure of early interim data, even with safeguards, could potentially compromise the integrity of the ongoing ELIXA study. Sanofi’s decision is not related to safety issues or deficiencies in the NDA………………………read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/sanofi-pulls-diabetes-drug-nda

 

EU

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EP0708179A2 * 13 Oct 1995 24 Apr 1996 Eli Lilly And Company Glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide analogs, compositions, and methods of use
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WO2014077802A1 * 13 Nov 2012 22 May 2014 Ipsen Pharma S.A.S. Purification method of a glp-1 analogue
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References

  1.  Christensen, M; Knop, FK; Holst, JJ; Vilsboll, T (2009). “Lixisenatide, a novel GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus”. IDrugs : the investigational drugs journal 12 (8): 503–13. PMID 19629885.
  2.  “Sanofi New Drug Application for Lixisenatide Accepted for Review by FDA”. Drugs.com/PR Newsire. 19 February 2013.
  3.  “International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended INN: List 61” (PDF). WHO Drug Information 23 (1): 66f. 2009.
Lixisenatide
Clinical data
Trade names Lyxumia
License data
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous injection
Legal status
Legal status
  • UK: POM (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number 827033-10-3
ATC code A10BX10 (WHO)
PubChem CID 16139342
IUPHAR/BPS 7387
ChemSpider 17295846
ChEBI CHEBI:85662
Chemical data
Formula C215H347N61O65S
Molar mass 4858.49 g/mol

///////FDA 2016, SANOFI, FDA,  approves , Adlyxin, lixisenatide, type 2 diabetes, Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey, Lyxumia,  利西拉, PEPTIDE, 

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(Cc1c[nH]c2c1cccc2)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)N3CCCC3C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(C)C(=O)N4CCCC4C(=O)N5CCCC5C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)N)NC(=O)C(Cc6ccccc6)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(Cc7ccccc7)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(Cc8cnc[nH]8)N

AND

CCC(C)C(C(=O)NC(CCC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(CC1=CNC2=CC=CC=C21)C(=O)NC(CC(C)C)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CC(=O)N)C(=O)NCC(=O)NCC(=O)N3CCCC3C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(C)C(=O)N4CCCC4C(=O)N5CCCC5C(=O)NC(CO)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CC6=CC=CC=C6)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(=N)N)NC(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)C(C)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CCSC)NC(=O)C(CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CC(C)C)NC(=O)C(CC(=O)O)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)C(CC7=CC=CC=C7)NC(=O)C(C(C)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CCC(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)C(CC8=CN=CN8)N

Lobeglitazone sulfate (Duvie)


STR1

Lobeglitazone.svg

Lobeglitazone Sulfate, CKD-501, IDR-105

(Duvie®)Approved KOREA

Chong Kun Dang (Originator)

Adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 Diabetes mellitus

A dual PPARα and PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes.

Trade Name:Duvie®MOA:Dual PPARα and PPARγ agonistIndication:Type 2 diabetes

CAS No. 607723-33-1(FREE)

CAS 763108-62-9(Lobeglitazone Sulfate)

2,4-Thiazolidinedione, 5-((4-(2-((6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-4- pyrimidinyl)methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)methyl)-, sulfate (1:1);

Duvie Tab.

  • Developer Chong Kun Dang; EQUIS & ZAROO
  • Class Antihyperglycaemics; Pyrimidines; Small molecules; Thiazolidinediones
  • Mechanism of Action Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists
  • MarketedType 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Most Recent Events

    • 01 May 2016Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical completes two phase I drug-interaction trials in Healthy volunteers in South Korea (PO) (NCT02824874; NCT02827890)
    • 01 Apr 2016Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical initiates two phase I drug-interaction trials in Healthy volunteers in South Korea (PO) (NCT02824874; NCT02827890)
    • 01 Mar 2016Chong Kun Dang completes a phase I pharmacokinetic trial in Impaired hepatic function in Healthy volunteers in South Korea, NCT02007941)
    • Lobeglitazone sulfate was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) on July 4, 2013. It was developed and marketed as Duvie® by Chong Kun Dang Corporation.Lobeglitazone is an agonist for both PPARα and PPARγ, and it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.Duvie® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 0.5 mg of free Lobeglitazone. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg once daily.

Lobeglitazone sulfate.png

Lobeglitazone (trade name Duvie, Chong Kun Dang) is an antidiabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. As an agonistfor both PPARα and PPARγ, it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin.[3]

Chong Kun Dang

STR1

Lobeglitazone sulfate was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) on July 4, 2013. It was developed and marketed as Duvie® by Chong Kun Dang Corporation.

Lobeglitazone is an agonist for both PPARα and PPARγ, and it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Duvie® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 0.5 mg of free Lobeglitazone. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg once daily.

Lobeglitazone which was reported in our previous works belongs to the class of potent PPARα/γ dual agonists (PPARα EC50:  0.02 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.018 μM, rosiglitazone; PPARα EC50:  >10 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.02 μM, pioglitazone PPARα EC50:  >10 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.30 μM). Lobeglitazone has excellent pharmacokinetic properties and was shown to have more efficacious in vivo effects in KKAy mice than rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.17 Due to its outstanding pharmacokinetic profile, lobeglitazone was chosen as a promising antidiabetes drug candidate.

Medical uses

Lobeglitazone is used to assist regulation of blood glucose level of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. It can be used alone or in combination with metformin.[4]

Lobeglitazone was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) in 2013, and the postmarketing surveillance is on progress until 2019.[4][5]

SYNTHESIS

STR1

Chong Kun Dang’s Modcol Flu Dry Syrup is released in four different versions: All-Day, Night, Nose and Cough. [CHONG KUN DANG]

STR1

PAPER

Org. Process Res. Dev. 2007, 11, 190-199.

