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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Nidufexor Chemical Structure




4-[[benzyl-(8-chloro-1-methyl-4H-chromeno[4,3-c]pyrazole-3-carbonyl)amino]methyl]benzoic acid

Nidufexor is a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist.

Molecular Weight






PHASE 2 Treatment of Liver and Biliary Tract Disorders,
Agents for Diabetic Nephropathy, NOVARTIS



Nidufexor pound LMB-763 pound(c)


4-((N-benzyl-8-chloro-1-methyl-1,4-dihydrochromeno[4,3-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamido)methyl)benzoic acid



1 (7.6 g, 89% yield) as a white solid. Melting point: 232.6 °C.

1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.93 (s, 1H), 7.96−7.85 (m, 2H), 7.71 (dd, J = 7.1, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.42−7.20 (m, 8H), 7.06 (dd, J = 8.7, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 5.45 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 2H), 5.25 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 2H), 4.58 (d, J = 12.1 Hz, 2H), 4.12 (d, J = 16.6 Hz, 3H).

13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 167.07, 162.21, 151.98, 142.65, 139.18, 132.20, 132.67, 129.70, 129.50, 129.50, 128.53, 128.53, 127.43, 127.43, 127.43, 127.43, 127.43, 125.53, 122.24, 119.0, 117.09, 116.64, 64.51, 50.68, 48.24. LC-MS m/z: 488.2/490.2 (M +H)+ ; chlorine pattern; method 3; RT = 1.41 min.

Elemental Analysis calcd for C27H22ClN3O4: C 66.46, H 4.54, N 8.61; found: C 66.43, H 4.56, N 8.62.

TRIS Salt Formation. Methanol (400 mL) was added to a mixture of 1 (4.0 g, 8.2 mmol) and 2-amino-2-hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-diol (TRIS, 1.0 g, 8.2 mmol). The mixture was heated to 70 °C for 0.5 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed in vacuum. The residue was sonicated in dichloromethane (10 mL) and concentrated again. The resulting white solid was dried under vacuum overnight. The crude material was crystallized by slurring the solid residue in a 4:1 mixture of acetonitrile and methanol (5 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 h to give 4-((N-benzyl-8-chloro-1-methyl-1,4-dihydrochromeno- [4,3-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamido)methyl)benzoic acid TRIS salt as a white salt (3.7 g, 73% yield). Melting point: 195.6 °C. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 7.92−7.80 (m, 2H), 7.78−7.64 (m, 1H), 7.41− 7.19 (m, 8H), 7.13−7.00 (m, 1H), 5.44 (s, 2H), 5.25−5.14 (m, 2H), 4.61−4.48 (m, 2H), 4.18−4.03 (m, 3H), 3.39 (s, 7H). TRIS OH masked by water peak. LC-MS m/z: 488.0/490.0 (M+H)+ ; chlorine pattern, method 3. RT = 1.58 min. Elemental Analysis calc for C31H33ClN4O7: C 61.00, H 5.36, N 9.15; found: C 60.84, H 5.34, N 9.13.


WO 2015069666

///////NIDUFEXOR, LMB 763, Phase II, PHASE 2, Liver and Biliary Tract Disorders,  Diabetic Nephropathy, NOVARTIS


