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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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CS 3001


str1

CS-3001

BB 7, VX 033

CAS 2159116-56-8
Propanoic acid, 2-[[5-bromo-4-(3-cyclopropyl-5,5-difluoro-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[c]thien-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]thio]-2-methyl-
Molecular Weight, 478.37

C17 H18 Br F2 N3 O2 S2

CStone Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd, JUNE 2018 IND FILED CHINA

URAT1 inhibitor – useful for treating hyperuricemia and gout.

The compound was originally claimed in WO2017202291 , covering thiophene derivative URAT1 inhibitors, useful for treating hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis, assigned to Medshine Discovery Inc , but naming the inventors.and has been reported in some instances to be a URAT1 modulator. In June 2018, an IND application was filed in

Uric acid is a product of the metabolism of terpenoids in animals. For humans, due to the lack of uric acid enzymes that continue to oxidatively degrade uric acid, uric acid is excreted in the human body as the final product of sputum metabolism through the intestines and kidneys. Renal excretion is the main pathway for uric acid excretion in humans. The upper limit of the normal range of uric acid concentration in the human body is: male 400 μmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) and female 360 μmol/L (6 mg/dL). Abnormal uric acid levels in the human body are often due to an increase in uric acid production or a decrease in uric acid excretion. Conditions associated with abnormal levels of uric acid include hyperuricemia, gout, and the like.
Hyperuricemia refers to a disorder in which the metabolism of substances in the human body is disordered, resulting in an increase or decrease in the synthesis of uric acid in the human body, and an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. Gouty arthritis refers to the fact that when uric acid is more than 7 mg/dL in human blood, uric acid is deposited as a monosodium salt in the joints, cartilage and kidneys, causing excessive reaction (sensitivity) to the body’s immune system and causing painful inflammation. The general site of attack is the big toe joint, ankle joint, knee joint and so on. Red, swollen, hot, and severe pain in the site of acute gout attacks, usually in the midnight episode, can make people wake up from sleep. In the early stages of gout, the attack is more common in the joints of the lower extremities. Hyperuricemia is the pathological basis of gouty arthritis. The use of drugs to lower blood uric acid concentration is one of the commonly used methods to prevent gouty arthritis.
In Europe and the United States, the onset of hyperuricemia and gout disease is on the rise. Epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of gouty arthritis accounts for 1-2% of the total population and is the most important type of arthritis in adult males. Bloomberg estimates that there will be 17.7 million gout patients in 2021. In China, the survey showed that among the population aged 20 to 74, 25.3% of the population had a high blood uric acid content and 0.36% had gout disease. At present, clinical treatment drugs mainly include 1) inhibition of uric acid-producing drugs, such as xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol and febuxostat; 2) uric acid excretion drugs, such as probenecid and benzbromarone; 3) Inflammation inhibitors, such as colchicine. These drugs have certain defects in treatment, poor efficacy, large side effects, and high cost are some of the main bottlenecks in their clinical application. It has been reported that 40%-70% of patients with serum uric acid levels do not meet the expected therapeutic goals (<6mg/dL) after receiving standard treatment.
As a uric acid excretion agent, its mechanism of action is to reduce the reabsorption of uric acid by inhibiting the URAT1 transporter on the brush-like edge membrane of the proximal convoluted tubule. Uric acid is a metabolite of sputum in the body. It is mainly filtered by glomerulus in the original form, reabsorbed and re-secreted by the renal tubules, and finally excreted through the urine. Very few parts can be secreted into the intestinal lumen by mesenteric cells. The S1 segment of the proximal convoluted tubule is a site of uric acid reabsorption, and 98% to 100% of the filtered uric acid enters the epithelial cells through the uric acid transporter URAT1 and the organic anion transporter OAT4 on the brush epithelial cell border of the tubular epithelial cells. The uric acid entering the epithelial cells is reabsorbed into the capillaries around the tubules via the renal tubular basement membrane. The S2 segment of the proximal convoluted tubule is the site of re-secretion of uric acid, and the amount secreted is about 50% of the excess of the small filter. The uric acid in the renal interstitial enters the epithelial cells first through the anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 on the basal membrane of the tubular epithelial cells. The uric acid entering the epithelial cells passes through another anion transporter MRP4 on the brush border membrane and is discharged into the small lumen. The S3 segment of the proximal convoluted tubule may be a reabsorption site after uric acid secretion, and the amount of reabsorption is about 40% of the excess of the microsphere filtration, and similar to the first step of reabsorption, URAT1 may be a key reabsorption transporter. Therefore, if the urate transporter URAT1 can be significantly inhibited, it will enhance the excretion of uric acid in the body, thereby lowering blood uric acid level and reducing the possibility of gout attack.
In December 2015, the US FDA approved the first URAT1 inhibitor, Zurampic (Leinurad). The 200 mg dose was approved in combination with xanthine oxidase inhibitor XOI (such as Febuxostat, etc.) for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis, but the combination was compared with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. The effect is not very significant. The Zurampic 400 mg dose was not approved due to significant toxic side effects at high doses (the incidence of renal-related adverse events, especially the incidence of kidney stones). Therefore, the FDA requires the Zurampic label to be filled with a black box warning to warn medical staff Zulampic of the risk of acute kidney failure, especially if it is not used in conjunction with XOI. If the over-approved dose uses Zurampic, the risk of kidney failure is even greater. high. At the same time, after the FDA asked for the listing of Zurampic, AstraZeneca continued its investigation of kidney and cardiovascular safety. Therefore, the development of a new type of safe blood-supplemented uric acid drug has become a strong demand in this field.
WO2009070740 discloses Leinurad, which has the following structure:
SYN
PATENT

WO-2019101058

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019101058&tab=FULLTEXT&maxRec=1000

Novel crystalline forms of URAT1 inhibitor (designated as Forms A and B) are claimed. The compounds are disclosed to be useful for treating hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis.

Novel crystalline forms of a URAT1 inhibitor, designated as Forms A and B, and their preparation.

