Home » Monoclonal antibody (Page 4)
Category Archives: Monoclonal antibody
Nanotechnology is the use of tiny structures – less than 1,000 nanometres across – that are designed to have specific properties. Nanotechnology is an emerging field in science that is used in a wide range of applications, from consumer goods to health products.
In medicine, nanotechnology has only partially been exploited. It is being investigated as a way to improve the properties of medicines, such as their solubility or stability, and to develop medicines that may provide new ways to:
- deliver medicines to the body;
- target medicines in the body more accurately;
- diagnose and treat diseases;
- support the regeneration of cells and tissues.
Activities at the European Medicines Agency
The European Medicines Agency follows the latest developments in nanotechnology that are relevant to the development of medicines. Recommendations from the Agency’sCommittee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) have already led to the approval of a number of medicines based on nanotechnology. These include medicines containing:
- liposomes (microscopic fatty structures containing the active substance), such asCaelyx (doxorubicin), Mepact (mifamurtide) and Myocet (doxorubicin);
- nano-scale particles of the active substance, such as Abraxane (paclitaxel), Emend(aprepitant) and Rapamune (sirolimus).
The development of medicines using newer, innovative nanotechnology techniques may raise new challenges for the Agency in the future. These include discussions on whether the current regulatory framework is appropriate for these medicines and whether existing guidelines and requirements on the way the medicines are assessed and monitored are adequate.
The Agency also needs to consider the acceptability of new testing methods and the availability of experts to guide the Agency’s opinion-making.
An overview of the initiatives taken by European Union (EU) regulators in relation to the development and evaluation of nanomedicines and nanosimilars was published in the scientific journal Nanomedicines. The article describes the regulatory challenges and perspectives in this field:
- Next-generation nanomedicines and nanosimilars: EU regulators’ initiatives relating to the development and evaluation of nanomedicines
Ad hoc expert group on nanomedicines
In 2009, the CHMP established an ad hoc expert group on nanomedicines.
This group includes selected experts from academia and the European regulatory network, who support the Agency’s activities by providing specialist input on new scientific knowledge and who help with the review of guidelines on nanomedicines. The group also helps the Agency’s discussions with international partners on issues concerning nanomedicines.
The group held the first ad hoc expert group meeting on nanomedicines on 29 April 2009.
Reflection papers on nanomedicines
In 2011, the CHMP began to develop in 2011 a series of four reflection papers on nanomedicines to provide guidance to sponsors developing nanomedicines.
These documents cover the development both of new nanomedicines and of nanosimilars (nanomedicines that are claimed to be similar to a reference nanomedicine), since the first generation of nanomedicines, including liposomal formulations, iron-based preparations and nanocrystal-based medicines, have started to come off patent:
- joint Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare / European Medicines Agency reflection paper on the development of block-copolymer-micelle medicinal products, published for a six-month public consultation in January 2013;
- reflection paper on the data requirements for intravenous liposomal products developed with reference to an innovator liposomal product, published in February 2013;
- reflection paper on surface coatings: general issues for consideration regarding parenteral administration of coated nanomedicine products, published in August 2013.
The fourth document, a draft reflection paper on the data requirements for intravenous iron-based nanocolloidal products developed with reference to an innovator medicine, will be released for a six-month public consultation in 2013.
International workshops on nanomedicines
The Agency organises workshops on nanomedicines to explore the scientific aspects of nanomedicines and enable the sharing of experience at an international level, in order to assist future developments in the field:
- First international workshop on nanomedicines (02-03/09/2010)
REFLECTION PAPER ON NANOTECHNOLOGY-BASED MEDICINAL PRODUCTS FOR
Great successes for monoclonal antibody (MAb)–based biologics over the past decade have provided many valuable options for patients combating some of the most serious diseases in the world, including cancer and autoimmune diseases. MAbs and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) are among the fastest growing biologic segments in development, with hundreds of candidates currently under clinical study.
August 14, 2014
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved a new use for Avastin (bevacizumab) to treat patients with persistent, recurrent or late-stage (metastatic) cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer grows in the tissues of the lower part of the uterus known as the cervix. It commonly occurs when human papillomaviruses (HPV), a virus that spreads through sexual contact, cause cells to become cancerous. Although there are two licensed vaccines available to prevent many types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, the National Cancer Institute estimates that 12,360 American women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer and 4,020 will die from the disease in 2014.
Avastin works by interfering with the blood vessels that fuel the development of cancerous cells. The new indication for cervical cancer is approved for use in combination with chemotherapy drugs paclitaxel and cisplatin or in combination with paclitaxel and topotecan.
“Avastin is the first drug approved for patients with late-stage cervical cancer since the 2006 approval of topotecan with cisplatin,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “It is also the first biologic agent approved for patients with late-stage cervical cancer and was approved in less than four months under the FDA’s priority review program, demonstrating the agency’s commitment to making promising therapies available to patients faster.”
The FDA reviewed Avastin for treatment of patients with cervical cancer under its priority review program because the drug demonstrated the potential to be a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness over available therapy in the treatment of a serious condition. Priority review provides an expedited review of a drug’s application.
