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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Skeletal formula of (1S,4S,7Z,10S,16E,21R)-7-ethylidene-4,21-diisopropyl-2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetrazabicyclo[8.7.6]tricos-16-ene-3,6,9,19,22-pentone  Image result for ROMIDEPSIN

Romidepsin; Depsipeptide; FK228; Chromadax; FR901228; Istodax;
Molecular Formula: C24H36N4O6S2
Molecular Weight: 540.69584 g/mol

CAS 128517-07-7



Romidepsin, also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). Romidepsin is a natural product obtained from the bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum, and works by blocking enzymes known as histone deacetylases, thus inducing apoptosis.[1] It is sometimes referred to as depsipeptide, after the class of molecules to which it belongs. Romidepsin is branded and owned by Gloucester Pharmaceuticals, now a part of Celgene.[2]

Romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, originally developed by Fujisawa (now Astellas Pharma), causes cell cycle arrest,
differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cells.

In 2004, the FDA granted fast-track designation for romidepsin as monotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in patients who have relapsed following, or become refractory to, other systemic therapies. The FDA designated romidepsin as an orphan drug and it was approved in 2009 for this indication and it was commercialized in 2010. In 2007, another fast-track designation was granted for the product as monotherapy of previously treated peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Romidepsin (FR901228) was originally discovered and isolated from the fermentation broth of Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968. It was identified through efforts in the search for novel agents which selectively reverse the morphological phenotype of Ras oncogene-transformed cells since the Ras signaling pathway plays a critical role in cancer development. Therefore, the drug could also have multiple molecular targets for its anticancer activity besides HDAC.

FR901228 is a bicyclic depsipeptide which is structurally unrelated to any known class of cyclic peptides with an unusual disulfide bond connecting a thiol and D-cysteine.

This drug is commercially produced by fermentation; however its interesting and novel structure warrants examination of its synthesis within the context of this review

Romidepsin is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor.HDACs catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins, resulting in the modulation of gene expression.
Romidepsin is indicated for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in patients who have received at least
one prior systemic therapy; treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) in patients who have received at least
one prior therapy.

Available as an injection, containing 10 mg of romidepsin and recommended dose is 14 mg/m2 administered intravenously over a 4-hour period on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Image result for ROMIDEPSIN


Romidepsin was first reported in the scientific literature in 1994, by a team of researchers from Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Company (now Astellas Pharma) in Tsukuba, Japan, who isolated it in a culture of Chromobacterium violaceum from a soil sample obtained inYamagata Prefecture.[3] It was found to have little to no antibacterial activity, but was potently cytotoxic against several human cancercell lines, with no effect on normal cells; studies on mice later found it to have antitumor activity in vivo as well.[3]

The first total synthesis of romidepsin was accomplished by Harvard researchers and published in 1996.[4] Its mechanism of actionwas elucidated in 1998, when researchers from Fujisawa and the University of Tokyo found it to be a histone deacetylase inhibitorwith effects similar to those of trichostatin A.[5]

Image result for ROMIDEPSIN

Clinical trials

Phase I studies of romidepsin, initially codenamed FK228 and FR901228, began in 1997.[6] Phase II and phase III trials were conducted for a variety of indications. The most significant results were found in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs).[6]

In 2004, romidepsin received Fast Track designation from the FDA for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and orphan drugstatus from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency for the same indication.[6] The FDA approved romidepsin for CTCL in November 2009[7] and approved romidepsin for other peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) in June 2011.[8]

Mechanism of action

Romidepsin acts as a prodrug with the disulfide bond undergoing reduction within the cell to release a zinc-binding thiol.[3][9][10] The thiol reversibly interacts with a zinc atom in the binding pocket of Zn-dependent histone deacetylase to block its activity. Thus it is anHDAC inhibitor. Many HDAC inhibitors are potential treatments for cancer through the ability to epigenetically restore normal expression of tumor suppressor genes, which may result in cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis.[11]

Image result for ROMIDEPSIN

Adverse effects

The use of romidepsin is uniformly associated with adverse effects.[12] In clinical trials, the most common were nausea and vomiting,fatigue, infection, loss of appetite, and blood disorders (including anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia). It has also been associated with infections, and with metabolic disturbances (such as abnormal electrolyte levels), skin reactions, altered taste perception, and changes in cardiac electrical conduction.[12]


Image result for ROMIDEPSIN


Romidepsin was first isolated from the fermentation broth of Chromobacterium Violaceum WB968 in a nutrient
medium. Sterilized of 1% glucose and 1% bouillon solution were incubated with Chromobacterium Violaceum WB968, followed by further incubation with 1% glucose solution, 1% bouillon solution and adekanol gave the target romidepsin after extraction, silica gel chromatography and recrystallization.[Okuhara, M.; Goto, T.; Hori, Y. et al. US4977138A, 1990.]

