A-147627, (+)-A-127722, ABT-627,173937-91-2,
Endothelin ET-A antagonist
Diabetic nephropathy; End stage renal disease; Renal disease
Atrasentan is an experimental drug that is being studied for the treatment of various types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer. It is also being investigated as a therapy for diabetic kidney disease.
It is an endothelin receptor antagonist selective for subtype A (ETA). While other drugs of this type (sitaxentan, ambrisentan) exploit the vasoconstrictive properties of endothelin and are mainly used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, atrasentan blocks endothelin induced cell proliferation.
In April 2014, de Zeeuw et al. showed that 0.5 mg and 1.25 mg of atrasentan reduced urinary albumin by 35 and 38% respectively with modest side effects. Patients also had decreased home blood pressures (but no change in office readings) decrease total cholesterol and LDL. Patients in the 1.25 mg dose group had increased weight gain which was presumably due to increased edema and had to withdraw from the study more than the placebo or 0.5 mg dose group. Reductions in proteinuria have been associated with beneficial patient outcomes in diabetic kidney disease with other interventions but is not an accepted end-point by the FDA.
The recently initiated SONAR trial will determine if atrasentan reduces kidney failure in diabetic kidney disease.
Useful for treating nephropathy and chronic kidney disease associated with Type II diabetes. For a prior filing see WO2015006219 , claiming the stable solid composition in the form of a tablet comprising atrasentan and an anti-oxidant. AbbVie (following its spin-out from Abbott), is developing atrasentan (phase III; February 2015) for treating chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Enantioselective Synthesis of the Pyrrolidine Core of Endothelin Antagonist ABT-627 (Atrasentan) via 1,2-Oxazines
A mixture of bromoacetyl bromide (72.3 mL) in toluene (500 mL) at 0° C. was treated with dibutylamine (280 mL) in toluene (220 mL) while keeping the solution temperature below 10° C., stirred at 0° C. for 15 minutes, treated with 2.5% aqueous phosphoric acid (500 mL) and warmed to 25° C. The organic layer was isolated, washed with water (500 mL) and concentrated to provide the product as a solution in toluene.
3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde (15.55 Kg) was treated sequentially with ammonium acetate (13.4 Kg,), acetic acid (45.2 Kg) and nitromethane (18.4 Kg), warmed to 70° C., stirred for 30 minutes, warmed to 80° C., stirred for 10 hours, cooled to 10° C. and filtered. The filtrant was washed with acetic acid (2×8 Kg) and water (2×90 Kg) and dried under a nitrogen stream then in under vacuum at 50° C. for 2 days.
EXAMPLE 3ethyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxopropanoate
A mixture of potassium tert-amylate (50.8 Kg) in toluene (15.2 Kg) at 5° C. was treated with 4-methoxyacetophenone (6.755 Kg) and diethyl carbonate (6.4 Kg) in toluene over 1 hour while keeping the solution temperature below 10° C., warmed to 60° C. for 8 hours, cooled to 20° C. and treated with acetic acid (8 Kg) and water (90 Kg) over 30 minutes while keeping the solution temperature below 20° C. The organic layer was isolated, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate (41 Kg) and concentrated at 50° C. to 14.65 Kg.
EXAMPLE 4ethyl 2-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-4-nitromethyl-3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)butyrate
A mixture of EXAMPLE 3 (7.5 Kg) in THF (56 Kg) was treated with EXAMPLE 3 (8.4 Kg), cooled to 17° C., treated with sodium ethoxide (6.4 g), stirred for 30 minutes, treated with more sodium ethoxide (6.4 g), stirred at 25° C. until HPLC shows less than 1 area % ketoester remaining and concentrated to 32.2 Kg.
EXAMPLE 5ethyl cis,cis-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate
Raney nickel (20 g), from which the water had been decanted, was treated sequentially with THF (20 mL), EXAMPLE 4 (40.82 g), and acetic acid (2.75 mL). The mixture was stirred under hydrogen (60 psi) until hydrogen uptake slowed, treated with trifluoroacetic acid, stirred under hydrogen (200 psi) until HPLC shows no residual imine and less than 2% nitrone and filtered with a methanol (100 mL) wash. The filtrate, which contained 13.3 g of EXAMPLE 5, was concentrated with THF (200 mL) addition to 100 mL, neutralized with 2N aqueous NaOH (50 mL), diluted with water (200 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (2×100 mL). The extract was used in the next step.