The safety and effectiveness of Avastin for treatment of patients with cervical cancer was evaluated in a clinical study involving 452 participants with persistent, recurrent, or late-stage disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive paclitaxel and cisplatin with or without Avastin or paclitaxel and topotecan with or without Avastin. Results showed an increase in overall survival to 16.8 months in participants who received chemotherapy in combination with Avastin as compared to 12.9 months for those receiving chemotherapy alone.
The most common side effects associated with use of Avastin in patients with cervical cancer include fatigue, decreased appetite, high blood pressure (hypertension), increased glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia), decreased magnesium in the blood (hypomagnesemia), urinary tract infection, headache and decreased weight. Perforations of the gastrointestinal tract and abnormal openings between the gastrointestinal tract and vagina (enterovaginal fistula) also were observed in Avastin-treated patients.
Avastin is marketed by South San Francisco, California-based Genentech, a member of the Roche Group.
|Country||Patent Number||Approved||Expires (estimated)|
|melting point||61 °C (FAB fragment), 71 °C (whole mAb)||Vermeer, A.W.P. & Norde, W., Biophys. J. 78:394-404 (2000)|
|Protein chemical formula||C6538H10034N1716O2033S44|
|Protein average weight||149 kDa|
A recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody that binds to and inhibits the biologic activity of human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Bevacizumab contains human framework regions and the complementarity-determining regions of a murine antibody that binds to VEGF. Bevacizumab is produced in a Chinese Hamster Ovary mammalian cell expression system in a nutrient medium containing the antibiotic gentamicin and has a molecular weight of approximately 149 kilodaltons.
>"Bevacizumab light chain" DIQMTQSPSSLSASVGDRVTITCSASQDISNYLNWYQQKPGKAPKVLIYFTSSLHSGVPS RFSGSGSGTDFTLTISSLQPEDFATYYCQQYSTVPWTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPP SDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLT LSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC
>"Bevacizumab heavy chain" EVQLVESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGYTFTNYGMNWVRQAPGKGLEWVGWINTYTGEPTY AADFKRRFTFSLDTSKSTAYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKYPHYYGSSHWYFDVWGQGTLVT VSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVL QSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEL LGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREE QYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPS REEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDK SRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
|Source||Humanized (from mouse)|
|Licence data||EMA: , US FDA:|
|Pregnancy cat.||C (US)|
|Legal status||℞ Prescription only|
|Bioavailability||100% (IV only)|
|Half-life||20 days (range: 11–50 days)|
|Mol. mass||approx. 149 kDa|
ABT-414 is in phase I/II clinical development at AbbVie for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. The product is also in early clinical development for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.
In 2014, orphan drug designation was received in the U.S. and E.U. by AbbVie for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.
EGFR antibody-drug conjugate (cancer), Abbott; ABT-414; EGFR antibody-drug conjugate (cancer), AbbVie; EGFR-ADC (cancer), AbbVie; ABT-806-MMAF conjugate; anti-EGFR antibody-MMAF conjugate, AbbVie; EGFR-ADC (cancer), Abbott
AbbVie’s glioblastoma multiforme therapy receives orphan drug designation
AbbVie has obtained orphan drug designation from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US FDA for its anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody drug conjugate, ABT-414, as a treatment for glioblastoma multiforme.
AbbVie has obtained orphan drug designation from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US FDA for its anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody drug conjugate, ABT-414, as a treatment for glioblastoma multiforme.
AbbVie’s ABT-414 Receives FDA and EMA Orphan Drug Designation
AbbVie announced that the EMA and the FDA have granted orphan drug status to its investigational compound ABT-414, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody drug conjugate. It is currently being evaluated for safety and efficacy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumor. Each year in the United States and Europe, two to three out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme, which has a five-year survival rate of approximately 4 percent.
“The orphan drug designation is an important regulatory advancement as we further our development in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, a disease that is uniformly fatal with limited treatment options,” said Gary Gordon, M.D., vice president, oncology clinical development, AbbVie. “We are pleased to continue developing ABT-414 in Phase II trials in patients with glioblastoma multiforme based on the results of our Phase I program.” Read the press release
AbbVie oncology clinical development vice-president Gary Gordon said: “The orphan drug designation is an important regulatory advancement as we further our development in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, a disease that is uniformly fatal with limited treatment options.
“We are pleased to continue developing ABT-414 in Phase II trials in patients with glioblastoma multiforme based on the results of our Phase I programme.”
AbbVie is currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of ABT-414 in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumour.
In May, the company presented results from the Phase I clinical trial evaluating ABT-414 in combination with temozolomide in patients with recurrent or unresectable glioblastoma multiforme.
The Phase I trial was designed to assess the toxicities, pharmacokinetics and recommended Phase II dose of ABT-414 when administered every other week in combination with temozolomide.
Other important assessments included adverse events, pharmacokinetic parameters, objective response and tumour tissue epidermal growth factor receptor biomarkers.
The study results showed four objective responses, including one complete response.
AbbVie has developed ABT-414 with components in-licenced from Life Science Pharmaceuticals and Seattle Genetics.
ABT-414 is also being evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with squamous cell tumours.