Process Development and Scale-Up of PPAR α/γ Dual Agonist Lobeglitazone Sulfate (CKD-501)

Process Research and Development Laboratory, Chemical Research Group, Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Cooperation, Cheonan P. O. Box 74, Cheonan 330-831, South Korea, and Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 5-1-2, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2007, 11 (2), pp 190–199
DOI: 10.1021/op060087u

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op060087u

Abstract Image

A scaleable synthetic route to the potent PPARα/γ dual agonistic agent, lobeglitazone (1), used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes was developed. The synthetic pathway comprises an effective five-step synthesis. This process involves a consecutive synthesis of the intermediate, pyrimidinyl aminoalcohol (6), from the commercially available 4,6-dichloropyrimidine (3) without the isolation of pyrimidinyl phenoxy ether (4). Significant improvements were also made in the regioselective 1,4-reduction of the intermediate, benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione (10), using Hantzsch dihydropyridine ester (HEH) with silica gel as an acid catalyst. The sulfate salt form of lobeglitazone was selected as a candidate compound for further preclinical and clinical study. More than 2 kg of lobeglitazone sulfate (CKD-501, 2) was prepared in 98.5% purity after the GMP batch. Overall yield of 2 was improved to 52% from 17% of the original medicinal chemistry route.

Silica gel TLC Rf = 0.35 (detection:  iodine char chamber, ninhydrin solution, developing solvents:  CH2Cl2/MeOH, 20:1); mp 111.4 °C; IR (KBr) ν 3437, 3037, 2937, 2775, 1751, 1698, 1648, 1610, 1503, 1439, 1301, 1246, 1215, 1183 cm-1;

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.09 (m, 4H), 3.29 (m, 1H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.97 (m, 2H), 4.14 (m, 2H), 4.86 (m, 1H), 6.06 (bs, 1H), 6.86 (m, 2H), 7.00 (m, 2H), 7.13 (m, 4H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 11.99 (s, NH);

13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 37.1, 38.2, 53.7, 53.8, 56.3, 62.2, 65.8, 86.0, 115.1, 116.0, 123.0, 129.8, 131.2, 145.7, 153.4, 157.9, 158.1, 161.1, 166.5, 172.4, 172.5, 176.3, 176.5;

MS (ESI)m/z (M + 1) 481.5; Anal. Calcd for C24H26N4O9S2:  C, 49.82; H, 4.53; N, 9.68; S, 11.08. Found:  C, 49.85; H, 4.57; N, 9.75; S, 11.15.

PATENT

WO03080605A1.

Clip
Lobeglitazone sulfate (Duvie) Lobeglitazone sulfate, an oral peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARa/c) dual agonist with IC50 = 20 and 18 nM respectively, was developed by Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical in Korea for the treatment of diabetes.135 This drug is differentiated from two other PPAR agonists available—pioglitazone and rosiglitazone —which lack PPARa activity.135 The most likely processscale preparation of lobeglitazone sulfate follows the route described in a process communication from Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical.136

Commercially available 4,6-dichloropyrimidine (152) was treated with a stoichiometric equivalent of p-methoxyphenol (153) in the presence of KF in warm DMF (Scheme 24). Upon completion of this reaction, 2-methylaminoethanol was added to the mixture to provide pyrimidine 154 in high yield.137

Next, alcohol 154 underwent a substitution reaction with p-fluorobenzaldehyde (155) under basic conditions to provide alkoxy benzaldehyde 156 which was converted to the benzylidene thiazolidindione 158 upon subjection to Knoevenagel conditions with 2,4-thiazolidinedione (157) in 90% yield.

Finally, reduction of olefin 158 was facilitated by treatment with the Hantzsch ester (159) in the presence of silica gel followed by treatment with methanolic sulfuric acid (96%) at low temperature to ultimately furnish lobeglitazone sulfate in 90% yield.

STR1
135. Jin, S. M.; Park, C. Y.; Cho, Y. M.; Ku, B. J.; Ahn, C. W.; Cha, B.-S.; Min, K. W.;Sung, Y. A.; Baik, S. H.; Lee, K. W.; Yoon, K.-H.; Lee, M.-K.; Park, S. W. Diab.Obes. Metab. 2015, 17, 599.
136. Lee, H. W.; Ahn, J. B.; Kang, S. K.; Ahn, S. K.; Ha, D.-C. Org. Process Res. Dev.2007, 11, 190.
137. Lee, H. W.; Kim, B. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Kang, S. K.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, J. S.; Ahn, S. K.; Lee,S. J.; Yoon, S. S. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 2005, 40, 862.

References

  1. Lee JH, Noh CK, Yim CS, Jeong YS, Ahn SH, Lee W, Kim DD, Chung SJ. (2015). “Kinetics of the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Lobeglitazone, a Novel Activator of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Rats.”.Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences 104 (9): 3049–3059.doi:10.1002/jps.24378. PMID 25648999.
  2.  Kim JW, Kim JR, Yi S, Shin KH, Shin HS, Yoon SH, Cho JY, Kim DH, Shin SG, Jang IJ, Yu KS. (2011). “Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of lobeglitazone (CKD-501), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist: a single- and multiple-dose, double-blind, randomized control study in healthy male Korean subjects.”. Clinical therapeutics 33 (11): 1819–1830.doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.09.023. PMID 22047812.
  3.  Lee JH, Woo YA, Hwang IC, Kim CY, Kim DD, Shim CK, Chung SJ. (2009). “Quantification of CKD-501, lobeglitazone, in rat plasma using a liquid-chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method and its applications to pharmacokinetic studies.”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 50 (5): 872–877.doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.06.003. PMID 19577404.
  4.  “MFDS permission information of Duvie Tablet 0.5mg”(Release of Information). Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Retrieved2014-10-23.
  5.  “국내개발 20번째 신약‘듀비에정’허가(20th new drug developed in Korea ‘Duvie Tablet’ was approved)”. Chong Kun Dang press release. 2013-07-04. Retrieved 2014-10-23.
Lobeglitazone
Lobeglitazone.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-[(4-[2-([6-(4-Methoxyphenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl]-methylamino)ethoxy]phenyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
Clinical data
Trade names Duvie
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding >99%[1]
Metabolism liver (CYP2C9, 2C19, and 1A2)[1]
Biological half-life 7.8–9.8 hours[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number 607723-33-1
PubChem CID 9826451
DrugBank DB09198 Yes
ChemSpider 8002194
Synonyms CKD-501
Chemical data
Formula C24H24N4O5S
Molar mass 480.53616 g/mol

Identifications:

1H NMR (Estimated) for Lobeglitazone

Experimental: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.12 (m, 4H), 3.45 (m, 1H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 4.00 (m, 2H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 4.50 (m, 1H), 5.84 (bs, 1H), 6.83 (m, 2H), 7.06 (m, 2H), 7.15 (m, 2H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 8.89 (bs, NH).

