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PDE4 Inhibitor, SB-207499, Cilomilast……….REVISTED

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Cilomilast.png

Cilomilast (Ariflo, SB-207,499)

cas 153259-65-5

cis-{-4-cyano-4-[3- (trans-3-hydroxycyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyl]cyclohexane-l -carboxylic acid}

cis-4-Cyano-4-[3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-(methoxyphenyl)]-r-1-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

C20-H25-N-O4, 343.4205

GSK….INNOVATOR

 

  • Ariflo
  • Cilomilast
  • SB 207499
  • SB207499
  • UNII-8ATB1C1R6X

 

A selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor for treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

CLINICAL   https://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Cilomilast

Cilomilast (Ariflo, SB-207,499) is a drug which was developed for the treatment of respiratory disorders such as asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). It is orally active and acts as a selective Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor.[1]

SB-207499 is a potent second-generation inhibitor of PDE4 (phosphodiesterase-4) with decreased side effects versus those of the well-known first-generation inhibitor, (R)-rolipram. SB-207499 is in clinical development both for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)……..J. Med. Chem. 1998, 41, 821

Cilomilast (Ariflo™, SB 207499) is an orally active, second-generation phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor that is being developed by GlaxoSmithkline for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The results of Phase I and Phase II studies have demonstrated that cilomilast significantly improves lung function and quality of life to a clinically meaningful extent, which has led to a comprehensive Phase III programme of research evaluating efficacy, safety and mechanism of action. However, the results of those Phase III studies are unremarkable and disappointing, raising doubt over the future of cilomilast as a novel therapy for COPD. This review summarizes data obtained from the Phase III clinical development programme, highlights some of the potential concerns both specific to cilomilast and to PDE4 inhibitors in general and assesses the likelihood that cilomilast will reach the market.

Cilomilast is GlaxoSmithKline’s selective phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor. The drug candidate had been preregistered in the U.S. for the maintenance of lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are poorly responsive to albuterol. GlaxoSmithKline received an approval letter from the FDA in October 2003, however, in 2007, the company discontinued development of the compound. In 2008, the product was licensed to Alcon by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of eye disorders.

Chemical structure for Cilomilast

Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, such as theophylline, have been used to treat Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) for centuries; however, the clinical benefits of these agents have never been shown to out-weigh the risks of their numerous adverse effects. Four clinical trials were identified evaluating the efficacy of cilomilast, the usual randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled protocols were used. It showed reasonable efficacy for treating COPD, but side effects were problematic and it is unclear whether cilomalast will be marketed, or merely used in the development of newer drugs.[2][3]

Cilomilast is a second-generation PDE4 inhibitor with antiinflammatory effects that target bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and airway remodeling associated with COPD.

Cilomilast.png

4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal status
?
Identifiers
CAS number 153259-65-5 
ATC code None
PubChem CID 151170
ChemSpider 18826005 
UNII 8ATB1C1R6X 
Chemical data
Formula C20H25NO4 
Mol. mass 343.417 g/mol

Synthesis

Cilomilast synth.png

 

 

Christensen, Siegfried B.; Guider, Aimee; Forster, Cornelia J.; Gleason, John G.; Bender, Paul E.; Karpinski, Joseph M.; Dewolf,, Walter E.; Barnette, Mary S. et al. (1998). “1,4-Cyclohexanecarboxylates: Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Phosophodiesterase 4 for the Treatment of Asthma”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 41 (6): 821–35. doi:10.1021/jm970090r. PMID 9526558.

The reaction of 3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (I) with LiBr, trimethylsilyl chloride (TMS-Cl) and 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane in acetonitrile gives the corresponding benzyl bromide (II), which by reaction with NaCN in DMF affords 2-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (III).

The condensation of (III) with methyl acrylate (IV) by means of Triton B in refluxing acetonitrile yields the 4-cyanopimelate (V), which is cyclized by means of NaH in refluxing DME, giving the 2-oxocyclohexanecarboxylic ester (VI). The decarboxylation of (VI) by means of NaCl in DMSO/water at 150 C yields the cyclohexanone (VII), which is condensed with 2-(trimethylsilyl)-1,3-dithiane (VIII) by means of BuLi in THF, affording the cyclohexylidene-dithiane (IX).

The methanolysis of (IX) catalyzed by HgCl2 and HClO4 in refluxing methanol gives a mixture of the cis- and trans-4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid methyl ester which is submitted to flash chromatography to obtain the cis-isomer (XII). Finally, this compound is hydrolyzed with KOH in methanol/THF/water.