ABT-414 is an anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) monoclonal antibody drug conjugate (ADC). As an ADC, ABT-414 is designed to be stable in the bloodstream and only release the potent cytotoxic agent once inside targeted cancer cells. Developed by AbbVie researchers with components in-licensed from Life Science Pharmaceuticals, ABT-414 is currently being investigated for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. ABT-414 is also in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with squamous cell tumors. ABT-414 is an investigational compound and its efficacy and safety have not been established by the FDA.
About Glioblastoma Multiforme
Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive type of malignant primary brain tumor. Each year in the U.S. and Europe, two to three out of every 100,000 people are diagnosed with glioblastoma, which has a five year survival rate of less than 3 percent. Prior to diagnosis, most patients experience a serious symptom of glioblastoma, such as a seizure. Typically patients succumb to the disease approximately 15 months after diagnosis. Treatment for glioblastoma remains challenging and no long-term treatments are currently available. Standard treatment is surgical resection, radiotherapy and concomitant adjunctive chemotherapy. More than 8,700 patients are enrolled in industry-sponsored clinical studies.
A phase 1 study evaluating ABT-414 in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) for subjects with recurrent or unresectable glioblastoma (GBM)
50th Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol (ASCO) (May 30-June 3, Chicago) 2014, Abst 2021
ABT-414: An anti-EGFR antibody drug conjugate for the treatment of glioblastoma patients
18th Annu Sci Meet Soc Neuro-Oncol (November 21-24, San Francisco) 2013, Abst ET-079
ABT-414: An anti-EGFR antibody-drug conjugate as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of patients with squamous cell tumors
25th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symp Mol Targets Cancer Ther (October 19-23, Boston) 2013, Abst A250
A Phase I/II Study Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of ABT-414 in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors Likely to Over-Express the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) (NCT01741727)
ClinicalTrials.gov Web Site 2012, December 07
- 1-225-Immunoglobulin G1, anti-(dabigatran) (human-Mus musculus γ1-chain) (225→219′)-disulfide with immunoglobulin G1, anti-(dabigatran) (human-Mus musculus κ-chain)Protein SequenceSequence Length: 444, 225, 219
BI 655075, Idarucizumab
- Idarucizumab [INN]
Treatment of dabigatran associated haemorrhage
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted breakthrough therapy designation for Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals’ idarucizumab, an investigational fully humanised antibody fragment being studied as a specific antidote for Pradaxa.
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Medicine & Regulatory Affairs senior vice-president Sabine Luik said: “We are committed to innovative research and to advancing care in patients taking Pradaxa.
- IDARUCIZUMAB (BI 655075)
- What is it? It is a humanized antibody fragment directed against dabigatran; generated from mouse monoclonal antibody against dabigatran; humanized and reduced to a FAb fragment.
- What anticoagulant drugs might it reverse? Dabigatran.
- Clinical trial status: (a) A phase 3 study of patients on dabigatran with major bleeding or needing emergency surgery is in the planning stages and will likely start in 2014. (b) A phase 1 study to determine the effect of idarucizumab on coagulation tests in dabigatran-treated healthy volunteers has been completed (NCT01688830), another two are ongoing (NCT01955720; NCT02028780).
June 26, 2014
Pradaxa Antidote, Idarucizumab Designated Breakthrough Therapy
Boehringer Ingelheim announced that the FDA has granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to idarucizumab, an investigational fully humanized antibody fragment (Fab), being evaluated as a specific antidote for Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate mesylate).
Data from a Phase 1 trial demonstrated that idarucizumab was able to achieve immediate, complete, and sustained reversal of dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in healthy humans. The on-set of action of the antidote was detected immediately following a 5-minute infusion while thrombin time was reversed with idarucizumab. Reversal of the anticoagulation effect was complete and sustained in 7 of 9 subjects who received the 2g dose and in 8 out of 8 subjects who received the 4g dose. The 1g dose resulted in complete reversal of anticoagulation effect; however, after approximately 30 minutes there was some return of the anticoagulation effects of dabigatran.
A global Phase 3 study, RE-VERSE AD, is underway in patients taking Pradaxa who have uncontrolled bleeding or require emergency surgery or procedures. Currently there are no specific antidotes for newer oral anticoagulants.
Pradaxa is approved to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients who have been treated with parenteral anticoagulant for 5–10 days. To reduce risk of recurrent DVT/PE in patients who have been previously treated.
For more information call (800) 542-6257 or visit Boehringer-Ingelheim.com.
After a series of late-stage failures, Sanofi has returned the rights to the cancer compound MM-121 to Merrimack Pharmaceuticals.
MM-121, a monoclonal antibody designed to block ErbB3 activation in patients with heregulin-positive tumours, has been tested in Phase II trials in partnership with the French giant in ovarian, breast and lung cancer. However, none of them have met their primary endpoints and Sanofi has decided to pull the plug, although it will continue to fund the existing MM-121 Phase II programme for the next six months.
BI-836845 a fully human mAb targeting IGF-1 created using HuCAL technology from Morphosys, for the potential iv infusion treatment of cancer, including solid tumors and breast cancer.