///Lobeglitazone Sulfate, CKD-501, Duvie®,  Approved KOREA, Chong Kun Dang, A dual PPARα and PPARγ agonist , type 2 diabetes, CKD 501, 763108-62-9, 607723-33-1, IDR-105

CN(CCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)CC2C(=O)NC(=O)S2)C3=CC(=NC=N3)OC4=CC=C(C=C4)OC.OS(=O)(=O)O

Lobeglitazone Sulfate


 

Lobeglitazone.svg

Lobeglitazone Sulfate, CKD-501

(Duvie®) Approved

Chong Kun Dang (Originator)

A dual PPARα and PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes.

Trade Name:Duvie®MOA:Dual PPARα and PPARγ agonistIndication:Type 2 diabetes

CAS No. 607723-33-1(FREE)

763108-62-9(Lobeglitazone Sulfate)

2,4-Thiazolidinedione, 5-((4-(2-((6-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-4- pyrimidinyl)methylamino)ethoxy)phenyl)methyl)-, sulfate (1:1);

Lobeglitazone sulfate.png

Lobeglitazone (trade name Duvie, Chong Kun Dang) is an antidiabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. As an agonistfor both PPARα and PPARγ, it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin.[3]

Lobeglitazone sulfate was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) on July 4, 2013. It was developed and marketed as Duvie® by Chong Kun Dang Corporation.

Lobeglitazone is an agonist for both PPARα and PPARγ, and it works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the PPAR receptors in fat cells and making the cells more responsive to insulin. It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes.

Duvie® is available as tablet for oral use, containing 0.5 mg of free Lobeglitazone. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg once daily.

Lobeglitazone which was reported in our previous works belongs to the class of potent PPARα/γ dual agonists (PPARα EC50:  0.02 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.018 μM, rosiglitazone; PPARα EC50:  >10 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.02 μM, pioglitazone PPARα EC50:  >10 μM, PPARγ EC50:  0.30 μM). Lobeglitazone has excellent pharmacokinetic properties and was shown to have more efficacious in vivo effects in KKAy mice than rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.17 Due to its outstanding pharmacokinetic profile, lobeglitazone was chosen as a promising antidiabetes drug candidate.

Medical uses

Lobeglitazone is used to assist regulation of blood glucose level of diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. It can be used alone or in combination with metformin.[4]

Lobeglitazone was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) in 2013, and the postmarketing surveillance is on progress until 2019.[4][5]

SYNTHESIS

STR1

PAPER

Org. Process Res. Dev. 2007, 11, 190-199.

Process Development and Scale-Up of PPAR α/γ Dual Agonist Lobeglitazone Sulfate (CKD-501)

Process Research and Development Laboratory, Chemical Research Group, Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical Cooperation, Cheonan P. O. Box 74, Cheonan 330-831, South Korea, and Department of Chemistry, Korea University, 5-1-2, Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701, Korea
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2007, 11 (2), pp 190–199
DOI: 10.1021/op060087u

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op060087u

Abstract Image

A scaleable synthetic route to the potent PPARα/γ dual agonistic agent, lobeglitazone (1), used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes was developed. The synthetic pathway comprises an effective five-step synthesis. This process involves a consecutive synthesis of the intermediate, pyrimidinyl aminoalcohol (6), from the commercially available 4,6-dichloropyrimidine (3) without the isolation of pyrimidinyl phenoxy ether (4). Significant improvements were also made in the regioselective 1,4-reduction of the intermediate, benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione (10), using Hantzsch dihydropyridine ester (HEH) with silica gel as an acid catalyst. The sulfate salt form of lobeglitazone was selected as a candidate compound for further preclinical and clinical study. More than 2 kg of lobeglitazone sulfate (CKD-501, 2) was prepared in 98.5% purity after the GMP batch. Overall yield of 2 was improved to 52% from 17% of the original medicinal chemistry route.

Silica gel TLC Rf = 0.35 (detection:  iodine char chamber, ninhydrin solution, developing solvents:  CH2Cl2/MeOH, 20:1); mp 111.4 °C; IR (KBr) ν 3437, 3037, 2937, 2775, 1751, 1698, 1648, 1610, 1503, 1439, 1301, 1246, 1215, 1183 cm-1; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.09 (m, 4H), 3.29 (m, 1H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.97 (m, 2H), 4.14 (m, 2H), 4.86 (m, 1H), 6.06 (bs, 1H), 6.86 (m, 2H), 7.00 (m, 2H), 7.13 (m, 4H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 11.99 (s, NH); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 37.1, 38.2, 53.7, 53.8, 56.3, 62.2, 65.8, 86.0, 115.1, 116.0, 123.0, 129.8, 131.2, 145.7, 153.4, 157.9, 158.1, 161.1, 166.5, 172.4, 172.5, 176.3, 176.5; MS (ESI)m/z (M + 1) 481.5; Anal. Calcd for C24H26N4O9S2:  C, 49.82; H, 4.53; N, 9.68; S, 11.08. Found:  C, 49.85; H, 4.57; N, 9.75; S, 11.15.

PATENT

WO03080605A1.