The synthetic route was initiated by the deprotection L-(Fmoc)Thr-L-Val-OMe 1, subsequently coupled with
N-Alloc-S-Trt-D-Cys, followed by tosylation and then elimination to produce tripeptide 3 in the yield of 63.7% over four steps. The N-Alloc deprotection of 3 and then coupling with N-Fmoc-D-Valine were proceeded to provide tetrapeptide 4, which was subsequently removed Fmoc group to afford relative tetrapeptide 5 in 83.0% yield from compound 3. Condensation of 5 with β-hydroxy mercapto acid 6 was carried out by treating with benzotriazol-1-yl-oxy-tris-(dimethylamino)-phosphonium hexafluorphosphate (BOP) to give relative amide 7, and sequential hydrolysis yielded corresponding acid, which was performed by Mitsunobu macrolactonization
to produce depsipeptide 8 in 17.5% yield over three steps. Finally, romidepsin was obtained in the presence of iodine
in 81.0% yield and the overall yield of 7.5%.

The synthesis of intermediate β-hydroxy mercapto acid 6 commenced with the commercially available methyl 3,3-dimethoxypropionate 9. Nucleophilic addition of 9 with N,O-dimethylhydroxylamine provided Weinreb amide 10, followed by addition with lithium acetylide to give propargylic ketone 12 in the yield of 50.2% over two steps. Noyori’s asymmetric hydrogenation of ketone 12 provided (E)-alkene 14, which was removed the silyl group and then substituted with paratoluensulfonyl chloride to yield tosylate 15 in 40.6% yield across three steps. The dimethyl acetal of 15 was hydrolyzed to corresponding aldehyde by using lithium tetrafluoroborate,
which was immediately oxidized to relative carboxylic acid by applying Pinnick oxidation conditions. The trityl mercaptan was introduced by tosylate displacement to provide 6 in 65.0% yield over three steps and the overall yield of 13.3%.[2]

REF Greshock, T. J.; Johns, D. M.; Noguchi, Y., et al. Org. Lett. 2008, 10 (4), 613-616.


Romidepsin (Istodax)
Romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, originally developed by Fujisawa (now Astellas Pharma), causes cell cycle arrest,
differentiation, and apoptosis in various cancer cells.111 In 2004, the FDA granted fast-track designation for romidepsin as monotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in patients who have relapsed following, or become refractory
to, other systemic therapies. The FDA designated romidepsin as an orphan drug and it was approved in 2009 for this indication
and it was commercialized in 2010. In 2007, another fast-track designation was granted for the product as monotherapy of
previously treated peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Romidepsin (FR901228) was originally discovered and isolated from the fermentation
broth of Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968. It was identified through efforts in the search for novel agents which
selectively reverse the morphological phenotype of Ras oncogene-transformed cells since the Ras signaling pathway plays a
critical role in cancer development. Therefore, the drug could also have multiple molecular targets for its anticancer activity besides
HDAC.112 FR901228 is a bicyclic depsipeptide which is structurally unrelated to any known class of cyclic peptides with an unusual
disulfide bond connecting a thiol and D-cysteine. This drug is commercially produced by fermentation; however its interesting
and novel structure warrants examination of its synthesis within the context of this review.113,114 The synthesis of romidepsin
described is based on the total synthesis reported by the Williams115 and Simon groups (Scheme 20).116
L-Valine methyl ester (134) was coupled to N-Fmoc-L-threonine in the presence of the BOP reagent in 95% yield. The N-Fmoc protecting group was removed with Et2NH and the corresponding free amine was coupled to N-alloc-(S-triphenylmethyl)-D-cysteine with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDCI) and HOBT in DMF and CH2Cl2 to yield the tripeptide 135 in good yield. The threonine residue of tripeptide 135 was then subjected to dehydrating conditions to give alkene 136 in 95% yield. The N-alloc protecting group of the dehydrated tripeptide 136 was removed with palladium and tin reagents and the corresponding free amine was subsequently coupled with N-Fmoc-D-valine to give tetrapeptide 137 in 83% yield. After removal of the N-Fmoc protecting group of compound 137 with Et2NH amine 138 was obtained in quantitative yield. The acid coupling partner 145 for
amine 138 was prepared as follows: methyl 3,3-dimethoxypropionate (139) was converted to its corresponding Weinreb amide by standard conditions and reacted with lithium acetylide 140 to give propargylic ketone 141 in 75% yield. Noyori’s asymmetric reduction of ketone 141 using ruthenium catalyst 142 gave the (R)-propargylic alcohol in 98% ee. This was followed by Red-Al reduction of the alkyne to selectively yield (E)-alkene 143 in 58% yield for the two steps. Liberation of the primary alcohol
with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) followed by selective tosylation gave 144 in 70% yield in two steps. Hydrolysis of the dimethyl acetal of 144 with LiBF4 was followed by a Pinnick oxidation to give the corresponding carboxylic acid. The tosylate was displaced with trityl mercaptan in the presence of tert-butyl alcohol to give allylic alcohol 145 in 65% yield for the three steps.
Aminoamide 138 was then coupled to acid 145 using BOP to give peptide 146 in quantitative yield. The methyl ester of compound 146 was hydrolyzed with lithium hydroxide to provide the free carboxylic acid which underwent macrolactonization under Mitsunobu conditions in the presence of diisopropyl azodicarboxylate (DIAD) and triphenylphosine to give macrocycle 147 in 24% yield.
Finally, the disulfide linkage was formed by treating bis-tritylsulfane 147 with iodine in methanol at room temperature to give romidepsin (XIII) in 81% yield.