Human monoclonal IgG1 lambda antibody against IGF-1 (insulin growth factor-1) and IGF-2
|IGF pathway modulator (iv, cancer), Boehringer Ingelheim;|
Phase 2 Clinical
Anticancer protein kinase inhibitor; Anticancer monoclonal antibody
Boehringer Ingelheim is developing BI-836845, a fully human mAb targeting IGF-1 created using HuCAL technology from Morphosys, for the potential iv infusion treatment of cancer, including solid tumors and breast cancer.
In April 2011, a phase I trial was initiated in the UK . In October 2011, another phase I trial was initiated in Taiwan. In February 2014, recruitment was ongoing. At that time, the trial was expected to be completed in March 2015 In June 2014, the drug was listed as being in phase I development for solid tumors in Japan and for breast cancer
In May 2014, an open-label, randomized, parallel-assigned, phase II trial (NCT02123823; 1280.4; 2013-001110-15) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BI-836845 and everolimus in combination with exemestane in women with breast cancer (expected n = 198) was planned to be initiated in Belgium, France and the Netherlands. At that time, the trial was expected to complete in December 2017
In June 2014, an open-label, single-group assigned, phase I trial (NCT02145741; 1280.15) to evaluate BI-836845 in Japanese patients (expected n = 18) with advanced solid tumors was planned to be initiated in Japan. At that time, the trial was expected to complete in June 2015
In March 2011, a non-randomized, open-label, phase I study (NCT01317420; 1280.2; 2010-021714-29) was planned to begin later that month in patients with solid tumors (expected n = 70) in the UK, to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics of BI-836845. The study began in April 2011; at that time, completion was expected in March 2013 .
In June 2012, preclinical data were presented at the 48th ASCO meeting in Chicago, IL. In the study, the combination of BI-836845 plus rapamycin was more effective than single agent therapy at inhibiting Ewing’s sarcoma cell proliferation in vitro and in a nude mouse xenograft model .
In November 2011, preclinical data were presented at the 23rd AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in San Francisco, CA. BI-836845 potently inhibited proliferation of the multiple myeloma cell line LP-1 with an EC50 of 0.4 nM.
BI-836845 is a human monoclonal IgG1 lambda antibody against IGF-1 (insulin growth factor-1) and IGF-2 (insulin growth factor-2). Phase II clinical trials are ongoing at Boehringer Ingelheim for the treatment of patients with breast cancer, and phase I clinical trials are ongoing with patients with advanced solid tumors.
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; a 70 amino-acid polypeptide) and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2; a 67 amino-acid polypeptide) are 7.5-kD soluble factors present in serum that can potently stimulate the growth of many mammalian cells (reviewed by Pollack et al., 2004). Although IGFs can be detectable in a number of tissues the main source of circulating IGFs is the liver which secretes the IGFs and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in response to a complex signaling pathway that is initiated in the pituitary gland and transduced via growth hormone. On secretion into the bloodstream the IGFs form complexes with the IGFBPs which not only protects them from proteolytic degradation in the serum en route to their target tissues but also prevents their association with the IGF receptors. In addition to this endocrine source of IGFs they are also known to be secreted in an autocrine or paracrine manner in target tissues themselves. This is known to occur during normal fetal development where the IGFs play a key role in the growth of tissues, bone and organs. It is also seen in many cancer tissues where there is thought to be paracrine signaling between tumour cells and stromal cells or autocrine IGF production by the tumour cells themselves (reviewed by LeRoith D, 2003).
30 May 2014
ASCO 2014: Boehringer Ingelheim to present latest oncology research, including overall survival results
• Highly anticipated new overall survival data for Giotrif® (afatinib*) to be presented on June 2nd (3:00 – 6:00 PM, E Hall D2 [Abstract #8004 scheduled for 4:00 – 4:12 PM])
• 7 total abstracts accepted for Giotrif® (afatinib*), nintedanib** and BI 836845**: 1 for oral presentation and 6 posters
|BI 836845 (IGF ligand antibody)**|
|A Phase I dose escalation study of weekly BI 836845, a fully human, affinity-optimized, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligand neutralizing antibody, in patients with advanced solid cancers||Chia-Chi Lin, Kwang-Yu Chang, Dennis Chin-Lun Huang, Vicky Marriott, Ludy van Beijsterveldt, Li-Tzong Chen, Ann-Lii Cheng||Sunday, June 1
8:00 – 11:45 AM
S Hall A2
|Phase I dose escalation study of 3-weekly BI 836845, a fully human, affinity optimized, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligand neutralizing antibody, in patients with advanced solid tumours||Rihawi K, Ong M, Michalarea V, Bent L, Buschke S4, Bogenrieder T, Anthoney A, de Bono J, Twelves CJ||Sunday, June 1
8:00 – 11:45 AM
S Hall A2
The activity of the IGFs is thought to be regulated by a complex and relatively poorly understood interaction involving seven different IGFBPs and other serum proteins. Activation of the IGFs involves their release from this ternary complex after proteolytic release of the serum binding protein and IGFBPs, this is thought to occur in close proximity to cell surfaces where the IGFs are then free to bind to their receptors and transduce intracellular signals that ultimately leads to cellular proliferation and the inhibition of apoptosis. IGF-1 and IGF-2 are able to bind to the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expressed on many normal tissues, which functionally is a 460 kD heterotetramer consisting of a dimerised alpha- and beta-subunit, with similar affinities (Rubin et al., 1995). IGF-2 can also bind to the IGF-2 receptor (also know as the mannose-6-phosphate receptor) which does not have any known signaling function, rather it is thought to act as a sink for IGF-2 and prevent it from binding and signaling through the IGF-1R. In this respect the IGF-2R has been demonstrated to be a tumour suppressor protein. The IGF-1R is structurally similar to the insulin receptor which exists in two forms, IR-A and IR-B, which differ by an alternatively spliced 12 amino acid exon deletion in the extracellular domain of IR-A. IR-B is the predominant IR isoform expressed in most normal adult tissues where it acts to mediate the effects of insulin on metabolism. IR-A on the other hand is known to be highly expressed in developing fetal tissues but not in adult normal tissues. Recent studies have also shown that IR-A, but not IR-B, is highly expressed in some cancers. The exon deletion in IR-A has no impact on insulin binding but does cause a small conformational change that allows IGF-2 to bind with much higher affinity than for IR-B (Frasca et al., 1999; Pandini et al., 2002). Thus, because of it’s expression in cancer tissues and increase propensity for IGF-2 binding, IR-A may be as important as IGF1-R in mediating the mitogenic effects of IGF-2 in cancer.