References

  1. Lee JH, Noh CK, Yim CS, Jeong YS, Ahn SH, Lee W, Kim DD, Chung SJ. (2015). “Kinetics of the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Lobeglitazone, a Novel Activator of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Rats.”.Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences 104 (9): 3049–3059.doi:10.1002/jps.24378. PMID 25648999.
  2.  Kim JW, Kim JR, Yi S, Shin KH, Shin HS, Yoon SH, Cho JY, Kim DH, Shin SG, Jang IJ, Yu KS. (2011). “Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of lobeglitazone (CKD-501), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist: a single- and multiple-dose, double-blind, randomized control study in healthy male Korean subjects.”. Clinical therapeutics 33 (11): 1819–1830.doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.09.023. PMID 22047812.
  3.  Lee JH, Woo YA, Hwang IC, Kim CY, Kim DD, Shim CK, Chung SJ. (2009). “Quantification of CKD-501, lobeglitazone, in rat plasma using a liquid-chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method and its applications to pharmacokinetic studies.”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 50 (5): 872–877.doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2009.06.003. PMID 19577404.
  4.  “MFDS permission information of Duvie Tablet 0.5mg”(Release of Information). Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Retrieved2014-10-23.
  5.  “국내개발 20번째 신약‘듀비에정’허가(20th new drug developed in Korea ‘Duvie Tablet’ was approved)”. Chong Kun Dang press release. 2013-07-04. Retrieved 2014-10-23.
Lobeglitazone
Lobeglitazone.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-[(4-[2-([6-(4-Methoxyphenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yl]-methylamino)ethoxy]phenyl)methyl]-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione
Clinical data
Trade names Duvie
Routes of
administration
Oral
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding >99%[1]
Metabolism liver (CYP2C9, 2C19, and 1A2)[1]
Biological half-life 7.8–9.8 hours[2]
Identifiers
CAS Number 607723-33-1
PubChem CID 9826451
DrugBank DB09198 Yes
ChemSpider 8002194
Synonyms CKD-501
Chemical data
Formula C24H24N4O5S
Molar mass 480.53616 g/mol

///Lobeglitazone Sulfate, CKD-501, Duvie®,  Approved KOREA, Chong Kun Dang, A dual PPARα and PPARγ agonist , type 2 diabetes.

CN(CCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)CC2C(=O)NC(=O)S2)C3=CC(=NC=N3)OC4=CC=C(C=C4)OC.OS(=O)(=O)O

 

 

 

 

 

Henagliflozin


2D chemical structure of 1623804-44-3

Henagliflozin, SHR-3824 ,

CAS 1623804-44-3

C22-H24-Cl-F-O7

454.8756

PHASE 2 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

HengRui (Originator)

Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co Ltd

UNII-21P2M98388; 21P2M98388; Henagliflozin; SHR3824; SHR-3824;

In April 2016, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine is developing henagliflozin (phase 2 clinical trial), a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, for treating type 2 diabetes. 

SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors, useful for treating eg diabetes.

Henagliflozin proline is in phase II clinical trials by Jiangsu Hengrui (江苏恒瑞) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

1,6-dehydrated-1-C{4-chloro-3-[(3-fluoro-4-ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl}-5-C-(hydroxymethyl)-β-L-idopyranose L-proline

(1 ^ 2345-5- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -1- (hydroxymethyl) 6,8 – alcohol dioxide

(1R,2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-[4-chloro-3-[(4-ethoxy-3-fluorophenyl)methyl]phenyl]-1-(hydroxymethyl)-6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2,3,4-triol

front page image

Shanghai Hengrui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 上海恒瑞医药有限公司, Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd., 江苏恒瑞医药股份有限公司, Less «

  • 01 May 2015 Jiangsu HengRui Medicine Co. initiates enrolment in a phase I drug interaction trial in volunteers in China (NCT02500485)
  • 12 Feb 2015 Jiangsu HengRui Medicine plans a phase I trial for Type-2 diabetes mellitus in China (NCT02366377)
  • 01 Feb 2015 Jiangsu HengRui Medicine initiates enrolment in a phase I trial for Type-2 diabetes mellitus in China (NCT02366351)

Henagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitor and presents a complementary therapy to metformin for patients with T2DM due to its insulin-independent mechanism of action. This study evaluated the potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between henagliflozin and metformin in healthy Chinese male subjects. 2. In open-label, single-center, single-arm, two-period, three-treatment self-control study, 12 subjects received 25 mg henagliflozin, 1000 mg metformin or the combination. Lack of PK interaction was defined as the ratio of geometric means and 90% confidence interval (CI) for combination: monotherapy being within the range of 0.80-1.25. 3. Co-administration of henagliflozin with metformin had no effect on henagliflozin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) (GRM: 1.08; CI: 1.05, 1.10) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (GRM: 0.99; CI: 0.92, 1.07). Reciprocally, co-administration of metformin with henagliflozin had no clinically significant on metformin AUC0-24 (GRM: 1.09, CI: 1.02, 1.16) although there was an 11% increase in metformin Cmax (GRM 1.12; CI 1.02, 1.23). All monotherapies and combination therapy were well tolerated. 4. Henagliflozin can be co-administered with metformin without dose adjustment of either drug.

PATENT

WO-2016050134

With the improvement of socio-economic development and living standards, worldwide rapid growth of diabetes, diabetes is usually divided into two kinds of diabetes type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ diabetes, more than 90% of type Ⅱ diabetes. Species has been listed diabetes drugs a lot, but so far, no drugs which can single-handedly blood glucose levels in patients with type Ⅱ diabetes in the long-term target range. In recent years, in-depth study of the pathogenesis of diabetes, for the treatment of type Ⅱ diabetes provide more and more ways, and sodium – glucose cotransporter 2 (sodium-glucose transporter 2, SGLT-2) inhibitors found for treatment of diabetes provides another new idea. SGLT-2 inhibitors in the treatment mechanism of inhibition of SGLT-2 activity by selective to lower blood sugar. Select the SGLT-2 as a target, partly because of its absolute weight of glucose absorption, and partly because it is only expressed in the kidney. The current study also found that the mechanism of SGLT-2 does not depend on the degree of abnormal function of β cells or insulin resistance, its effect is not as severe failure or insulin resistance and β-cell function decline.Therefore, it is reasonable that the SGLT-2 inhibitors for the treatment of type Ⅱ diabetes currently has good prospects.

