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Idarubicin hydrochloride



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Idarubicin hydrochloride 

NSC-256439, IMI-30, DMDR, Idamycin, Zavedos


Idarubicin /ˌdəˈrbɨsɪn/ or 4-demethoxydaunorubicin is an anthracycline antileukemic drug. It inserts itself into DNA and prevents DNA from unwinding by interfering with the enzyme topoisomerase II. It is an analog of daunorubicin, but the absence of a methoxy group increases its fat solubility and cellular uptake.[1] Similar to other anthracyclines, it also induces histone eviction fromchromatin.[2]

It belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.

It is currently combined with cytosine arabinoside as a first line treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

It is distributed under the trade names Zavedos (UK) and Idamycin (USA).

Idarubicin ball-and-stick.png

UV – spectrum

Conditions : Concentration – 1 mg / 100 ml
Solvent designation schedule Methanol
0.1 M HCl
0.1M NaOH
The absorption maximum 481 nm,
287 nm,
251 nm
484 nm
289 nm
257 nm
484 nm
289 nm
257 nm
ε 11100

IR – spectrum

Wavelength (μm)
Wavenumber (cm -1 )

Brief background information

Salt ATC Formula MM CAS
L01DB06 C 26 H 27 NO 9 497.50 g / mol 58957-92-9

Idarubicin is the 4-demethoxy derivative of daunorubicin. Idarubicin is an antineoplastic agent that has been used to treat various cancers, including those of the breast, lung, stomach, ovaries, and lymph system. Idarubicin is marketed as an intravenous injection of Idarubicin hydrochloride of the formula,

Figure imgf000003_0003

under the brand name IDAMYCIN®. Idarubicin hydrochloride is a red-orange crystalline powder, soluble in water, methanol, and other polar solvents like dimethylformamide. It is practically insoluble in acetone, chloroform, and methylene chloride. Idarubicin hydrochloride has a melting point of 175-180°C, and apH of 5.0-6.5 in a 0.5% w/v solution in water.


  • antitumor agent
  • anthracycline antibiotic

Classes of substances

  • Naftatsenovye antibiotics

Synthesis pathway


Synthesis a)

  1. Synthesis a)
    • US 4,471,052 (Adria; 9.11.1984; appl. 18.1.1982).
Synthesis of b)

  1. Synthesis of b)
    • DOS 2,525,633 (Soc. Farmaceutici; appl. 06.09.1975; GB -prior. 16.12.1974).
    •  US 4,046,878 (Soc. Farmaceutici; 09/06/1977; appl. 05/22/1975; GB -prior. 12.6.1974).

The reaction of daunomycinone (IX) with AlCl3 in dichloromethane gives 4-demethyldaunomycinone (X), which is ketalized with ethylene glycol as before yielding the dioxolane (XI). The selective sulfonation of (XI) with TsCl, DIEA and DMAP in pyridine affords the 4-tosyloxy derivative (XII), which is treated with 4-methoxybenzylamine (XIII) in pyridine providing the secondary benzylamine (XIV). Elimination of the benzyl protecting group of (XIV) with TFA gives 4-amino-4-demethoxydaunomycinone ethylene ketal (XV), which is deaminated by reaction with TFA, NaNO2 and H3PO2 to give 4-demethoxydaunomycinone (XVI). Finally, this compound is submitted to fermentation with Streptomyces peucetius corneus, S. Peucetius caesius, S. Caeruleus, S. Peucetius , S. Coeruleorubidus, and other chemical or radio-induced mutants thereof.
Mitscher, LA; Lednicer, D. (Pharmacia Corp.); Biosynthesis of simplified anthracyclines US 4471052.