 

Figure

Org. Proc. Res. Dev., 2003, 7 (1), pp 101–108
DOI: 10.1021/op025584z
Abstract Image

The synthesis of SB-207499 is described. Investigation and development of new strategies for the homologation of ketone, 4-cyano-4-[3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-(methoxyphenyl)]-cyclohexan-1-one 2 are described which produce SB-207499. Our ultimate route of synthesis to SB-207499 is robust and operationally simple and produces the final drug substance in good yield and purity.

cis-4-Cyano-4-[3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-(methoxyphenyl)]-r-1-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (1a):

mp 148−150 °C; IR (KBr pellet) cm1 3300−2400, 2231, 1707, 1694;

1H (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 11.75 (1Η, br s), 7.02 (1H, d, J = 2.3 Hz), 6.98 (1H, dd, J = 2.3, 8.4 Hz), 6.87 (1H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 4.82 (1H, m), 3.86 (3H, s), 2.43 (1H, tt, J = 3.7, 12.2 Hz), 2.29 (2H, br d, J = 15.6 Hz), 2.25 (2H, br d, J = 16.4 Hz), 2.05 (2H, m), 1.94 (4H, m), 1.86 (2H, m), 1.82 (2H, m), 1.64 (2H, m); 13C (100 MHz, CDCl3) δ 180.5, 149.8, 147.8, 132.8, 122.2, 117.3, 112.9, 111.9, 80.7, 56.1, 43.0, 41.7, 36.4, 32.8, 25.9, 24.0.

………………………………………..

http://www.google.com/patents/WO1995024381A1?cl=en

cis-{-4-cyano-4-[3- (trans-3-hydroxycyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyl]cyclohexane-l -carboxylic acid} or the corresponding compounds as defined by Formula I. The preparation of any remaining compounds of the Formula (I) not described therein may be prepared by the analogous processes disclosed herein which comprise:

Example 1

Preparation of cis-r4-cvano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cvclohexane- 1 – carboxylic acid]

1 fa (3-Cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenv acetonitrile

To a solution of 3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (20 g, 90.8 mmol) in acetonitrile (100 mL) was added lithium bromide (15 g, 173 mmol) followed by the dropwise addition of trimethylsilylchloride (17.4 mL, 137 mmol). After 15 min, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C, 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (26.7 mL, 151 mmol) was added dropwise and the resulting mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature. After stirring for 3 h, the mixture was separated into two layers. The lower layer was removed, diluted with methylene chloride and filtered through Celite®. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure, dissolved in methylene chloride and refiltered. The solvent was removed in vacuo to provide a light tan oil. To a solution of this crude a- bromo-3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxy toluene in dimethylformamide (160 mL) under an argon atmosphere was added sodium cyanide (10.1 g, 206 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 h, then poured into cold water (600 mL) and extracted three times with ether. The organic extract was washed three times with water, once with brine and was dried (K2CO3). The solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to provide an off-white solid ( m.p. 32-34g C); an additional quantity of slightly impure material also was isolated. Kb Dimethyl 4-cvano-4-(‘3-cvclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenv pimelate

To a solution of (3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile (7 g, 30.3 mmol) in acetonitrile (200 mL) under an argon atmosphere was added a 40% solution of Triton-B in methanol (1.4 mL, 3.03 mmol) and the mixture was heated to reflux. Methyl acrylate (27 mL, 303 mmol) was added carefully, the reaction mixture was maintained at reflux for 5 h and then cooled. The mixture was diluted with ether, was washed once with IN hydrochloric acid and once with brine, was dried (MgSO4) and the solvent was removed in vacuo. The solid residue was triturated with 5% ethanol/hexane to provide a white solid (m.p. 81-82° C); an additional quantity was also obtained from the filtrate. Anal. (C22H29NO6) calcd: C 65.49, H 7.25, N 3.47. found: C 65.47, H 7.11, N 3.49. 1. c) 2-Caf bomethoxy-4-cvano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphen vDcvclohexan- 1 -one To a suspension of sodium methoxide (350 mL, 1.55 mol, 25% w/w in methanol) in toluene (2.45 L) heated to 80° C under a nitrogen atmosphere was added a solution of dimethyl 4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)pimelate (350.0 g, 0.87 mol) in toluene (1.05 L) over 10 min. The reaction was heated to 85° C by distilling away 250 mL of solvent and was vigorously stirred under nitrogen for 2 hours. The reaction was cooled to 50° C and was quenched with 3N (aq) HC1 (700 mL, 2.1 mol). The organic layer was isolated, was washed once with deionized water (700 mL) and once with brine (700 mL). The organic layer was concentrated via low vacuum distillation to afford crude 2- carbomethoxy-4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane- 1 -one in toluene. This was dissolved in 4.2 L of dimethyl sulfoxide and used in the next step. 1 (d) 4-Cvano-4-f3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl cvclohexan- 1-one