Example 1: Preparation of a compound of formula (I)
synthetic route:
Step 1: Synthesis of Compound 2
In a three-necked flask (10 L), 4.5 L of dimethyl sulfoxide was added, and potassium t-butoxide (836.66 g, 7.46 mol, 2 eq) was added with stirring, and stirring was continued for 10 minutes until the dissolution was clear, and then cooled to an ice water bath. The internal temperature of the reaction solution was 20-25 °C. To the above solution, a solution of Compound 1 (500.05 g, 3.73 mol, 1 eq) in dimethyl sulfoxide (500 mL) was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes, and then carbon disulfide (283.86 g, 3.73 mol, 1 eq) was added dropwise thereto. ), after the completion of the dropwise addition, the reaction was stirred for 30 minutes. Further, ethyl bromoacetate (1250 g, 7.46 mol, 2 eq) was added dropwise thereto, and the mixture was stirred for further 2 hours. Finally, potassium carbonate (515.52 g, 7.46 mol, 1 eq) was added, and the temperature was raised to an internal temperature of 65 ° C, and the reaction was further stirred for 8 hours. After the reaction was completed, the reaction solution was cooled to room temperature. The reaction solution was diluted with ethyl acetate (10 L), and then 1M hydrochloric acid (2 L) and water (2 L) were added and stirred for 10 minutes, and the mixture was allowed to stand. The aqueous layer was separated and the organic phase was washed with water (2L×3). The combined aqueous layers were extracted with ethyl acetate (3L). All organic phases were combined and washed with saturated brine (2 L×2). The organic phase was dried over an appropriate amount of anhydrous sodium sulfate, and then filtered, and then evaporated. On the same scale, 6 batches were fed in parallel, and the combined black and red oily products were obtained. After the crude product was allowed to stand for 72 hours, a large amount of solid was precipitated, ethanol (2 L) was added thereto, stirred for 30 minutes, filtered, and the cake was collected and dried in vacuo to give Compound 2. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 4.32 (Q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 4.19 (Q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.56 (S, 2H), 3.25 (T, J = 6.8Hz , 2H), 3.19 (t, J = 14.4 Hz, 2H), 2.26-2.17 (m, 2H), 1.37 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.27 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H); MS m/z = 364.8 [M+H] + .
Step 2: Synthesis of Compound 3
Compound 2 (241.00 g, 0.66 mol) was dissolved in ethanol (1 L) and placed in an autoclave (5 L), and Raney nickel (120 g) was added under argon atmosphere, followed by the addition of ethanol (2 L). The autoclave was charged and replaced with argon three times, then replaced with hydrogen three times, hydrogen was charged to a pressure of 2.0 MP in the autoclave, stirred and heated to an internal temperature of 85 ° C for 28 hours. The reaction was stopped, the reaction system was cooled to room temperature, the reaction solution was filtered, and the filter cake was washed three times with ethanol, 0.5 L each time. The filtrates were combined and then dried to give compound 3. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 7.09 (S, IH), 4.26 (Q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.20 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 3.12 (T, J = 14.4Hz , 2H), 2.20-2.10 (m, 2H), 1.30 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H); MS m/z = 247.0 [M+H] + .
Step 3: Synthesis of Compound 4
Compound 3 (406.2 g, 1.65 mol, 1 eq) was dissolved in acetonitrile (6 L), then N-bromosuccinimide (1484.2 g, 6.60 mol, 4 eq) was slowly added, and the obtained reaction mixture was at 23 to 25 ° C. The reaction was stirred for 12 hours. After the reaction was completed, the reaction liquid was concentrated to about 1.0 L. The solid was removed by filtration, and a saturated solution of sodium hydrogensulfite (1 L) was added to the filtrate and stirred for 10 min. Add acid ethyl ester and extract three times, 2L each time. The organic phases were combined and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The desiccant was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. Petroleum ether (3 L) was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred at 30 ° C for 30 minutes. After filtration, the filter cake was washed 5 times with petroleum ether, 200 mL each time, until no product remained in the filter cake. Combine all the organic phases and spin dry to obtain a crude product. Petroleum ether (100 mL) was added to the crude product, stirred well, filtered, and filtered, and then dried in vacuo. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3) [delta]: 4.24 (Q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.19 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.95 (T, J = 14.4Hz, 2H), 2.17-2.07 (m, 2H), 1.29 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H).
Step 4: Synthesis of Compound 5
Compound 4 (340.21 g, 1.05 mol), cyclopropylboronic acid (108.12 g, 1.26 mol), anhydrous potassium phosphate (444.98 g, 2.10 mol), palladium acetate (12.03 g, 53.58 mmol) and 2-dicyclohexyl Phospho-2′,4′,6′-triisopropylbiphenyl (23.86 g, 50.05 mmol) was added to a mixed solvent of toluene and water (10:1, 3.4 L/340 mL), and the reaction flask was replaced with nitrogen. After that, place it in an oil bath. The reaction solution was heated at an internal temperature of 80 ° C, and the reaction was stirred at this temperature for 16 hours. After completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was cooled to room temperature, and tris-thiocyanic acid (6.51 g, suspended in ethanol (34 mL)) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 0.5 hour. On a similar scale (300.00 g of compound 4), 5 batches were fed in parallel and combined. After filtration, the organic phase was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (250mL). The organic phases were combined and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The desiccant was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield crude crude oil. After the crude product was allowed to stand for 20 hours, a yellow solid was precipitated, and petroleum ether (3 L) was added thereto and stirred for 1 hour. Filtration and drying of the filter cake in vacuo gave compound 5. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 4.29 (Q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 3.23 (T, J = 6.4Hz, 2H), 3.16 (T, J = 14.8 Hz, 2H), 2.24-2.18 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.85 (m, 1H), 1.35 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.09-1.07 (m, 2H), 0.77-0.75 (m, 2H).
Step 5: Synthesis of Compound 6
Compound 5 (619.27 g, 2.16 mol) was added to a mixed solution of ethanol and water (3 L/3 L) of sodium hydroxide (173.55 g, 4.33 mol), and the reaction liquid was heated to an internal temperature of 60 ° C to stir the reaction 3 hour. After the reaction was completed, the reaction solution was cooled to room temperature. On a similar scale (750.17 g of compound 5), 1 batch was fed in parallel and combined. The combined reaction solution was extracted with petroleum ether (4 L). The organic phase was separated and the organic phase was backwashed twice with water (1.5L x 2). The aqueous phases were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to remove ethanol. Water was added to the aqueous phase to dilute to 13 L, and then slowly added with dilute hydrochloric acid (3 M) to adjust to pH = 2, and a large amount of pale yellow solid precipitated. Filter and filter cake with water (3.0L x 2). After draining, the filter cake was collected and dried under vacuum at 60 ° C to give Compound 6. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D . 6 ) [delta]: 12.79 (brs, IH), 3.23 (T, J = 14.8 Hz, 2H), 3.07 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.27-2.20 (m, 2H), 2.19-2.02 (m, 1H), 1.09-1.04 (m, 2H), 0.68-0.66 (m, 2H).
Step 6: Synthesis of Compound 7
Compound 6 (641.27 g, 2.48 mol), triethylamine (754.07 g, 7.45 mol) and diphenyl azide (1025.34 g, 3.73 mol) were added to t-butanol (6.5 L) with stirring. The reaction solution was heated in a 100 ° C oil bath for 16 hours. After the reaction was completed, it was cooled to room temperature. On a similar scale (650.00 g of compound 6), 4 batches were fed in parallel and combined. The reaction mixture was combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to remove t-butyl alcohol. The remaining black residue was dissolved with ethyl acetate (10L). Dry with an appropriate amount of anhydrous sodium sulfate. The desiccant was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a crude brown solid. Petroleum ether (8 L) was added to the crude product and stirred for 2 hours. After filtration, the filter cake was rinsed with petroleum ether (1 L) in portions, and the filter cake was vacuum dried in a vacuum oven at 60 ° C to obtain Compound 7. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 6.31 (brs, IH), 3.11 (T, J = 14.8 Hz, 2H), 2.66 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.23-2.15 (m, 2H) , 1.82-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.51 (s, 9H), 0.94-0.90 (m, 2H), 0.68-0.65 (m, 2H).
Step 7: Synthesis of Compound 8
Compound 7 (1199.17 g, 3.64 mol) was added to ethyl acetate (2 L), and then stirred and then ethyl acetate (4L, 16. The reaction solution was reacted at 15 ° C for 2.5 hours, and then placed in a 40 ° C warm water bath to continue the reaction for 2 hours. After the reaction was completed, a large amount of dark red solid precipitated. Filter and filter cake was rinsed with ethyl acetate (2.0 L). The filter cake was dried under vacuum in a vacuum oven at 60 ° C to give compound 8. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-D . 6 ) [delta]: 3.17 (T, J = 14.8 Hz, 2H), 2.82 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.25-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.00-1.94 ( m, 1H), 0.99-0.95 (m, 2H), 0.58-0.54 (m, 2H); MS m/z = 229.8 [M+H-HCl] + .
Step 8: Synthesis of Compound 9
In a 3 L three-necked flask, Compound 8 (301.25 g) was added to tetrahydrofuran (600 mL), and the mixture was cooled to an internal temperature of 0 to 10 ° C under ice-cooling. Diisopropylethylamine (635.72 g) was added dropwise, and after completion of the dropwise addition, the ice water bath was removed, and the mixture was stirred at an internal temperature of 10 to 15 ° C for about 10 minutes. Filter and filter cake was washed with tetrahydrofuran (100 mL x 2). The filtrates were combined to give a solution A for use.
Tetrahydrofuran (2 L) was added to a 5 L reaction flask containing thiophosgene (257.48 g). The mixture was stirred and cooled to an internal temperature of 0 to 10 ° C in an ice water bath, and the solution A was slowly added dropwise thereto, and the dropwise addition was completed within about 5.5 hours, and stirring was continued for 10 minutes. After the reaction was completed, it was filtered, and the filter cake was washed with tetrahydrofuran (150 mL × 2). The filtrate was combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to remove solvent. Tetrahydrofuran (400 mL) was added to the residue, which was dissolved to give a solution B.
The hydrazine hydrate (112.94 g) was added to tetrahydrofuran (2.5 L), and the mixture was cooled to an internal temperature of 5 to 10 ° C under ice-cooling. Solution B was added dropwise, and the addition was completed for about 2 hours, and stirring was continued for 10 minutes. After the reaction was completed, the reaction was stopped. The ice water bath was removed, N,N-dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (333.45 g) was added, and the mixture was heated to an internal temperature of 60 to 65 ° C, and the reaction was stopped after the heat retention reaction for 3 hours.
The reaction solution was dried to dryness, and ethyl acetate (2 L) and purified water (1L) were added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred. The pH was adjusted to 5-6 with 10% hydrobromic acid, stirring was continued for 5 minutes, and allowed to stand for 10 minutes. Dispense and separate the aqueous phase. The organic phase was washed with pure water (500 mL x 2). The combined aqueous phases were extracted with EtOAc (1 mL). The desiccant was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to dryness. n-Heptane (2.0 L) and tert-butyl methyl ether (150 mL) were added to the crude product, and the mixture was stirred ( stirring speed 550 rpm) for 18 hours. Filter and filter cake was washed with n-heptane (150 mL). The filter cake was collected and the filter cake was dried under vacuum at 60 ° C to give compound 9. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 7.82 (S, IH), 3.20 (T, J = 14.8 Hz, 2H), 2.74 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.28-2.10 (m, 2H) , 1.98-1.82 (m, 1H), 1.06-1.02 (m, 2H), 0.75-0.71 (m, 2H); MS m/z = 313.9 [M+H] + .
Step 9: Synthesis of Compound 10
Acetonitrile (3 L) was placed in a 5 L three-necked flask. Compound 9 (303.25 g) and potassium carbonate (261.83 g) were added first with stirring. Further, methyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (203.85 g) was added, and the reaction system was replaced with nitrogen, and then heated to an internal temperature of 60 to 65 ° C, and the reaction was kept for about 2 hours. After the completion of the reaction, the heating was stopped, and the mixture was naturally cooled to 15 to 20 ° C under stirring. Filter and filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (100 mL x 3). The filtrate was combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (mobile phase: ethyl acetate / n-heptane = 1:5 to 2:1). . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 8.20 (S, IH), 3.68 (S, 3H), 3.19 (T, J = 14.4Hz, 2H), 2.57 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.22 -2.12 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.83 (m, 1H), 1.67 (s, 6H), 1.08-1.03 (m, 2H), 0.73-0.69 (m, 2H); MS m/z = 414.0 [M +H] + .
Step 10: Synthesis of Compound 11
Acetonitrile (3.17 L) was placed in a 5 L three-necked flask. Under stirring, compound 10 (317.22 g) and thiocarbonyldiimidazole (26.94 g) were added, and the mixture was stirred at 16 to 20 ° C for 5 minutes. N-bromosuccinimide (158.60 g) was added and stirred for about 30 minutes with heat. After the reaction was over, the reaction was stopped. Filtration and concentration of the filtrate under reduced pressure afforded crude crude. The crude product was purified by column chromatography (EtOAc:EtOAc:EtOAc This crude product was dissolved in ethyl acetate (3.50 L) and washed with purified water (700 mL×4). The organic phase was separated and the organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The desiccant was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was concentrated to dryness to give Compound 11. . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta]: 3.73 (S, 3H), 3.22 (T, J = 14.4Hz, 2H), 2.53 (T, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 2.24-2.14 (m, 2H) , 1.95-1.91 (m, 1H), 1.71 (d, J = 4.4 Hz, 6H), 1.11-1.07 (m, 2H), 0.78-0.74 (m, 2H); MS m/z = 491.7 [M+H ] + ,493.7[M+H+2] + .
Step 11: Synthesis of a compound of formula (I)
Tetrahydrofuran (1.2 L) was added to a 5 L reaction flask, and Compound 11 (243.03 g) was added with stirring. After the solution was dissolved, pure water (1.2 L) was added, and then lithium hydroxide monohydrate (125.46 g) was added, and the mixture was stirred at 20 to 25 ° C for about 2.5 hours. After the reaction was completed, the reaction was stopped. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure at 40 ° C to remove organic solvent. Pure water (1 L) was added to the residue, and the mixture was extracted with t-butyl methyl ether (300 mL). The aqueous phase was placed in a 10 L three-necked flask and cooled to 5 to 10 ° C in an ice bath. The pH was adjusted to 2 to 3 with a 40% hydrobromic acid solution, and a large amount of a pale yellow solid precipitated. Stirring was continued for 30 minutes, and the pH was again measured to be 2-3. Stirring was continued for 20 minutes and filtered. The filter cake was washed with pure water (150 mL x 3). The filter cake was collected, pure water (1500 mL) was added, and the mixture was beaten at room temperature for 1 hour. After filtration, the filter cake was washed with pure water (150 mL × 2), and the filter cake was collected and dried under vacuum at 40 ° C for 3 hours to obtain a compound of the formula (I). . 1 H NMR (400 MHz, the CD . 3 the OD) [delta]: 3.27 (T, J = 15.6Hz, 2H), 2.60-2.47 (m, 2H), 2.27-2.17 (m, 2H), 2.10-2.03 (m, IH) , 1.68 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 6H), 1.15.10.10 (m, 2H), 0.80-0.71 (m, 2H); MS m/z = 477.99 [M+H] + , 480.1 [M+H+ 2] + .
Example 2: Preparation of Form A of Compound of Formula (I)
The compound of the formula (I) (50 mg) was added to a glass bottle, and methanol (0.4 mL) was added thereto, followed by stirring to a suspension or a solution. The suspension sample was placed in a thermomixer (40 ° C), shaken at 40 ° C for 60 hours, and then centrifuged to collect a sample. The above-mentioned lysed sample was volatilized at room temperature, centrifuged, and the sample was collected. The above sample was dried in a vacuum oven (40 ° C) overnight, and its crystalline form was examined by XRPD to obtain a crystal form of the final product having a crystalline form of the compound of the formula (I).
The compound of the formula (I) (50 mg) was added to a glass bottle, and ethyl acetate (0.4 mL) was added and stirred to a suspension or a solution. The suspension sample was placed in a thermomixer (40 ° C), shaken at 40 ° C for 60 hours, and then centrifuged to collect a sample. The above-mentioned lysed sample was volatilized at room temperature, centrifuged, and the sample was collected. The above sample was dried in a vacuum oven (40 ° C) overnight, and its crystalline form was examined by XRPD to obtain a crystal form of the final product having a crystalline form of the compound of the formula (I).
Example 3: Preparation of Form B of Compound of Formula (I)
The compound of the formula (I) (50 mg) was added to a glass bottle, tetrahydrofuran (0.4 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred to dissolve. The above-mentioned lysed sample was volatilized at room temperature, centrifuged, and the sample was collected. The collected sample was dried in a vacuum oven (40 ° C) overnight, and its crystalline form was examined by XRPD to obtain a crystalline form of the final product in the form of Form B of the compound of formula (I).
Example 4: Solubility test of Form A of the compound of formula (I)
1. Preparation of diluent and mobile phase
Diluent: Accurately measure 300mL of pure water and 100mL of pure acetonitrile, mix in a 1L glass bottle, ultrasonic degassing for 10 minutes and then set aside.
Mobile phase A: 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution

For example, remove 2.0 mL of phosphoric acid into 2000 mL of water, sonicate for 10 minutes, mix, and let cool to room temperature as mobile phase A.

Mobile phase B: acetonitrile.
2. Preparation of the reference solution (using the A crystal form itself as a control sample)
Accurately weigh 5 mg of Form A, place it in a sample vial, add 10 mL of diluent, sonicate for 5 minutes, then cool to room temperature and mix well, and mark it as working reference solution STD-1.
Accurately weigh 5 mg of Form A, place it in a sample vial, add 10 mL of diluent, sonicate for 5 minutes, then cool to room temperature and mix well, and mark it as working reference solution STD-2.
3. Preparation of linear solution
The above working reference solution STD-1 was diluted 1 time, 10 times, 100 times, 1000 times and 2000 times, and recorded as linear solutions L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5.
4. Solubility test
Accurately weigh 6mg of A crystal form into 8mL glass bottle, then accurately add 3mL different solvent (0.1N hydrochloric acid solution, 0.01N hydrochloric acid solution, purified water, pH3.8 buffer solution, pH4.5 buffer solution, pH5 .5 buffer solution, pH 6.0 buffer solution, pH 7.4 buffer solution, pH 6.8 buffer solution), made into a suspension. A stir bar was added to the above suspension, and the mixture was thoroughly stirred at 37 ° C in the dark. After stirring, the solids in the pH 7.4 buffer solution and the pH 6.8 buffer solution were all dissolved, and 6 mg of the A crystal form was accurately weighed, added to the buffer solution, and thoroughly stirred again to prepare a suspension. After stirring for 4 hours and 24 hours, the sample was centrifuged, and the solution was filtered through a filter and the concentration thereof was measured by HPLC. The HPLC analysis method is shown in Table 3.
Table 3: HPLC analysis methods

////////////CS-3001, BB 7, VX 033, CHINA, PRECLINICAL, CStone Pharmaceuticals, URAT1 inhibitor,  hyperuricemia, gout

O=C(O)C(C)(C)Sc4nnc(Br)n4c2sc(c1CC(F)(F)CCc12)C3CC3

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Topiroxostat 托匹司他 for gout and hyperuricemia


 

str1

 

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000001

Topiroxostat

托匹司他

FUJI YAKUHIN  ……..INNOVATOR

Approved in japan PMDA JUNE 28 2013

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor

FOR GOUT AND HYPERURICEMIA

Launched – 2013, Fuji YakuhinSanwa, Topiloric  Uriadec

IUPAC Name: 4-(5-pyridin-4-yl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)pyridine-2-carbonitrile

CAS Registry Number: 577778-58-6

4 – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – triazol-3 – yl] pyridine-2 – carbonitrile (1)

5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole

3-(3-cyano-4-pyridyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole
Synonyms: 4-(5-PYRIDIN-4-YL-1H-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-3-YL)PYRIDINE-2-CARBONITRILE,

AC1NRB9T, Topiroxostat (JAN/INN),  DB01685, D09786, FYX-051
SK-0910

4-[5-PYRIDIN-4-YL-1H-[1,2,4]TRIAZOL-3-YL]-PYRIDINE-2-CARBONITRILE,

C13H8N6 MF,248.2482 MW

TOPIROXOSTAT

托匹司他

A xanthine oxidase inhibitor used to treat gout and hyperuricemia.

PATENT EXP 3/12/22, US /EU/CN

 

str1

FYX-051, TOPIROXOSTAT is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. This agent was approved in Japan by Fuji Yakuhin and Sanwa for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia in 2013 and launched at the same year. In 2009, the compound was licensed to Sanwa by Fuji Yakuhin in Japan for the codevelopment and commercialization of gout.

The number of patients with hyperuricemia in Japan is reported to be 1.25 million and the number suffering from asymptomatic hyperuricemia is estimated to reach several millions. Hyperuricemia is becoming a popular disease.

Presently, hyperuricemia and gout due to hyperuricemia are treated by improving the living environment and administering various drug therapies for each period when an attack of gout is predicted to occur (presymptomatic period), when an attack of gout occurs, or when an attack of gout subsides. That is, preventive therapy is conducted in the presymptomatic period by administering colchicines as well as controlling the daily living environment. When an attack occurs, drug therapy using non-steroidal or steroidal anti-inflammatory agents is mainly conducted. After the attack subsides, patients are given guidance to improve their lifestyle. When improvement is judged insufficient, an assessment is made as to whether hyperuricemia is caused by reduced excretion of uric acid or by increased production of uric acid followed by treatment with drugs, which exhibit a uricosuric effect, such as probenecid and benzbromarone, those which inhibit resorption of uric acid, such as sulfinpyrazone, those which improve acidurea conditions, such as citrates, and xanthine oxidase inhibitors which inhibit production of uric acid, such as allopurinol. Colchicine is said to be able to prevent about 90% of attacks through inhibiting chemotaxis and phagocytosis of leukocytes, such as neutrophils, if administration thereof has been completed within a few hours before the attack. Since colchicine has various adverse effects, however, the use thereof is limited to the minimum and it is therefore difficult to timely administer it.

Accordingly, drug therapies are mainly adopted, but only allopurinol is available for the treatment of a disease caused by increased production of uric acid. However, a metabolite of allopurinol, oxypurinol, tends to accumulate and may cause calculi formation. Furthermore, this drug has been reported to induce adverse events such as rash, a decreased renal function and hepatitis, and it is not easy to administer.

Examples of compounds having xanthine oxidase inhibiting activity that can be used for treating gout caused by increased production of uric acid and that are effective for hyperuricemia and gout due to hyperuricemia have been described in J. Medicinal Chemistry, 1975, Vol. 18, No. 9, pp. 895–900, Japanese Patent Publication No. 49-46622 and Japanese Patent Publication No. 50-24315, which disclose some 1,3,5-substituted or 3,5-substituted 1,2,4-triazole compounds.

4 – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – triazol-3 – yl] pyridine-2 – carbonitrile (1) has a xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and serum uric acid level known as the agent that reduces (Patent Document 1).

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000001

The method for producing the compound (1), for example, 2 by Reissert Henze reaction isonicotinic acid methyl N-oxide – is a cyano isonicotinate, and the hydrazide which is then, 4 – this condensed cyanopyridine After obtaining a hydrazide of isonicotinic acid N-oxide (Patent Document 1, Example 12) and method, a cyano group after introduction, 4 by Reissert Henze reaction – method of condensing a cyano pyridine is known (Patent Document 1, Example 39).Further, 4 – as a starting material cyano-N-oxide, a triazole ring after construction (Patent Document 3), Reissert Henze unprotected or (Patent Document 2) to protect the ring condensed with isonicotinic acid hydrazide method of obtaining the compound (1) by introducing a cyano group by the reaction have also been reported.

The crystalline polymorph, yet the same molecule with the same chemical composition, the molecular arrangement in the crystal are different, and are different crystalline states. The pharmaceutical compounds having crystal polymorphism such the differences in physicochemical properties, affect pharmacological activity, solubility, bioavailability, stability and the like are known.Therefore, when the crystal polymorphism is present in a pharmaceutically useful compound, producing compounds of the crystalline form highly useful from polymorphs thereof is desirable.

WO 2003/064410 discloses WO 2005/009991 discloses Japanese Patent Publication No. 2005-41802

However, 4 of the above Patent Document – no description about the presence of crystalline polymorph on carbonitrile – pyridine-2-[yl 5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – – -3 triazol] It has not been, to these manufacturing methods, it is disclosed a method for the purpose of improving the chemical purity and yield, there is no description of the crystallographic plane.