Therapeutic Effect of Amaranthus hybridus on Diabetic Nephropathy

Diabetes Nephropathy, a chronic metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus, is characterized by elevated levels of serum glucose,creatinine, urea and uric acid in addition to abnormal histopathological changes in kidney. In the recent past, many antidiabetic agents are introduced; still the diabetes and the related nephropathy complication continue to be a major medical problem, not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. Not with standing much research work, the diabetic kidney damages are increasing rapidly and patients with diabetes kidney failure undergo either painful dialysis or kidney transplantation [1] which is both costly and harmful. More and more interest is now growing about plant use as an alternative therapy for protecting kidney damage in patients with diabetes mellitus. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been widely implicated in the pathogenicity of diabetes mellitus and its nephropathy. A number of clinical studies suggest that the antioxidants in medicinal plants are key factors in reducing the incidence of diabetic nephropathy. Traditional medicines and extracts from medicinal plants with antioxidant potential have been extensively used as alternative medicine for better control and management of diabetes nephropathy [2]. However, searching for new antidiabetic drugs with nephroprotective properties from natural plants is currently very important.
Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as ‘Cheera’ in Malayalam, is an erect branched annual herb distributed throughout tropical and temperate regions of India as a common weed in the agricultural fields and wastelands. In traditional medicinal system different parts of the plant Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus) have been mentioned to be useful in a variety of diseases. Traditionally, the plant has been used in treating dysentery, diarrhoea, ulcers and hemorrhage of the bowel due to its astringent property [35]. In southern India, the leaves are used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Leaves possess antibacterial effect, cleansing effect and also help to reduce tissue swelling [5]. In Nigeria, A. hybridus leaves combined with condiments are used to prepare soup [68]. In Congo, their leaves are eaten as spinach or green vegetables [6,9]. These leaves boiled and mixed with a groundnut sauce are eaten as salad in Mozambique and in West Africa [10,11]. The Amaranthus species contains amaranthine, quercetin, and kaempferol glycosides [12].A. hybridus leaves are used as an antidote for snake and scorpion bite [13,14].
Amaranthus species were of great importance in pre-Colombian American people’s diets [15] and A. cruentus and A. hybridus have a high nutritional value [16] (Fernand et al.). The consumption of A. cruentus products is advised for patients with celiac disease and, therefore, also for diabetic persons [17]. A. hybridus has been used traditionally for the treatment of liver infections and knee pain and for its laxative, diuretic, and cicatrisation properties [16].
Furthermore, recent studies established theantihyperglycemic activities of other species of Amaranthus genus as A. spinosus [18] and A. viridis [19,20]. However, based on the literature survey, there is no scientific report proving the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this particular species. Therefore, the current study was designed to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of Amaranthus hybridus in STZ induced diabetic rats.

Therapeutic Effect of Amaranthus hybridus on Diabetic Nephropathy

Balasubramanian T* and Karthikeyan M
Department of Pharmacology, Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Kerala, India
Corresponding Author : Dr. Thirumalaiswamy Balasubramanian
Department of Pharmacology
Al Shifa College of Pharmacy
Poonthavanam Post, Kizhattur Village
Perinthalmanna, Malappuram Dist
Kerala-679 325, India
Tel: +919544496752
Received December 29, 2015; Accepted January 07, 2016; Published January 14, 2016
Citation: Balasubramanian T and Karthikeyan M (2016) Therapeutic Effect of Amaranthus hybridus on Diabetic Nephropathy. J Develop Drugs 5:147.doi:10.4172/2329-6631.1000147



Dr. T. Balasubramanian

Karthikeyan M

Map of Kizhattur Village Perinthalmanna

////////Therapeutic Effect, Amaranthus hybridus,  Diabetic Nephropathy, AYURVEDA

Atrasentan Revisited



A-147627, (+)-A-127722, ABT-627,173937-91-2,

Endothelin ET-A antagonist

Diabetic nephropathy; End stage renal disease; Renal disease

1-(N,N-Dibutylcarbamoylmethyl)-2(R)-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4(S)-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)pyrrolidine-3(R)-carboxylic acid
(2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid
(2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)-pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid
C29H38N2O6, 510.631

Atrasentan is an experimental drug that is being studied for the treatment of various types of cancer,[1] including non-small cell lung cancer.[2] It is also being investigated as a therapy for diabetic kidney disease.

Atrasentan failed a phase 3 trial for prostate cancer in patients unresponsive to hormone therapy.[3] A second trial confirmed this finding.[4]

It is an endothelin receptor antagonist selective for subtype A (ETA). While other drugs of this type (sitaxentan, ambrisentan) exploit the vasoconstrictive properties of endothelin and are mainly used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, atrasentan blocks endothelin induced cell proliferation.

In April 2014, de Zeeuw et al. showed that 0.5 mg and 1.25 mg of atrasentan reduced urinary albumin by 35 and 38% respectively with modest side effects. Patients also had decreased home blood pressures (but no change in office readings) decrease total cholesterol and LDL. Patients in the 1.25 mg dose group had increased weight gain which was presumably due to increased edema and had to withdraw from the study more than the placebo or 0.5 mg dose group.[5] Reductions in proteinuria have been associated with beneficial patient outcomes in diabetic kidney disease with other interventions but is not an accepted end-point by the FDA.

The recently initiated SONAR trial[6] will determine if atrasentan reduces kidney failure in diabetic kidney disease.

Useful for treating nephropathy and chronic kidney disease associated with Type II diabetes. For a prior filing see WO2015006219 , claiming the stable solid composition in the form of a tablet comprising atrasentan and an anti-oxidant. AbbVie (following its spin-out from Abbott), is developing atrasentan (phase III; February 2015) for treating chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy.