111 Bertino, E. M.; Otterson, G. A. Expert Opin. Invest. Drugs 2011, 20, 1151.
112. Furumai, R.; Matsuyama, A.; Kobashi, N.; Lee, K.-H.; Nishiyama, M.; Nakajima,
H.; Tanaka, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Nishino, N.; Yoshida, M.; Horinouchi, S. Cancer
Res. 2002, 62, 4916.
113. Verdine, G. L.; Vrolijk, N. H.; Bertel, S. WO 2008083288 A2, 2008.
114. Verdine, G. L.; Vrolijk, N. H. WO 2008083290 A1, 2008.
115. Greshock, T. J.; Johns, D. M.; Noguchi, Y.; Williams, R. M. Org. Lett. 2008, 10,
116. Li, K. W.; Wu, J.; Xing, W.; Simon, J. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 7237.


Image result for ROMIDEPSIN

Williams’ improved synthesis of FK228.

Image result for ROMIDEPSIN


Williams’ synthesis of the FK228 amide isostere (74).


  1. Jump up^ “Romidepsin”. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved2009-09-11.
  2. Jump up^ “Romidepsin”. Gloucester Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved2009-09-11.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ueda H, Nakajima H, Hori Y, et al. (March 1994). “FR901228, a novel antitumor bicyclic depsipeptide produced byChromobacterium violaceum No. 968. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties, and antitumor activity”. Journal of Antibiotics. 47 (3): 301–10.doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.301. PMID 7513682.
  4. Jump up^ Li KW, Wu J, Xing W, Simon JA (July 1996). “Total synthesis of the antitumor depsipeptide FR-901,228”. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 118 (30): 7237–8. doi:10.1021/ja9613724.
  5. Jump up^ Nakajima H, Kim YB, Terano H, Yoshida M, Horinouchi S (May 1998). “FR901228, a potent antitumor antibiotic, is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor”. Experimental Cell Research. 241(1): 126–33. doi:10.1006/excr.1998.4027. PMID 9633520.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c Masuoka Y, Shindoh N, Inamura N (2008). “Histone deacetylase inhibitors from microorganisms: the Astellas experience”. In Petersen F, Amstutz R. Natural compounds as drugs. 2. Basel: Birkhäuser. pp. 335–59. ISBN 978-3-7643-8594-1. Retrieved on November 8, 2009 through Google Book Search.
  7. Jump up^
  8. Jump up^
  9. Jump up^ Shigematsu, N.; Ueda, H.; Takase, S.; Tanaka, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Tada, T. (1994). “FR901228, a novel antitumor bicyclic depsipeptide produced by Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968. II. Structure determination.”. J. Antibiot. 47 (3): 311–314.doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.311. PMID 8175483.
  10. Jump up^ Ueda, H.; Manda, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Mukumoto, S.; Nishigaki, F.; Kawamura, I.; Shimomura, K. (1994). “FR901228, a novel antitumor bicyclic depsipeptide produced by Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968. III. Antitumor activities on experimental tumors in mice.”. J. Antibiot. 47 (3): 315–323.doi:10.7164/antibiotics.47.315. PMID 8175484.
  11. Jump up^ Greshock, Thomas J.; Johns, Deidre M.; Noguchi, Yasuo; Williams, Robert M. (2008). “Improved Total Synthesis of the Potent HDAC Inhibitor FK228 (FR-901228)”. Organic Letters.10 (4): 613–616. doi:10.1021/ol702957z. PMC 3097137free to read.PMID 18205373.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b [No authors listed] (October 2014). “ISTODEX Label Information (updated to October 2014)” (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