Method of producing topiroxostat, useful for preventing or treating gout; and its intermediates. Picks up from WO2012060308, claiming the use of this topiroxostat for treating renal dysfunction. Along with the concurrently published WO2014017515, claiming crystalline Forms I and II of this compound, which, Fuji Yakuhin, in collaboration with Sanwa Kagaku, has developed and launched for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia.WO-2014017516

Crystalline Forms I and II of topiroxostat, useful for preventing or treating gout. Along with the concurrently published WO2014017516, claiming a method of producing this compound. Picks up from WO2012060308, claiming a method of treating renal dysfunction using topiroxostat, which Fuji Yakuhin, in collaboration with Sanwa Kagaku, has developed and launched for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia.WO-2014017515

novel 1,2,4-triazole compounds having an optionally substituted 2-cyanopyridin-4-yl group at 3-position and an optionally substituted aromatic group at 5-position inhibit a xanthine oxidase and are useful for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia, and have previously filed a patent application (Patent Document 1). The compounds can be prepared according to a method shown by the following reaction scheme:

  • Figure imgb0001
    wherein TMS represents trimethylsilyl group and Ar represents an aromatic group
    Although this method can achieve the object in a small-scale production, there were such problems that the process for production of a substituted or unsubstituted 2-cyanoisonicotinic acid hydrazide is complicated, and a reaction solvent must be selected in compliance with the physical property of the product compound in each step, and isolation of a product is required in each step. Furthermore, the overall yield is not sufficiently high, and therefore there is a problem in the production on an industrial scale.
    Patent Document 1: JP-A-2002-017825
    • A compound represented by formula (1) which is a starting material may be prepared by a method described in, for example, JP-A-47-7120, JP-A-61-152661A, JP-A-62-149673, JP-A-2002-528447, or European Patent Application No. 559363 specification. However, it is preferable to prepare compound (1) according to the following reaction scheme:
    • Figure imgb0004

 

SYNTHESIS

 

 

 

 

PATENT

EP1650204A1

    Example 2
      Preparation of 5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole p-toluenesulfonate

    • To the toluene solution obtained in Example 1 (2) was added 2-propanol (700 mL), and the mixture was stirred. To the resulting solution was added p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (151.16 g) and the resulting mixture was stirred for 8 hours at an internal temperature of 80°C. The mixture was brought to room temperature, and the precipitated crystals were taken out and washed with 2-propanol (210 mL×2). The white crystals were dried under reduced pressure at 60°C for 15 hours to give 106.0 g of the captioned compound as white crystals. Subsequently, 90.0 g of the crystals was suspended in a mixture of 2-butanol (49 mL) and water (491 mL) and heated to an internal temperature of 80°C for 1 hour. The internal temperature was brought to room temperature, and the crystals were filtered and washed with a mixture of 2-butanol and water (1:10) (270 mL×3). The resulting crystals were dried under reduced pressure at 60°C for 15 hours to give 75.7 g of the captioned compound in a high purity.
    • 1H―NMR(DMSO-d6)δppm:2.29(s,3H), 7.11 (m,2H), 7.48 (dd, 2H, J=6.48, 1.62Hz) , 8.32-8.35(m, 3H) , 8.57(dd, 1H, J=1.62, 0.81Hz) , 8.94-8.98(m, 3H)

Example 3

Preparation of 5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole

  • To the white crystals (50.5g) obtained in Example 2 was added 2-propanol (937.5 mL) and water (312.5 mL), and the resulting mixture was heated and dissolved at an internal temperature of 80°C. Immediately thereafter, the solution was filtered and the filtrate was cooled to an internal temperature of 20°C. To the resulting suspension was added dropwise 0.52 mol/l of an aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate solution (250 mL), and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. Then the crystals were filtered and washed with water (150 mL×3) and 2-butanol (150 mL×2). The crystals were dried under reduced pressure at 80°C for 15 hours to give 29.4 g of the captioned compound as pale yellow crystals.
  • 1H―NMR(DMSO-d6)δppm:8.02(dd, 2H, J=4.59, 1.62Hz),8.32(dd, 1H, J=5.13, 1.62Hz), 8.55(dd, 1H, J=1.62, 1.08Hz), 8.80(dd, 2H, J=4.59, 1.62Hz), 8.93 (dd, 1H, J=5.13, 1.08Hz)

 

SYNTHESIS

US7074816

Example 12

5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole

1) Production of methyl isonicotinate N-oxide

13.9 g of isonicotinic acid N-oxide was added to 209 ml of methylene chloride, 29.7 g of 1-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline was further added thereto, and the mixture was stirred under argon atmosphere at room temperature for one hour. 32.1 g of methanol was added to this mixture, which was stirred at room temperature for 17 hours. After the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, the residue was subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Chloroform-acetone (3:1) was used as an eluent to yield 11.1 g of a white powder.

1H-NMR (CDCl3) δppm: 3.95 (3H, s), 7.88 (2H, d, J=7.25 Hz), 8.22 (2H, J=7.25 Hz)

2) Production of Methyl 2-cyanoisonicotinate

11.1 g of the crystal obtained in 1) was dissolved in 170 ml of acetonitrile, 14.6 g of triethylamine and 21.5 g of trimethylsilylnitrile were added thereto, and the mixture was refluxed under argon atmosphere for 16 hours. After the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, the residue was subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Chloroform-acetone (95:5) was used as an eluent to yield 8.44 g of a pale yellow powder.

1H-NMR (CDCl3) δppm: 4.01 (3H, s), 8.08 (1H, d, J=5.45 Hz), 8.24 (1H, s), 8.90 (1H, d, J=5.45 Hz)

3) Production of 2-cyanoisonicotinic acid hydrazide

8.44 g of the crystal obtained in 2) was added to 85 ml of methanol, 1.84 g of hydrazine was further added thereto, and the mixture was stirred under argon temperature for 2 hours. After the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, chloroform was added to the residue, which was stirred at room temperature for one hour. The precipitated crystal was filtered, washed with chloroform and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 4.15 g of a pale yellow powder.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δppm: 4.72 (2H, s), 8.05 (1H, d, J=5.12 Hz), 8.31 (1H, s),8.90 (1H, d, J=5.12 Hz), 10.23 (1H, s)

4) Production of the Object Compound

2.67 g of 4-cyanopyridine was dissolved in 40 ml of methanol, 0.83 g of sodium methoxide was added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for one hour. Then 4.15 g of the crystal obtained in 3) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 37 hours. After the reaction completed, the precipitated solid was filtered, washed with methanol and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 3.66 g of the object compound as a yellow powder.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δppm: 8.01 (2H, dd, J=4.54, 1.57 Hz), 8.31 (1H, dd, J=5.11, 1.65 Hz), 8.53 (1H, dd, J=1.65, 0.50 Hz), 8.80 (2H, dd, J=4.54, 1.57 Hz), 8.93 (1H, dd, J=5.11, 0.50 Hz)

Example 39

5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole

1) Production of isonicotinic acid (N-2-tert-butoxycarbonyl)hydrazide-1-oxide

585 ml of methylene chloride was added to 39.0 g of isonicotinic acid N-oxide, and after 34.0 g of triethylamine was further added thereto, the mixture was cooled under argon atmosphere to −15° C. 33.5 g of ethyl chlorocarbonate in 117 ml of methylene chloride was added dropwise to this mixture, which was stirred at a temperature from −5 to −10° C. for one hour. Then 44.4 g of tert-butyl ester of carbamic acid in 117 ml of methylene chloride was added dropwise to this mixture and it was allowed to slowly rise to room temperature while it was stirred. The precipitated solid was filtered after 15 hours, washed with methylene chloride, and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 49.7 g of white crystal.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δppm: 1.42 (9H, s), 7.82 (2H, d, J=7.09 Hz), 8.33 (2H, d, J=7.09 Hz), 9.02 (1H, s), 10.44 (1H, s)

Production of 2-cyanoisonicotinic acid hydrazine 1½ P-Toluenesulfonic acid salt

228 ml of dioxane was added to 30.4 g of the crystal obtained in 1), and after 13.1 g of trimethylsilyl cyanide and 38.8 g of N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl chloride were further added thereto, the mixture was stirred under argon atmosphere at 60° C. for 5 hours. After the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure, the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate and subsequently washed with 1.5 M sodium carbonate aqueous solution and a saturated saline solution and dried over magnesium sulfate. After the magnesium sulfate was filtered off, the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. Ethyl acetate was added to the residue, 68.5 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate was added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 22 hours. The precipitated crystal was filtered, washed with ethyl acetate, and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 40.3 g of white crystal 2).

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δppm: 2.28 (4.5H, s), 7.12 (3H, dd, J=7.92 & 0.66 Hz), 7.48 (3H, dd, J=7.92 & 0.66 Hz), 8.10 (1H, dd, J=5.11 & 1.81 Hz), 8.39 (1H, dd, J=1.81 & 0.33 Hz), 8.99 (1H, dd, J=5.11 & 0.33 Hz)

3) Production of 5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole

9.98 g of 4-cyanopyridine was dissolved in 250 ml of methanol, and after 7.77 g of sodium methoxide was added thereto, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for one hour. Then 40.3 g of the crystal obtained in 2) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 24 hours. After the reaction completed, the precipitated crystal was filtered, washed with methanol, and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 16.3 g of yellow crystal.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δppm: 8.01 (2H, dd, J=4.54 & 1.57 Hz), 8.31 (1H, dd, J=5.11 & 1.65 Hz), 8.53 (1H, dd, J=1.65 & 0.50 Hz), 8.80 (2H, dd, J=4.54 & 1.57 Hz), 8.93 (1H, dd, J=5.11 & 0.50 Hz)

4) Production of 5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole

45 ml of ethanol and 15 ml of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone were added to 3.0 g of the crystal obtained in 3), and the mixture was heated and stirred at 80° C. for 19 hours. The crystal was filtered, subsequently washed with a mixture of ethanol and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (3:1) and ethanol, and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 2.71 g of yellow crystal.

5) Production of 5-(2-cyano-4-pyridyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole p-toluenesulfonic acid salt

5 ml of ethanol and 30 ml of water were added to 2.48 g of the crystal obtained in 4), and after 3.8 g of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate was further added thereto, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 hours. The precipitated crystal was filtered, subsequently washed with a mixture of ethanol and water (1:6), water and then ethanol, and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 3.5 g of white crystal.