condensation of chiral tetraline (I) with phthalic anhydride (II) by means of AlCl3 at 180 C gives the naphthacenedione (III),  acetyl group which is ketalized with ethylene glycol and p-toluenesulfonic acid yielding the dioxolane (IV). The hydroxylation of (IV) with Br2 and AIBN in CCl4/CHCl3 affords the 4-demethoxy-7-epidaunomycinone (V), which is isomerized with TFA yielding 4-demethoxydaunomycinone (VI) . The condensation of (VI) with the acylated hexopyranosyl chloride (VII) by means of CF3SO3Ag of Br2Hg affords the trifluoroacetylated 4-demethoxydaunomycin (VIII), which is finally deprotected by treated with NaOH  to eliminate the trifluoroacetyl groups


Trade Names

Country Trade name Manufacturer
Germany Zavedos Pharmacia
France – “- Pfizer
United Kingdom – “- Pharmacia
Italy – “- Pharmacia & Upjohn
Japan Idamitsin Pfizer
Ukraine Zavedos Actavis Italy SpA, Italy
Idalek CJSC “Biolik”, Ukraine
Zavedos Pfizer Іtaliya Srl, Іtaliya
Rubidium NGO “Lance Farm”, Russia
other generic drugs


  • Capsules of 5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg;
  • vial of 5 mg, 10 mg (hydrochloride)

IDAMYCIN PFS Injection contains idarubicin hydrochloride and is a sterile, semi-synthetic, preservative-free solution (PFS) antineoplastic anthracycline for intravenous use. Chemically, idarubicin hydrochloride is 5, 12-Naphthacenedione, 9-acetyl-7-[(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,9,11-trihydroxyhydrochloride, (7S-cis). The structural formula is as follows:

Idamycin PFS®  (idarubicin hydrochloride) Structural Formula Illustration

C26H27NO9•Hcl           M.W 533.96

IDAMYCIN PFS (idarubicin hydrochloride injection) is a sterile, red-orange, isotonic parenteral preservative-free solution, available in 5 mL (5 mg), 10 mL (10 mg) and 20 mL (20 mg) single-use-only vials.

Each mL contains Idarubicin HCL, USP 1 mg and the following inactive ingredients: Glycerin, USP 25 mg and Water for Injection, USP q.s. Hydrochloric Acid, NF is used to adjust the pH to a target of 3.5.

Product Name
Idarubicin Hydrochloride
Chemical Name
(7S,9S)-9-Acetyl-7-[(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-a-L- lyxo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,9,11- trihydroxy-5,12-naphthacenedione hydrochloride
Idamycin; Zavedos
Formula Wt.
Melting Point
Soluble in water and methanol.
Store Temp
Ganzina, F., Pacciarini, MA., Di Pietro, N. Invest New Drugs. 4:85-105 (1986). Tsuruo, T., Oh-Hara, T., Sudo, Y., Naito, M. Anticancer Res. 13:357-61 (1993). Belaud-Rotureau, MA., Durrieu, F., Labroille, G. et al Leukemia 14:1266-75 (2000).
Idarubicin ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1S,3S)-3-acetyl-3,5,12-trihydroxy-6,11-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydrotetracen-1-yl 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxo-α-Llyxo-hexopyranoside
Clinical data
AHFS/ monograph
MedlinePlus a691004
Pregnancy cat. D (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 97%
Half-life 22 hours
CAS number 58957-92-9 Yes
ATC code L01DB06
PubChem CID 42890
DrugBank DB01177
ChemSpider 39117 Yes
KEGG D08062 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:42068 Yes
Synonyms 9-acetyl-7-(4-amino-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-tetrahydropyran-2-yl)oxy-6,9,11-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrotetracene-5,12-dione
Chemical data
Formula C26H27NO9 
Mol. mass 497.494 g/mol


  1. Synthesis a)
    • US 4,471,052 (Adria; 9.11.1984; appl. 18.1.1982).
  2. Synthesis of b)
    • DOS 2,525,633 (Soc. Farmaceutici; appl. 06.09.1975; GB -prior. 16.12.1974).
    •  US 4,046,878 (Soc. Farmaceutici; 09/06/1977; appl. 05/22/1975; GB -prior. 12.6.1974).
    • UV and IR Spectra. H.-W. Dibbern, RM Muller, E. Wirbitzki, 2002 ECV
    • NIST / EPA / NIH Mass Spectral Library 2008
    • Handbook of Organic Compounds. NIR, IR, Raman, and UV-Vis Spectra Featuring Polymers and Surfactants, Jr., Jerry Workman.Academic Press, 2000.
    • Handbook of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of organic compounds, K. Hirayama. Plenum Press Data Division, 1967.