External links

Skeletal formula of (1S,4S,7Z,10S,16E,21R)-7-ethylidene-4,21-diisopropyl-2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetrazabicyclo[8.7.6]tricos-16-ene-3,6,9,19,22-pentone
Romidepsin ball and spoke.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Istodax
MedlinePlus a610005
License data
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
Routes of
Intravenous infusion
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Not applicable (IV only)
Protein binding 92–94%
Metabolism Hepatic (mostly CYP3A4-mediated)
Biological half-life 3 hours
CAS Number 128517-07-7 
ATC code none
PubChem CID 5352062
ChEBI CHEBI:61080 
Synonyms FK228; FR901228; Istodax
Chemical data
Formula C24H36N4O6S2
Molar mass 540.695 g/mol

//////////fast-track designation, Romidepsin, Depsipeptide,  FK228,  Chromadax,  FR901228,  Istodax, FDA 2009, Fujisawa, Astellas Pharma, 128517-07-7


Gilteritinib fumarate ギルテリチニブフマル酸塩


  1. 1254053-84-3



Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia


C29H44N8O3, 552.71

Phase III

Xospata pmda 2018/9/21  JAPAN 2018

A FLT3/AXL inhibitor potentially for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

CAS No. 1254053-43-4  FREE FORM

  1. 1254053-84-3  FUMARATE
Astellas Pharma  INNOVATOR
Mechanism Of Action Axl receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 inhibitors, Proto oncogene protein c-kit inhibitors
Who Atc Codes L01X-E (Protein kinase inhibitors)
Ephmra Codes L1H (Protein Kinase Inhibitor Antineoplastics)
Indication Cancer, Hepatic impairment

Gilteritinib(ASP-2215) is a potent FLT3/AXL inhibitor with IC50 of 0.29 nM/<1 nM respectively; shows potent antileukemic activity against AML with either or both FLT3-ITD and FLT3-D835 mutations.
IC50 value: 0.29 nM(FLT3); <1 nM(Axl kinase)
Target: FLT3/AXL inhibitor
ASP2215 inhibited the growth of MV4-11 cells, which harbor FLT3-ITD, with an IC50 value of 0.92 nM, accompanied with inhibition of pFLT3, pAKT, pSTAT5, pERK, and pS6. ASP2215 decreased tumor burden in bone marrow and prolonged the survival of mice intravenously transplanted with MV4-11 cells. ASP2215 may have potential use in treating AML.




WO 2015119122

Compound A is 6-ethyl-3 – ({3-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} amino) -5- a (tetrahydro -2H- pyran-4-ylamino) pyrazine-2-carboxamide, its chemical structure is shown below.
[Formula 1]

Gilteritinib fumarate


2D chemical structure of 1254053-84-3

Gilteritinib fumarate [USAN]

RN: 1254053-84-3


2-Pyrazinecarboxamide, 6-ethyl-3-((3-methoxy-4-(4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl)phenyl)amino)-5-((tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)amino)-, (2E)-2-butenedioate (2:1)

  • ASP-2215 hemifumarate
  • Molecular Formula, 2C29-H44-N8-O3.C4-H4-O4, Molecular Weight, 1221.5108

Astellas Inititaties Phase 3 Registration Trial of gilteritinib (ASP2215) in Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients


TOKYO, Japan I October 28, 2015 I Astellas Pharma Inc. (TSE:4503) today announced dosing of the first patient in a randomized Phase 3 registration trial of gilteritinib (ASP2215)versus salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The primary endpoint of the trial is overall survival (OS).

Gilteritinibis a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FLT3 and AXL, which are involved in the growth of cancer cells. Gilteritinibhas demonstrated inhibitory activity against FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) as well as tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), two common types of FLT3 mutations that are seen in up to one third of patients with AML.

The gilteritinib Phase 3 trial follows a Phase 1/2 trial, which evaluated doses from 20 to 450 mg once daily. A parallel multi-dose expansion cohort was initiated based on the efficacy seen in the dose escalation phase. Preliminary data from the Phase 1/2 trial presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting demonstrated a 57.5 percent overall response rate and a 47.2 percent composite Complete Response (CR) rate (CR + CR with incomplete platelet recovery + CR with incomplete hematologic recovery) in 106 patients with FLT3 mutations who received 80 mg and higher doses. Median duration of response was 18 weeks across all doses and median OS was approximately 27 weeks at 80 mg and above in FLT3 mutation positive patients. Common drug-related adverse events (> 10%) observed in the study were diarrhea (13.4%), fatigue (12.4%) and AST increase (11.3%). At the 450 mg dose, two patients reached dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 diarrhea and ALT/AST elevation) and the maximum tolerated dose was determined to be 300 mg.

On October 27, 2015, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) announced the selection of gilteritinib as one of the first products designated for SAKIGAKE.