1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δppm: 2.28 (3H, s), 7.12 (2H, dd, J=7.75 & 0.50 Hz), 7.48 (2H, dd, J=7.75 & 0.50 Hz), 8.33 (1H, dd, J=5.12 & 1.65 Hz), 8.45 (2H, d, J=6.11 Hz), 8.57 (1H, dd, J=1.65 & 0.66 Hz), 8.96˜9.02 (3H, m)

6) Production of the object compound

17 ml of ethanol and 17 ml of water were added to 3.36 g of the crystal obtained in 5), and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. A solution of sodium carbonate (0.74 g of sodium carbonate in 17 ml of water) was further added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The precipitated crystal was filtered, subsequently washed with water and ethanol, and dried with a vacuum pump to yield 1.89 g of the object compound as a pale yellow crystal.

 

2D image of a chemical structureTOPIROXOSTAT

SYNTHESIS

WO2014017516A1

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000020

(First step)
The first step, 4 – is a step of obtaining a compound (3) is reacted in the presence of an alkali metal alkoxide, cyano-N-oxide and (2), and isonicotinic acid hydrazide.

4 used in this reaction – isonicotinic acid hydrazide and (2) a cyano-N-oxide is a known compound both, I can be prepared by known means.
The alkali metal alkoxide is used, 6 alkoxide alkali metal C 1-C are preferred, sodium methylate, sodium ethylate and the like can be given as specific examples. The reaction is preferably carried out in a solvent, as the solvent, alcohol solvents such as methanol, ethanol and the like are preferable.

The reaction is preferably first in a solvent, is treated with an alkali metal alkoxide compound (2) and then to react the isonicotinic acid hydrazide. First, heated to reflux under cooling, at 80 ℃ from 15 ℃ preferably, 30 minutes and 12 hours in general, the reaction temperature in the reaction with an alkali metal alkoxide (2) with the compound is reacted 1-4 hours, preferably about. Under the temperature conditions, using an excess amount or one equivalent of 30 minutes to 12 hours usually, reaction with isonicotinic acid hydrazide Subsequent to reaction for 1 to 5 hours, preferably.

Example 1:

Synthesis 4 oxide (3) – – – (4 – pyridin-carbonyl) -4 – N “pyridine hydrazide imide -1 was suspended in 40mL of methanol cyanopyridine-N-oxide and (2) 5.00g, sodium was added to methylate 22.4mg, and the mixture was stirred for 2 hours under 40 ℃ nitrogen atmosphere. was cooled to room temperature. reaction solution was stirred for 4 hours at 40 ℃ was added isonicotinic acid hydrazide 5.71g at the same temperature, precipitated The filtrated crystals were, washed with methanol 15mL, and dried 15 hours at 80 ℃, N “- to give (3) 9.60g oxide – (4 – pyridin) -4 – pyridine-hydrazide imide -1.
1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 6.98 (br, 2H), 7.81 (d, 2H, J = 5.77Hz), 7.85 (d, 2H, J = 7 .09 Hz), 8.29 (d, 2H, J = 7.09Hz), 8.73 (d, 2H, J = 5.77Hz), 10.37 (br, 1H)
MS m / z: 256 [M-H] 

(Second step)
The second step is a step of obtaining compound (4) by cyanation agent cyano compound (3).

As the cyanation agent used, trialkyl cyanide alkali metal cyanide, sodium cyanide, potassium cyanide and the like, zinc cyanide, trimethylsilyl cyanide and the like.

The cyanation reaction is preferably, for example, be carried out (Heterocycles, Vol.22, No.5, 1994) by Reissert Henze reaction. This reaction, for example, to give compound (4) by an organic solvent in the compound (3), and after activation with carbamoyl halide, and reacting the cyano agent. The alkylcarbamoyl halide used in the carbamoylation is a first step in Reissert Henze reaction, 6 alkylcarbamoyl halide di C 1-C dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, and di-propyl carbamoyl chloride can be used, preferably, dimethylcarbamoyl is chloride. The solvent used in this reaction, N, N-dimethylformamide, N, N-dimethylacetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile can be used, however, N, N-dimethylformamide is preferred. Further, 15 ~ 60 ℃, more preferably 30 ~ 50 ℃ reaction temperature. The reaction time is preferably 1 to 24 hours, more preferably 1 to 3 hours. As the cyanation agent used in the cyanation reaction followed, cyano agents above can be used, sodium cyanide, potassium cyanide, zinc cyanide, and trimethylsilyl cyanide, and more preferably, it is sodium cyanide . -20 ~ 60 ℃ is preferred, more preferably -10 ~ 40 ℃, reaction temperature is 1-4 hours.

Is a novel compound (4) The compound obtained in this second step, it is useful as an intermediate for the production of compound (1). If through Compound (4) can be synthesized in good yield and easily without the need for purification in the second step is also possible, and can be produced (1) Compound industrially efficiently compound (4).

Synthetic N “hydrazide (4) – (4 – pyridine carbonyl) -4 – pyridine carboxylic acid N’-(carboxylic imidoyloxy – 2 – – cyano-4)

Example 2

4 pyridine hydrazide imide -1 – oxide ( was suspended in N, N-dimethylformamide 48mL and 3) 10.0g, under nitrogen atmosphere, followed by stirring for 1 hour was added dimethylcarbamoyl chloride 9.20g at 40 ℃. was added sodium cyanide 2.48g at the same temperature, After cooling to 5 ℃ below. reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hour, the crystals were collected by filtration. precipitate was successively added dropwise a 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution 100mL, and 100mL water, and washed with water 100mL, at 80 ℃ for 15 h and dried under reduced pressure to give 4 – hydrazide (4) 9.28g of pyridine-carboxylic acid N’-(carboxylic imide yl – 2 – cyano-4).
1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 7.15 (br, 2H), 7.82 (d, 2H, J = 5.61Hz), 8.14 (d, 1H, J = 5 .11 Hz), 8.37 (s, 1H), 8.75 (d, 2H, J = 5.61Hz), 8.86 (d, 1H, J = 5.11Hz), 10.47 (br, 1H )
MS m / z: 265 [M-H] 

Figure JPOXMLDOC01-appb-C000019

(Third step)
The third step is a step of obtaining a compound (1) by the presence of an acid catalyst, the cyclization reaction of the compound (4).

As the acid, organic phosphoric acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, such as hydrochloric acid, inorganic acids can be used, inorganic acids, phosphoric acid is particularly preferable. As the reaction solvent, water, 2 – butanol, 2 – mixed solvent of alcohol and water or alcohol, propanol, ethanol and the like can be used, but water and 2 – I was mixed 5:1 to 10:1 butanol solvent. The reaction temperature and time, 60 ~ 100 ℃, preferably 2 to 12 hours at 70 ~ 90 ℃, I want to 8-10 hours, preferably.

Intermediates and compounds of the present invention the method (1) can be isolated and purified from the washed reaction mixture, recrystallization, by means of various conventional chromatography.

Example 3:

4 – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – triazol-3 – yl] pyridine-2 – carbonitrile 4 Synthesis of (1) – pyridine-carboxylic acid N’- (2 – cyano-4 – carboxylic imide yl) water 82mL, 2 hydrazide (4) 9.25g – butanol was added 8.2mL, phosphate 4.00g, was stirred for 8 h at 80 ℃. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was precipitated crystals were collected by filtration, water: 2 – were washed with a mixed solution of 92.5mL butanol = 10:1. The 13 h and dried under reduced pressure at 80 ℃ crystals obtained 4 – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl) – 1 H-1, 2,4 – triazol-3 – yl] pyridine-2 – carbonitrile (1 I got a) 7.89g.

Topiroxostat


1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 8.02 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.32 (dd, 1H, J = 5.13,1. 62Hz), 8.55 (dd, 1H, J = 1.62,1.08 Hz), 8.80 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.93 (dd, 1H, 5 .13,1.08 Hz)
MS m / z: 247 [M-H] 

PATENT

WO2014017515A1

Synthetic water-carbonitrile p-toluenesulfonate – pyridine Example 1: 4 – [yl 5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – – -3 triazol]: 2 – butanol = was added monohydrate 6.62g p-toluenesulfonic acid in a mixed solution of 55mL of 10:1, 4 at 80 ℃ – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – yl] pyridine-2 – – triazol-3 was added carbonitrile 7.85g, and the mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration, and water: 2 – were washed with a mixed solution of 40mL of butanol = 10:1. The dried under reduced pressure for 10 hours at 80 ℃ crystals obtained 4 – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – triazol-3 – yl] pyridine-2 – carbonitrile p-toluene I got a sulfonate 12.6g.
1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 2.29 (s, 3H), 7.11 (m, 2H), 7.48 (dd, 2H, J = 6.48,1.62 Hz ) ,8.32-8 .35 (m, 3H), 8.57 (dd, 1H, J = 1.62,0.81 Hz) ,8.94-8 .98 (m, 3H)

– [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – triazole and potassium carbonate 8.22g, 4 in a mixed solution of 80mL of ethanol = 9:1: preparation water of crystal form I: Example 2 I was dissolved carbonitrile p-toluenesulfonate 10.0g – -3 – yl] pyridine-2. After stirring for 5 hours plus 15mL 6M hydrochloric acid at 20 ℃, was the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration, and washed with water 100mL. The 23 h and dried under reduced pressure at 80 ℃, 4 – to obtain carbonitrile 5.78g – pyridin-2 [yl 5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – – -3 triazole. Having a DSC as shown in FIG 4 and the powder X-ray diffraction pattern shown in FIG 1, the resulting crystals were type-I crystals.
1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 8.02 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.32 (dd, 1H, J = 5.13,1. 62Hz), 8.55 (dd, 1H, J = 1.62,1.08 Hz), 8.80 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.93 (dd, 1H, 5 .13,1.08 Hz)
Melting point: 327 ℃

N, N carbonitrile 40.0g – preparation of 4 Form II – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – yl – triazol-3]-2: Example 3 – dimethylformamide was added 300mL, and stirred for 25 min at 150 ℃. After cooling to room temperature the solution, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration, and washed twice with water 200mL, 4 and dried under reduced pressure overnight at 80 ℃ the crystal – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1 , 2,4 – I got carbonitrile 30.4g – yl] pyridine-2 – triazole-3. Having a DSC as shown in FIG 5 and powder X-ray diffraction pattern shown in FIG 2, the resulting crystals were type II crystals.
1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 8.02 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.32 (dd, 1H, J = 5.13,1. 62Hz), 8.55 (dd, 1H, J = 1.62,1.08 Hz), 8.80 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.93 (dd, 1H, 5 .13,1.08 Hz)
Melting point: 327 ℃

The 25 ℃, about 2g carbonitrile, – preparation of the hydrate 4 – [5 – (pyridin-4 – yl)-1H-1, 2,4 – triazol-3 – yl] pyridine-2: Example 4 I was stored for 14 days under conditions of relative humidity 97%. Having a DSC as shown in FIG 7 and the powder X-ray diffraction pattern shown in FIG 3, the obtained crystal was a hydrate.
1 H-NMR (DMSO-d 6) δ (ppm): 8.02 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.32 (dd, 1H, J = 5.13,1. 62Hz), 8.55 (dd, 1H, J = 1.62,1.08 Hz), 8.80 (dd, 2H, J = 4.59,1.62 Hz), 8.93 (dd, 1H, 5 .13,1.08 Hz)
Melting point: 327 ℃

Test Example: solubility test Type I crystal by crystal form, II-type crystal, and water solubility of the hydrate was calculated by absorbance measurement method, a saturated solution concentration of each sample. I Figure 8 shows the results.Whereas the 6.2μg/mL water solubility of crystalline Form I, II type crystal 4.2μg/mL, hydrate was 1.9μg/mL.
From Figure 8, the water solubility of Form II and Form I crystals is good, water-soluble type I crystal is particularly good.