Binding of the IGFs to IGF-1R triggers a complex intracellular signaling cascade which results in activation of proteins that stimulate growth and inhibit apoptosis (reviewed by Pollack et al., 2004). In terms of growth, upregulated translation is induced by the activation of p70 S6 kinase, which in turn phosphorylates the S6 ribosomal protein (Dufner and Thomas, 1999). Thus, IGF-stimulated cell growth can be measured by the rapid increase in phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein.
Unlike the EGFR and Her2neu receptors there is no known amplification of the IGF1-R or IR-A receptors in cancers indicating that receptor activation is controlled by the presence of active ligand. There is a very large body of scientific, epidemiological and clinical literature implicating a role for the IGFs in the development, progression and metastasis of many different cancer types (reviewed by Jerome et al., 2003; and Pollack et al., 2004).
For example, in colorectal cancer the expression of IGF-2 mRNA and protein is elevated in clinical colorectal tumour specimens compared with adjacent normal tissue (Freier et al., 1999; Li et al., 2004). There is also a positive correlation of elevated IGF serum levels with proliferating cell index in patients with colorectal neoplasia (Zhao et al., 2005). In addition, elevated circulating levels of IGF-2 correlate with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancers and adenomas (Renehan et al., 2000a) and b); Hassan et al., 2000). Loss of parental imprinting (LOI) of the IGF-2 gene, an epigenetic alteration that results in elevated IGF-2 expression, is a heritable molecular trait that has recently been identified in patients with colorectal and other tumour types. Loss of IGF-2 imprinting has been shown to be associated with a five-fold risk of colorectal neoplasia (Cui et al., 2003; Cruz-Correa et al., 2004) and adenomas (Woodson et al., 2004). Antibodies targeting the alpha-subunit of the IGF-1R which block IGF binding and internalize the receptor have been shown to delay the growth of the xenografted colon cancer-derived cell lines such as COLO 205 (Burtrum et al., 2003).
Elevated levels of IGFs are associated with a poor prognosis in human pulmonary adenocarcinomas (Takanami et al., 1996) and IGFs are expressed and secreted by many SCLC— and NSCLC-derived cell lines (Quinn et al., 1996). Transgenic over-expression of IGF-2 induces spontaneous lung tumours in a murine model (Moorhead et al., 2003). In terms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), human clinical specimens and animal models of HCC express higher levels of IGF mRNA and protein than corresponding normal tissues and this has been correlated with increased tumour growth (Wang et al., 2003; Ng et al., 1998). IGF-2 has also been shown to be a serological marker of HCC with elevated levels in the serum of HCC patients compared with controls (Tsai et al., 2005). An orthotopic xenograft tumour model of HCC was established using Hep 3B cells, and used to demonstrate that inhibition of IGF-2 expression using a methylated oligonucleotide enhances survival (Yao et al., 2003a) and b).
Many childhood solid tumours such as Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma appear to be particularly dependent on the IGF signaling pathway for their growth (Scotlandi et al., 1996). LOI of the IGF-2 gene has been implicated as a primary genetic event in the development for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (Fukuzawa et al., 1999). Autocrine IGF signaling is also thought to strongly influence the growth of Ewing sarcoma in cases where the type-1 EWS-FLI1 chimeric transcription factor is expressed through a chromosomal translocation resulting in elevated expression of target genes including the IGF ligands and IGF-1R, and reduced expression of IGFBP-3. Antibodies and small molecule compounds targeting the IGF-1R have been shown to reduce the growth of xenografted pediatric solid tumour derived cell lines (Kolb et al., 2008; Manara et al., 2007).