 

WO2012019496 discloses SGLT-2 inhibitor of the following formula, and its chemical name is 1,6-anhydro -1-C- {4- chloro-3 – [(3-fluoro-4-ethoxyphenyl) methyl] phenyl} -5-C- (hydroxymethyl) -β-L- idose pyranose.

 

However, direct 1,6-anhydro -1-C- {4- chloro-3 – [(3-fluoro-4-ethoxyphenyl) methyl] phenyl} -5-C- (hydroxymethyl) – β-L- idose pyranose as a pharmaceutically active ingredient is not realistic, because a lower melting point (83 ℃), having a hygroscopicity, poor development of the form, therefore, to develop it into a stable form of the compound having the transformation very important.
Example 1
Take (1.0g, 2.2mmol) 1,6- dehydration -1-C- {4- chloro-3 – [(3-fluoro-4-ethoxyphenyl) methyl] phenyl} -5-C- ( hydroxymethyl) -β-L- Aidoo pyranose (prepared by the method disclosed in WO2012019496), in 7.20g ethanol addition was completed, stirring to dissolve. Was added at room temperature L- proline (0.2786g, 2.42mmol, 1.1eq), the addition was completed, the reaction was warmed at reflux for 10min, the reaction solution was clear, hot filtered and the filtrate was stirred to room temperature, there is a lot of white solid precipitated , allowed to stand overnight, filtered, and dried, to give the formula (I), compound as a white solid 1.14 g, yield 88%. X- ray diffraction spectrum of the crystalline sample is shown in Figure 1. The crystallization at about 5.41 (16.33) 7.69 (11.49), 10.22 (8.65) 12.04 (7.35), 12.46 (7.10), 14.42 (6.14), 17.30 (5.12), 18.79 (4.72), 19.38 (4.58), 20.24 (4.38), 22.73 (3.91), 24.58 (3.62), 27.55 (3.24), 28.82 (3.10) and 31.03 (2.88) at the characteristic peaks. DSC spectrum shown in Figure 2, has a melting endothermic peak 111.20 ℃, this is defined as a Form A polymorph.

 

 

PATENT

WO2012019496

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2012019496A1?cl=en

Example 4

(1 ^ 2345-5- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -1- (hydroxymethyl) 6,8 – alcohol dioxide

Figure imgf000031_0001
Figure imgf000032_0001

first step

1-ethoxy-2-fluoro – benzene

A mixture of 2-fluoro-phenol 4a (6.7 g, 60 mmol) was dissolved in 66 mL of acetone, was added iodoethane (6.3 mL,

78 mmol) and potassium carbonate (12.4 g, 90 mmol), at reflux in an oil bath for 5 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, was added 100 mL of ethyl acetate and 60 mL of water, separated, the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (30 mLx2), the organic phases combined, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, to give the title product 1-ethoxy-2-fluoro – benzene 4b (6.9 g, red oil). yield: 82.1%.

MS m / z (ESI): 280.2 [2M + 1]

The second step

(5-bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) – (4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methanone A mixture of 5-bromo-2-chloro – benzoyl chloride 2a (12.4 g, 48.8 mmol) was dissolved a 100 mL of dichloromethane was added 1-ethoxy-2-fluoro – benzene 4b (6.84 g, 48.8 mmol), cooled to 0 ° C, was added portionwise aluminum (5.86 g, 44 mmol) chloride, 16 h. Was added dropwise under ice-cooling to the reaction mixture 20 mL of 2 M HCl solution, separated, the aqueous phase was extracted with 30 mL of dichloromethane, and the combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title The product (5-bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) – (4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methanone 4c (12.7 g, yellow solid), yield: 72.6%.

MS m / z (ESI): 358.9 [M + l] Step

(5 – bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) – (4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methanol (5-Bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) – (4-ethoxy -3 – fluoro – phenyl) -methanone 4c (12.7 g, 35.5 mmol) was dissolved in methanol and a 100 mL of tetrahydrofuran (ν: ν = 1: 1) mixed solvent, under an ice bath was added portionwise sodium borohydride (2.68 g, 70 mmol), and reacted at room temperature for 30 minutes. Add 15 mL of acetone, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, 150 mL of ethyl acetate was added to dissolve the residue, washed with saturated sodium chloride solution (50 mLx2). The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure The filtrate, to give the title product (5-bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) – (4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methanol 4d (12.7 g, orange oil), was used directly without isolation next reaction.

the fourth step

4 – [(5-bromo-2-chloro-phenyl) – methyl] Small-ethoxy-2-fluoro – benzene (5-bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) – (4-ethoxy -3 – fluoro – phenyl) methanol 4d (12.7 g, 35.3 mmol) was dissolved in a 100 mL of dichloromethane was added triethylsilane (16.9 mL, 106 mmol), was added dropwise boron trifluoride etherate (8.95 mL, 70.6 mmol ), for 3 hours. Was added 50 mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, separated, the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mLx2), the organic phases combined, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by silica gel column chromatography to elute B surfactant system resulting residue was purified to give the title product 4 – [(5-bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) methyl] -1-ethoxy-2-fluoro – benzene 4e (10 g, as a pale yellow oil ) yield: 82.4%.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 7.33-7.27 (m, 3H), 6.95-6.90 (m, 3H), 4.14 (q, 2H), 4.01 (s, 2H), 1.49 (t, 3H)

the fifth step

(2 3R, 4S, 5 ^ 6R) -2- [4- chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6- (hydroxymethyl) – 2-methoxy – tetrahydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol

4 – [(5-bromo-2-chloro – phenyl) methyl] -1-ethoxy-2-fluoro – benzene 4e (7.36 g, 21.4 mmol) was dissolved in 30 mL of tetrahydrofuran, cooled to -78 ° C, was added dropwise a solution of n-butyllithium in hexane (10.27 mL, 25.7 mmol), at -78 ° C to react 1 hour, a solution of 20 mL (3R, 4S, 5R, 6R) -3,4,5 – tris (trimethylsilyloxy) -6- (trimethylsilyloxy) tetrahydropyran-2-one 2f (llg, 23.6 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran at -78 ° C under reaction 2 h, 2.8 mL of methanesulfonic acid and 71 mL of methanol, the reaction at room temperature for 16 hours. Was added 100 mL of saturated sodium carbonate solution, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, to the residue was added 50 mL of saturated sodium chloride solution, extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mLx3), organic phases were combined, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by silica gel column chromatography with eluent systems resulting A residue was purified to give the title product (2 3R, 4S, 5 6R) -2- [4- chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxyphenyl 3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6- (hydroxymethyl) -2-methoxy – tetrahydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol 4f (5.7 g, white solid ) yield: 58.3%.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD): δ 7.56 (s, 1H), 7.48 (dd, 1H), 7.37 (dd, 1H), 6.95-6.87 (m, 3H), 4.08-4.07 (m, 4H) , 3.91 (m, 1H), 3.93-3.73 (m, 2H), 3.56-3.53 (m, 1H), 3.45-3.43 (m, 1H), 3.30 (s, 2H), 3.08 (s, 3H), 1.35 (t, 3H)

The sixth step

(2 3R, 4S, 5 6R) -6- [(tert-butyl (dimethyl) silyl) oxymethyl] -2- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro – phenyl) methyl] phenyl] -2-methoxy – tetrahydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol the (2 3R, 4S, 5 6R) -2- [4- chloro-3- [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6- (hydroxymethyl) -2-methoxy – 4f tetrahydropyran-3,4,5-triol (5.7 g, 12.5 mmol) was dissolved in 50 mL of pyridine, followed by adding tert-butyldimethylsilyl chloride (2.26 g, 15 mmol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (305 mg, 2.5 mmol), for 16 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, was added 200 mL of ethyl acetate, washed with a saturated copper sulfate solution (50 mLx3). The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title product (2 3R, 4S, 5 6R) -6- [(tert-butyl (dimethyl) silyl) oxymethyl] -2- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -2-methoxy – tetrahydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol 4g (7.14 g, colorless oil), without isolation directly used for the next reaction.

Seventh Step

[[(2R, 3R, 4S, 5R, 6 ^ -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl yl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methoxy] – tert-butyl – dimethyl-silane (2 3R, 4S, 5 6R) -6- [(tert butyl (dimethyl) silyl) oxymethyl] -2- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -2-methoxy yl – tetrahydro-pyran-3,4,5-triol 4g (7.14 g, 12.5 mmol) was dissolved in 100 mL N, N- dimethylformamide was added 60% sodium hydride under ice-cooling (2.5 g , 62.5 mmol), and reacted at room temperature for 40 minutes completed the opening force, was added benzyl bromide (7.5 mL, 62.5 mmol), reaction of 16 hours. 20 mL of methanol, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, was added 200 mL of ethyl acetate and 50 mL of water to dissolve the residue, separated, the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mL), the organic phase was washed with water (50 mL), washed with saturated sodium chloride solution (50 mL), the combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate , filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title product [[(2R, 3R, 4S, 5R, 6 ^ -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4- ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methoxy] – tert-butyl – dimethylsilane 4h (10.5 g , yellow oil) yield: 99.8%.

Step Eight

[(2R, 3R, 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methanol

The [[(2R, 3R, 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl yl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methoxy] – tert-butyl – dimethylsilane 4h (10.52 g, 12.5 mmol) was dissolved in 50 mL of methanol dropwise add acetyl chloride CO.13 mL, 1.9 mmol), for 1 hour. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by silica gel column chromatography with eluent systems B resultant residue was purified to give the title product [(2R, 3R, 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy–6 – [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methanol 4i (7.6 g , yellow oil yield: 83.6%.

Step Nine

(2 ^ 3456 3,4,5-tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] – 6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-carbaldehyde

Oxalyl chloride (1.17 mL, 13.6 mmol) was dissolved in 20 mL of dichloromethane, cooled to -78 ° C, were added dropwise 20 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide (1.56 mL, 21.9 mmol) in methylene chloride and 50 mL [(2R, 3R, 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methanol 4i (7.6 g, 10.45 mmol) in methylene chloride, and reacted at -78 ° C for 30 min, triethylamine (7.25 mL, 52.3 mmol), 2 hours at room temperature was added 50 mL 1 M HCl solution, separated, the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium chloride solution (50 mL x 2), the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (50 mL), the combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title product (2 ^ 3456 3,4,5-tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4 – ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-carbaldehyde 4j (7.58 g, colorless oil), was used directly without isolation next reaction.

The tenth step

(2S, 3 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl ] -2- (hydroxymethyl) -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-carbaldehyde

The (23456 3,4,5-tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] – 6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-carbaldehyde 4j (7.6 g, 10.45 mmol) was dissolved in 80 mL 1,4- dioxane, followed by adding 15.8 mL 37% aqueous formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide solution (31.35 mL, 31.35 mmol), reacted at 70 ° C for 16 h. Add 50 mL of saturated sodium chloride solution, extracted with ethyl acetate (50 mLx4), the organic phase was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL), washed with saturated sodium chloride solution (50 mL), the combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the title product (23,456 benzyloxy-3,4,5-tris – 6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -2- (hydroxymethyl) -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran – 2- formaldehyde 4k (7.9g, as a colorless oil), without isolation directly used for the next reaction.