European Journal of Organic Chemistry

Enantioselective Synthesis of the Pyrrolidine Core of Endothelin Antagonist ABT-627 (Atrasentan) via 1,2-Oxazines




A mixture of bromoacetyl bromide (72.3 mL) in toluene (500 mL) at 0° C. was treated with dibutylamine (280 mL) in toluene (220 mL) while keeping the solution temperature below 10° C., stirred at 0° C. for 15 minutes, treated with 2.5% aqueous phosphoric acid (500 mL) and warmed to 25° C. The organic layer was isolated, washed with water (500 mL) and concentrated to provide the product as a solution in toluene.

EXAMPLE 25-((E)-2-nitroethenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole

3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde (15.55 Kg) was treated sequentially with ammonium acetate (13.4 Kg,), acetic acid (45.2 Kg) and nitromethane (18.4 Kg), warmed to 70° C., stirred for 30 minutes, warmed to 80° C., stirred for 10 hours, cooled to 10° C. and filtered. The filtrant was washed with acetic acid (2×8 Kg) and water (2×90 Kg) and dried under a nitrogen stream then in under vacuum at 50° C. for 2 days.

EXAMPLE 3ethyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxopropanoate

A mixture of potassium tert-amylate (50.8 Kg) in toluene (15.2 Kg) at 5° C. was treated with 4-methoxyacetophenone (6.755 Kg) and diethyl carbonate (6.4 Kg) in toluene over 1 hour while keeping the solution temperature below 10° C., warmed to 60° C. for 8 hours, cooled to 20° C. and treated with acetic acid (8 Kg) and water (90 Kg) over 30 minutes while keeping the solution temperature below 20° C. The organic layer was isolated, washed with 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate (41 Kg) and concentrated at 50° C. to 14.65 Kg.

EXAMPLE 4ethyl 2-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-4-nitromethyl-3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)butyrate

A mixture of EXAMPLE 3 (7.5 Kg) in THF (56 Kg) was treated with EXAMPLE 3 (8.4 Kg), cooled to 17° C., treated with sodium ethoxide (6.4 g), stirred for 30 minutes, treated with more sodium ethoxide (6.4 g), stirred at 25° C. until HPLC shows less than 1 area % ketoester remaining and concentrated to 32.2 Kg.

EXAMPLE 5ethyl cis,cis-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate

Raney nickel (20 g), from which the water had been decanted, was treated sequentially with THF (20 mL), EXAMPLE 4 (40.82 g), and acetic acid (2.75 mL). The mixture was stirred under hydrogen (60 psi) until hydrogen uptake slowed, treated with trifluoroacetic acid, stirred under hydrogen (200 psi) until HPLC shows no residual imine and less than 2% nitrone and filtered with a methanol (100 mL) wash. The filtrate, which contained 13.3 g of EXAMPLE 5, was concentrated with THF (200 mL) addition to 100 mL, neutralized with 2N aqueous NaOH (50 mL), diluted with water (200 mL), and extracted with ethyl acetate (2×100 mL). The extract was used in the next step.

EXAMPLE 6ethyl trans,trans-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3 -benzodioxol-5 -yl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate

Example 501E (38.1 g) was concentrated with ethanol (200 mL) addition to 100 mL, treated with sodium ethoxide (3.4 g), heated to 75° C., cooled to 25° C. when HPLC showed less than 3% of EXAMPLE 1E and concentrated. The concentrate was mixed with isopropyl acetate (400 mL), washed with water (2×150 mL) and extracted with 0.25 M phosphoric acid (2×400 mL). The extract was mixed with ethyl acetate (200 mL) and neutralized to pH 7 with sodium bicarbonate (21 g), and the organic layer was isolated.

EXAMPLE 7ethyl (2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylate, (S)-(+) mandelate

EXAMPLE 501F was concentrated with acetonitrile (100 mL) addition to 50 mL, treated with (S)-(+)-mandelic acid (2.06 g), stirred until a solution formed, stirred for 16 hours, cooled to 0° C., stirred for 5 hours and filtered. The filtrant was dried at 50° C. under a nitrogen stream for 1 day. The purity of the product was determined by chiral HPLC using Chiralpak AS with 95:5:0.05 hexane/ethanol/diethylamine, a flow rate of 1 mL/min. and UV detection at 227 nm. Retention times were 15.5 minutes for the (+)-enantiomer and 21.0 minutes for the (−)-enantiomer.

EXAMPLE 8(2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid

A mixture of EXAMPLE 7 (20 g) in ethyl acetate (150 mL) and 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate was stirred at 25° C. until the salt dissolved and gas evolution stopped. The organic layer was isolated and concentrated. The concentrate was treated with acetonitrile (200 mL), concentrated to 100 mL, cooled to 10° C., treated with diisopropylethylamine (11.8 mL) and EXAMPLE 1 (10.5 g), stirred for 12 hours and concentrated. The concentrate was treated with ethanol (200 mL), concentrated to 100 mL, treated with 40% aqueous NaOH (20 mL), stirred at 60° C. for 4 hours, cooled, poured into water (400 mL), washed with hexanes (2×50 mL then 2×20 mL), treated with ethyl acetate (400 mL) and adjusted to pH 5 with concentrated HCl (12 mL). The organic layer was isolated and concentrated.