 

NMR

BMCL Volume 19, Issue 21, 1 November 2009, Pages 6225–6229

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X09012372?np=y

view compd 39 and ignore rest

Full-size image (3 K)TOPIROXOSTAT, FYX O51

view compd 39 and ignore rest

SUPP INFO…….https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/MiamiMultiMediaURL/1-s2.0-S0960894X09012372/1-s2.0-S0960894X09012372-mmc1.doc/271398/FULL/S0960894X09012372/50d911fe734c16dfb94912d481cb466a/mmc1.doc

1 * Baldwin, J.J., J. Med. Chem.; 1975; 18(9); 895-900, especially p. 898, lines 3-5.
2 * Geldard, J.F. et al., J. Org. Chem.; 1965; 30(1); 318-319, especially p. 319, starting line 33.
3 * Lever, A.B.P., Inorg. Chem; 1990; 29; 1271-1285, especially p. 1275, line 18 and 19.

Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, 2008 ,  vol. 27,  6-7  pg. 888 – 893

Inoue, Tsutomu; Sato, Takahiro; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Matsumoto, Koji; Nagata, Osamu; Nakamura, Hiroshi
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2009 ,  vol. 19,   21  pg. 6225 – 6229

WO 2012060308

WO 2007148835

WO 2005009991

WO2003064410A1 * Dec 3, 2002 Aug 7, 2003 Naoki Ashizawa Novel 1,2,4-triazole compound
US3882134 * May 21, 1973 May 6, 1975 Merck & Co Inc 1-Substituted-3,5-dipyridyl-1,2,4-triazoles
US3947577 * Jan 8, 1975 Mar 30, 1976 Merck & Co., Inc. Anti-hyperuricemia composition
US3984558 * Nov 29, 1974 Oct 5, 1976 Merck & Co., Inc. 1,3,5-Trisubstituted-1,2,4-triazole compounds used as bronchodilators
US4011218 * Dec 3, 1974 Mar 8, 1977 Merck & Co., Inc. 1,2,4-triazoles
US4104393 * Sep 2, 1977 Aug 1, 1978 Merck & Co., Inc. 1,3,5-Trisubstituted-1,2,4-triazole compounds
US5571897 * Dec 5, 1991 Nov 5, 1996 Wallac Oy Luminescent lanthanide chelates
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Topiroxostat
Topiroxostat.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-[5-(4-Pyridinyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]-2-pyridinecarbonitrile
Clinical data
Trade names Topiloric, Uriadec
Legal status
  • Approved in Japan
Identifiers
CAS Number 577778-58-6
ATC code None
PubChem CID: 5288320
ChemSpider 4450517
Chemical data
Formula C13H8N6
Molecular mass 248.24 g/mol

/////////////

C1=CN=CC=C1C2=NC(=NN2)C3=CC(=NC=C3)C#N

Lesinurad


ChemSpider 2D Image | Lesinurad sodium | C17H13BrN3NaO2S

Lesinurad

Acetic acid, 2-[[5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropyl-1-naphthalenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]thio]-,
sodium salt (1:1)
Sodium 2-{[5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-
yl]sulfanyl}acetate

2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid

MOLECULAR FORMULA C17H13BrN3NaO2S

MOLECULAR WEIGHT 426.3

http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01508702

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/lesinurad.pdf

Ardea Biosciences, Inc.

  • Lesinurad
  • RDEA 594
  • RDEA594
  • UNII-09ERP08I3W

Gout phase 3

Gout is associated with elevated levels of uric acid that crystallize and deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues. Gout is marked by recurrent attacks of red, tender, hot, and/or swollen joints.

This study will assess the serum uric acid lowering effects and safety of lesinurad compared to placebo in patients who are intolerant or have a contraindication to allopurinol or febuxostat.

http://euroscan.org.uk/technologies/technology/view/2386

Lesinurad (RDEA-594, lesinurad sodium) is a selective urate transporter-1 (URAT-1) inhibitor, which blocks the reabsorption of urate within the renal proximal tubule. It is intended for the treatment of gout after failure of first line therapy and is administered orally at 400mg once daily

A Phase 3 Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Placebo- Controlled Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Lesinurad Monotherapy Compared to Placebo in Subjects With Gout and an Intolerance or Contraindication to a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor

AstraZeneca’s lesinurad (formerly known as RDEA-594) is a selective oral Uric Acid Transporter URAT1 inhibitor currently in Phase III development for the treatment of of gout. The regulatory filings for lesinurad in the US and Europe are expected for the first half of 2014.

Synthesis of Lesinurad (RDEA-594), AstraZeneca’s potential blockbuster drug for gout 阿斯利康痛风试验药物Lesinurad的合成

Gout (also known as podagra when it involves the big toe), while not life-threatening, is an excruciatingly painful condition caused by a buildup of a waste product in the blood called uric acid, which is normally eliminated from the body through urine. Excess Uric acid crystallizes and get deposited in the joints (usually the big toes), creating symptoms similar to an acute arthritis flare. Gout has seen a recent gradual resurgence as a result of rising obesity rates and poor diet according to a study in the journal Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases.

The current Standard treatment for gout works by inhibiting a protein called xanthine oxidase that helps in the formation of the uric acid.  These therapies, some of which have been used for more than 50 years, are not effective in all patients.  One is a generic drug called allopurinol that was approved in the U.S. in 1966. The other is febuxostat, marketed by Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. in the U.S. asUloric and by Ipsen SA and others in Europe as Adenuric and approved in the U.S. in 2009.

AstraZeneca’s new product Lesinurad, a selective uric acid re-absorption inhibitor (SURI),  tackles gout by blocking a protein called Uric acid trasporter 1 (URAT1) that otherwise would cause the body to reabsorb the uric acid.  AstraZeneca acquired lesinurad (aka RDEA-594) as part of its $1.26 billion takeouver of San Diego-based Ardea Biosciences in 2012. RDEA594 is a metabolite of RDEA806, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor originally developed for HIV.

RDEA806 is a HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Ardea  Biosciences

In top-line results from a Phase III LIGHT study released by AstraZeneca in December 2013 on gout patients who get no benefit from Zyloprim (allopurinol)  and febuxostat, lesinurad alone significantly reduced serum levels of uric acid. The company has three other phase III studies ongoing that are testing the use of the drug alongside allopurinol and febuxostat, and these should generate results in the middle of 2014. Analysts at JPMorgan Chase forecast lesinurad alone may have peak sales of $1 billion a year. AstraZeneca also has a second, more potent drug called RDEA3179 to treat elevated levels of uric acid or hyperuricemia. Pfizer’s KUX-1151, licensed from Japan’s Kissei Phmarceuticals, is in early stage development.

Gout is not an automatic success indication of drugmakers. Savient Pharmaceuticals filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in October 2013 in the face of a severe cash crisis, having spent hundreds of millions of dollars on its would-be flagship — the gout-fighting drug Krystexxa (pegloticase) — with limited results. Krystexxa (pegloticase), a twice-monthly infusion designed to treat severe chronic gout that doesn’t respond to conventional therapy, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in September 2010. Crealta Pharmaceuticals acquired Savient for $120.4 million in December 2013.

Synthesis of Lesinurad (RDEA-594), AstraZeneca’s potential blockbuster drug for gout 阿斯利康痛风试验药物Lesinurad的合成

Lesinurad
RDEA-594
2-{[5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]sulfanyl}acetic acid
CAS number:  878672-00-5  (Lesinurad), 1151516-14-1 (Lesinurad  sodium)
Mechanism of Action:once-daily inhibitor of URAT1, a transporter in the kidney that regulates uric acid excretion from the body
US patents:US8242154 , US8173690, US808448
Indication: Gout
Developmental Status: Phase III (US, UK, EU)
Originator: Ardea Biosciences (Acquired by AstraZeneca for $1.26 billion in 2012)
Developer: AstraZeneca

…………………………

http://www.google.co.in/patents/US8242154

Example 8 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00066

Sodium hydroxide solution (2M aqueous, 33.7 mL, 67 mmol, 2 eq) was added to a suspension of 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (prepared by previously published procedures; 20 g, 34 mmol) in ethanol (200 mL) and the mixture heated at reflux for 4 hours. Charcoal (10 g) was added, the mixture stirred at room temperature for 12 hours and the charcoal removed by filtration. The charcoal was washed several times with ethanol and the filtrate then concentrated. Water (200 mL) was added and then concentrated to approx. one third volume, to remove all ethanol. Water (200 mL) and ethyl acetate (250 mL) were added, the mixture stirred vigorously for 15 mins and the organic layer removed. The aqueous layer was cooled to 0° C. and acidified by treatment with HCl (1N) resulting in the formation of a cloudy oily precipitate. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3×) and the combined organic extracts dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid as an off white solid (11.2 g, 82%).