Using IGF ligand-specific antibodies it has been demonstrated that the growth of human prostate cancer cells in adult human bone implanted into SCID mice can be inhibited (Goya et al., 2004). In addition, it was demonstrated that the same IGF ligand antibodies could block the paracrine supply of IGF and suppress the liver metastasis of human colorectal cancer cells in a murine xenograft system (Miyamoto et al., 2005).
There is also considerable evidence suggesting that the IGF signaling system reduces the sensitivity of cancers to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. One of the earliest findings in this respect was the demonstration that IGF-1R knock-out mouse embryos are refractory to transformation by viruses, oncogenes and over-expressed growth factor receptors (Sell et al., 1993; Sell et al., 1994) and that over-expression of IGF-1R protects cells from UV irradiation and gamma radiation-induced apoptosis (Kulik et al., 1997). Furthermore, using liver tumour cell lines that secrete large amounts of IGF-2, it was found that neutralization of IGF-2 significantly increased response to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin and etoposide in vitro, especially at lower, cytostatic doses, suggesting that IGF-2 can reduce the susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents (Lund et al., 2004). Consistent with these findings it has been demonstrated that antibodies targeting the IGF-1R increase the susceptibility of tumour xenografts to growth inhibition by chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation (Goetsch et al., 2005).
A number of antibodies that show cross-reactive binding to human IGF-1 and human IGF-2 have been reported. Antibody sm1. was raised against human IGF-1 and shows 40% cross-reactivity to human IGF-2 and was shown to inhibit the proliferation of a mouse fibroblast cell line BALB/c3T3 which was stimulated with 20 ng/ml human IGF-1 (Russell et al., 1984). In a study designed to functionally epitope map IGF-1 by raising monoclonal antibodies to whole IGF-1 protein and portions of the protein a number of antibodies where identified that cross reacted with IGF-2 (Manes et al., 1997). The percent cross-reactivity with IGF-2 ranged from 0 to 800% and several antibodies were identified which were equally IGF-1 and IGF-2 reactive. KM1486 is a rat monoclonal antibody that cross-reacts with human IGF-1 and IGF-2 and it was demonstrated that KM1486 can inhibit growth of human prostate cancer cells in human adult bone implanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice (Goya et al., 2004). In addition, it was demonstrated that KM1486 suppresses the liver metastasis of human colorectal cancers (Miyamoto et al., 2005). KM1486 has also been described in WO 03/093317, JP 2003-310275, WO 2005/018671, WO 2005/028515, and WO 2005/027970.
For the treatment of human disease an antibody with a fully human sequence is highly desirable in order to minimize the risk of generating a human anti-antibody reaction and neutralizing antibodies that will rapidly eliminate the administered antibody from the body and thereby reduce the therapeutic effect. As such, and given the roles of IGF-1 and IGF-2 dependent signaling in the development and progression of cancers it would be desirable to obtain high affinity fully human antibodies that co-neutralise the mitogenic effects of both ligands.
In addition, to maximize the therapeutic potential of such an antibody, it is important to have a suitably long terminal half life (T1/2). Prior to terminal half life determination in human subjects, the most accurate estimation of an antibody’s human terminal half life can be obtained from administration to non-human primates such as cynomolgus monkeys. For example, bevacizumab, a registered humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) used for the treatment of several human cancers, has a terminal half-life in cynomolgus monkeys of 8.57±0.38 days (Lin et al., 1999), which translates to a terminal half life in humans of approximately 20 days allowing for a single administration once every two weeks (Lu et al., 2008).
It was a further object of the invention to obtain an antibody that does not affect binding of insulin to its receptor.
The clinical development of therapeutic agents is supported by pharmacodynamic biomarkers of drug activity. Clinical studies with antibodies targeting the IGF-1R have demonstrated that an increase in total serum IGF-1 levels may be a useful pharmacodynamic marker for these agents (Pollack et al., 2007). The reason for the increase in total serum IGF-1 levels is likely due to a feedback mechanism involving pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion which releases both IGF-1 and IGFBPs from the liver. Indeed, in humans it has been demonstrated that free or bioactive IGF-1, which represents only around 1% of total IGF-1 levels, determines the feedback response (Chen et al., 2005). The inventors thus sought to confirm whether total serum IGF-1 levels are also a useful pharmacodynamic marker for the activity of a therapeutic anti-IGF antibody. In this case it would be desirable for such antibody to be cross-reactive with IGFs from a suitable animal species, e.g. mouse or rat, such that a pharmacodynamic effect can already be tested pre-clinically.
The Boehringer Ingelheim group is one of the world’s 20 leading pharmaceutical companies. Headquartered in Ingelheim, Germany, Boehringer Ingelheim operates globally with 142 affiliates and a total of more than 47,400 employees. The focus of the family-owned company, founded in 1885, is researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing new medications of high therapeutic value for human and veterinary medicine.
Taking social responsibility is an important element of the corporate culture at Boehringer Ingelheim. This includes worldwide involvement in social projects, such as the initiative “Making more Health” and caring for the employees. Respect, equal opportunities and reconciling career and family form the foundation of the mutual cooperation. In everything it does, the company focuses on environmental protection and sustainability.
In 2013, Boehringer Ingelheim achieved net sales of about 14.1 billion euros. R&D expenditure corresponds to 19.5% of its net sales.