About the Phase 3 Study

The Phase 3 trial is an open-label, multicenter, randomized study of gilteritinib versus salvage chemotherapy in patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). The study will enroll 369 patients with FLT3 activating mutation in bone marrow or whole blood, as determined by central lab, AML who are refractory to or have relapsed after first-line AML therapy. Subjects will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive gilteritinib (120 mg) or salvage chemotherapy consisting of LoDAC (low-dose cytarabine), azacitidine, MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide, and intermediate-dose cytarabine), or FLAG-IDA (fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with idarubicin). The primary endpoint of the trial is OS. For more information about this trial go to, trial identifier NCT02421939.

Gilteritinib was discovered through a research collaboration with Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., and Astellas has exclusive global rights to develop, manufacture and potentially commercialize gilteritinib.

About Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia is a cancer that impacts the blood and bone marrow and most commonly experienced in older adults. According to the//” target=”_blank” rel=”nofollow”>American Cancer Society, in 2015, there will be an estimated 20,830 new cases of AML diagnosed in the United States, and about 10,460 cases will result in death.


The SAKIGAKE designation system can shorten the review period in the following three approaches: 1.) Prioritized Consultation 2.) Substantial Pre-application Consultation and 3.) Prioritized Review. Also, the system will promote development with the following two approaches: 4.) Review Partner System (to be conducted by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency) and 5.) Substantial Post-Marketing Safety Measures.

About Astellas

Astellas Pharma Inc., based in Tokyo, Japan, is a company dedicated to improving the health of people around the world through the provision of innovative and reliable pharmaceutical products. We focus on Urology, Oncology, Immunology, Nephrology and Neuroscience as prioritized therapeutic areas while advancing new therapeutic areas and discovery research leveraging new technologies/modalities. We are also creating new value by combining internal capabilities and external expertise in the medical/healthcare business. Astellas is on the forefront of healthcare change to turn innovative science into value for patients. For more information, please visit our website at

SOURCE: Astellas Pharma

Start of the Euro 2016

////////1254053-43-4, Gilteritinib, ASP-2215, PHASE 3, ASP 2215, Astellas Pharma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia




ChemSpider 2D Image | Mirabegron | C21H24N4O2SMIRABEGRON
  • Betanis
  • Myrbetriq
  • YM 178
  • YM178
Мирабегрон ميرابيغرون 米拉贝隆
MF: C21H24N4O2S =396.5
Mirabegron (YM-178, Astellas Pharma), is an orally active, first-in-class selective β₃-adrenoceptor agonist for the symptomatic treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), and has been approved for urinary frequency and urinary incontinence associated with OAB

Mirabegron (YM-178) is the first β3-adrenoceptor agonist that is clinically effective for overactive bladder. Mirabegron (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) inhibits mechanosensitive single-unit afferent activities (SAAs) of Aδ fibers in response to bladder filling. Mirabegron activates the β3 adrenergic receptor in the detrusor muscle in the bladder, which leads to muscle relaxation and an increase in bladder capacity. Mirabegron (YM-178) acts partly as an irreversible or quasi-irreversible metabolism-dependent inhibitor of CYP2D6. Mirabegron at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.v. decreased the frequency of rhythmic bladder contraction induced by intravesical filling with saline without suppressing its amplitude in anesthetized rats. Mirabegron decreases primary bladder afferent activity and bladder microcontractions in rats. Mirabegron (YM-178) also reduced non-micturition bladder contractions in an awake rat model of bladder outlet obstruction.

Mirabegron is a white crystalline powder, not hygroscopic and freely soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide, soluble in methanol and soluble in water between neutral to acidic pH. The chemical name is 2-(2- Amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-N-[4-(2-{[(2R)-2-hydroxy-2- phenylethyl]amino}ethyl)phenyl]acetamide., Mirabegron exhibits stereoisomerism due to the presence of one chiral centre. The R enantiomer has been used in the manufacture of the finished product. The enantiomeric purity is controlled routinely by chiral HPLC-UV. Polymorphism has been observed for the active substance. The polymorphic form α is routinely and consistently produced by the synthetic process and it is used in the manufacture of the finished product…….