Example 102 Methyl 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00080
Figure US08242154-20120814-C00081

Cyclopropylmagnesium bromide (150 mL, 0.5M in tetrahydrofuran) was slowly added to a solution of 1-bromonaphthalene (10 g, 50 mmol) and [1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane]dichloro nickel (II) in tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) stirred at 0° C., and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and ethyl acetate and aqueous ammonium chloride were added. After extraction, the organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-cyclopropylnaphthalene (6.4 g, 76%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00082

Sodium nitrite (30 mL) was slowly added (over 2 hours) to 1-cyclopropylnaphthalene (6.4 g, 38 mmol) stirred at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for an extra 30 min and then slowly poured into ice. Water was added, followed by ethyl acetate. After extraction, the organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide (1%) and water, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-cyclopropyl-4-nitronaphthalene (5.2 g, 64%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00083

A solution of 1-cyclopropyl-4-nitronaphthalene (5 g, 23 mmol) in ethanol (200 mL) was stirred under hydrogen in the presence of Pd/C (10% net, 1.8 g). The reaction mixture was shaken overnight, filtered over celite, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-amino-4-cyclopropylnaphthalene (3.1 g, 73%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00084

Thiophosgene (1.1 g, 9.7 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of 1-amino-4-cyclopropylnaphthalene (1.8 g, 9.7 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (2 eq) in dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 min at 0° C. and then aqueous HCl (1% solution) was added. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. Hexane was added, and the resulting precipitate was filtered. The solvent was evaporated to yield 1-cyclopropyl-4-isothiocyanatonaphthalene (1.88 g, 86%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00085

A mixture of aminoguanidine hydrochloride (3.18 g, 29 mmol), 1-cyclopropyl-4-isothiocyanatonaphthalene (3.24 g, 14 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (3 eq) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 50° C. for 15 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, toluene added, and the solvent was evaporated again. Sodium hydroxide solution (2M, 30 mL) was added and the reaction mixture heated at 50° C. for 60 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate neutralized with aqueous HCl (2M). The mixture was re-filtered and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 5-amino-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (2.0 g, 49%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00086

Methyl 2-chloroacetate (0.73 mL, 8.3 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 mins to a suspension of 5-amino-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (2.24 g, 7.9 mmol) and potassium carbonate (1.21 g, 8.7 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) at room temperature. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 24 h and slowly poured into a stirred ice-cold water solution. The tan precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under high vacuum at 50° C. for 16 h in the presence of P2Oto yield methyl 2-(5-amino-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (2.24 g, 80%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00087

Sodium nitrite (2.76 g, 40 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl 2-(5-amino-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (0.71 g, 2 mmol) and benzyltriethylammonium chloride (1.63 g, 6 mmol) in bromoform (10 mL). Dichloroacetic acid (0.33 mL, 4 mmol) was then added and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was directly loaded onto a 7-inch column of silica gel, packed with dichloromethane (DCM). The column was first eluted with DCM until all bromoform eluted, then eluted with acetone/DCM (5:95) to give methyl 2-(5-bromo-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (713 mg, 85%).

Example 104 Sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00089

Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (1M, 2.0 mL, 2.0 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 mins to a solution of 2-(5-bromo-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid (810 mg, 2.0 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) at 10° C. The mixture was stirred at 10° C. for a further 10 mins. Volatile solvents were removed in vacuo to dryness to provide sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate as a solid (850 mg, 100%).

Example 103 2-(5-Bromo-4-(1-cyclopropylnapthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00088

A solution of lithium hydroxide (98 mg, 4.1 mmol) in water (10 mL) was added dropwise over 5 mins to a solution of methyl 2-(5-bromo-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (prepared as described in example 1 above; 1.14 g, 2.7 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) and THF (10 mL) at 0° C. The mixture was stirred at 0° C. for a further 45 mins and then neutralized to pH 7 by the addition of 0.5N HCl solution at 0° C. The resulting mixture was concentrated in vacuo to ⅕th of its original volume, then diluted with water (˜20 mL) and acidified to pH 2-3 by the addition of 0.5N HCl to produce a sticky solid. (If the product comes out as an oil during acidification, extraction with DCM is recommended.) The tan solid was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under high vacuum at 50° C. for 16 h in the presence of P2Oto yield 2-(5-bromo-4-(1-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid (1.02 g, 93%).

Figure US08242154-20120814-C00123
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 0.84-0.91 (m, 2 H) 1.12-1.19 (m, 2 H) 2.54-2.61 (m, 1 H) 3.99 (d, J = 1.45 Hz, 2 H) 7.16 (d, J = 7.88 Hz, 1 H) 7.44 (d, J = 7.46 Hz, 1 H) 7.59-7.70 (m, 2 H) 7.75 (td, J = 7.62, 1.14 Hz, 1 H) 8.59 (d, J = 8.50 Hz, 1 H) 12.94 (br. s., 1 H) Mass found: 404.5 (M + 1) B

……

POLYMORPHS AND SYNTHESIS

WO2011085009A2

Described herein are various polymorphic, crystalline and mesophase forms of sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate which decreases uric acid levels, (see for example US patent publication 2009/0197825, US patent publication 2010/0056464 and US patent publication 2010/0056465). Details of clinical studies involving sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazol-3-ylthio)acetate have been described in International patent application

PCT/US2010/052958.

Polymorph Form A

In one embodiment, sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H- l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate polymorph Form A exhibits an x-ray powder diffraction pattern characterized by the diffraction pattern summarized in Table 1 A or Table IB. In some embodiments, provided herein is a polymorph of sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4- cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate comprising at least 3 peaks of (±0.1°2Θ) of Table 1A or IB. In certain embodiments, provided herein is a polymorph of sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate comprising at least 4 peaks of (±0.1°2Θ) of Table 1A or IB, at least 5 peaks of (±0.1°2Θ) of Table 1A or IB, at least 6 peaks of (±0.1°2Θ) of Table 1A or IB, at least 8 peaks of

(±0. Γ2Θ) of Table 1A or IB, at least 10 peaks of (±0. Γ2Θ) of Table 1A, at least 15 peaks of (±0. Γ2Θ) of Table 1A, at least 20 peaks of (±0. Γ2Θ) of Table 1A, at least 25 peaks of (±0.1 °2Θ) of Table 1A, or at least 30 peaks of (±0.1 °2Θ) of Table 1A.

Figure imgf000011_0002
Figure imgf000011_0001

Examples

I Preparation of compounds

Example 1: Preparation of sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazol-3-ylthio)acetate

Sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen- 1 -yl)-4H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate was prepared according to previously described procedures (see US patent publication

2009/0197825) and as outlined below.

Figure imgf000035_0001

[00103] Aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (1M, 2.0 mL, 2.0 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 min to a solution of 2-(5-bromo-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H- l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid (810 mg, 2.0 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) at 10 °C. The mixture was stirred at 10 °C for a further 10 min. Volatile solvents were removed in vacuo to dryness to provide sodium 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazol-3-ylthio)acetate as a solid (850 mg, 100%).

Example 2: Preparation of 2-(5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen- 1 -yl)-4H- 1 ,2,4-triazol- 3-ylthio)acetic acid

2-(5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen- 1 -yl)-4H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid was prepared according to previously described procedures (see US patent publication

2009/0197825) and as outlined below.

[00104] Route i:

Figure imgf000036_0001

Sodium hydroxide solution (2M aqueous, 33.7 mL, 67 mmol, 2 eq) was added to a suspension of 2-(5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)-N- (2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (prepared by previously published procedures, see US 2009/0197825; 20 g, 34 mmol) in ethanol (200 mL) and the mixture heated at reflux for 4 hours. Charcoal (10 g) was added, the mixture stirred at room temperature for 12 hours and the charcoal removed by filtration. The charcoal was washed several times with ethanol and the filtrate then concentrated. Water (200 mL) was added and then concentrated to approx. one third volume to remove all ethanol. Water (200 mL) and ethyl acetate (250 mL) were added, the mixture stirred vigorously for 15 min and the organic layer removed. The aqueous layer was cooled to 0 °C and acidified by treatment with HCl (IN) resulting in the formation of a cloudy oily precipitate. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3x) and the combined organic extracts dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 2-(5- bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-l-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetic acid as an off white solid (11.2 g, 82%).

[00105] Route ii:

Figure imgf000037_0001

STEP A: 1-Cyclopropylnaphthalene

Figure imgf000037_0002

Cyclopropylmagnesium bromide (150 mL, 0.5M in tetrahydrofuran) was slowly added to a solution of 1-bromonaphthalene (10 g, 50 mmol) and [l,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane] dichloro nickel (II) in tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) stirred at 0 °C, and the reaction mixture stirred at room temperature for 16 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and ethyl acetate and aqueous ammonium chloride were added. After extraction, the organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-cyclopropylnaphthalene (6.4 g, 76%). ] STEP B: l-Cyclopropyl-4-nitronaphthalene

Figure imgf000037_0003

Sodium nitrite (30 mL) was slowly added (over 2 hours) to 1-cyclopropylnaphthalene (6.4 g, 38 mmol) stirred at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for an extra 30 min and then slowly poured into ice. Water was added, followed by ethyl acetate. After extraction, the organic layer was washed with aqueous sodium hydroxide (1%) and water, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield l-cyclopropyl-4-nitronaphthalene (5.2 g, 64%).

[00108] STEP C: l-Amino-4-cyclopropylnaphthalene

Figure imgf000038_0001

A solution of l-cyclopropyl-4-nitronaphthalene (5 g, 23 mmol) in ethanol (200 mL) was stirred under hydrogen in the presence of Pd/C (10% net, 1.8 g). The reaction mixture was shaken overnight, filtered over celite, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield l-amino-4-cyclopropylnaphthalene (3.1 g, 73%).

STEP D: l-Cyclopropyl-4-isothiocvanatonaphthalene

Figure imgf000038_0002

Thiophosgene (1.1 g, 9.7 mmol) was added to a stirred solution of l-amino-4- cyclopropylnaphthalene (1.8 g, 9.7 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (2 eq) in

dichloromethane (50 mL) at 0 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 min at 0 °C and then aqueous HCl (1% solution) was added. The organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. Hexane was added, and the resulting precipitate was filtered. The solvent was evaporated to yield l-cyclopropyl-4-isothiocyanatonaphthalene (1.88 g, 86%>).