To a suspension of sodium chloride (315 g, 5.39 mol) and deionized water ( 315 mL) was added the dimethyl sulfoxide (4.2 L) solution of 2-carbomethoxy-4-cyano-4-(3- cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane-l-one ( 323 g, 0.87 mol) and the resulting suspension was heated to 155° C for 1.75 h. The reaction was cooled to 40° C, was quenched into 8 L of iced water (22 C) and was extracted with ethyl acetate (3.5 L). The aqueous layer was isolated and re-extracted with 2.5 L of ethyl acetate. The combined organic extract (6 L) was washed two times with deionized water (2 x 1 L) and once with brine (1 L). The organic layer was isolated and concentrated in vacuo to afford a residue. This residue was dissolved in refluxing isopropanol (500 mL), was cooled to 0° C and held at this temperature for 1 hour. The crystals were isolated by filtration, were washed with 250 mL of isopropanol (0° C), and were dried in a vacuum oven (45° C at 20 inches) to produce 4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexan-l -one . m.p. 111-112° C; Anal. (C19H23NO ) calcd: C 72.82, H 7.40, N 4.47; found: C 72.72, H 7.39, N 4.48. 1 (e) 2-r4-Cyano-4-G-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cvclohexylidenel- 1.3-dithiane To a solution of 2-trimethylsilyl-l,3-dithiane (9.25 mL, 48.7 mmol) in dry tetrahydrofuran (80 mL) at 0° C under an argon atmosphere was added rapidly n- butyllithium (2.5M in hexanes, 19.2 mL, 48 mmol). After 10 min, the mixture was cooled to -78° C and a solution of 4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexan-l- one (7.53 g, 23 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (40 mL) was added. After 10 min, aqueous sodium chloride was added, the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and was diluted with water. This mixture was combined with the product of three substantially similar reactions conducted on ketone (3.04, 6.01 and 6.1 g, 48.3 mmol total), the combined mixture was extracted three times with methylene chloride, the extract was dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (silica gel, 10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) provided a white solid, m.p. 115-116° C. \(f) cis-r4-Cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane- 1 -carboxylic acidl

To a suspension of 2-[4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclo- hexylidene]-l,3-dithiane ( 140.0 g, 0.34 mol) in acetonitrile (500 mL) and deioinized water (140 mL) under nitrogen was added trifluoroacetic acid (136 g, 1.19 mol). The suspension was heated to 652 C for 1.25 h followed by the addition of 20% sodium hydroxide (420 g, 2.1 mol). The solution was heated at 70 to 75° C for an additional 1.25 h, was cooled to 45° C, deionized water (420 mL)was added followed by 3N (aq) HC1 (392 mL, 1.18 mol). The suspension was cooled to 5° C and held for 1 h. The suspension was filtered, was washed with cold (5e C) deionized water ( 200 mL), and was dried in a vacuum oven (40°C at 20 inches) to obtain crude cis-[4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4- methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane-l -carboxylic acid]. This material was assayed at 98.5% and was found to a 98.8:1.2 mixture of cis-to-trans isomers, which was contaminated with 0.1% of residual 1,3-propanedithiol. This material was purified via an oxidative workup as follows.

To a hot solution (65° C) of crude cis-[4-cyano-4-(3-cyclopentyloxy-4- methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane-l -carboxylic acid] (85 g, 0.247 mol) in acetonitrile (425 mL) was added 1M sodium hydroxide ( 425 mL, 0.425 mol). To the solution (60° C) was added 4.25 g of calcium hypochlorite and the suspension was vigorously stirred for 2 h. The reaction was concentrated by distilling out 320 mL of solvent, followed by the addition of ethyl acetate ( 425 mL). The reaction was again concentrated by distilling out 445 mL of solvent, was cooled to 55° C followed by the addition of ethyl acetate (1.0 L) and 6N (aq.) HC1 (100 mL). The organic layer was isolated, was washed three times with deionized water (3 x 300 mL), was filtered and was concentrated by distilling out 530 mL of solvent. To the solution was added ethyl acetate (635 mL) with continued distillation to remove 750 mL of solvent. The solution was cooled to 65° C followed by the addition of hexane ( 340 mL). The suspension was cooled to 5° C, held at this temperature for 1 hour, was filtered and was washed with cold (5° C) 10% ethyl acetate/ hexane ( 200 mL). The solid was collected and was dried in a vacuum oven (40° C at 20 inches) to obtain cis- [4- cyano-4- (3-cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane- 1 -carboxylic acid] . This material was found to contain no trans isomer. Anal.(C2θH25-Nθ4) calcd: C 69.95, H 7.34, N 4.08; found: C 69.90, H 7.35, N 4.02. Example 2