Step Eleven

[(3 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] 2- (hydroxymethyl) -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methanol

The (23456 3,4,5-tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] – 2- (hydroxymethyl) -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-carbaldehyde 4k (7.9 g, 10.45 mmol) was dissolved in 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran and methanol (v: v = 2: 3) mixed solvent , was added sodium borohydride (794 mg, 20.9 mmol), for 30 minutes. Add a small amount of acetone, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by silica gel column chromatography with eluent systems resulting A residue was purified to give the title product, 5R, 6 -3,4,5-tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -2- (hydroxymethyl ) -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methanol 4m (l.ll g, colorless oil). yield: 14.1%.

Step Twelve

[(12345 ^ -2,3,4-tris-benzyloxy-5- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] 6,8-dioxa-bicyclo [3.2.1] octane-1-yl] methanol

The [(3S, 4S, 5R, 6 -3,4,5- tris-benzyloxy-6- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] benzene yl] -2- (hydroxymethyl) -6-methoxy – tetrahydropyran-2-yl] methanol 4m (l.ll g, 1.46 mmol) was dissolved in 20 mL of dichloromethane, cooled to -10 ° C, was added trifluoroacetic acid (0.23 mL, 3 mmol), and reacted at room temperature for 2 hours. 20 mL of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, separated, the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (20 mL> <2), and the combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by silica gel column chromatography with eluent systems B resultant residue was purified to give the title product [(1 2 3 4R, 5 -2,3,4- tris-benzyloxy-5- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] 6,8-dioxa-bicyclo [3.2.1] octane-1-yl] methanol 4nC830 mg, colorless oil). yield: 78.3%.

MS m / z (ESI): 742.3 [M + 18]

Thirteenth Step

(12345-5- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -1- (hydroxymethyl) -6,8 dioxa-bicyclo [3.2.1] octane-2,3,4-triol

The [(1 2 3 4R, 5S) -2,3,4- tris-benzyloxy-5- [4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] benzene yl] -6,8-dioxa-bicyclo [3.2.1] octane-1-yl] methanol 4n (830 mg, 1.14 mmol) was dissolved in 20 mL of tetrahydrofuran and methanol (v: v = l: l) the a mixed solvent of o-dichlorobenzene was added (1.3 mL, 1 1.4 mmol) and Pd / C (500 mg, 10%), purged with hydrogen three times, the reaction for 3 hours. The reaction solution was filtered, rinsed with a small amount of ethyl acetate, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, purified by silica gel column chromatography with eluent systems resulting A residue was purified to give the title product (1S, 2 3S, 4R, 5 -5- [ 4-chloro-3 – [(4-ethoxy-3-fluoro-phenyl) – methyl] phenyl] -1- (hydroxymethyl) -6,8-dioxa-bicyclo [3.2.1] octane-2,3,4-triol 4 (420 mg, white solid), yield: 81.0% MS m / z (ESI):. 472.2 [m + 18]

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD 3 OD): δ 7.47 (s, 1H), 7.42-7.35 (m, 2H), 6.95-6.87 (m, 3H), 4.16-4.14 (m, 1H), 4.06-4.02 ( m, 4H), 3.85-3.70 (m, 2H), 3.67-3.54 (m, 4H), 1.37 (t, 3H)

UNII-21P2M98388.png

////////Henagliflozin, SHR-3824 , PHASE 2,  type 2 diabete,  UNII-21P2M98388,  21P2M98388,  SHR 3824,  SHR3824,

CCOc1ccc(cc1F)Cc2cc(ccc2Cl)[C@]34[C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H]([C@](O3)(CO4)CO)O)O)O

Tianagliflozin IND filed by Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical research


str1

SCHEMBL9611990.png

str1

Tianagliflozin,

taigeliejing, 6-deoxydapagliflozin

Molecular Formula: C21H25ClO5
Molecular Weight: 392.8732 g/mol

IND Filing…Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical research

Tianjin Institute Of Pharmaceutical Research,

(3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[4-chloro-3-[(4-ethoxyphenyl)methyl]phenyl]-6-methyloxane-3,4,5-triol

1-[4-Chloro-3-(4-ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]-1,6-dideoxy-b-D-glucopyranose
D-​Glucitol, 1,​5-​anhydro-​1-​C-​[4-​chloro-​3-​[(4-​ethoxyphenyl)​methyl]​phenyl]​-​6-​deoxy-​, (1S)​-

1[4Chloro3(4ethoxybenzyl)phenyl]1,6dideoxyβdglucopyranose

6-deoxydapagliflozin
A SGLT-2 inhibitor potentially for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

 

CAS N. 1461750-27-5

SCHEMBL9611990.png

str1

 https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs00706-013-1053-0/MediaObjects/706_2013_1053_Fig1_HTML.gif

The structures of dapagliflozin and 6-deoxydapagliflozin (1)

,deletion of the 6-OH in the sugar moiety of dapagliflozin led to the discovery of a more potent SGLT2 inhibitor, 6-deoxydapagliflozin (1, ). In an in vitro assay, 1 was a more active SGLT2 inhibitor, with IC 50 = 0.67 nM against human SGLT2 (hSGLT2), as compared with 1.1 nM for dapagliflozin, leading to the identification of 1 as the most active SGLT2 inhibitor discovered so far in this field. Also in an in vivo assay, 1 also introduced more urinary glucose in a rat urinary glucose excretion test (UGE) and exhibited more potent blood glucose inhibitory activity in a rat oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) than dapagliflozin.