Mirabegron (formerly YM-178, trade name MyrbetriqBetmiga in Spain) is a drug for the treatment of overactive bladder.[2] It was developed by Astellas Pharma and was approved in the United States in July 2012.[3]
Mirabegron activates the β3 adrenergic receptor in the detrusor muscle in the bladder, which leads to muscle relaxation and an increase in bladder capacity.[4]\
Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(4):1473-1478
In the first approach, the introduction of the chiral hydroxyl group was planned at the later stage (Scheme 1). Accordingly, 2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl amine 4 was protected as the Boc-derivative 5, followed by the reduction of the nitro group using stannous chloride to furnish corresponding aniline 6. Alternate reducing conditions such as hydrogenation in the presence of 10% Pd-C were also provided the desired 6 in good yield. Amide coupling of the aniline 6 with 2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl) acetic acid 7 in the presence of EDC, HOBt/DIPEA furnished the desired amide 8. Interestingly, lower reactivity of 2-aminothiazole precluded any self-coupling of 7.
Removal of Boc-group in 8, set the stage for the critical step of introducing the chiral hydroxyl by means of stereocontrolled ring opening of the chiral (R)-styrene epoxide 10. Epoxide opening reaction of 10 was initially attempted with amine 9 in the presence of Et3N in MeOH as the solvent. Alternatively, epoxy opening was also performed under simple isopropanol reflux condition to get the desired 1. The desired product 1 was isolated in 27% yield after purification by column chromatography. This is due to the formation of N-alkylated derivatives of 1 by undesired reaction of 10 with amino functionalities of 1. However, the inefficiency of the epoxide opening reaction precluded a high purity of final product, Mirabegron 1. Since it is not practical to embark on repeated purifications at the last stage (which leads to poor yields), this route was not pursued for further optimization.
COSY NMR prediction (24)CN 103896872

Figure CN103896872AD00082
Figure CN103896872AD00091

Third, Mira Veron synthesis:

Figure CN103896872AD00092

in 500mL three-necked flask, 2- (2-aminothiazol-4-yl) acetic acid 17.42g (0.086mol), N, N- dimethylformamide 180mL, then added H0BT15.12g (0.104 mol), was added (R) _2 _ ((4- aminophenyl) amino) phenyl-ethan-l-ol -1_ 20g (0.078mol), was added triethylamine 13.04g (0.13mol), was added portionwise EDCI21. 46g (0.104mol), under magnetic stirring, room temperature for 5h, TLC until the reaction was complete tracking.
After treatment: After the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was poured into 900mL saturated saline water, and then extracted with 400mL of dichloromethane each time, and extracted three times, each time the organic phase is then washed with 200mL of saturated aqueous sodium carbonate solution, washed three times, each time with distilled water and then 200mL of water, washed three times, the organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a white solid in methylene chloride was distilled off Mira Veron crude, the crude product was recrystallized from methanol solution, wherein the methanol solution of methanol and water, the volume ratio of 10: 4, and recrystallized to give 25.08g, yield 81.0%.
The present embodiment Mira Veron synthesized for testing and structural identification:
mp138 ~ 140 ° C (137 ~ 139 ° C)
[α] 20-18. ~ -22. (CH3OH)
chemical purity HPLC: 99.96%
Optical purity: 97.55ee%
HRMS (ES1-MS, m / z) calcd: for C21H25N4O2S [M + H] + 397.16.Found:. 397.16
1H Mffi (400MHz, DMS0) Sl0.00 (s, lH), 7.50 ( d, J = 8.5Hz, 2H), 7.30 (dd, J = 9.5,5.1Hz, 4H), 7.23 (dd, J = 6.0, 2.7Hz, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.5Hz, 2H), 6.90 (s, 2H), 6.30 (s, 1H), 5.24 (s, 1H), 4.60 (s, 1H), 3.45 (s, 2H), 2.74 (dd, J = 9.8, 3.5Hz, 2H), 2.64 (m, 4H).
13C NMR (101MHz, DMSO) δ 168.69 (s), 168.26 (s), 146.35 (s), 145.03 (s), 137.66 (s), 135.51 (s), 129.24 (s ), 128.38 (s), 127.22 (s), 126.33 (s), 119.46 (s), 103.03 (s), 71.88 (s), 57.94 (s), 51.20 (s), 40.40 (s), 40.20 (s ), 39.99 (s), 39.78 (s), 39.57 (s), 35.77 (s)




 13C NMR


CN 103193730
Figure CN103193730AD00081

By and O ° C under nitrogen protection temperature conditions, 7.3g (R) -2- amino _1_ benzeneethanol added 250mL three-necked flask, the stirring was dissolved in 50mL of dichloromethane Mira Veron Intermediate C was added dropwise to the reaction solution to form three-necked flask. Stirred for I hour under nitrogen, with stirring 4.12g of sodium borohydride was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was stirred (under TC 3 hours to TLC the reaction was complete. The reaction is complete the reaction mixture was added dropwise a saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution IOmL quenched reaction was washed twice with 40mL of water, the organic phase was separated. The The organic phase at the conditions at 0 ° C was added concentrated sulfuric acid was stirred IOmL until TLC after 0.5 hours the reaction was complete, then was added 20mL of 20% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to complete the reaction of the organic phase was adjusted to pH 10 and stirred for 15 minutes minutes solution. The organic phase first with 50mL saturated brine I times with IOg anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to give crude product was recrystallized from methanol and water to give 18.7g of the final product Mira Veron purity of 99.33%, chiral purity of 99.01%, a yield of 88.12%.
Mira Veron use randomly selected samples prepared by the synthesis method of the present invention is detected by liquid chromatography.
Test conditions: Instrument: Agilent 1100 HPLC;
Column: Luna C18, 4.6mmX 250mm, 5 μ m;
Column temperature: 25 ° C;
flow rate: 1.0mL / min;
The detection wavelength: 2IOnm;
Injection volume: 5ul;
Mobile phase A: acetonitrile;
Mobile phase B: 0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution;
Running time: 40min.
FIG liquid chromatography after detection of the sample shown in Figure 1; results are shown in Table I.
Table 1: The Mira Veron chromatographic analysis sample preparation method of the present invention