Preparation of cis-f 4-cvano-4-r3-(trans-3-hydroxycyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyll- cyclohexane-1 -carboxylic acid)

2(a’) cis-F4-Cyano-4-(3-hvdroxy-4-methoxyphenvDcyclohexane- 1 -carboxylic acid]

To a solution of boron tribromide in dichlorormethane (0.1M, 335 mL, 33.5 mmol) under an argon atmosphere at -78° C was slowly added a solution of cis-[4-cyano-4-(3- cyclopentyloxy-4-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane-l -carboxylic acid] (4.03 g, 11.7 mmol) in dichloromethane (180 mL). The mixture was stirred for 5 min, 15% sodium methoxide in methanol was added to pH 8-9 and the reaction was warmed to RT. Water (lOOmL) was added and the mixture was acidified with 3N aqueous hydrochloric acid to pH 1-2. The organic layer was separated, was dried (MgSO4/Na2SO4), was filtered and was evaporated. The residue was twice dissolved in chloroform and the solution was evaporated to yield a white solid. -1H NMR(400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.01 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 6.96 (d of d, J=2.4, 8.5 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (s, 3H), 2.31 (m, 1H), 2.21 (br t, J=13.6 Hz, 4H), 1.98 (m,2H), 1.77 (m, 2H); mp 190-193° C. Kb) Methyl cis- r-4-cvano-4-(3-hvdroxy-4-methoxyphenyl‘)cvclohexane-l-carboxylatel -Toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (0.015 g, 0.08 mmol) was added to a solution of the compound of Example 2(a) (0.70 g, 2.54 mmol) in dry methanol (20 mL) under an argon atmosphere and the reaction was stirred for 6 h at 45-509 C. The reaction was cooled to RT and was stirred for an additional 16 h. The solution was evaporated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 50% hexane/ethyl acetate) to yield the tide compound as a white solid. -1H NMR(400 MHz, CDC13) δ 7.01 (m, 2H), 6.85 (d, J=9.1 Hz, IH), 3.90 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 2.35 (t of t, J=3.6, 12.2 Hz, IH), 2.14-2.25 (m, 4H), 2.00 (app q, J=13.4 Hz, IH), 1.99 (app q, J=13.4 Hz, IH), 1.77 (app t, J=13.4 Hz, IH), 1.76 (app t, J=13.4 Hz, IH); mp 106-107° C.

2(c) Methyl cis- f -4-cvano-4-r3-(trans-3-hydroxycvclopentyloxy )-4-methoxyphenyl – cvclohexane- 1 -carboxylate 1

The compound of Example 2(b) (0.69 g, 2.37 mmol) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (20 mL) under an argon atmosphere and was treated with triphenylphosphine (1.24 g, 4.74 mmol) and cis-l,3-cyclopentanediol (0.49 g, 4.74 mmol). Diethyl azodicarboxylate (0.83 g, 4.74 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h. The solution was evaporated, the residue was diluted with ether and the white solid was removed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 50% hexane/ethyl acetate) to yield a mixture of the title compound and triphenylphosphine oxide. The mixture was diluted with ether and the white solid triphenylphosphine oxide was removed by filtration. Evaporation of the filtrate yielded the title compound as a sticky, colorless semi-solid. 1H NMR(400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.07 (d, J=2.4 Hz, IH), 7.02 (d of d, J=2.4, 8.8 Hz, IH), 6.87 (d, J=8.8 Hz, IH), 4.99 (m, IH), 4.37 (m, IH), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.74 (s, 3H), 3.16 (d, J=9.1 Hz, IH), 2.39 (m, IH), 1.88-2.25 (m, 12H), 1.80 (br t, J=13.5 Hz, 2H).