[00110] STEP E: 5-Amino-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3- thiol

Figure imgf000038_0003

A mixture of aminoguanidine hydrochloride (3.18 g, 29 mmol), l-cyclopropyl-4- isothiocyanato naphthalene (3.24 g, 14 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (3 eq) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 50 °C for 15 hours. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure, toluene added, and the solvent was evaporated again. Sodium hydroxide solution (2M, 30 mL) was added and the reaction mixture heated at 50 °C for 60 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered and the filtrate neutralized with aqueous HCl (2M). The mixture was re-filtered and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 5-amino-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3- thiol (2.0 g, 49%). [00111] STEP F: Methyl 2-(5-amino-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4- -3 -ylthio)acetate

Figure imgf000039_0001

Methyl 2-chloroacetate (0.73 mL, 8.3 mmol) was added dropwise over 5 min to a suspension of 5-amino-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (2.24 g, 7.9 mmol) and potassium carbonate (1.21 g, 8.7 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) at room

temperature. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 24 h and slowly poured into a stirred ice-cold water solution. The tan precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under high vacuum at 50 °C for 16 h in the presence of P2O5 to yield methyl 2-(5- amino-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (2.24 g, 80%).

[00112] STEP G: Methyl 2-(5-bromo-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazol-3 -ylthio)acetate

Figure imgf000039_0002

Sodium nitrite (2.76 g, 40 mmol) was added to a solution of methyl 2-(5-amino-4-(l- cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (0.71 g, 2 mmol) and benzyltriethylammonium chloride (1.63 g, 6 mmol) in bromoform (10 mL). Dichloroacetic acid (0.33 mL, 4 mmol) was then added and the reaction mixture stirred at room

temperature for 3 h. The mixture was directly loaded onto a 7-inch column of silica gel, packed with dichloromethane (DCM). The column was first eluted with DCM until all bromoform eluted, then eluted with acetone/DCM (5:95) to give methyl 2-(5-bromo-4-(l- cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (713 mg, 85%).

[00113] STEP H: 2-(5-Bromo-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3- )acetic acid

Figure imgf000039_0003

A solution of lithium hydroxide (98 mg, 4.1 mmol) in water (10 mL) was added dropwise over 5 min to a solution of methyl 2-(5-bromo-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazol-3-ylthio)acetate (1.14 g, 2.7 mmol) in ethanol (10 mL) and THF (10 mL) at 0 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for a further 45 min and then neutralized to pH 7 by the addition of 0.5N HC1 solution at 0 °C. The resulting mixture was concentrated in vacuo to l/5th of its original volume, then diluted with water (~20 mL) and acidified to pH 2-3 by the addition of 0.5N HC1 to produce a sticky solid. (If the product comes out as an oil during acidification, extraction with dichloromethane is recommended.) The tan solid was

collected by vacuum filtration and dried under high vacuum at 50 °C for 16 h in the

presence of P2O5 to yield 2-(5-bromo-4-(l-cyclopropylnaphthalen-4-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazol-3- ylthio)acetic acid (1.02 g, 93%).

………………………….

US20100081827

EXAMPLES

The following experiments are provided only by way of example, and should not be understood as limiting the scope of the invention.

COMPOUNDS OF THE INVENTION 2-[5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (Method A)

Figure US20100081827A1-20100401-C00016

1-Cyclopropyl-naphthalene

Cyclopropylmagnesium bromide (150 mL, 0.5 M in tetrahydrofuran) was slowly added to a solution of 1-bromo-naphthalene (10 g, 50 mmol) and [1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane]dichloronickel(II) in tetrahydrofuran (10 mL) stirred at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. EtOAc and ammonium chloride in water were added. After extraction, the organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-cyclopropyl-naphthalene (6.4 g, 76%).

1-Cyclopropyl-4-nitro-naphthalene

Sodium nitrite (30 mL) was slowly added (over 2 hours) to 1-cyclopropyl-naphthalene (6.4 g, 38 mmol) stirred at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for an extra 30 min and then was slowly poured into ice. Water was added, followed by EtOAc. After extraction, the organic layer was washed with a 1% aqueous solution of NaOH, then washed with water, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-cyclopropyl-4-nitro-naphthalene (5.2 g, 64%).

1-Amino-4-cyclopropyl-naphthalene

A solution of 1-cyclopropyl-4-nitro-naphthalene (5 g, 23 mmol) in ethanol (200 mL) was stirred under hydrogen in the presence of Pd/C (10% net, 1.8 g). The reaction mixture was shaken overnight, then filtered over celite. The solvent was evaporated, and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 1-amino-4-cyclopropyl-naphthalene (3.1 g, 73%).

1-Cyclopropyl-4-isothiocyanato-naphthalene

Thiophosgene (1.1 g, 9.7 mmol) was added to a solution of 1-amino-4-cyclopropyl-naphthalene (1.8 g, 9.7 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (2 eq) in dichloromethane (50 mL) stirred at 0° C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 5 min at this temperature, then a 1% solution of HCl in water was added and the organic layer was separated, washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure. Hexane was added, and the resulting precipitate was filtered. The solvent was evaporated to yield 1-cyclopropyl-4-isothiocyanatonaphthalene (1.88 g, 86%).

5-Amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiol

A mixture of aminoguanidine hydrochloride (3.18 g, 29 mmol), 1-cyclopropyl-4-isothiocyanato-naphthalene (3.24 g, 14 mmol) and diisopropylethylamine (3 eq) in DMF (20 mL) was stirred at 50° C. for 15 hours. The solvent was evaporated, toluene was added, and the solvent was evaporated again. A 2.0 M aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide (30 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was heated at 50° C. for 60 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered, and the filtrate was neutralized with a 2.0 M aqueous solution of HCl. New filtration, then evaporation of solvent and purification of the residue by silica gel chromatography to yield 5-amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiol (2.0 g, 49%).

2-[5-Amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)Acetamide

In a solution of 5-amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiol (708 mg, 2.5 mmol), K2CO(380 mg, 2.5 mmol) in DMF (20 mL) was added 2-chloro-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (710 mg, 2.5 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Upon completion of the reaction, the solvent was evaporated. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 2-[5-Amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (1.26 g, 95%).

2-[5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide

Dichloroacetic acid (180 uL, 2.2 mmol) was added to a suspension of 2-[5-amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (0.59 g, 1.1 mmol), sodium nitrite (1.5 g, 22 mmol) and BTEABr (0.91 g, 3.3 mmol) in dibromomethane (30 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours, then extracted with dichloromethane and sodium bicarbonate in water. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel chromatography to yield 2-[5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (224 mg, 31%).

2-[5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-ylsulfanyl]-N-(2-chloro-4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide (Method B)

Figure US20100081827A1-20100401-C00017

2-[5-Amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]acetic acid methyl ester

Materials Amount Mol. Wt. mmoles
thiotriazole 2.24 g 282.36 7.9
methyl chloroacetate 0.73 ml 108.52 8.3 (1.05 eq)
potassium carbonate 1.21 g 138.21 8.7 (1.1 eq)
dimethylformamide 40 ml (5 mL/mmol)

Procedure:

To a suspension of thiotriazole and potassium carbonate in DMF was added methyl chloroacetate dropwise at room temperature for 5 min. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 24 h and slowly poured into a stirred ice-cold water solution. The tan precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under high vacuum at 50° C. for 16 h in the presence of P2Oto yield 2.24 g (80%) of the title compound.

2-[5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]acetic acid methyl ester

Materials Amount Mol. Wt. mmoles
thiotriazole L10183-58 709 mg 354.43 2.0
bromoform 10 ml (5 ml/mmol)
sodium nitrite 2.76 g 69.00 40 (20 eq)
benzyltriethylammonium 1.63 g 272.24 6.0 (3 eq)
bromide
dichloroacetic acid 0.33 ml 128.94 4.0 (2 eq)

Procedure:

To a solution of 2-[5-amino-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]acetic acid methyl ester and benzyltriethylammonium chloride in bromoform was added sodium nitrite. To the mixture was added dichloroacetic acid and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The mixture was directly loaded onto a 7-inch column of silica gel that was packed with CH2Cl2. The column was first eluted with CH2Cluntil all CHBreluted, and was then eluted with acetone/CH2Cl(5:95) to give 713 mg (85%) of the title compound.

2-[5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]acetic acid

Materials Amount Mol. Wt. mmoles
thiotriazole methyl ester 1.14 g 418.31 2.7
tetrahydrofuran 10 ml (~3 ml/mmol)
ethanol 10 ml (~3 ml/mmol)
water 10 ml (~3 ml/mmol)
lithium hydroxide 98 mg 23.95 4.1 (1.5 eq)

Procedure:

To a solution of 2-[5-bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-[1,2,4]triazol-3-ylsulfanyl]acetic acid methyl ester, in a mixture of THF and EtOH at 0° C., was added a solution of LiOH in H2O dropwise over 5 min. The reaction was complete after stirring at 0° C. for an additional 45 min. The reaction was neutralized to pH 7 by the addition of 0.5 N HCl solution at 0° C., and the resulting mixture was concentrated in vacuo to ⅕th of its original volume. The mixture was diluted with H2O (˜20 mL) and acidified to pH 2-3 by the addition of 0.5 N HCl to produce sticky solid. (If the product comes out as an oil during acidification, extraction with CH2Clis recommended.) The tan solid was collected by vacuum filtration and dried under high vacuum at 50° C. for 16 h in the presence of P2Oto yield 1.02 g (93%) of the title compound.

REF:

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Abstract Image

An unexpected phenomenon concerning an otherwise common impurity of lesinurad has been observed in the context of synthetic process development. A new industrial process was designed as a chlorine-free process, but the critical chlorinated impurity 10 was surprisingly detected in the isolated product. Because of the structural similarity of the impurity and the product, no efficient separation of 10 by conventional methods (e.g., crystallization) was discovered. The formation of the impurity was explained by a chlorine impurity in a commercial brominating agent. This communication also describes control of the critical impurity.

Identification of an Unexpected Impurity in a New Improved Synthesis of Lesinurad

Department of Chemical SynthesisZentiva k.s.U kabelovny 130, Prague 102 01, Czech Republic
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00316

2-[[5-Bromo-4-(4-cyclopropylnaphthalen-1-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]thio]acetic Acid (1)

1H NMR (DMSO-d6), δ (ppm): 0.87 (m, 2H); 1.15 (m, 2H); 2.56 (m, 1H); 4.00 (m, 2H); 7.16 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H); 7.44 (d, J = 7.3, 1H); 7.64 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H); 7.66 (t, J= 7.6 Hz, 1H); 7.74 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H); 8.58 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H); 12.99 (s, COOH). 13C NMR (DMSO-d6), δ (ppm): 7.3; 7.4; 12.9; 34.1; 121.8; 122.7; 125.2; 126.6; 126.8; 127.3; 128.1; 128.6; 131.4; 133.5; 143.2; 153.5; 169.0.

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