Given the fact that 6-dexoydapagliflozin (1) is a very promising SGLT2 inhibitor that could be used to treat type 2 diabetes, led to preclinical trials
str1
 Tianjin Institute Of Pharmaceutical Research,天津药物研究院

SPECTRAL DATA of Tianagliflozin

1 as a white solid (3.65 g, 93 %). R f = 0.35 (EtOAc);

m.p.: 148–149 °C;

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6): δ = 7.35 (d, 1H, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.25 (s, 1H), 7.18 (d, 1H, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.08 (d, 2H, J = 8.4 Hz), 6.81 (d, 2H, J = 8.4 Hz), 4.95 (d, 1H, J = 5.2 Hz, OH), 4.90 (d, 1H, J = 4.4 Hz, OH), 4.79 (d, 1H, J = 5.6 Hz, OH), 3.92–4.01 (m, 5H), 3.24–3.29 (m, 1H), 3.18–3.22 (m, 1H), 3.09–3.15 (m, 1H), 2.89–2.95 (m, 1H), 1.29 (t, 3H, J = 7.0 Hz, CH2 CH 3 ), 1.15 (d, 3H, J = 6.0 Hz, CHCH 3 ) ppm;

13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d 6): δ = 156.85, 139.65, 137.82, 131.83, 131.16, 130.58, 129.52, 128.65, 127.14, 114.26, 80.71, 77.98, 75.77, 75.51, 74.81, 62.84, 37.55, 18.19, 14.62 ppm;

IR (KBr): v¯¯¯ = 3,564 (w), 3,385 (s), 2,981 (s), 2,899 (s), 2,861 (s), 1,613 (m), 1,512 (s), 1,477 (m), 1,247 (s), 1,102 (s), 1,045 (s), 1,012 (s) cm−1;

HR–MS: calcd for C21H29ClNO5 ([M + NH4]+) 410.1729, found 410.1724.

PATENT

 CN 103864737

http://www.google.com/patents/CN103864737A?cl=en

PATENT

WO 2014094544

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014094544A1?cl=en

Figure imgf000032_0001

Figure imgf000028_0006
Figure imgf000029_0001

-27-

Figure imgf000030_0001
Figure imgf000030_0002

1 D1 -6 Optionally, the step (7 ‘) is the step (7’) in place:

LS l- [4 – D (I- Dl- 6)

Figure imgf000041_0001

A.

Figure imgf000041_0002

(DMSO-d 6, 400 MHz), δ 7.35 (d, 1H, J = 8.0 Hz), 7.28 (d, 1H, J ‘. 2.0 Hz), 7.17 (dd, IH, / = 2.0 Hz and 8.4 Hz), 7.05 (d, 2H, J: 8.8 Hz), 6.79 (d, 2H, 8.8 Hz): 4.924,95 (m, 2H), 4,81 (d, IH, 6,0 Hz), 3.93- 3.99 (m, 5H), 3,85 (d, 1H, J = 10,4 Hz), 3,66 (dd, IH, 5,2 Hz and 11,6 Hz), 3.17-3,28 (m, 3H), 3.02-3.08 (m: IH), 1.28 (t, 3H, J = 7,0 Hz), 0,80 (s, 9H), -0.05 (s, 3H), -0.09 (s, 3H) .

PATENT

CN 104045614

[0066] The added 100mL dried over anhydrous methanol 0. 5g of sodium metal, nitrogen at room temperature with stirring, until the sodium metal disappeared. Followed by addition of 5. 2g (10mmol) of compound 6, stirring was continued at room temperature for 3 hours. To the reaction system was added 5g strong acid cation exchange resin, stirred at room temperature overnight, the reaction mixture until pH = 7. The resin was removed by suction, and the filtrate evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator, the residue was further dried on a vacuum pump to give the product I-D1-6, as a white foamy solid.

PATENT

 WO 2014139447

PATENT related

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2013044608A1?cl=en

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40242-014-4043-9#/page-1

Med Chem. 2015;11(4):317-28.

Design of SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: A History Driven by Biology to Chemistry.

Abstract

A brief history of the design of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is reviewed. The design of O-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitors by structural modification of phlorizin, a naturally occurring O-glucoside, in the early stage was a process mainly driven by biology with anticipation of improving SGLT2/SGLT1 selectivity and increasing metabolic stability. Discovery of dapagliflozin, a pioneering C-glucoside SGLT2 inhibitor developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, represents an important milestone in this history. In the second stage, the design of C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors by modifications of the aglycone and glucose moiety of dapagliflozin, an original structural template for almost all C-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors, was mainly driven by synthetic organic chemistry due to the challenge of designing dapagliflozin derivatives that are patentable, biologically active and synthetically accessible. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the SGLT2 inhibitors are also discussed.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25557661

Paper

Discovery of 6-Deoxydapagliflozin as a Highly Potent Sodium-dependent Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/mc/2014/00000010/00000003/art00009?crawler=true

CLIP

str1

A facile synthesis of 6-deoxydapagliflozin

Keywords. Carbohydrates Drug research Hydrogenolysis Dapagliflozin SGLT2 inhibitor

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The synthetic route to the target compound 1 is shown in Scheme 3. The starting material methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-6-deoxy-6-iodo-αd-glucopyranoside (3) was prepared from commercially available methyl αd-glucopyranoside (2) according to a known method [5, 6].

Iodide 3 was reductively deiodinated to give 4 in 91 % yield under hydrogenolytic conditions using 10 % Pd/C as catalyst in the presence of Et3N as base in THF/MeOH at room temperature.

when the iodide 3 was treated with Barton–McCombie reagent (n-Bu3SnH/AIBN) [7] in toluene at room temperature no reaction occurred; however, when the reaction was carried out at elevated temperatures, such as reflux, a complex mixture formed with only a trace amount (3 %, entry 1) of the desired product 4.

When the iodide 3 was treated with LiAlH4 in THF at 0 °C to room temperature, another complex mixture was produced with only a trace amount (2 %, entry 2) of 4.

When Pd(OH)2 was used as the hydrogenolysis catalyst instead of 10 % Pd/C, the desired 4 was indeed formed (14 %, entry 4), but most of the starting material was converted to a few more polar byproducts, which were believed to result from the cleavage of at least one of the benzyl groups.

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Monatshefte für Chemie – Chemical Monthly

December 2013, Volume 144, Issue 12, pp 1903-1910

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////////IND Filing, SGLT-2 inhibitor, type 2 diabetes, Tianagliflozin, taigeliejing, 6-deoxydapagliflozin, 1461750-27-5

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