The Michael reaction between 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-beta-nitrostyrene (I) and ethyl (4-methoxybenzoyl)acetate (II) in the presence of DBU gave adduct (III) as a mixture of isomers. Hydrogenation of this nitro ketone over Raney-Ni afforded, after spontaneous cyclization of the resulting amino ketone, the pyrroline (IV). Further reduction of the imine with NaBH3CN yielded a mixture of three pyrrolidine isomers. The desired trans-trans isomer (VI) could not be separated from the cis-trans isomer by column chromatography. However, the pure cis-cis compound (V) was isomerized to (VI) with NaOEt in refluxing EtOH. The protection of the amine as the tert-butyl carbamate with Boc2O, and saponification of the ester function provided the racemic acid (VII). Resolution of (VII) was achieved by conversion to the mixed anhydride (VIII) with pivaloyl chloride, followed by condensation with the lithium salt of (S)-4-benzyl-2-oxazolidinone (IX), and chromatographic separation of the resulting diastereomeric imides. Alternatively, racemic (VII) could be resolved by crystallization of its salt with (R)-a-methylbenzylamine. Removal of the Boc group from the appropriate isomer (X) with HCl in dioxan, followed by alkylation with N,N-dibutylbromoacetamide (XI) in the presence of i-Pr2NEt furnished the pyrrolidinylacetamide (XII). Finally, hydrolysis of the imide with lithium hydroperoxide provided the target acid.
J Med Chem1996,39,(5):1039
Cyclization of 5-(2-nitrovinyl)-1,3-benzodioxole (I) with ethyl 2-(4-methoxybenzoyl)acetate (II) by means of DBU in THF gives the 4-nitrobutyrate (III), which is reduced with H2 over Ni in ethanol to the corresponding amine, which undergoes immediate cyclization to give the pyrroline carboxylate (IV). Reduction of pyrroline (IV) with NaCNBH3 in THF affords the expected pyrrolidine as a mixture of the (trans,trans)-(V), (cis,cis)-(VI) and (cis,trans)-(VII) isomers. Using chromatography on silica gel, only the (cis,cis)-isomer (VI) is separated and completely isomerized to the (trans,trans)-isomer (V) by treatment with NaOEt in refluxing ethanol. Pure (trans,trans)-isomer (V) or the remaining mixture of (trans,trans)-(V) and (cis,trans)-(VII) is N-protected with Boc2O in dichloromethane to provide a mixture of carbamates. Then hydrolysis of the esters is performed with NaOH in ethanol/water at room temperature, and under these conditions only the (trans,trans)-isomer hydrolyzes, giving the racemic (trans,trans)-acid (VIII). Unreacted (cis,trans)-ester (VII) is easily removed by conventional methods. Condensation of the racemic acid (VIII) with the lithium salt of the chiral oxazolidinone (IX) by means of pivaloyl chloride yields the corresponding amide as a diastereomeric mixture of (X) and (XI) that are separated by chromatography. The desired isomer (XI) is deprotected with HCl in dioxane to afford the chiral pyrrolidine (XII), which is condensed with 2-bromo-N,N-dibutylacetamide (XIII) by means of diisopropylamine in acetonitrile to give the adduct (XIV). Finally, the chiral auxiliary of (XIV) is eliminated by means of LiOOH (LiOH + H2O2) in water.
J Med Chem1996,39,(5):1039
EXAMPLE 95D(2R,3R,4S)-(+)-2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonylmethyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acidTo the resulting compound from Example 95C (131 mg, 0.355 mmol) was added, diisopropylethylamine (137 mg, 185 μL, 1.06 mmol), acetonitrile (2 mL), N,N-di-(n-butyl)bromoacetamide (133 mg, 0.531 mmol), and the mixture was heated at 50° C. for 1.5 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated to a solid, dried under high vacuum, and purified by chromatography on silica gel eluting with 1:3 ethyl acetate-hexane to give pure ester as a colorless oil. 1 H NMR (CDCl3, 300MHz) δ 0.81 (t, J=7 Hz, 3H), 0.88 (t, J=7 Hz, 3H), 1.10 (t, J=7 Hz, 3H), 1.00-1.52 (m, 8H), 2.78 (d, J=14 Hz,1H), 2.89-3.10 (m, 4H), 3.23-3.61 (m, 5H), 3.71 (d, J=9 Hz, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 4.04 (q, J=7 Hz, 2H), 5.94 (dd, J=1.5 Hz, 2H), 6.74 (d, J=9 Hz, 1H), 6.83-6.90 (m, 3H), 7.03 (d, J=2 Hz, 1H), 7.30 (d, J=9 Hz, 2H). MS (DCl/NH3) m/e 539 (M+H)+.To the ethyl ester dissolved in 7 mL of ethanol was added a solution of lithium hydroxide (45 mg, 1.06 mmol) in water (2.5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 1 hour at ambient temperature and then warmed slowly to 40° C. over 2.5 hours at which point all of the starting material had been consumed. The reaction mixture was concentrated to remove the ethanol, diluted with 60 mL water and extracted with ether (3×40 mL). The aqueous solution was treated with 1N aqueous hydrochloric acid until cloudy, and the pH was then adjusted to ˜4-5 with 10% aqueous citric acid. This mixture was extracted with 1:19 ethanol-methylene chloride (3×50 mL). The combined extracts were dried (Na2 SO4), filtered, concentrated and dried under high vacuum to give the title compound as a white foam (150 mg, 83%). 1 H NMR (CDCl3, 300MHz) δ 0.80 (t, J=7 Hz, 3H), 0.88 (t, J=7 Hz, 3H), 1.08 (m, 2H), 1.28 (m, 3H), 1.44 (m, 3H), 2.70-3.77 (svr br m, 12H), 3.79 (s, 3H), 5.95 (m, 2H), 6.75 (d, J=8 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (br d, J=8 Hz, 3H), 7.05 (br s,1H),7.33 (v br s, 2H). MS (DCl/NH3) m/e 511 (M+H)+. α!22 =+74.42°. Anal calcd for C29 H38 N2 O6.0.5 H2 O: C ,67.03; H, 7.56; N, 5.39. Found: C, 67.03; H, 7.59; N, 5.33.