  1.  Package insert
  2.  Pang B, Qiao X, Janssen L, Velds A, Groothuis T, Kerkhoven R, Nieuwland M, Ovaa H, Rottenberg S, van Tellingen O, Janssen J, Huijgens P, Zwart W, Neefjes J (2013). “Drug-induced histone eviction from open chromatin contributes to the chemotherapeutic effects of doxorubicin”. Nature Communications 4: 1908. doi:10.1038/ncomms2921. PMID 23715267.

External links


Title: Idarubicin
CAS Registry Number: 58957-92-9
CAS Name: (7S,9S)-9-Acetyl-7-[(3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-a-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,9,11-trihydroxy-5,12-naphthacenedione
Additional Names: (1S,3S)-3-acetyl-1,2,3,4,6,11-hexahydro-3,5,12-trihydroxy-6,11-dioxo-1-naphthacenyl-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-a-L-lyxo-hexopyranoside; 4-demethoxydaunomycin; 4-demethoxydaunorubicin; DMDR
Manufacturers’ Codes: IMI-30; NSC-256439
Molecular Formula: C26H27NO9
Molecular Weight: 497.49
Percent Composition: C 62.77%, H 5.47%, N 2.82%, O 28.94%
Literature References: Orally active anthracycline; analog of daunorubicin, q.v. Prepn: B. Patelli et al. DE 2525633; eidem, US4046878 (1976, 1977 both to Soc. Farmac. Ital.); and antitumor activity: F. Arcamone et al., Cancer Treat. Rep. 60, 829 (1976). Total synthesis for larger scale preparation: M. J. Broadhurst et al., Chem. Commun. 1982, 158. Synthesis of optically pure isomers: Y. Kimura et al., Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 59, 423 (1986). Metabolism and biodistribution in rats: G. Zini et al., Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 16, 107 (1986). HPLC determn in plasma: S. S. N. De Graaf et al., J. Chromatogr. 491, 501 (1989). Clinical pharmacokinetics: H. C. Gillies et al., Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 23, 303 (1987). Clinical evaluation of cardiac toxicity: F. Villani et al., Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol. 25, 13 (1989). Reviews of pharmacology and antitumor efficacy: A. M. Casazza, Cancer Treat. Rep. 63, 835-844 (1979); F. Ganzina et al., Invest. New Drugs 4, 85-105 (1986). Symposium on clinical experience in acute leukemias: Semin. Oncol. 17, Suppl. 2, 1-36 (1989).
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 57852-57-0
Trademarks: Idamycin (Pharmacia & Upjohn); Zavedos (Pharmacia & Upjohn)
Molecular Formula: C26H27NO9.HCl
Molecular Weight: 533.95
Percent Composition: C 58.48%, H 5.29%, N 2.62%, O 26.97%, Cl 6.64%
Properties: Orange crystalline powder, mp 183-185° (Arcamone); also reported as mp 172-174° (Broadhurst). [a]D20 +205° (c = 0.1 in methanol) (Arcamone); also reported as [a]D20 +188° (c = 0.10 in methanol) (Kimura).
Melting point: mp 183-185° (Arcamone); mp 172-174° (Broadhurst)
Optical Rotation: [a]D20 +205° (c = 0.1 in methanol) (Arcamone); [a]D20 +188° (c = 0.10 in methanol) (Kimura)
Therap-Cat: Antineoplastic.
Keywords: Antineoplastic; Antibiotics and Analogs; Anthracyclines; Topoisomerase II Inhibitor.


1 Comment

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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