2(d) cis-f-4-cyano-4-r3-(trans-3-hydroxycyclopentyloxy )-4- methoxyphenyllcyclohexane-1 -carboxylic acid )

The compound of Example 2(c) (0.10 g, 0.27 mmol) was dissolved in 5:5:2 tetrahydrofuran methanol/water (5 mL), sodium hydroxide (0.035 g, 0.88 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 3 h. The solvent was evaporated, the residue was partitioned between 5% aqueous NaOH and dichloromethane and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was acidified to pH 3 with 3N aqueous hydrochloric acid and was extracted three times with 5% methanol in chloroform. The organic extracts were combined, were dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 90:10:1 chloroform/methanol water) to yield a solid which was slurried in ether, was collected by filtration and was dried in vacuo to afford the title compound. MS(d/NH3) m e 377 [M + NH ]+; 1H NMR(400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 7.08 (br s, IH), 7.03 (br d, J=8.5Hz, IH), 6.88 (d, J=8.5 Hz, IH), 4.98 (m, IH), 4.38 (m, IH), 3.84 (s, IH), 2.41 (m, IH), 1.77-2.29 (m, 16H); Anal. (C2oH25NO5-»0.9 H2O) calcd: C, 63.95; H,7.19; N,3.73. found: C, 64.06; H, 6.88; N, 3.77; mp 161-163° C.

Example 3 Preparation of cis- f 4-cvano-4-r3-(cis-3-hvdroxycvclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyll- cyclohexane-1 -carboxylic acid) 3(a) Methyl cis-(-4-cvano-4-r3-(cis-3-formyloxycvclopentyloxy)-4-methoxyphenyll- cvclohexane- 1 -carboxylate ) The compound of Example 2(c) (0.68 g, 1.83 mmol) was dissolved in tetrahyrofuran (20 mL) under an argon atmosphere and was treated with triphenylphosphine ( 0.96 g, 3.66 mmol) and formic acid (0.17 g, 3.66 mmol). Diethyl azodicarboxylate (0.64 g, 3.66 mmol) was added and d e mixture was stirred at RT for 16 h. The solution was evaporated, ether was added and the white solid was removed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated and die residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel, 65% hexane/ethyl acetate) to yield the title compound as a clear colorless oil. **-H NMR(400 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.02 (s,lH), 7.0 (d of d, J=2.4, 8.2 Hz, IH), 6.99 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1 H), 6.87 (d, J=8.2 Hz, IH), 5.48 (m, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 2.31-2.40 (m, 2H), 2.13-2.28 (m, 7H), 1.96-2.06 (m, 3H), 1.74-1.87 (m, 3H).

3(h) cis- ( -4-cvano-4-r3-(cis-3-hvdroxvcvclθDentvloxy)-4-methoχyphenyllcvclohexane- 1 -carboxylic acid)

The compound of Example 3(a) (0.52 g, 1.31 mmol) was dissolved in 5:5:2 tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (20mL), sodium hydroxide (0.32 g, 8.0 mmol) was added and die mixture was stirred at RT for 2.5 h. The solvent was evaporated and the aqueous residue was acidified to pH 1-2 with 3N aqueous hydrochloric acid. The white solid product was collected, was washed with water and was dried in vacuo to afford the title compound as a white solid. MS(CI/NH3) m/e 377 [M + NH3]+;

IH NMR(250 MHz, CDCI3) δ 6.98 (m, 2H), 6.86 (d, J=8.2 Hz, IH), 4.97 (m, IH), 4.59 (m, IH), 3.85 (s, 3H), 1.64-2.47 (m, 17H);

mp 143-145° C.

 

References

  1. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/549357
  2. Torphy TJ, Barnette MS, Underwood DC, Griswold DE, Christensen SB, Murdoch RD, Nieman RB, Compton CH. Ariflo (SB 207499), a second generation phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor for the treatment of asthma and COPD: from concept to clinic. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 1999;12(2):131-5. PMID 10373396
  3. Ochiai H, Ohtani T, Ishida A, Kusumi K, Kato M, Kohno H, Kishikawa K, Obata T, Nakai H, Toda M. Highly potent PDE4 inhibitors with therapeutic potential. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 2004 Jan 5;14(1):207-10. PMID 14684329

 

WO1993019747A1 * Mar 5, 1993 Oct 14, 1993 Siegfried B Christensen Iv Compounds useful for treating allergic and inflammatory diseases
WO1993019748A1 * Mar 5, 1993 Oct 14, 1993 Paul Elliot Bender Compounds useful for treating inflammatory diseases and for inhibiting production of tumor necrosis factor
WO1993019750A1 * Mar 12, 1993 Oct 14, 1993 Paul Elliot Bender Compounds useful for treating allergic or inflammatory diseases
US4795757 * Nov 20, 1986 Jan 3, 1989 Rorer Pharmaceutical Corporation Bisarylamines
US5096906 * Dec 5, 1990 Mar 17, 1992 University Of Virginia Alumni Patents Foundation Method of inhibiting the activity of leukocyte derived cytokines
WO1993019720A2 * Mar 12, 1993 Oct 14, 1993 Paul Elliot Bender Compounds
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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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