Figure CN103193730AD00121


Figure 00090001

      Example 4 (Production of the α-form crystal from wet cake of the β-form crystal) :
  • The same procedures as in Example 2 were followed to obtain 23.42 kg of a wet cake of the β-form crystal of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4′-[2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]ethyl]acetanilide from 6.66 kg of (R)-2-[[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]amino]-1-phenylethanol monohydrochloride. This cake was added with and dissolved in 92 L of water and 76 L of ethanol by heating at about 80°C, and the solution was cooled at a rate of about 10°C per hour, to which was then added 8.4 g of the α-form crystal at 55°C. Thereafter, the mixture was cooled to 20°C. A crystal was filtered and dried to obtain 6.56 kg of the α-form crystal of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4′-[2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]ethyl]acetanilide.
  • Powder X-ray diffraction diagram and thermal analysis diagram of the α-form crystal are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, respectively.
    1H-NMR (DMSO-d 6, 500 MHz) δ (ppm) = 1.60 (1H, s), 2.59 to 2.66 (4H, m), 2.68 to 2.80 (2H, m), 3.45 (2H, s), 4.59 (1H, br), 5.21 (1H, br), 6.30 (1H, s), 6.89 (2H, s), 7.11 (2H, d, J = 8.5 Hz), 7.19 to 7.23 (1H, m), 7.27 to 7.33 (4H, m), 7.49 (2H, d, J = 8.5 Hz), 9.99 (1H,s). FAB-MS m/z: 397 (M+H)+.


  1.  “mirabegron (Rx) – Myrbetriq”Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  2.  Gras, J (2012). “Mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder”. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998) 48 (1): 25–32. doi:10.1358/dot.2012.48.1.1738056PMID 22384458.
  3.  Sacco, E; Bientinesi, R et al. (Apr 2014). “Discovery history and clinical development of mirabegron for the treatment of overactive bladder and urinary incontinence”. Expert Opin Drug Discov9 (4): 433–48. doi:10.1517/17460441.2014.892923PMID 2455903.
  4.  “New Drug Approvals 2012 – Pt. XIV – Mirabegron (MyrbetriqTM)”ChEMBL. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  5.  “MYRBETRIQ (mirabegron) tablet, film coated, extended release [Astellas Pharma US, Inc.]“DailyMed. Astellas Pharma US, Inc. September 2012. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  6.  “Betmiga 25mg & 50mg prolonged-release tablets”electronic Medicines Compendium. Astellas Pharma Ltd. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  7.  Cypess, Aaron; Weiner, Lauren; Roberts-Toler, Carla; Elía, Elisa; Kessler, Skyler; Kahn, Peter; English, Jeffrey; Chatman, Kelly; Trauger, Sunia; Doria, Alessandro; Kolodny, Gerald (6 January 2015). “Activation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue by a β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist”Cell Metabolism 21 (1): 33–38. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.12.009PMID 25565203. Retrieved 26 January 2015.