Fig.1 Production of MAb
|Adam, P.J.; Friedbichler, K.; Hofmann, M.H.; Bogenrieder, T.; Borges, E.; Adolf, G.R.
BI 836845, a fully human IGF ligand neutralizing antibody, to improve the efficacy of rapamycin by blocking rapamycin-induced AKT activation
48th Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol (ASCO) (June 1-5, Chicago) 2012, Abst 3092
|Lin, C.-C.; Chang, K.-Y.; Huang, D.C.; Marriott, V.; Van Beijsterveldt, L.; Chen, L.-T.; Cheng, A.-L.
A phase I dose escalation study of weekly BI 836845, a fully human, affinity-optimized, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligand neutralizing antibody, in patients with advanced solid cancers
50th Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol (ASCO) (May 30-June 3, Chicago) 2014, Abst 2617
Adam, P.J.; Ostermann, E.; Lamche, H.R.; Hofmann, M.H.; Kroez, M.; Borges, E.; Adolf, G.R.
Pharmacodynamic properties and anti-tumor efficacy of BI 836845, a fully human IGF ligand neutralizing antibody
AACR-NCI-EORTC Int Conf Mol Targets Cancer Ther (November 12-16, San Francisco) 2011, Abst A208
|Rihawi, K.; Ong, M.; Michalarea, V.; et al.
Phase I dose escalation study of 3-weekly BI 836845, a fully human, affinity optimized, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ligand neutralizing antibody, in patients with advanced solid tumors
50th Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol (ASCO) (May 30-June 3, Chicago) 2014, Abst 2622
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals inaugurates new Antibody Manufacturing Facility in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
Glenmark Pharmaceuticals inaugurates new Antibody Manufacturing Facility in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
Glenmark opens a new cGMP-compliant monoclonal antibody manufacturing facility in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
• State of the art manufacturing facility for supply of clinical trial material
• With the facility Glenmark has end-to-end capabilities for the development of novel, state-of-the-art monoclonal antibodies including bi-specific antibodies
La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, June 4, 2014 – Glenmark Pharmaceuticals S.A (GPSA), a wholly owned subsidiary of Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Limited, India (GPL), announced the opening of its new cGMP compliant monoclonal antibody manufacturing facility in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. This manufacturing facility supplements Glenmark’s existing in-house discovery and development capabilities and will supply material for clinical development.
The manufacturing facility has been designed for use of single use bioreactor systems and also houses a suite for manufacturing cell banks. The facility is fully compliant with quality, environmental and safety standards for manufacturing clinical trial material.
4th-Jun-2014 10:33Source: BSE
The company says the facility supplements existing in-house discovery and development capabilities and will supply material for clinical development. Glenmark Pharmaceuticals’ Swiss research centre is an integrated antibody discovery and development unit with in-house capabilities and infrastructure for conducting antibody discovery, cell line development, in vitro testing and characterisation of antibodies, process development and analytical research. The new manufacturing facility supplements the research and development capabilities and will enable production of clinical grade material.
Single-use bioreactor systems and a suite for manufacturing cell banks are included in the new facility, which is fully compliant with quality, environmental and safety standards for manufacturing clinical trial material. Michael Buschle, President – Biologics, at Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, said: ‘This state-of-the-art manufacturing facility is a testimony to Glenmark’s commitment to growing its R&D and manufacturing facility in the canton of Neuchâtel.
We have been doing cutting-edge work in the area of novel monoclonal antibodies and have several monoclonal antibody candidates and bispecific antibodies in the pipeline.
The manufacturing facility will help us bring these antibodies to the clinic faster.’ There are currently 69 staff at the research centre developing biologics for the treatment of pain, inflammatory, oncologic and respiratory conditions. In 10 years, the centre has filed several patents on novel biologic entities: GBR 500, its most advanced candidate, has been licensed to Sanofi and is currently in Phase II development; GBR 900, a molecule for the treatment of chronic pain, is currently in Phase I; and GBR 830, an anti OX-40 antagonist, is scheduled to enter the clinic later this year
La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland ………city
Hot on the heels of an approval in the US, regulators in Europe have now also given Takeda’s Entyvio (vedolizumab) the nod for two inflammatory bowel diseases. The European Commission has granted Marketing Authorisation for use of the gut-selective humanised monoclonal antibody to treat adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) and adults with moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease (CD).
AstraZeneca and Amgen announced that the Phase 3 AMAGINE-1TM study evaluating brodalumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis met all primary and secondary endpoints for both evaluated doses.
Brodalumab is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. It is being tested for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in Phase III clinical trials as of November 2013.
Brodalumab was developed by Amgen, Inc.
Mechanism of action
Brodalumab binds to the interleukin-17 receptor and so prevents interleukin 17 (IL-17) from activating the receptor. This mechanism is similar to that of another anti-psoriasis antibody, ixekizumab, which however binds to IL-17 itself.
At present, brodalumab is the only experimental drug in development that inhibits the IL-17 receptor, thus inhibiting several of the IL-17 ligands at once from transmitting signals to the body. Other agents currently in development seek to target the individual IL-17 ligands. By inhibiting the attachment of these ligands with the receptor, brodalumab stops the body from receiving signals that may otherwise cause inflammation and other ailments.