  • “Atrasentan”. NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Institute of Cancer.
  • 2
  • Chiappori, Alberto A.; Haura, Eric; Rodriguez, Francisco A.; Boulware, David; Kapoor, Rachna; Neuger, Anthony M.; Lush, Richard; Padilla, Barbara; Burton, Michelle; Williams, Charles; Simon, George; Antonia, Scott; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Bepler, Gerold (March 2008). “Phase I/II Study of Atrasentan, an Endothelin A Receptor Antagonist, in Combination with Paclitaxel and Carboplatin as First-Line Therapy in Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer”. Clinical Cancer Research 14 (5): 1464–9. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1508. PMID 18316570.
  • 3
  • “Addition of experimental drug to standard chemotherapy for advanced prostate cancer shows no benefit in phase 3 clinical trial” (Press release). National Cancer Institute. April 21, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2014.
  • 4
  • Quinn, David I; Tangen, Catherine M; Hussain, Maha; Lara, Primo N; Goldkorn, Amir; Moinpour, Carol M; Garzotto, Mark G; Mack, Philip C; Carducci, Michael A; Monk, J Paul; Twardowski, Przemyslaw W; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J; Agarwal, Neeraj; Higano, Celestia S; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Thompson, Ian M (August 2013). “Docetaxel and atrasentan versus docetaxel and placebo for men with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (SWOG S0421): a randomised phase 3 trial”. The Lancet Oncology 14 (9): 893–900. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70294-8. PMID 23871417.
  • 5
  • de Zeeuw, Dick; Coll, Blai; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J.; Tang, Hui; Houser, Mark; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Kohan, Donald; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Makino, Hirofumi; Perkovic, Vlado; Pritchett, Yili; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Toto, Robert; Viberti, Giancarlo; Parving, Hans-Henrik (May 2014). “The endothelin antagonist atrasentan lowers residual albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy”. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 25 (5): 1083–93. doi:10.1681/ASN.2013080830. PMID 24722445.
  • 6

Clinical trial number NCT01858532 for “Study Of Diabetic Nephropathy With Atrasentan (SONAR)” at

US-8962675, AbbVie Inc

Granted in February 2015, this patent claims novel crystalline anhydrous S-mandelate salt of atrasentan. Useful for treating nephropathy and chronic kidney disease associated with Type II diabetes.

Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,3R,4S)-4-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-[2-(dibutylamino)-2-oxoethyl]-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
CAS number 173937-91-2 
ATC code None
PubChem CID 159594
ChemSpider 140321 Yes
UNII V6D7VK2215 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C29H38N2O6 
Molecular mass 510.621 g/mol


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