External links

Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Myrbetriq (US), Betanis (Japan), Betmiga (EU)
Licence data EMA:LinkUS FDA:link
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Legal status
Routes of
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 29-35%[1]
Protein binding 71%[1]
Metabolism Hepatic via (direct) glucuronidation, amide hydrolysis, and minimal oxidative metabolism in vivo byCYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Some involvement of butylcholinesterase[1]
Biological half-life 50 hours[1]
Excretion Urine (55%), faeces (34%)[1]
CAS Registry Number 223673-61-8
ATC code G04BD12
PubChem CID: 9865528
ChemSpider 8041219
Synonyms YM-178
Chemical data
Formula C21H24N4O2S
Molecular mass 396.506 g/mol
Patent Submitted Granted
Alpha-form or beta-form crystal of acetanilide derivative [US7342117] 2005-01-06 2008-03-11
Pharmaceutical composition for treating stress incontinence and/or mixed incontinence [US2006004105] 2006-01-05
Pharmaceutical composition comprising a beta-3-adrenoceptor agonist and a serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Pharmaceutical composition comprising a beta-3-adrenoceptor agonist and a serotonin and/or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [US2009012161] 2005-11-24
Pharmaceutical composition consisting of a beta-3-adrenoceptor agonist and alpha-agonist [US2005154041] 2005-07-14
Pharmaceutical composition consisting of a beta-3-adrenoceptor agonist and an active substance which influences prostaglandin metabolism [US2005119239] 2005-06-02
Pharmaceutical Composition For Treating Stress Incontinence And/Or Mixed Incontinence [US2007129435] 2007-06-07
Remedy for overactive bladder comprising acetic acid anilide derivative as the active ingredient [US7750029] 2006-06-01 2010-07-06
[alpha]-form or [beta]-form crystal of acetanilide derivative [US7982049] 2008-09-04 2011-07-19
11 to 16 of 16
Patent Submitted Granted
Pharmaceutical composition containing a beta-3-adrenoceptor agonist and an alpha antagonist and/or a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor [US2005101607] 2005-05-12
Pharmaceutical composition comprising beta-3-adrenoceptor-agonists and antimuscarinic agents [US2005261328] 2005-11-24
US Patent No Patent Expiry patent use
6346532 Oct 15, 2018
6562375 Aug 1, 2020
6699503 Sep 10, 2013
7342117 Nov 4, 2023
7750029 Dec 18, 2023 U-913
7982049 Nov 4, 2023
Exclusivity Code Exclusivity Date
NCE Jun 28, 2017


//////Mirabegron, Overactive bladder, FDA 2012, ASTELLAS PHARMA, YM-178, MyrbetriqBetmiga



Overactive bladder (OAB) is characterized by symptoms of urinary urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually with increased daytime frequency and nocturia.(1-3) Current guidelines recommend oral antimuscarinics drugs as the first-line pharmacologic therapy in the management of OAB despite the companion adverse effects.(4, 5) Mirabegron is an orally active β3 adrenoceptor agonist approved by the FDA for treatment of OAB in 2012, which is an important step toward the better treatment options for the management of OAB.(6)

(R)-Styrene oxide 1 and 4-nitrophenethylamine 2 were exploited as starting materials in the first synthesis of mirabegron (Scheme 1). Heating 1 and 2 in i-propanol afforded amino alcohol 3, and then the amino group was protected by di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc2O), followed by a condensation with 2-aminothiazol-4-acetic acid. Deprotection of the condensation product 7 finally afforded mirabegron.(7-10) Although reactions in the whole process were all conventional reactions, optically pure 1 was not industrially available, which restricted its application in industry.

(R)-Mandelic 8 and 4-nitrophenethylamine hydrochloride 9 were exploited as starting materials in an alternate route (Scheme 2). Condensation of 8 and 9 in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), and triethylamine in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) furnished the corresponding amide 10, which was further reduced in the presence of borane-tetrahydrofuran complex in a mixed solution of 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) and tetrahydrofuran (THF), affording amine 11. The nitro group of 11 was then reduced by hydrogenation affording aniline 12 which was further amidated by an aqueous EDCI coupling affording mirabegron. This route was rather concise with only four steps, in which the sole stereogenic center was introduced via a bulk starting material 8.(11-13) However, usage of the costly EDCI twice, especially in the first step, led to a high cost and more impurities.



  1. 1   AbramsP.CardozoL.FallM.GriffithsD.RosierP.UlmstenU.Van KerrebroeckP.VictorA.Wein,A. UROLOGY 20036137DOI: 10.1016/S0090-4295(02)02243-4

  2. la RosetteJ. J. Urol. 20091811779DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.11.127

  3. 3.JaiprakashH.BenglorkarG. M. RJPBCS 20145 ( 3213

  4. 4.LucasM. G.RuudJ. L.BoschR. J. L.BurkhardF. C.CruzF.MaddenT. B.NambiarA. K.Neisius, RidderD. J. M. K.TubaroA.TurnerW.PickardR. Eur. Urol. 2012621130DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.047

  5. 5.GormleyE. A.LightnerD. J.BurgioK. L.ChaiT. C.ClemensJ. Q.CulkinD. J.DasA. K.FosterH. E.ScarperoH. M.TessierC. D.VasavadaS. P. J. Urol. 20121882455DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.09.079

  6. 6.SaccoE.BientinesiR. World J. Obstet Gynecol 20132 ( 465DOI: 10.5317/wjog.v2.i4.65

  7. 7.MaruyamaT.SuzukiT.OndaK.HayakawaM.MoritomoH.KimizukaT.MatsuiT. US6346532,2002.

  8. 8.KawazoeS.SakamotoK.AwamuraY.MaruyamaT.SuzukiT.OndaK.TakasuT. EP144096A1,2004.

  9. 9.TakasuT.SatoS.UkaiM.MaruyamaT. EP1559427A1, 2005.

  10. 10ZhangH.LiY.ChenS.ShenM.WangX. CN103896872A, 2014


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