EXAMPLE 6ethyl trans,trans-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3 -benzodioxol-5 -yl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate
Example 501E (38.1 g) was concentrated with ethanol (200 mL) addition to 100 mL, treated with sodium ethoxide (3.4 g), heated to 75° C., cooled to 25° C. when HPLC showed less than 3% of EXAMPLE 1E and concentrated. The concentrate was mixed with isopropyl acetate (400 mL), washed with water (2×150 mL) and extracted with 0.25 M phosphoric acid (2×400 mL). The extract was mixed with ethyl acetate (200 mL) and neutralized to pH 7 with sodium bicarbonate (21 g), and the organic layer was isolated.
EXAMPLE 7ethyl (2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate, (S)-(+) mandelate
EXAMPLE 501F was concentrated with acetonitrile (100 mL) addition to 50 mL, treated with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid (2.06 g), stirred until a solution formed, stirred for 16 hours, cooled to 0° C., stirred for 5 hours and filtered. The filtrant was dried at 50° C. under a nitrogen stream for 1 day. The purity of the product was determined by chiral HPLC using Chiralpak AS with 95:5:0.05 hexane/ethanol/diethylamine, a flow rate of 1 mL/min. and UV detection at 227 nm. Retention times were 15.5 minutes for the (+)-enantiomer and 21.0 minutes for the (−)-enantiomer.
EXAMPLE 8(2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid
A mixture of EXAMPLE 7 (20 g) in ethyl acetate (150 mL) and 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate was stirred at 25° C. until the salt dissolved and gas evolution stopped. The organic layer was isolated and concentrated. The concentrate was treated with acetonitrile (200 mL), concentrated to 100 mL, cooled to 10° C., treated with diisopropylethylamine (11.8 mL) and EXAMPLE 1 (10.5 g), stirred for 12 hours and concentrated. The concentrate was treated with ethanol (200 mL), concentrated to 100 mL, treated with 40% aqueous NaOH (20 mL), stirred at 60° C. for 4 hours, cooled, poured into water (400 mL), washed with hexanes (2×50 mL then 2×20 mL), treated with ethyl acetate (400 mL) and adjusted to pH 5 with concentrated HCl (12 mL). The organic layer was isolated and concentrated.
- “Atrasentan”. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Institute of Cancer.
- Chiappori, Alberto A.; Haura, Eric; Rodriguez, Francisco A.; Boulware, David; Kapoor, Rachna; Neuger, Anthony M.; Lush, Richard; Padilla, Barbara; Burton, Michelle; Williams, Charles; Simon, George; Antonia, Scott; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Bepler, Gerold (March 2008). “Phase I/II Study of Atrasentan, an Endothelin A Receptor Antagonist, in Combination with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin as First-Line Therapy in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer”. Clinical Cancer Research 14 (5): 1464–9. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1508. PMID 18316570.
- “Addition of experimental drug to standard chemotherapy for advanced prostate cancer shows no benefit in phase 3 clinical trial” (Press release). National Cancer Institute. April 21, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
- Quinn, David I; Tangen, Catherine M; Hussain, Maha; Lara, Primo N; Goldkorn, Amir; Moinpour, Carol M; Garzotto, Mark G; Mack, Philip C; Carducci, Michael A; Monk, J Paul; Twardowski, Przemyslaw W; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J; Agarwal, Neeraj; Higano, Celestia S; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Thompson, Ian M (August 2013). “Docetaxel and atrasentan versus docetaxel and placebo for men with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (SWOG S0421): a randomised phase 3 trial”. The Lancet Oncology 14 (9): 893–900. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70294-8. PMID 23871417.
- de Zeeuw, Dick; Coll, Blai; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Tang, Hui; Houser, Mark; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Kohan, Donald; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Makino, Hirofumi; Perkovic, Vlado; Pritchett, Yili; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Viberti, Giancarlo; Parving, Hans-Henrik (May 2014). “The endothelin antagonist atrasentan lowers residual albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy”. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 25 (5): 1083–93. doi:10.1681/ASN.2013080830. PMID 24722445.
Granted in February 2015, this patent claims novel crystalline anhydrous S-mandelate salt of atrasentan. Useful for treating nephropathy and chronic kidney disease associated with Type II diabetes.
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Molecular mass||510.621 g/mol|
READ MORE ON SENTAN SERIES………..http://medcheminternational.blogspot.in/p/sentan-series.html