Psoriasis is a chronic disease of the immune system that causes the skin cells to grow at a faster rate. Worldwide, the condition affects around 125 million individuals. Even though several types of psoriasis exist, around 80% of sufferers have plaque psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis can cause painful and itchy red, scaly patches to appear on the skin.
|Target||Interleukin 17 receptor A|
|Mol. mass||144.06 kDa|
About Brodalumab (AMG 827)
Brodalumab is a novel human monoclonal antibody that binds to the interleukin-17 (IL-17) receptor and inhibits inflammatory signaling by blocking the binding of several IL-17 ligands to the receptor. By stopping IL-17 ligands from activating the receptor, brodalumab prevents the body from receiving signals that may lead to inflammation. The IL-17 pathway plays a central role in inducing and promoting inflammatory disease processes. In addition to moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis (Phase 3), brodalumab is currently being investigated for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (Phase 3) and asthma (Phase 2).
About the Amgen and AstraZeneca Collaboration
In April 2012, Amgen and AstraZeneca formed a collaboration to jointly develop and commercialize five monoclonal antibodies from Amgen’s clinical inflammation portfolio. With oversight from joint governing bodies, Amgen leads clinical development and commercialization for brodalumab (Phase 3 for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, Phase 2 for asthma) and AMG 557/MEDI5872 (Phase 1b for autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus). AstraZeneca, through its biologics arm MedImmune, leads clinical development and commercialization for MEDI7183/AMG 181 (Phase 2 for ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease), MEDI2070/AMG 139 (Phase 2 for Crohn’s disease) and MEDI9929/AMG 157 (Phase 2 for asthma).
Amgen is committed to unlocking the potential of biology for patients suffering from serious illnesses by discovering, developing, manufacturing and delivering innovative human therapeutics. This approach begins by using tools like advanced human genetics to unravel the complexities of disease and understand the fundamentals of human biology.
Amgen focuses on areas of high unmet medical need and leverages its biologics manufacturing expertise to strive for solutions that improve health outcomes and dramatically improve people’s lives. A biotechnology pioneer since 1980, Amgen has grown to be the world’s largest independent biotechnology company, has reached millions of patients around the world and is developing a pipeline of medicines with breakaway potential.
AstraZeneca is a global, innovation-driven biopharmaceutical business that focuses on the discovery, development and commercialisation of prescription medicines, primarily for the treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic, respiratory, inflammation, autoimmune, oncology, infection and neuroscience diseases. AstraZeneca operates in over 100 countries and its innovative medicines are used by millions of patients worldwide. For more information please visit: www.astrazeneca.com.
- “Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council: Brodalumab”. American Medical Association.
- “Neue Antikörper in der Pipeline”. Pharmazeutische Zeitung (in German) (12). 2012.
- ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01708590 Study of Efficacy, Safety, and Withdrawal and Retreatment With Brodalumab in Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis Subjects (AMAGINE-1)
- ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01708629 Study of Efficacy and Safety of Brodalumab Compared With Placebo and Ustekinumab in Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis Subjects (AMAGINE-3)
乾 癬の原因究明、病態（病気の起こり方）解明の主役となった免疫学的研究の最先端を行くKrueger先生の、最新情報がコンパクトにまとまった素晴らしい 講演でした。生物学的製剤の治療根拠となるサイトカインネットワークは、現在TipDC – Th17経路によって、きわめて明快に説明されるようになり、Th17細胞が放出するIL17が表皮細胞（ケラチノサイト）の乾癬化を起こします。現在使 用されている抗TNFα製剤、抗IL12/23製剤が、より上流（免疫反応の根っこ）で免疫反応を抑制するのに比べ、IL17はより末梢における乾癬の原 因サイトカインであることから、IL17の抑制は、より乾癬をピンポイントで、そして副作用もミニマムにすることが期待される。
米 国のAnne Bowcock教授の”The genetics of psoriasis: Old risks, novel loci （乾癬の遺伝子研究：昔から言われていた異常、新しく見つかった場所）です。Bowcock教授は、乾癬の原因遺伝子について世界で最初に報告した研究者 です。ここでも少し講演スライドを拝借（Bowcock先生、ごめんなさい）。
Bowcock 教授は１９９９年、乾癬家系の詳細な遺伝子調査から第１７染色体に乾癬と関わり深い遺伝子異常があることをみつけ、科学雑誌Scienceに報告した。 21世紀を迎える直前のことであり、遠からず乾癬の原因遺伝子が確定し、完治治療を開発することも夢ではないと、当時期待したものでした。
Bowcock 教授の息の長い研究は、第17染色体上にあるCARD14と呼ばれるタンパクの、その異常が直接乾癬を起こすことを説き明かしました。CARD14は細胞 膜上にあるタンパクで、細胞外で起こる炎症から生じる様々な刺激物質を、細胞の膜から細胞の中へ伝える役割を果たしています。その伝達経路はNFκBを介 しています（乾癬ではこの経路が活発に動いていることが、高知大学の佐野教授により解明されました）。
ブログ「PHOTO & ESSAY」もご覧ください。